WorldWideScience

Sample records for city groundwater system

  1. Hydrogeochemical characterization of Bacolod City groundwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond J.; Almoneda, Rosalina; Fernandez, Lourdes; Castaneda, Soledad S.; Gemora, Jenelyn Y.; Desengano, Daisy; Lim, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater is constantly being recycled and replenished by rainfall. However, because of the uneven distribution of rain and the heavy use of water in certain areas, some regions are experiencing undue water shortage. Changes in land use, population growth, and economic development in the Bacolod City region, can result in an increase in water demand and the generation of additional pollution sources. To delineate the ground water recharge area for Bacolod City and at the same time, assess the vulnerability of the aquifer to pollution, water samples were collected in an attempt to relate chemical variations in ground water to the underlying differences in geology, availability and mechanism of recharge, and to define the natural versus anthropogenic influences in the groundwater system. Measurements of field data such as pH, conductivity, temperature and alkalinity were made. Several geochemical processes are recognized in the chemistry of the Bacolod aquifer system. The most important processes are: water-bedrock interaction, dissolution of connate halites , and seawater intrusion. Simple mass balance modeling shows that the feasible source of active recharge aside from direct precipitation, is infiltration from the Loygoy river. Rivers and tributaries transport water originated as precipitation falling at higher elevations. The ground water in Bacolod City is predominantly of the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type. Recharge becomes sodium dominated along its path, indicating a slow but active mechanism. The ground water near the coasts is brackish due to sea water infiltration. The possible presence of connate halites lying in the deep aquifers is also indicated. The information generated, when used in conjunction with isotopic techniques, will be important in the choice of sites for pumping stations and in the knowledge of the extent of potential pollution of ground water from streams/reservoirs. (author)

  2. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  4. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  5. Kansas City plant ultraviolet/ozone/hydrogen peroxide groundwater treatment system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stites, M.E.; Hughes, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) has committed to the utilization of a groundwater treatment system, for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), that discharges a minimal amount of pollutants to the environment. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) system utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide serves in this capacity. Packed tower aeration and activated carbon filtration are listed as best available technologies (BATs) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the removal of VOCs in water. The disadvantage to these BATs is that they transfer the VOCs from the water medium to the air or carbon media respectively. Operation of the system began in May 1988 at a flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (lpm) (6 gallons per minute (gpm)). An additional 102.2 lpm (27 gpm) of flow were added in October 1990. Various efforts to optimize and track the treatment unites efficiency have been carried out. A maximum influent reading of 26,590 parts per billion (ppb) of total VOCs has been recorded. Following the addition of flows, removal efficiency has averaged approximately 95%. Both air and water effluents are factored into this calculation. (author)

  6. Investigation on the Sources of Recharge and Salinity in Deep Groundwater System Underlying a Coastal City of Bangladesh by Combined Geochemical and Isotopic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Khulna city, situated in the southwestern coastal Bangladesh, has been abstracting deep groundwater (DGW, >150 m below ground level, bgl) since 1970s due to the prevalence of salinity, iron, and arsenic in shallow groundwater (SGW, groundwater management and ensuring long-term freshwater supply for the Khulna city, Bangladesh.

  7. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Zhiming; Liu Shufen; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  8. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  9. Shallow Groundwater Temperatures and the Urban Heat Island Effect: the First U.K City-wide Geothermal Map to Support Development of Ground Source Heating Systems Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Newell, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    The first UK city-wide heat map is described based on measurements of groundwater from a shallow superficial aquifer in the coastal city of Cardiff, Wales, UK. The UK Government has a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 (Climate Change Act 2008) and low carbon technologies are key to achieving this. To support the use of ground source heating we characterised the shallow heat potential of an urban aquifer to produce a baseline dataset which is intended to be used as a tool to inform developers and to underpin planning and regulation. We exploited an existing network of 168 groundwater monitoring boreholes across the city, recording the water temperature in each borehole at 1m depth intervals up to a depth of 20m. We recorded groundwater temperatures during the coldest part of 2014, and repeat profiling of the boreholes in different seasons has added a fourth dimension to our results and allowed us to characterise the maximum depth of seasonal temperature fluctuation. The temperature profiles were used to create a 3D model of heat potential within the aquifer using GOCAD® and the average borehole temperatures were contoured using Surfer® 10 to generate a 2D thermal resource map to support future assessment of urban Ground Source Heat Pumps prospectively. The average groundwater temperature in Cardiff was found to be above the average for England and Wales (11.3°C) with 90% of boreholes in excess of this figure by up to 4°C. The subsurface temperature profiles were also found to be higher than forecast by the predicted geothermal gradient for the area. Potential sources for heat include: conduction from buildings, basements and sub-surface infrastructure; insulation effects of the urban area and of the geology, and convection from leaking sewers. Other factors include recharge inhibition by drains, localised confinement and rock-water interaction in specific geology. It is likely to be a combination of multiple factors which we are hoping

  10. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Ikawa, Reo, E-mail: r_ikawa@es.sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Jun, E-mail: jshimada@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nakano, Takanori, E-mail: nakanot@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Saito, Mitsuyo, E-mail: misaito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Onodera, Shin-ichi, E-mail: sonodera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Lee, Kang-Kun, E-mail: kklee@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinrim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Taniguchi, Makoto, E-mail: makoto@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes ({delta}D, T, {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 34}S, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 15}N of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (> 30 ppm as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (> 20 ppm as NO{sub 3}{sup -}) of groundwater. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  11. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Ikawa, Reo; Shimada, Jun; Nakano, Takanori; Saito, Mitsuyo; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Lee, Kang-Kun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes (δD, T, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, δ 34 S, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes (δD and δ 18 O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The δ 34 S and δ 15 N of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO 4 2- (> 30 ppm as SO 4 2- ) and NO 3 - (> 20 ppm as NO 3 - ) of groundwater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  12. Investigation of heat flux processes governing the increase of groundwater temperatures beneath cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Zhu, K.; Blum, P.

    2012-12-01

    In the subsurface of many cities there are widespread and persistent thermal anomalies. These so-called subsurface urban heat islands (UHIs), which also stimulate warming of urban aquifers, are triggered by various processes. Possible heat sources are basements of buildings, leakage of sewage systems, buried district heating networks, re-injection of cooling water and solar irradiation on paved surfaces. In the current study, the reported groundwater temperatures in several Central European cities, such as Berlin, Cologne (Germany) and Zurich (Switzerland) are compared. Available data sets are supplemented by temperature measurements and depth profiles in observation wells. Trend analyses are conducted with time series of groundwater temperatures, and three-dimensional groundwater temperature maps are provided. In all investigated cities, pronounced positive temperature anomalies are present. The distribution of groundwater temperatures appears to be spatially and temporally highly variable. Apparently, the increased heat input into the urban subsurface is controlled by very local and site-specific parameters. In the long-run, the combination of various heat sources results in an extensive temperature increase. In many cases, the maximum temperature elevation is found close to the city center. Regional groundwater temperature differences between the city center and the rural background are up to 5 °C, with local hot spots of even more pronounced anomalies. Particular heat sources, like cooling water injections or case-specific underground constructions, can cause local temperatures > 20 °C in the subsurface. Examination of the long-term variations in isotherm maps shows that temperatures have increased by about 1 °C in the city, as well as in the rural background areas over the last decades. This increase could be reproduced with trend analysis of temperature data gathered from several groundwater wells. Comparison between groundwater and air temperatures in the

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality of Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...

  14. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  15. Emergy assessment of ecological compensation of groundwater overexploitation in Xuchang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C.; Ling, M.; Cao, Q.; Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent 30 years, the amount of groundwater extraction in China is increasing at a rate of 2.5 billion m3 per year. And the growing amount led to form a predatory exploitation in many parts, and caused serious exploitation problems, such as land subsidence, sea water intrusion, surface runoff reduction, vegetation decline, groundwater pollution, and so on. Ecological compensation of overexploitation has become an important mean to adjust the environmental benefits distribution relationship related to the groundwater system and to alleviate the problem of groundwater overexploitation. Based on the ecological economics emergy value theory and analysis method, the emergy loss value calculation method of eco-environmental problems caused by groundwater overexploitation, such as environmental land subsidence (collapse), salt (sea) water intrusion, surface runoff reduction, vegetation deterioration and groundwater pollution, is established, and the assessment method, which takes emergy loss value as the quantity of ecological compensation of groundwater overexploitation, is put forward. This method can reflect the disaster loss degree of groundwater overexploitation more intuitively, and it helps to improve, manage and restore a series of problems caused by groundwater overexploitation, construct a scientific and reasonable groundwater ecological compensation mechanism, and provide good ecological security for the sustainable and healthy development of national economy in our country. Taking Xuchang city as an application example, the results showed that the ecological economic loss of groundwater overexploitation was 109 million in 2015, accounting for 0.3% of the total GDP. Among them, the ecological economic loss of land subsidence is the largest, which was 77 million, accounting for 70.3% of the total loss, the second one is surface runoff reducing loss, which was 27 million, accounting for 24.7% of the total loss, and underground water pollution loss is the

  16. Investigation and assessment of natural radionuclides in groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao; Duan Xigui; Gao Liang; Yang Yuxin

    2012-01-01

    Investigation on the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluids of Tianjin city were conducted. Based on the investigation, internal dose level posed by drinking the water and fluid to local public was evaluated. Results show the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city is under control, no abnormal radioactivity discovered. (authors)

  17. Land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Suzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongxi; Pei, Shunping; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2002-09-01

    Suzhou City, located at the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in southeastern Jiangsu Province, is one of the few cities in China which suffer from severe ground settlement. A research project was carried out to investigate this problem. Geological and hydrogeological studies show that there is a multi-layered aquifer system with three distinct, soft mud layers of marine and lagoonal origins. An examination of historical records of groundwater extraction, water levels, and ground settlement shows that the ground subsidence is associated with the continuously increasing groundwater extraction in the deep, confined aquifer. It is believed that the consolidation of the soft mud layers, especially the third layer which is thick and close to the main pumped aquifer, contributes to the ground settlement. A three-dimensional finite difference numerical model representing the multi-layered aquifer system was developed to study the ground settlement in response to groundwater extraction. By calibrating the model with both the measured groundwater level and ground settlement, the aquifer parameters were estimated. The model outputs fit reasonably well with the observed results, which indicates that the numerical model can reproduce the dynamic processes of both groundwater flow and soil consolidation. The hydraulic conductivity of the third mud layer near the center of the ground settlement has been reduced by over 30% in the last 14 years. The gradual deterioration in the hydraulic conductivity of the mud may have significant adverse effect on the sustainable groundwater resource of the deep confined aquifer, since the recharge from the shallow aquifers through the mud layer is the only source of water to the deep aquifer. An analysis of the spatial distributions of groundwater drawdown and ground settlement shows that the area with maximum drawdown is not necessarily the area with maximum ground settlement due to the occurrence of the soft mud layer. A simple reallocation

  18. Method and Mchievement of Survey and Evaluation of Groundwater Resources of Guangzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the documents and achievements relevant to hydrogeological surveying and mapping of 1:100000, hydrogeological drilling, pumping test and dynamic monitoring of groundwater level in Guangzhou, considering the hydrogeological conditions of Guangzhou and combining the advanced technologies such as remote sensing, the survey and evaluation of the volume of the groundwater resources of Guangzhou was carried out in plain and mountain areas separately. The recharge method was used to evaluate the volume of groundwater resources in plain areas, meanwhile, the output volume and the storage change volume of groundwater were calculated and the volume of groundwater resources was corrected by water balance analysis; while the discharge method was used to evaluated the volume of groundwater resources in mountain areas. The result of survey and evaluation indicates that: the volume of the natural groundwater resources in Guangzhou City is 1.83 billion m3 of which the groundwater replenishment quantity in plain areas is 510,045,000 m3, with a total output of 509,729,000 m3, an absolute balance difference of 316,000 m3 and a relative balance difference of 0.062%; the volume of groundwater resources in mountain areas is 1,358,208,000 m3 including the river basic flow is 965,054,000 m3; the repetitive counted volume of groundwater resources in both plain areas and mountain areas is 38,839,000 m3. This work was realized by refined means for the first time to entirely find out the volume of groundwater resources of Guangzhou City and the law of their distribution so as to lay an important foundation for the protection and reasonable development and exploration of the groundwater resources of Guangzhou City.

  19. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  20. Evapotranspiration Within the Groundwater Model Domain of the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    The revised groundwater model includes estimates of evapotranspiration (ET). The types of vegetation and the influences of ET on groundwater hydrology vary within the model domain. Some plant species within the model domain, classified as phreatophytes, survive by extracting groundwater. ET within these plant communities can result in a net discharge of groundwater if ET exceeds precipitation. Other upland desert plants within the model domain survive on meteoric water, potentially limiting groundwater recharge if ET is equivalent to precipitation. For all plant communities within the model domain, excessive livestock grazing or other disturbances can tip the balance to a net groundwater recharge. This task characterized and mapped vegetation within the groundwater model domain at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site, and then applied a remote sensing algorithm to estimate ET for each vegetation type. The task was designed to address five objectives: 1. Characterize and delineate different vegetation or ET zones within the groundwater model domain, focusing on the separation of plant communities with phreatophytes that survive by tapping groundwater and upland plant communities that are dependent on precipitation. 2. Refine a remote sensing method, developed to estimate ET at the Monument Valley site, for application at the Tuba City site. 3. Estimate recent seasonal and annual ET for all vegetation zones, separating phreatophytic and upland plant communities within the Tuba City groundwater model domain. 4. For selected vegetation zones, estimate ET that might be achieved given a scenario of limited livestock grazing. 5. Analyze uncertainty of ET estimates for each vegetation zone and for the entire groundwater model domain.

  1. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  2. Geochemistry and the Understanding of Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Plummer, L. N.; Weissmann, G. S.; Stute, M.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical techniques and concepts have made major contributions to the understanding of groundwater systems. Advances continue to be made through (1) development of measurement and characterization techniques, (2) improvements in computer technology, networks and numerical modeling, (3) investigation of coupled geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and biologic processes, and (4) scaling of individual observations, processes or subsystem models into larger coherent model frameworks. Many applications benefit from progress in these areas, such as: (1) understanding paleoenvironments, in particular paleoclimate, through the use of groundwater archives, (2) assessing the sustainability (recharge and depletion) of groundwater resources, and (3) their vulnerability to contamination, (4) evaluating the capacity and consequences of subsurface waste isolation (e.g. geologic carbon sequestration, nuclear and chemical waste disposal), (5) assessing the potential for mitigation/transformation of anthropogenic contaminants in groundwater systems, and (6) understanding the effect of groundwater lag times in ecosystem-scale responses to natural events, land-use changes, human impacts, and remediation efforts. Obtaining “representative” groundwater samples is difficult and progress in obtaining “representative” samples, or interpreting them, requires new techniques in characterizing groundwater system heterogeneity. Better characterization and simulation of groundwater system heterogeneity (both physical and geochemical) is critical to interpreting the meaning of groundwater “ages”; to understanding and predicting groundwater flow, solute transport, and geochemical evolution; and to quantifying groundwater recharge and discharge processes. Research advances will also come from greater use and progress (1) in the application of environmental tracers to ground water dating and in the analysis of new geochemical tracers (e.g. compound specific isotopic analyses, noble gas

  3. Pickering Nuclear site wide groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Chin-Cheong, D.; Lledo, C.; Wootton, R.; Belanger, D.; Hansen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) is continuing its efforts to understand the chemical and physical characteristics of the groundwater flow systems beneath the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). To this end, OPG constructed a site-wide Groundwater Monitoring System (GMS) at the PNGS to provide support to other ongoing environmental investigations and to provide a means to monitor current and future groundwater environmental issues. This paper will present the results of this work, including the development of a state-of-the-art data management system for storage and retrieval of environmental data for the site, which has applications for other power generation facilities. (author)

  4. Determination of radon and uranium in the groundwater of Bangalore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somashekar, R.K.; Davis, Deljo; Jeban Singh, M.; Prakash, K.L.; Shivanna, K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is a precious source of drinking water. Radon and uranium are the naturally occurring radioactive elements in water. The present study attempts to identify the nature of groundwater with respect to the radon and uranium in and around Bangalore city. The radon in groundwater is measured by the integrated instrumental field screening techniques using a radon in air monitor (RAD-7) with attached bubbler. The water after the radon measurement, analysed for the total uranium using ICP- AES. The Radon in water represented in Bq/L and total uranium in μg/L

  5. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city

  6. Ground-water flow and quality in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Steven D.; Barringer, Julia L.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Clark, Jeffrey S.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2001-01-01

    reported for water in a former supply well in southern Cape May County. These data indicate that salty water has moved inland in Cape May County. Analysis of the chloride-concentration data indicates that ground water with a chloride concentration of 250 mg/L is within 4 miles of supply wells in Stone Harbor, Cape May County, and is about 10 miles offshore of supply wells near Atlantic City. Results of numerical simulations of ground-water flow were analyzed to determine the effects of four water-supply alternatives on water levels, the flow budget, and potential saltwater movement toward pumping centers during 1986-2040. In the supply alternatives, pumpage is (1) held constant at 1986 rates of pumpage; (2) increased by 35 percent at 1986 locations; (3) increased by 35 percent, but with relocation of some supply wells further inland; and (4) increased by 35 percent but with some of the increase derived from inland wells tapping the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system rather than the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Inland relocation of supply wells closer to the updip limit of the overlying confining unit results in the smallest decline in water levels and the smallest rate of ground-water flow between the offshore location of salty water and coastal supply wells. Increased pumpage from coastal supply wells results in the greatest water-level declines and the greatest increase in the rate of ground-water flow from offshore to coastal wells. Flow of undesirable salty ground water from offshore locations remains nearly the same as for current (1986) conditions when pumping rates do not change, and the flow-rate increase is smallest for the relocated pumpage (fourth) alternative. In comparing the two conditions of a 35-percent increase in pumpage, the flow from undesirable salty water positions is lessened and flow from the unconfined aquifer is increased when some of the pumping centers are relocated farther inland. Ground water from the 250-mg/L isochlor position does not reach

  7. Data Validation Package February 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  8. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells and extraction wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  9. The City of Rome and its groundwater: from critical issues, to urban resilience opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Vigna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of groundwater resources of Rome with regard to its protection, and the associated issues. There are different tipologies of interference between human presence and groundwater in the city, ranging from the presence of water circulating inside the thick layers of anthropogenic deposits, the frequent contamination of groundwater, the presence of mining activities, the presence of archaeological heritage in underground or in low areas affected by flooding also induced by water table rising. Despite the various issues that are found, the knowledge of groundwater resources of Rome can be an important starting point to enhance its protection s and take advantage of the related countless benefits also aim to increase urban resilience.

  10. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by applying the modified DRASTIC model in Beihai City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; Ma, Chuanming

    2018-05-01

    This study assesses vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Beihai City, China, as a support of groundwater resource protection. The assessment result not only objectively reflects potential possibility of groundwater to contamination but also provides scientific basis for the planning and utilization of groundwater resources. This study optimizes the parameters consisting of natural factors and human factors upon the DRASTIC model and modifies the ratings of these parameters, based on the local environmental conditions for the study area. And a weight of each parameter is assigned by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to reduce the subjectivity of humans to vulnerability assessment. The resulting scientific ratings and weights of modified DRASTIC model (AHP-DRASTLE model) contribute to obtain the more realistic assessment of vulnerability of groundwater to contaminant. The comparison analysis validates the accuracy and rationality of the AHP-DRASTLE model and shows it suits the particularity of the study area. The new assessment method (AHP-DRASTLE model) can provide a guide for other scholars to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. The final vulnerability map for the AHP-DRASTLE model shows four classes: highest (2%), high (29%), low (55%), and lowest (14%). The vulnerability map serves as a guide for decision makers on groundwater resource protection and land use planning at the regional scale and that it is adapted to a specific area.

  11. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  12. Chemical response to groundwater extraction southeast of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizar-Alvarez, R.; Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Ángeles-Serrano, G.; Hergt, T.; Cardona, A.

    An alternative procedure of pumping test data interpretation is used through a joint analysis of the standard time-drawdown curve and simultaneous field measurements of total dissolved solids (TDS); additional support is also provided by the temperature of extracted groundwater and the chemical composition of extracted water. The overall information was applied to characterise the groundwater flow system and its sources, the hydraulic conditions of the aquifer and hydraulic response of extraction boreholes. The analysis of this information suggests the presence of: (i) a local flow system that circulates at shallow depth through basalt units interstratified with fine grained sediments and pyroclastics; these materials contain water with TDS of 127-600 mg/L and Na of 24-178 mg/L, and temperature of 18-19.5 °C (ii) intermediate flow in granular material under reducing conditions by the oxidation of organic matter in aquitard sediments; this water has TDS and Na values of 203-940 and 30-370 mg/L, respectively, and temperatures of about 20-22 °C (iii) regional flow through volcanic rocks and limestone, with TDS content of 300-700 mg/L, Na of 80-230 mg/L and temperature of 23.0-24.8 °C. The hydraulic response and the chemical composition of the water produced by some boreholes are affected by the seepage inflow from sewage effluents, the input from an overlying aquitard unit and the inducement of regional flow. The conception of the flow regime thus obtained allowed the recognition of hydraulic conditions which were more consistent with the hydrogeological setting, than if only a time vs. drawdown test analysis would have been carried out. L'interprétation simultanée de pompages d'essais, des données de température et résidu sec (RS) de L'eau souterraine pompée, mesurées simultanément sur le terrain et la composition chimique de L'eau pompée comme un aide additionnelle, est utilisée comme une différent procédure pour interpréter les pompages d'essais. La

  13. Simulation of the impact of managed aquifer recharge on the groundwater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jana; Via Rico, Daniela A.; Stefan, Catalin; Nga, Tran Thi Viet

    2018-05-01

    A transient numerical groundwater flow model using MODFLOW-NWT was set up and calibrated for Hanoi city, Vietnam, to understand the local groundwater flow system and to suggest solutions for sustainable water resource management. Urban development in Hanoi has caused a severe decline of groundwater levels. The present study evaluates the actual situation and investigates the suitability of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) to stop further depletion of groundwater resources. The results suggest that groundwater is being overexploited, as vast cones of depression exist in parts of the study area. Suitable locations to implement two MAR techniques—riverbank filtration and injection wells—were identified using multi-criteria decision analysis based on geographic information system (GIS). Three predictive scenarios were simulated. The relocation of pumping wells towards the Red River to induce riverbank filtration (first scenario) demonstrates that groundwater levels can be increased, especially in the depression cones. Groundwater levels can also be improved locally by the infiltration of surplus water into the upper aquifer (Holocene) via injection wells during the rainy season (second scenario), but this is not effective to raise the water table in the depression cones. Compared to the first scenario, the combination of riverbank filtration and injection wells (third scenario) shows a slightly raised overall water table. Groundwater flow modeling suggests that local overexploitation can be stopped by a smart relocation of wells from the main depression cones and the expansion of riverbank filtration. This could also avoid further land subsidence while the city's water demand is met.

  14. Incorporating insights from Time Series Analysis in groundwater modelling for the urban area of the city of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafstra, P.; Smits, F.J.C.; Janse, T.

    2017-01-01

    As the public water authority of the city of Amsterdam and surrounding areas, Waternet makes use of both steady-state and transient groundwater models for a variety of purposes involving urban groundwater management. For instance when determining the effect of planned measures on the occurrence of

  15. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  16. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...

  17. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  18. Application of groundwater sustainability indicators to the Upper Pliocene aquifer in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, T. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Woo, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater plays an importance role for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam. This study is objected to evaluate the sustainability of groundwater by using groundwater sustainability indicators (GWSIs) defined by UNESCO/IAEA/IAH Working Group on Groundwater Indicators at aquifer scale (the Upper Pliocene aquifer). There are four main indicators selected and one new indicator designed for the particular characteristic of Ho Chi Minh city which is under influence of by saline-water intrusion. The results indicated groundwater of the Upper Pliocene aquifer, the main groundwater supply source, is generally in the unsustainable state. The abstraction of groundwater, which was much greater than its capability, is probably causing the serious state of annual groundwater depletion and saline-water intrusion. The GWSIs, which expressed in such a simple way but scientifically-based and policy-relevant, proved its usefulness in evaluating the sustainability of groundwater at the aquifer scale in Ho Chi Minh city, and subsequently should be incorporated in water resource management practices.

  19. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  1. Volatile Short-chain Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Groundwater of the City of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijanović-Rajčić, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of the groundwater sampled from private wells and the public water-supply system in terms of estimating the contamination caused by short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, as well as to estimate the exposure of the citizens dwelling in different suburbs to these pollutants of their drinking water (Fig. 1. The aim of the study was also to determine which suburb is supplied through the public water-supply system with water originating from the Sašnak spring that is contaminated with volatile chlorinated short-chain hydrocarbons.Drinking water samples were taken from 3 private wells and 1 public water-supply system situated in 3 Zagreb suburbs - Pešćenica, Trnje, and Trešnjevka. The sampling was carried out during 2003 and was undertaken on a seasonal basis. Short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons - 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene - were determined by gas chromatography, following "liquid-liquid extraction" in pentane. For that purpose, we applied the gas chromatograph equipped with an electron-capture detector, thermo-programmable operations, and a suitable capillary column. The technique applied was that of split-injection.The groundwater of the City of Zagreb was found to be contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons. The concentration level of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, determined in most of the samples, was found to be low (Fig. 2. On the other hand, 1,1,2-trichloroethene was present in all samples in concentrations of about 1 µg l-1- (Fig. 3. Only the drinking water samples taken from private wells in the suburb of Trnje contained somewhat higher mass concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, with the peak value of 19.03 µg l-1, measured in the winter season. In the samples taken from private wells in Trnje, the mass concentrations of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene rangedfrom 15.30 µg l-1 to 18.65 µg l-1, as measured in autumn

  2. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  3. Isotopic evidence for identifying the mechanism of salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City,Negros Occidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalinda V.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Desengano, Daisy; Lim, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Saline water is easily identified by measurement of the conductivity of the ionic species in the water. In groundwater, it is important to identify the mechanism of salinization for proper management of the resource. Salinization may come from: a) leaching of salts by percolating water, b) intrusion of modern saltwater bodies of connate water, and c) concentration of dissolved salts due to evaporation. The salinity and isotopic concentrations of 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H of the water sources were used to assess the processes which lead to the salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. The isotopic composition of deep groundwater, river water, and springs cluster along the LMWL with δ 18 O ranging from -7.9 ''promille'' to -6.5 ''promille'' and δ 2 H ranging from -52.6 ''promille'' to -39.1''promille''. Two isotopically distinct groups of deep groundwater were deleated; the higher elevation wells yielding isotopically depleted waters while the lowland wells yielding relatively enriched water with higher conductivity. The shallow coastal wells exhibited more enriched isotope values with δ 18 O values from 6.10 ''promille''-5.61''promille'' and δ 2 H from -43.1''promille'' to -38.8''promille'' and highest conductivity. The relative enrichment in the isotopic composition of the deep groundwater in the lowland and the shallow groundwater along the coast is attributed to saltwater intrusion. The process of salinization in these waters is differentiated based on the relationship between their isotopic compositions and the chlorine concentrations. The high salinity of the isotopically enriched and old deep groundwater inland is attributed to mixing with connate water. On the other hand , mixing with modern sea water is evident in the deep and shallow coastal wells. (author)

  4. Evapotranspiration Dynamics and Effects on Groundwater Recharge and Discharge at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at a former uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. We estimated effects of temporal and spatial variability in evapotranspiration (ET) on recharge and discharge within a groundwater model domain (GMD) as part of this evaluation. We used remote sensing algorithms and precipitation (PPT) data to estimate ET and the ET/PPT ratios within the 3531 hectare GMD. For the period from 2000 to 2012, ET and PPT were nearly balanced (129 millimeters per year [mm yr-1] and 130 mm yr-1, respectively; ET/PPT = 0.99). However, seasonal and annual variability in ET and PPT were out of phase, and spatial variability in vegetation differentiated discharge and recharge areas within the GMD. Half of ET occurred during spring and early summer when PPT was low, and about 70% of PPT arriving in fall and winter was discharged as plant transpiration in the spring and summer period. Vegetation type and health had a significant effect on the site water balance. Plant cover and ET were significantly higher (1) during years of lighter compared to years of heavier grazing pressure, and (2) on rangeland protected from grazing compared to rangeland grazed by livestock. Heavy grazing increased groundwater recharge (PPT > ET over the 13-year period). Groundwater discharge (ET > PPT over the 13-year period) was highest in riparian phreatophyte communities but insignificant in desert phreatophyte communities impacted by heavy grazing. Grazing management in desert upland and phreatophyte communities may result in reduced groundwater recharge, increased groundwater discharge, and could be used to influence local groundwater flow.

  5. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk analysis and management plans mostly neglect groundwater flooding, i.e. high groundwater levels. However, rising groundwater may cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. To improve the knowledge about groundwater flooding and support risk management, a survey was undertaken in the city of Dresden (Saxony, Germany, resulting in 605 completed interviews with private households endangered by high groundwater levels. The reported relatively low flood impact and damage of groundwater floods in comparison with mixed floods was reflected by its scarce perception: Hardly anybody thinks about the risk of groundwater flooding. The interviewees thought that public authorities and not themselves, should be mainly responsible for preparedness and emergency response. Up to now, people do not include groundwater risk in their decision processes on self protection. The implementation of precautionary measures does not differ between households with groundwater or with mixed flood experience. However, less households undertake emergency measures when expecting a groundwater flood only. The state of preparedness should be further improved via an intensified risk communication about groundwater flooding by the authorities. Conditions to reach the endangered population are good, since 70% of the interviewed people are willing to inform themselves about groundwater floods. Recommendations for an improved risk communication are given.

  6. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  7. Pavement management system for City of Madison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project aims to implement a pavement management system (PMS) for the City of Madison using : four specific objectives: 1) build a city-wide GIS database for PMS compatible and incorporable with the : citys GIS system; 2) identify feasible pav...

  8. The effect of remedial measures upon groundwater quality in connection with soil contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and the related costs - by example of the City of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mull, R.; Mull, J.; Pielke, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of remedial actions on the groundwater quality was investigated in the aquifer of the City of Hannover. The improvement of groundwater quality was related to the costs for the remedial actions. The attention was focussed on groundwater pollution by chlorinated hydrocarbons as the most important contaminants of groundwater in urban areas. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of hydro-geochemistry and groundwater quality of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, M. G.; Uddin, S. M. Helal; Haque, A. B. M. H.

    2017-12-01

    The study was carried out to understand the hydro-geochemistry and ground water quality in the Rajshahi City of Bangladesh. A total of 240 groundwater samples were collected in 2 years, i.e., 2009 and 2010 covering the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Aquifer soil samples were collected from 30 locations during the monsoon in 2000. All the samples were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters according to standard methods of analysis, these includes pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, and total alkalinity, major cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+, major anions such as HCO3 -, NO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 2- and heavy metals such as Mn, Zn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb. The results illustrated that the groundwater was slightly acidic to neutral in nature, total hardness observed in all samples fall under the hard to a very hard category. The bicarbonate and calcium concentration in the groundwater exceeded the permissible limits may be due to the dissolution of calcite. The concentration of calcium, iron, manganese, arsenic and lead were far above the permissible limit in most of the shallow tube well samples. The study found that the major hydrochemical facies was identified to be calcium-bicarbonate-type (CaHCO3). A higher concentration of metals including Fe, Mn, As and Pb was found indicating various health hazards. The rock-water interaction was the major geochemical process controlling the chemistry of groundwater in the study area. The study results revealed that the quality of the groundwater in Rajshahi City area was of great concern and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment.

  10. IDENTIFIABILITY VERSUS HETEROGENEITY IN GROUNDWATER MODELING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M BENALI

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of history matching of reservoirs parameters in groundwater flow raises the problem of identifiability of aquifer systems. Lack of identifiability means that there exists parameters to which the heads are insensitive. From the guidelines of the study of the homogeneous case, we inspect the identifiability of the distributed transmissivity field of heterogeneous groundwater aquifers. These are derived from multiple realizations of a random function Y = log T  whose probability distribution function is normal. We follow the identifiability of the autocorrelated block transmissivities through the measure of the sensitivity of the local derivatives DTh = (∂hi  ∕ ∂Tj computed for each sample of a population N (0; σY, αY. Results obtained from an analysis of Monte Carlo type suggest that the more a system is heterogeneous, the less it is identifiable.

  11. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  12. Data Validation Package: April 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso, Tashina [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Widdop, Michael [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site as specified in the March 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the US Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas (DOE-LM/1602-2008). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The wells sampled included the cell performance monitoring wells (0709, 0858, 0880, 0906, and 0921) and the groundwater monitoring wells (0862, 0886, 0891, 0924, and 0963). A duplicate sample was collected from location 0891. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. Historically, cell performance monitoring wells 0908 and 0916 have not produced water and were confirmed as dry during this sampling event. These wells are completed above the saturated interval in the formation. Notable observations for time-concentration graphs in this report include: (1) uranium concentrations in well 0891 continue to increase; (2) the uranium concentration in well 0880 is higher than the 2015 value and lower than the 2014 value, and it remains within the range of historical values; and (3) uranium concentrations in the other sampled wells are below 2 mg/L and consistent with previous results.

  13. Heavy metals contamination in surface and groundwater supply of an urban city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R C; Verma, S R; Nitnaware, V; Thacker, N P

    2003-04-01

    There is a continuous increase in the demand of water supply in cities due to the industrialization and growing population. This extra supply is generally met by groundwaters or nearby available surface waters. It may lead into incomplete treatment and substandard supply of drinking water. To ensure that the intake water derived from surface and groundwater is clear, palatable, neither corrosive nor scale forming, free from undesirable taste, odor and acceptable from aesthetic and health point of view, the final water quality at Delhi have been evaluated. The final water supply of four treatment plants and 80 tubewells at Delhi were surveyed in 2000-2001 for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium and zinc. The levels of manganese, copper, selenium and cadmium were found marginally above the Indian Standards (IS) specification regulated for drinking water. The data was used to assess the final water quality supplied at Delhi.

  14. Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Hall, S.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  16. Study of Seasonal Variation in Groundwater Quality of Sagar City (India by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Pathak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.

  17. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  18. Groundwater monitoring systems and groundwater quality in the administrative district of Detmold (North Rhine-Westphalia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabau, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two groundwater monitoring systems for areas of different dimensions in the administrative district of Detmold are introduced. Firstly, the monitoring of groundwater and untreated water by the Water Conservation and Waste Disposal Authority (Amt fuer Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft) in Minden and secondly, the monitoring of groundwater and drinking water by the Water Resources Board (Wasserschutzamt) in Bielefeld. Different approaches and methods are required for the description of groundwater quality on a regional and a local basis, respectively, i.e. for the monitoring of a whole region and the monitoring of parts of such a region. The properties of groundwater in areas of different dimensions are analysed and described by means of an extensive database and with the help of (geo)statistical methods of analysis. Existing hydrochemical data have only limited value as evidence of groundwater properties in the dimensional units ''region'' and ''small investigation area''. They often do not meet the requirements of correct mathematical statistical methods. (orig.)

  19. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  20. The Subsidence Signature Due To Groundwater Extraction as Inferred from Remote Sensing Data in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mexico City is facing a severe water shortage; current drought conditions in the city have led to an increase in the demand for groundwater, the pumping of which can cause significant land subsidence. In this study we explored what new information interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected by the TerraSAR-X satellite could bring to water resource managers in the city so that they can efficiently and sustainably allocate water resources. Previous work done over Mexico City indicates that InSAR can be used to detect deformation due to groundwater pumping. Cabral-Cano et al. (2008) processed InSAR data acquired from ERS between 1996-2000 and from ENVISAT between 2003-2005. They compared the deformation map to geology maps of the region with information obtained by seismic methods. They found that a spatial correlation between the land deformation and the presence of young lacustrine clay beds, which indicate that the subsidence was caused by fluid pressure loss in the aquitard. They also concluded that the subsidence, for the most part, had no seasonal variation and continues to occur at near-constant, high rates. TerraSAR-­X satellite data is known to be more sensitive to small deformations than the data from satellites used in previous studies in the region because of its frequent revisit cycle, short wavelength, and accurate orbital information. For this project, we derived long sequences of crustal deformation time series from TerraSAR-­X data between May 2011 and December 2012 using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method. The resulting time series was then compared to GPS data for calibration and validation. We observed a long-term deformation that was similar to those found in previous studies. The next step in our work is to determine whether the increased sensitivity of the TerraSAR-­X data allows us to detect a seasonal deformation pattern over the study area.

  1. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  2. Characterization of the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat City by joint inversion of VES and TEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Usama; Kenawy, Abeer A.; Ragab, El-Said A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; El-Kosery, Heba M.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo-Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along 3 profiles trending NE-SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid-like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line-line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geoelectrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water-bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

  3. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using DRASTIC Model and GIS : A case study of two sub-districts in Banda Aceh city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machdar, I.; Zulfikar, T.; Rinaldi, W.; Alfiansyah, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This present study assessed the groundwater vulnerability to protect aquifer in part of Banda Aceh City (the sub-district of Banda Raya and Lueng Bata), Indonesia. The study provides an additional tool for local planner and manager as for managing and protecting groundwater resources. The study area covers 1,164 ha and total population was estimated around 50,000 inhabitants. DRASTIC model in a GIS (Geographic Information System) environment was used in this study to generate vulnerability maps. The maps were created by applied seven criteria as standard in DRASTIC approach, i.e. depth to groundwater, recharge, aquifer type, soil properties, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity. The vulnerability maps provides five categories of vulnerability, i.e. less, low, medium, high, and very high. It was found that the village areas, labelled with the high groundwater pollution potential, are mainly in the area of Lamlagang and the part of Geuce Kaye Jatoe and Geuce Komplek (Banda Raya sub-district) and the part of Batoh and Suka Damai (Lueng Bata sub-distric) This study prompts that the DRASTIC approach is helpful and efficient instrument for assessing groundwater vulnerability. The generated map can be an effective tool for local administrators in groundwater management as well.

  4. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  5. Preliminary study on arsenic concentration in groundwater in usual exploited aquifer in Ho Chi Minh City (pleistocene aquifer QIm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Thanh Tong; Nguyen Kien Chinh; Tran Thi Bich Lien; Nguyen Van Suc; Le Danh Chuan; Huynh Le Khoa

    2004-01-01

    Recent days, As in groundwater is a hot spot in some countries in Asia (e.g India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand) that was revealed through Executive Meetings of RAS/8/084. In Vietnam, some reports on groundwater quality in Red River Delta and Mekong Delta (with few random groundwater samples selected to analyse randomly) brought an opinion that groundwater in some region in Vietnam contains a quantity of As is over WHO Limit to As concentration in drinking water. This project hat been carrying out in Ho Chi Minh City in order to survey and make a preliminary assessment on As content in groundwater in shallow aquifer which is usual exploited in one of important social-economic centers of Vietnam. (author)

  6. Temporal-Spatial Evolution of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution Over Seven Years in a Highly Urbanized City in the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaorui; Qian, Jiazhong; Liu, Zufa; Lu, Yuehan; Ma, Lei; Zhao, Weidong; Kang, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the temporospatial variation in nitrogen pollution in groundwater and the associated controlling factors is important to establish management practices that ensure sustainable use of groundwater. In this study, we analyzed inorganic nitrogen content (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) in 1164 groundwater samples from shallow, middle-deep, and deep aquifers in Zhanjiang, a highly urbanized city in the southern China. Our data span a range of 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Results show that shallow aquifers had been heavily contaminated by nitrate and ammonium. Temporal patterns show that N contamination levels remained high and relatively stable over time in urban areas. This stability and high concentration is hypothesized as a result of uncontrolled, illicit sewer discharges from nearby business facilities. Groundwater in urban land and farmland displays systematic differences in geochemical characteristics. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the importance of continuously monitoring groundwater quality and strictly regulating sewage discharges in Zhanjiang.

  7. CITYkeys Smart city performance measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huovila, A.; Airaksinen, M.; Pinto-Seppa, I.; Piira, K.; Bosch, P.R.; Penttinen, T.; Neumann, H.M.; Kontinakis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cities are tackling their economic, social and environmental challenges through smart city solutions. To demonstrate that these solutions achieve the desired impact, an indicator-based assessment system is needed. This paper presents the process of developing CITYkeys performance measurement system

  8. CITIES: Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; O'Connell, Niamh; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    and aims at developing methodologies and ICT solutions for the analysis, operation, planning and development of fully integrated urban energy systems. A holistic research approach will be developed, to provide solutions at all levels between the appliance and the overall system, and at all-time scales...... between operations and planning. This extended abstract outlines the challenges to be met by city and energy planning bodies in an energy efficient future. The necessity of novel, data driven and IT intelligent solutions is stressed. A focus is placed on energy system planning in systems with high...

  9. Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu District of Busan City, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Chung, Sang Yong; Selvam, Sekar; Lee, Seung Yeop; Elzain, Hussam Eldin

    2017-10-01

    The hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS techniques were used to evaluate the groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the river water and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. Factor analysis represented the contamination sources of the mineral dissolution of the host rocks and domestic influences. The Gibbs plot exhibited that the major ions were derived from the rock weathering condition. Piper's trilinear diagram showed that the groundwater quality was classified into five types of CaHCO 3 , NaHCO 3 , NaCl, CaCl 2 , and CaSO 4 types in that order. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The fuzzy GIS map showed that highly contaminated groundwater occurred in the northeastern and the central parts and that the groundwater of medium quality appeared in most parts of the study area. It suggested that the groundwater quality of the study area was influenced by local geology, seawater intrusion, and municipal contaminants. This research clearly demonstrated that the geochemical analyses and fuzzy GIS method were very useful to identify the contaminant sources and the location of good groundwater quality.

  10. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  11. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  12. Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    water withdrawals. Tributary rivers act as 'partially penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater can flow underneath them through the deep sandstone aquifers. The model also demonstrates the effects of development on groundwater in the study area. Water-level declines since predevelopment (no withdrawal wells) are most pronounced where pumping is greatest and flow between layered aquifers is impeded by confining units or faults. The maximum simulated water-level decline is about 40 feet in the deep Mount Simon aquifer below the city of Hudson, Wisconsin. Three inset models were extracted from the regional model to demonstrate the process and additional capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW code. Although the inset models were designed to provide information about the groundwater-flow system, results from the inset models are presented for demonstration purposes only and are not sufficiently detailed or calibrated to be used for decisionmaking purposes without refinement. Simulation of groundwater/lake-water interaction around Twin Lakes near Roberts, in St. Croix County, Wisconsin, showed that groundwater represents approximately 5 to 20 percent of the overall lake-water budget. Groundwater-contributing areas to streams in western Pierce County are generally similar in size to the surface-water-contributing areas but do not necessarily correspond to the same land area. Transient streamflow simulations of Osceola Creek in Polk County demonstrate how stream base flow can be influenced not only by seasonal precipitation and recharge variability but also by systematic changes to the system, such as groundwater withdrawal from wells.

  13. Understanding similarity of groundwater systems with empirical copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Within the classification framework for groundwater systems that aims for identifying similarity of hydrogeological systems and transferring information from a well-observed to an ungauged system (Haaf and Barthel, 2015; Haaf and Barthel, 2016), we propose a copula-based method for describing groundwater-systems similarity. Copulas are an emerging method in hydrological sciences that make it possible to model the dependence structure of two groundwater level time series, independently of the effects of their marginal distributions. This study is based on Samaniego et al. (2010), which described an approach calculating dissimilarity measures from bivariate empirical copula densities of streamflow time series. Subsequently, streamflow is predicted in ungauged basins by transferring properties from similar catchments. The proposed approach is innovative because copula-based similarity has not yet been applied to groundwater systems. Here we estimate the pairwise dependence structure of 600 wells in Southern Germany using 10 years of weekly groundwater level observations. Based on these empirical copulas, dissimilarity measures are estimated, such as the copula's lower- and upper corner cumulated probability, copula-based Spearman's rank correlation - as proposed by Samaniego et al. (2010). For the characterization of groundwater systems, copula-based metrics are compared with dissimilarities obtained from precipitation signals corresponding to the presumed area of influence of each groundwater well. This promising approach provides a new tool for advancing similarity-based classification of groundwater system dynamics. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2015. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale, EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs EGU General Assembly

  14. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  15. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  16. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  17. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, T.O.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

  18. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, T.O.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants.

  19. Unconfined Groundwater Quality based on the Settlement Unit in Surakarta City

    OpenAIRE

    Munawar Cholil

    2004-01-01

    The quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer with growing population density is endangered by population. This may cause serious problem as greatest portion of the population utility groundwater of unconfined aquifer as their drinking water. This research is aim at studying the difference in quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer in Surakarta Munipicality by settlement units, and studying the impact settlement factors and groundwater depth on the quality of groundwater of unonfined aq...

  20. A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

    2008-12-01

    Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  1. Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    The chloroethenes, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are among the most common contaminants detected in groundwater systems. As recently as 1980, the consensus was that chloroethene compounds were not significantly biodegradable in groundwater. Consequently, efforts to remediate chloroethene-contaminated groundwater were limited to largely unsuccessful pump-and-treat attempts. Subsequent investigation revealed that under reducing conditions, aquifer microorganisms can reductively dechlorinate PCE and TCE to the less chlorinated daughter products dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Although recent laboratory studies conducted with halorespiring microorganisms suggest that complete reduction to ethene is possible, in the majority of groundwater systems reductive dechlorination apparently stops at DCE or VC. However, recent investigations conducted with aquifer and stream-bed sediments have demonstrated that microbial oxidation of these reduced daughter products can be significant under anaerobic redox conditions. The combination of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE under anaerobic conditions followed by anaerobic microbial oxidation of DCE and VC provides a possible microbial pathway for complete degradation of chloroethene contaminants in groundwater systems. Résumé Les chloroéthanes, tétrachloroéthane (PCE) et trichloroéthane (TCE) sont parmi les polluants les plus communs trouvés dans les aquifères. Depuis les années 1980, on considère que les chloroéthanes ne sont pas significativement biodégradables dans les aquifères. Par conséquent, les efforts pour dépolluer les nappes contaminées par des chloroéthanes se sont limités à des tentatives de pompage-traitement globalement sans succès. Des travaux ultérieurs ont montré que dans des conditions réductrices, des micro-organismes présents dans les aquifères peuvent, par réduction, dégrader les PCE et TCE en composés moins chlorés, comme le dichlor

  2. Volatile Short-chain Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Groundwater of the City of Zagreb

    OpenAIRE

    Marijanović-Rajčić, M.; Senta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the quality of the groundwater sampled from private wells and the public water-supply system in terms of estimating the contamination caused by short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, as well as to estimate the exposure of the citizens dwelling in different suburbs to these pollutants of their drinking water (Fig. 1). The aim of the study was also to determine which suburb is supplied through the public water-supply system with water originating from the Sašna...

  3. Design of groundwater pollution expert system: forward chaining and interfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    The groundwater pollution expert system (GWPES was developed by C Language Integrate Production System (CLEPS). The control techniques of this system consider some conclusion and then attempts to prove it by searching for supportive information from the database. The inference process goes in forward chaining of this system such as predicting groundwater pollution vulnerability, predicting the effect of nitrogen fertiliser, agricultural impact and project development on groundwater pollution potential. In GWPES, forward chaining system begins with a matching of inputs with the existing database of groundwater environment and activities impact of the project development. While, interaction between an expert system and user is conducted in simple English language. The interaction is highly interactive. A basis design with simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) to input data and by asking simple questions. (author)

  4. Litho-stratigraphic and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2015-10-30

    ://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem http://www.bioline.org.br/ja. Litho-stratigraphic and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Groundwater System in Parts of. Benin Metropolis, Benin City Nigeria: The Key to Groundwater Sustainability.

  5. Smart Cities and National Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    Energy system analysis follows two tracks, either through plans for future transitions of national energy systems, or local development of smart cities and regions. These two tracks seldom overlap. National plans neglect the local implementation of intermittent renewable technology and use of local...... resources, and smart cities and local development do not relate to national targets and fail to evaluate sub-optimization. Thus, there is a need for approaches that help researchers creating links between country analyses and local energy system transitions. This paper investigates the effects...... of such an approach, by investigating Western Denmark. By splitting Western Denmark into regions, it is possible to create individual energy systems for each region. Through interconnection, these regions can exchange electricity with each other. This enables analyses of interaction between smart cities and national...

  6. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  7. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  8. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  9. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended

  10. Numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater

  11. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  12. Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. R.; Gooddy, D. C.; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.

    2000-09-01

    Many cities and towns in South and Southeast Asia are unsewered, and urban wastewaters are often discharged either directly to the ground or to surface-water canals and channels. This practice can result in widespread contamination of the shallow groundwater. In Hat Yai, southern Thailand, seepage of urban wastewaters has produced substantial deterioration in the quality of the shallow groundwater directly beneath the city. For this reason, the majority of the potable water supply is obtained from groundwater in deeper semi-confined aquifers 30-50 m below the surface. However, downward leakage of shallow groundwater from beneath the city is a significant component of recharge to the deeper aquifer, which has long-term implications for water quality. Results from cored boreholes and shallow nested piezometers are presented. The combination of high organic content of the urban recharge and the shallow depth to the water table has produced strongly reducing conditions in the upper layer and the mobilisation of arsenic. A simple analytical model shows that time scales for downward leakage, from the surface through the upper aquitard to the semi-confined aquifer, are of the order of several decades. Résumé. De nombreuses villes du sud et du sud-est de l'Asie ne possèdent pas de réseaux d'égouts et les eaux usées domestiques s'écoulent souvent directement sur le sol ou dans des canaux et des cours d'eau de surface. Ces pratiques peuvent provoquer une contamination dispersée de la nappe phréatique. A Hat Yai (sud de la Thaïlande), les infiltrations d'eaux usées domestiques sont responsables d'une détérioration notable de la qualité de la nappe phréatique directement sous la ville. Pour cette raison, la majorité de l'eau potable est prélevée dans des aquifères semi-captifs plus profonds, situés entre 30 et 50 m sous la surface. Cependant, une drainance à partir de la nappe phréatique sous la ville constitue une composante significative de la recharge

  13. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  14. Emulation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes in shallow groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C.; Pickett, Trevor; Crosbie, Russell S.; Morgan, Leanne K.; Turnadge, Chris; Davies, Phil J.

    2017-12-01

    In shallow groundwater systems, recharge and evapotranspiration are highly sensitive to changes in the depth to water table. To effectively model these fluxes, complex functions that include soil and vegetation properties are often required. Model emulation (surrogate modelling or meta-modelling) can provide a means of incorporating detailed conceptualisation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes, while maintaining the numerical tractability and computational performance required for regional scale groundwater models and uncertainty analysis. A method for emulating recharge and evapotranspiration processes in groundwater flow models was developed, and applied to the South East region of South Australia and western Victoria, which is characterised by shallow groundwater, wetlands and coastal lakes. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model WAVES was used to generate relationships between net recharge (diffuse recharge minus evapotranspiration from groundwater) and depth to water table for different combinations of climate, soil and land cover types. These relationships, which mimicked previously described soil, vegetation and groundwater behaviour, were combined into a net recharge lookup table. The segmented evapotranspiration package in MODFLOW was adapted to select values of net recharge from the lookup table depending on groundwater depth, and the climate, soil and land use characteristics of each cell. The model was found to be numerically robust in steady state testing, had no major increase in run time, and would be more efficient than tightly-coupled modelling approaches. It made reasonable predictions of net recharge and groundwater head compared with remotely sensed estimates of net recharge and a standard MODFLOW comparison model. In particular, the method was better able to predict net recharge and groundwater head in areas with steep hydraulic gradients.

  15. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  16. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  17. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective.

  18. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  19. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  20. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  1. Map showing ground-water conditions in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, Coconino and Navajo counties, Arizona, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The Kaibito and Tuba City areas include about 2,500 square miles in north-central Arizona. Ground water is obtained from the N aquifer and from alluvium. The N aquifer consists of Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Moenave Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone. The main source of ground water is the Navajo Sandstone. Ground-water development has been slight in the areas. In 1977 the estimated ground-water withdrawals were about 350 acre-feet in the Kaibito area and 650 acre-feet in the Tuba City area. Water levels ranged from flowing at the land surface to 1,360 feet below the land surface. The chemical quality of the water in the N aquifer does not vary greatly in the areas. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water range from 101 to 669 milligrams per liter but generally are less than 300 milligrams per liter. Along some of the valleys in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, the alluvium yields water to many shallow dug wells. The water levels generally are from 5 to 15 feet below the land surface. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the alluvium usually are less than 600 milligrams per liter. Information shown on the map (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, and specific conductance and fluoride concentrations. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, N.; Marui, A.

    2011-12-01

    / fresh water interface (position of the submarine groundwater discharge) may appear on the seafloor. Moreover, neither the salinity concentration nor the groundwater age depends on depth. It is thought that it is because that the groundwater forms the complex flow situation through the change in a long-term groundwater flow system. The technology to understand the coastal groundwater flow consists of remote sensing, geographical features analysis, surface of the earth investigation, geophysical exploration, drilling survey, and indoor examination and the measurement. Integration of each technology is needed to interpret groundwater flow system because the one is to catch the local groundwater flow in the time series and another one is to catch the long-term and regional groundwater flow in the general situation. The purpose of this study is to review the previous research of coastal groundwater flow, and to integrate an applicable evaluation approach to understand this mechanism. In this presentation, the review of the research and case study using numerical simulation are introduced.

  3. Development of a Conductivity Sensor for Monitoring Groundwater Resources to Optimize Water Management in Smart City Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Lorena; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio

    2015-08-26

    The main aim of smart cities is to achieve the sustainable use of resources. In order to make the correct use of resources, an accurate monitoring and management is needed. In some places, like underground aquifers, access for monitoring can be difficult, therefore the use of sensors can be a good solution. Groundwater is very important as a water resource. Just in the USA, aquifers represent the water source for 50% of the population. However, aquifers are endangered due to the contamination. One of the most important parameters to monitor in groundwater is the salinity, as high salinity levels indicate groundwater salinization. In this paper, we present a specific sensor for monitoring groundwater salinization. The sensor is able to measure the electric conductivity of water, which is directly related to the water salinization. The sensor, which is composed of two copper coils, measures the magnetic field alterations due to the presence of electric charges in the water. Different salinities of the water generate different alterations. Our sensor has undergone several tests in order to obtain a conductivity sensor with enough accuracy. First, several prototypes are tested and are compared with the purpose of choosing the best combination of coils. After the best prototype was selected, it was calibrated using up to 30 different samples. Our conductivity sensor presents an operational range from 0.585 mS/cm to 73.8 mS/cm, which is wide enough to cover the typical range of water salinities. With this work, we have demonstrated that it is feasible to measure water conductivity using solenoid coils and that this is a low cost application for groundwater monitoring.

  4. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  5. Unconfined Groundwater Quality based on the Settlement Unit in Surakarta City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Cholil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer with growing population density is endangered by population. This may cause serious problem as greatest portion of the population utility groundwater of unconfined aquifer as their drinking water. This research is aim at studying the difference in quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer in Surakarta Munipicality by settlement units, and studying the impact settlement factors and groundwater depth on the quality of groundwater of unonfined aquifer. The research was executed by a survey methhod, taking 44 units of groundwater of unonfined aquifer samples at stratified proportional random from 44 villages. The samples were analyzed at the laboratory of Local Drinking Water Company (PDAM of Surakarta. Data were analyzed using by stiff diagram, variance analysis, and multiple regression. The research reveals that there is very little differences in the quality of free groundwater in Surakarta, as it is shown by same chemical properties. Several chemical properties were found very high in concentration, but the rest were simultaniously low. On the basis of minimum quality of drinking water coli content have exeeded the allowed limit for drinking water. Among the settlement units observed, there were no significant differences in the physical, chemical (except pH, bacteriological factors. This means that differences among various depth of water. Electrical onductivity (EC, Na, Mg, H2CO3, H2SO4, and NH3 were found different among various depth of water table. Major chemical conentration were significant with geology formation. Population density, built up areas, size of settlement, building density, and the condition of drainage simultaniously affect the quality of free ground water. No differences among settlement units was observed the most important fators determining the free groundwater quality was population density.

  6. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    well program for a new 66,200 m3/d (17.5 million US gal/d, MGD) brackish-water desalination plant for the City of Hialeah, Florida. Salinity and hydraulic conductivity data from the borehole logging program were used for both well design (determination of production zone) and groundwater modeling to optimize the production wellfield layout and predict future water quality. Advanced characterization techniques have general applicability for improving the design and predictability of well-based raw water supply systems, including alternative seawater intakes. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbes Characteristics in Groundwater Flow System in Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Sakakibara, Koichi; Ogawa, Mahiro; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo

    2017-04-01

    We focus on a possibility of microbes as a tracer for groundwater flow investigation. Some previous papers showed that the total number of prokaryotes in groundwater has correlation with depth and geology (Parkes et al., 1994; Griebler et al., 2009; Kato et al., 2012). However, there are few studies investigating both microbe characteristics and groundwater flow system. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between the total number of prokaryotes and age of spring water and groundwater. Intensive field survey was conducted at four mountainous areas, namely Mt. Fuji (volcano), a headwater at Mt. Setohachi, a headwater at River Oi and a headwater at River Nagano underlain by volcanic lava at Mt. Fuji, granite at Mt. Setohachi and sedimentary rock at River Oi and River Nagano. We collected totally 40 spring water/ groundwater samples in these mountainous areas in October 2015, August, October and November 2016 and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen - 18, deuterium, CFCs and SF6. Also, we counted prokaryotic cells under the epifluorescence microscopy after fixation and filteration. The total number of prokaryotes in the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 1.0×102 to 7.0×103cells mL-1 at the Mt. Fuji, 1.3×104 to 2.7×105cells mL-1 at Mt. Setohachi, 3.1×104cells mL-1 at River Oi and 1.8×105 to 3.2×106cells mL-1 at River Nagano. The SF6 age of the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 8 to 64 years at Mt. Fuji, 2 to 32.5 years at Mt. Setohachi, 2.5 years at River Oi and 15 to 16 years at River Nagano. The total number of prokaryotes showed a clear negative correlation with residence time of spring water/ groundwater in all regions. Especially the prokaryotes number increased in the order of 102 cells mL-1 with decreasing of residence time in approximately 10 years in the groundwater and spring water with the age less than 15 years.

  8. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  9. Modelling of the chemical state in groundwater infiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysset, A.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater is replenished by water stemming either from precipitations, lakes or rivers. The area where such an infiltration occurs is characterized by a change in the environmental conditions, such as a decrease of the flow velocity and an increase in the solid surface marking the boundary of the flow field. With these changes new chemical processes may become relevant to the transport behavior of contaminants. Since the rates of chemical processes usually are a function of the concentrations of several species, an understanding of infiltration sites may require a multicomponent approach. The present study aims at formulating a mathematical model together with its numerical solution for groundwater infiltration sites. Such a model should improve the understanding of groundwater quality changes related to infiltrating contaminants. The groundwater quality is of vital interest to men because at many places most of the drinking water originates from groundwater. In the first part of the present study two partial models are formulated: one accounting for the transport in a one-dimensional, homogeneous and saturated porous medium, the other accounting for chemical reactions. This second model is initially stated for general kinetic systems. Then, it is specified for two systems, namely for a system governed only by reactions which are fast compared to the transport processes and for a system with biologically mediated redox reactions of dissolved substrates. In the second part of the study a numerical solution to the model is developed. For this purpose, the two partial models are coupled. The coupling is either iterative as in the case of a system with fast reactions or sequential as in all other cases. The numerical solutions of simple test cases are compared to analytical solutions. In the third part the model is evaluated using observations of infiltration sites reported in the literature. (author) figs., tabs., 155 refs

  10. The City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System: Conception and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a systematic review of 38 current intelligent city evaluation systems (ICESs from around the world, this research analyzes the secondary and tertiary indicators of these 38 ICESs from the perspectives of scale structuring, approaches and indicator selection, and determines their common base. From this base, the fundamentals of the City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System are developed and five dimensions are selected after a clustering analysis. The basic version, City IQ Evaluation System 1.0, involves 275 experts from 14 high-end research institutions, which include the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science and Engineering (Germany, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Planning Management Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, and the Development Research Center of the State Council of China. City IQ Evaluation System 2.0 is further developed, with improvements in its universality, openness, and dynamic adjustment capability. After employing deviation evaluation methods in the IQ assessment, City IQ Evaluation System 3.0 was conceived. The research team has conducted a repeated assessment of 41 intelligent cities around the world using City IQ Evaluation System 3.0. The results have proved that the City IQ Evaluation System, developed on the basis of intelligent life, features more rational indicators selected from data sources that can offer better universality, openness, and dynamics, and is more sensitive and precise.

  11. Simulation of Groundwater Movement for Nuclear Research Center at AlTuwaitha Area in Baghdad City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Sleibi Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of groundwater movement has been carried out by using MODFLOW model in order to show the impact of change of water surface elevation of the Tigris river on layers of the aquifer system for Nuclear Research Center at Al-Tuwaitha area, in addition to evaluate the ability of the proposed pumping well to collect groundwater and change the direction of flow at steady-state. The results of the study indicated that there is a good match between the values of groundwater levels that calculated in the model and measured in the field, where mean error is 0.09 m.The study also showed that the increasing of water surface elevation of the Tigris river led to increase in the hydraulic head of observed wells, while the use proposed pumping well reduced the hydraulic head and intercepted the movement of groundwater flow. The flow direction is toward the Tigris river, and the velocity of flow is clear in the third layer identified medium sand which is 0.0015 m/day. The using of the proposed pumping well has changed the direction of groundwater, especially in the area around the well.

  12. The contribution of geology and groundwater studies to city-scale ground heat network strategies: A case study from Cardiff, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, David; Farr, Gareth; Patton, Ashley; Kendall, Rhian; James, Laura; Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan; Schofield, David; White, Debbie; Gooddy, Daren; James, David; Williams, Bernie; Tucker, David; Knowles, Steve; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    The development of integrated heat network strategies involving exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires knowledge of ground conditions at the feasibility stage, and throughout the life of the system. We describe an approach to the assessment of ground constraints and energy opportunities in data-rich urban areas. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have formed a core component of the strategy development for sustainable thermal use of the subsurface in Cardiff, UK. We present findings from a 12 month project titled 'Ground Heat Network at a City Scale', which was co-funded by NERC/BGS and the UK Government through the InnovateUK Energy Catalyst grant in 2015-16. The project examined the technical feasibility of extracting low grade waste heat from a shallow gravel aquifer using a cluster of open loop ground source heat pumps. Heat demand mapping was carried out separately. The ground condition assessment approach involved the following steps: (1) city-wide baseline groundwater temperature mapping in 2014 with seasonal monitoring for at least 12 months prior to heat pump installation (Patton et al 2015); (2) desk top and field-based investigation of the aquifer system to determine groundwater levels, likely flow directions, sustainable pumping yields, water chemistry, and boundary conditions; (3) creation of a 3D geological framework model with physical property testing and model attribution; (4) use steps 1-3 to develop conceptual ground models and production of maps and GIS data layers to support scenario planning, and initial heat network concept designs; (5) heat flow modelling in FEFLOW software to analyse sustainability and predict potential thermal breakthrough in higher risk areas; (6) installation of a shallow open loop GSHP research observatory with real-time monitoring of groundwater bodies to provide data for heat flow model validation and feedback for system control. In conclusion, early ground condition modelling and subsurface

  13. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  14. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities - 1962-2016. 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains the complete set of data reported to 122 Cities Mortality Reposting System. The system was retired as of 10/6/2016. While the system was running...

  15. Integrating a Linear Signal Model with Groundwater and Rainfall time-series on the Characteristic Identification of Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Yetmen; Chang, Liang-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater resources play a vital role on regional supply. To avoid irreversible environmental impact such as land subsidence, the characteristic identification of groundwater system is crucial before sustainable management of groundwater resource. This study proposes a signal process approach to identify the character of groundwater systems based on long-time hydrologic observations include groundwater level and rainfall. The study process contains two steps. First, a linear signal model (LSM) is constructed and calibrated to simulate the variation of underground hydrology based on the time series of groundwater levels and rainfall. The mass balance equation of the proposed LSM contains three major terms contain net rate of horizontal exchange, rate of rainfall recharge and rate of pumpage and four parameters are required to calibrate. Because reliable records of pumpage is rare, the time-variant groundwater amplitudes of daily frequency (P ) calculated by STFT are assumed as linear indicators of puamage instead of pumpage records. Time series obtained from 39 observation wells and 50 rainfall stations in and around the study area, Pintung Plain, are paired for model construction. Second, the well-calibrated parameters of the linear signal model can be used to interpret the characteristic of groundwater system. For example, the rainfall recharge coefficient (γ) means the transform ratio between rainfall intention and groundwater level raise. The area around the observation well with higher γ means that the saturated zone here is easily affected by rainfall events and the material of unsaturated zone might be gravel or coarse sand with high infiltration ratio. Considering the spatial distribution of γ, the values of γ decrease from the upstream to the downstream of major rivers and also are correlated to the spatial distribution of grain size of surface soil. Via the time-series of groundwater levels and rainfall, the well-calibrated parameters of LSM have

  16. Climate proxy data as groundwater tracers in regional flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. F.; Morrissey, S. K.; Stute, M.

    2008-05-01

    The isotopic and chemical signatures of groundwater reflect local climate conditions. By systematically analyzing groundwater and determining their hydrologic setting, records of past climates can be constructed. Because of their chemistries and relatively uncomplicated source functions, dissolved noble gases have yielded reliable records of continental temperatures for the last 30,000 to 50,000 years. Variations in the stable isotope compositions of groundwater due to long term climate changes have also been documented over these time scales. Because glacial - interglacial climate changes are relatively well known, these climate proxies can be used as "stratigraphic" markers within flow systems and used to distinguish groundwaters that have recharged during the Holocene from those recharged during the last glacial period, important time scales for distinguishing regional and local flow systems in many aquifers. In southern Georgia, the climate proxy tracers were able to identify leakage from surface aquifers into the Upper Floridan aquifer in areas previously thought to be confined. In south Florida, the transition between Holocene and glacial signatures in the Upper Floridan aquifer occurs mid-way between the recharge area and Lake Okeechobee. Down gradient of the lake, the proxies are uniform, indicating recharge during the last glacial period. Furthermore, there is no evidence for leakage from the shallow aquifers into the Upper Floridan. In the Lower Floridan, the climate proxies indicate that the saline water entered the aquifer after sea level rose to its present level.

  17. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and to evaluate groundwater availability. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-resource managers and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies and assess the long‑term availability of groundwater. The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the CPRAS was completed with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater.

  18. Distributed parallel computing in stochastic modeling of groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhui; Li, Guomin; Xu, Haizhen

    2013-03-01

    Stochastic modeling is a rapidly evolving, popular approach to the study of the uncertainty and heterogeneity of groundwater systems. However, the use of Monte Carlo-type simulations to solve practical groundwater problems often encounters computational bottlenecks that hinder the acquisition of meaningful results. To improve the computational efficiency, a system that combines stochastic model generation with MODFLOW-related programs and distributed parallel processing is investigated. The distributed computing framework, called the Java Parallel Processing Framework, is integrated into the system to allow the batch processing of stochastic models in distributed and parallel systems. As an example, the system is applied to the stochastic delineation of well capture zones in the Pinggu Basin in Beijing. Through the use of 50 processing threads on a cluster with 10 multicore nodes, the execution times of 500 realizations are reduced to 3% compared with those of a serial execution. Through this application, the system demonstrates its potential in solving difficult computational problems in practical stochastic modeling. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  20. A tracking system for groundwater sampling and data transfer schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.

    1990-12-01

    Since groundwater monitoring programs at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have become more complex and varied and as the occasions to respond to internal and external reporting requirements have become more frequent and time constrained, the need to track groundwater sampling activities and data transfer from the analytical laboratories has become imperative. If backlogs can be caught early, resources can be added or reallocated in the field and in the laboratory in a timely manner to ensure reporting deadlines are met. The tracking system discussed in this paper starts with clear definition of the groundwater monitoring program at the facility. This information is input into base datasets at the beginning of the sampling cycle. As the sampling program progresses, information about well sampling dates and data transfer dates is input into the base datasets. From the base program data and the update data, a status report is periodically generated by a computer program which identifies the type and nature of bottle necks encountered during the implementation of the groundwater monitoring program

  1. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  2. Contextual Aspects of Smart City Energy Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    The thesis defines the concept of smart city energy systems. The thesis emphasises the need to investigate the smart city energy system and two contextual aspects. The system integration context and the geographical context. The system integration context emphasises that increased interrelation...... of the different contextual aspects....

  3. Groundwater Monitoring and Engineered Geothermal Systems: The Newberry EGS Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Garrison, G.

    2013-12-01

    Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) represent the next generation of geothermal energy development. Stimulation of multiple zones within a single geothermal reservoir could significantly reduce the cost of geothermal energy production. Newberry Volcano in central Oregon represents an ideal location for EGS research and development. As such, the goals of the Newberry EGS Demonstration, operated by AltaRock Energy, Inc., include stimulation of a multiple-zone EGS reservoir, testing of single-well tracers and a demonstration of EGS reservoir viability through flow-back and circulation tests. A shallow, local aquifer supplied the approximately 41,630 m3 (11 million gals) of water used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, a deep geothermal well on the western flank of Newberry Volcano. Protection of the local aquifer is of primary importance to both the Newberry EGS Demonstration and the public. As part of the Demonstration, AltaRock Energy, Inc. has developed and implemented a groundwater monitoring plan to characterize the geochemistry of the local aquifer before, during and after stimulation. Background geochemical conditions were established prior to stimulation of NWG 55-29, which was completed in 2012. Nine sites were chosen for groundwater monitoring. These include the water supply well used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, three monitoring wells, three domestic water wells and two hot seeps located in the Newberry Caldera. Together, these nine monitoring sites represent up-, down- and cross-gradient locations. Groundwater samples are analyzed for 25 chemical constituents, stable isotopes, and geothermal tracers used during stimulation. In addition, water level data is collected at three monitoring sites in order to better characterize the effects of stimulation on the shallow aquifer. To date, no significant geochemical changes and no geothermal tracers have been detected in groundwater samples from these monitoring sites. The Newberry EGS Demonstration groundwater

  4. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/l Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to 10 -6 mol/l and 8 x 10 -7 mol/l under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 references, 6 figures

  5. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee)

    1984-01-01

    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/L Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to approx. 10 -6 mol/L and 8 x 10 -7 mol/L under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells

  7. Integrated methods and scenario development for urban groundwater management and protection during tunnel road construction: a case study of urban hydrogeology in the city of Basel, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, J.; Huggenberger, P.; Rauber, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the northwestern area of Basel, Switzerland, a tunnel highway connects the French highway A35 (Mulhouse Basel) with the Swiss A2 (Basel Gotthard Milano). The subsurface highway construction was associated with significant impacts on the urban groundwater system. Parts of this area were formerly contaminated by industrial wastes, and groundwater resources are extensively used by industry. During some construction phases, considerable groundwater drawdown was necessary, leading to major changes in the groundwater flow regime. Sufficient groundwater supply for industrial users and possible groundwater pollution due to interactions with contaminated areas had to be taken into account. A groundwater management system is presented, comprising extensive groundwater monitoring, high-resolution numerical groundwater modeling, and the development and evaluation of different scenarios. This integrated approach facilitated the evaluation of the sum of impacts, and their interaction in time and space with changing hydrological boundary conditions. For all project phases, changes of the groundwater system had to be evaluated in terms of the various goals and requirements. Although the results of this study are case-specific, the overall conceptual approach and methodologies applied may be directly transferred to other urban areas.

  8. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  9. Assessment of groundwater pollution from the oxidation ponds in tenth of Ramadan city, using isotopic techniques and hydrogeological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Samie, S.G.; Sadek, M.A.; Mahmoud, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    The tenth of ramadan city is an intensive industrial settement on the peripheries of cairo. All types of wastewater from industrial and domestic practices are discharged into three unlined oxidation ponds to eliminate pollutants. The present srudy has been conduted to assess the extent of seepage to groundwater from the ponds and how efficient they are for pollution reduction. The chemical composition is more developed in the groundwater of the miocene aquifer due to the less active recharge and the dominance of readily dissolved salts that interact with the inflow. The seepage from ismailia canal and the excess irrigation from agricultural lands and the infiltration from the oxidation ponds as well as the upleaked water represent the main sources of recharge in the quaternary aquifer. The chemical and isotopic composition of the water in the oxidation ponds is controlled by the nature of the drained water and the geochemical processes affecting the solute content. The isotopic enrichment differs for the three ponds being related to the evaporation intensity in each

  10. Hydrochemistry and Isotope Hydrology for Groundwater Sustainability of the Coastal Multilayered Aquifer System (Zhanjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater sustainability has become a critical issue for Zhanjiang (China because of serious groundwater level drawdown induced by overexploitation of its coastal multilayered aquifer system. It is necessary to understand the origins, material sources, hydrochemical processes, and dynamics of the coastal groundwater in Zhanjiang to support its sustainable management. To this end, an integrated analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data of 95 groundwater samples was conducted. Hydrochemical analysis shows that coastal groundwater is fresh; however, relatively high levels of Cl−, Mg2+, and total dissolved solid (TDS imply slight seawater mixing with coastal unconfined groundwater. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H values reveal the recharge sources of groundwater in the multilayered aquifer system. The unconfined groundwater originates from local modern precipitation; the confined groundwater in mainland originates from modern precipitation in northwestern mountain area, and the confined groundwater in Donghai and Leizhou is sourced from rainfall recharge during an older period with a colder climate. Ionic relations demonstrate that silicate weathering, carbonate dissolutions, and cation exchange are the primary processes controlling the groundwater chemical composition. Declining trends of groundwater level and increasing trends of TDS of the confined groundwater in islands reveal the landward extending tendency of the freshwater-seawater mixing zone.

  11. Understanding socio-groundwater systems: framework, toolbox, and stakeholders’ efforts for analysis and monitoring groundwater resources

    OpenAIRE

    López Maldonado, Yolanda Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater, the predominant accessible reservoir of freshwater storage on Earth, plays an important role as a human-natural life sustaining resource. In recent decades there has been an increasing concern that human activities are placing too much pressure on the resource, affecting the health of the ecosystem. However, because groundwater it is out of sight, its monitoring on both global and local scales is challenging. In the field of groundwater monitoring, modelling tools have been devel...

  12. Understanding cities as social-ecological systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on earlier ecological approaches to urban development, as well as more recent thinking in the fields of sustainability science, resilience thinking and complexity theory, to propose a conceptual framework for understanding cities...

  13. Studying The Contamination Status And The Sources Of Nitrogen Compounds In Groundwater In Ho Chi Minh City Area Using The Isotope Hydrology Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Kien Chinh; Le Danh Chuan; Nguyen Van Nhien; Huynh Long; Tran Bich Lien; Luong Thu Tra

    2013-01-01

    The obtained data on nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen concentration of 100 groundwater samples collected from 3 main aquifers show that although the nitrate concentration is still lower than the authorized limit of this compound in groundwater but the concentration and, specially the distribution of nitrate in shallow aquifer (Pleistocene) shows the increasing tendency in pollution level while ammonium and also total nitrogen content exceeded the authorized limit of these compounds in groundwater. For deeper aquifers (Upper and Lower Pliocene) groundwater is less polluted by nitrogen compounds. Analysis data on isotopic composition δ 15 N and δ 18 O of nitrate of the collected groundwater samples in compiling with other environmental isotopes data as δ 2 H, δ 18 O of water and natural radioactive isotopes in groundwater ( 3 H and 14 C) show that nitrate in Pleistocene groundwater is derived from both sources, geogenic source such as organic matter buried in aquifer soil layers and anthropogenic source like fertilizers, manure and septic wastes with the dominance of anthropogenic source. At the same time, obtained isotopic data proved the geogenic source of nitrate in water of the deeper aquifers. Study results on infiltration rate and infiltration depth of fertilizers and water using tracer techniques in the zone specializing in legume cultivation of the study area show the possible infiltration into shallow groundwater of water and also fertilizers. The obtained results prove the need of better management of the use of fertilizers for cultivation activities in the study area and to apply the advanced cultural manners for minimizing amount of fertilizers used. At the same time to strengthen wastes management and treatment in whole study area, especially in the zones which intake rain water as a recharge source to shallow groundwater such as Cu Chi, Hoc Mon and also inner city districts. (author)

  14. Systems approach to tracer data in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of current mathematical methods for the analysis of tracer data in groundwater hydrology has been given. The description of the hydrological cycle as a whole or in part, by a system (compartment) or sub-system under linear and stationary conditions is discussed. Basic concepts of transit time, residence time, their distributions in time and response characteristics of a system are outlined. From the knowledge of tracer input, output and systems response function for a generalised system, reservoir capacity and storage for given period can be estimated. Use of a time series model for environmental tracer data in discreet time scale aimed at the solution of hydrological problems e.g. mean transit time and reservoir capacity is also explored. It is concluded that the combination of tracer data with systems approach can go a long way in the study of some complex hydrological problems. (author)

  15. Groundwater Quality Analysis for Human Consumption: A Case Study of Sukkur City, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Laghari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quantity and quality is of the utmost importance. If the drinking water gets contaminated, it can result in severe health problems. For example, the continuous consumption of drinking water containing more than permissible amounts of fluoride can lead to bone deterioration and increased risk of bone fracture [1]. The present study was carried out to check the quality of underground water of Sukkur city. The analyzed parameters were fluoride, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, arsenic, TDS, pH, conductivity, odor, color and taste. World Health Organization (WHO standards were followed in present study. Underground water samples were collected from 20 different populated locations of Sukkur city. Only arsenic, pH, iron and potassium were found to be within health safe limits while the rest of the parameters exceeded the permissible standards set out by WHO. The TDS, sodium, fluoride and magnesium were over the limits at some locations.

  16. Simulation of the regional groundwater-flow system of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Dunning, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate the groundwater-flow system and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the Menominee Indian Reservation. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the region’s hydrogeology. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the groundwater-flow system, including groundwater/surface-water interactions, and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate groundwater/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional groundwater-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate groundwater-flow patterns at multiple scales. Simulations made with the regional model reproduce groundwater levels and stream base flows representative of recent conditions (1970–2013) and illustrate groundwater-flow patterns with maps of (1) the simulated water table and groundwater-flow directions, (2) probabilistic areas contributing recharge to high-capacity pumped wells, and (3) estimation of the extent of infiltrated wastewater from treatment lagoons.

  17. Earthquake effects on groundwater systems: an introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents an introductory review of the potential effects of earthquakes on groundwater systems with respect to the performance of underground repositories for radioactive waste in Britain. An approach to modelling these effects within the scope of general environmental simulation codes is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed and it is concluded that, although pertinent information exists, no clear relationship between seismic intensity and the degree of fracturing has been established. Recommendations are made for further work on fracture development to complement existing research into the effects of long-term changes on the integrity of radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)

  18. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  19. Application of groundwater residence time tracers and broad screening for micro-organic contaminants in the Indo-Gangetic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Dan; Das, Prerona; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Petersen, Jade; Gooddy, Daren; Krishan, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater abstracted from aquifers underlying urban centres across India provide a vital source of domestic water. Abstraction from municipal and private supplies is considerable and growing rapidly with ever increasing demand for water from expanding urban populations. This trend is set to continue. The vulnerability of deeper aquifers (typically >100 m below ground) used for domestic water to contamination migration from often heavily contaminated shallow aquifer systems has not been studies in detail in India. This paper focusses on the occurrence of micro-organic contaminants within sedimentary aquifers beneath urban centres which are intensively pumped for drinking water and domestic use. New preliminary results from a detailed case study undertaken across Varanasi, a city with an estimated population of ca. 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh. Micro -organic groundwater quality status and evolution with depth is investigated through selection of paired shallow and deep sites across the city. These results are considered within the context of paired groundwater residence time tracers within the top 150m within the sedimentary aquifer system. Groundwater emerging contaminant results are compared with surface water quality from the Ganges which is also used for drinking water supply. Broad screening for >800 micro-organic compounds was undertaken. Age dating tools were employed to constrain and inform a conceptual model of groundwater recharge and contaminant evolution within the sedimentary aquifer system.

  20. Assessment of Non-Revenue Water Situation in Mandalay City: Response to the Management of Sustainable Water Supply System in Mandalay City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Moe Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandalay city is experiencing inefficient use of groundwater resources and inadequate water supply system to residents. The study focused on the issue of non-revenue water (NRW and stakeholders’ perception on its management in order to design the remediation measures for the water lost controls and the sustainable water supply system. A total of 134 samples of water employees, and 383 households were assessed through structured questionnaires. It has been found that more than 50% of the water employees are not aware of the NRW concept. Furthermore, over 90% of the water users are not willing to participate in water management. The WB­EasyCalc software version 4.09 was used to determine NRW and the result of NRW is 46% of the total system input volume. The main causes of water losses in Mandalay city are: 1 a very low pressure system; 2 poor-quality repairs; 3 lack of regular maintenance; 4 water employees’ insufficient knowledge; 5 lack of awareness about the NRW concept; 6 poor customer relationships; and 7 water users’ lack of willingness to participate in the water losses management. Therefore, it is recommended that water utility service efficiency be optimized by giving capacity building to the water employees. It is also recommended that district metering areas (DMA be introduced and good customer relationship be established. This is to improve the water users’ willingness to participate in the water losses management for the efficient use under scarcity groundwater resources and for the sustainable water supply system.

  1. Geochemical studies of groundwater systems of semiarid Yola area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the process controlling the water chemistry and to assess the ... for the deep groundwater and Na+-Cl- for the surface water bodies. ... Groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater indicate pH values (6.10 to 7.08) ...

  2. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  3. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta-oun, M.; Daud, M.; Bardaie, M.Z.; Jusop, S.

    1999-01-01

    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  4. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhussein A. Basheer

    2014-12-01

    The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES’es and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  5. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  6. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H; Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; McMahon, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM(-2)), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM(-2)). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  8. Intellectual Capital Based Management Accounting System For Creative City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryanto Hesti Wibowo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study will discuss the problem of how the management accounting system can meet the needs of high quality information to its users in managing creative city for the decision making process. A well-organized management of creative city is needed to overcome the problems of the city to become an innovative place in the development of urban socio-economic life. Accounting management system plays an important role in promoting accountability efficiency and effectiveness of the creative city manager. Intellectual capital accounting makes management becomes more proficient in decision-making through the formulation of different management accounting concepts from financial accounting perspective the concept of connectivity and networking within the organization thereby increasing the relevance of management accounting management accounting that meet the manager needs for managing creative city.

  9. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1989-10-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10{sup -1} atm. of P{sub co2} are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author).

  10. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    1989-01-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10 -1 atm. of P co2 are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author)

  11. Linking Groundwater Use and Stress to Specific Crops Using the Groundwater Footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains Aquifer Systems, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Esnault, L.; Gleeson, T.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Flanary, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly-developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  12. Assessment of aquifer system in the city of Lahore, Pakistan using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafiq, M.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M.A.; Ahmad, N.; Iqbal, N.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic and geochemical techniques were applied to assess the groundwater replenishment mechanism, pollution levels and pollution sources in the city of Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan where water supply has been based on the abstraction of groundwater. Isotopic and chemical data indicates that groundwater has major contribution from the river water up to the center of the city while at remaining locations it seems base-flow recharged by rains of distant area or mixed recharge from river and rains. In case of shallow groundwater, different local sources like irrigation canals, sewerage drains, local rain and maybe the leaking main supply lines also contribute. High tritium values of deep groundwater fed by river show its quick movement up to 8-10 Km. Deep groundwater in the adjacent area towards the center of the city, although fed by the river shows residence time of about 45 years. Recharge to shallow aquifer is generally quick as most of the sampling locations have high tritium values. Chemical data shows that groundwater is mainly of sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate type. The infiltrating river water is of calcium bicarbonate type which changes to sodium bicarbonate type at few kilometers away from the river due to cation exchange and calcite precipitation processes. Water quality was assessed for drinking purpose and it was noted that concentrations of several parameters exceed the norms of good quality drinking water in case of shallow groundwater. This study clearly indicated an increasing trend of groundwater nitrate concentrations. δ 15 N values of high nitrate waters reveal the localized pollution from sewerage drains. Bacterial contamination of groundwater especially at locations near the drains also proves the penetration of urban recharge from sewerage drains. (author)

  13. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  14. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  15. Impact of landfills, domestic and industrial waste on the aquifer in Raipur city and contribution of karst feature to the groundwater contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, U.K.; Deodhar, A.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman

    2004-01-01

    Karst features (landscapes that result from dissolution and surface drainage of carbonate terrains) are potentially a large source of water. They have distinctive features, which distinguish them from fissured and porous aquifers. These features include a general lack of permanent surface streams, existence of surface holes into which surface stream sink, presence of underground big channels and large springs etc. Karst environments are used for potable water supply as well as disposal sites for municipal, agricultural and industrial waste dumping. The peculiar geomorphologic and hydrological features of karst make them highly vulnerable for groundwater pollution. The ease with which they can be polluted make a fit case of taking protection measures in advance. Raipur is a major business, educational center as well as capital city of Chhattisgarh state in India. The city has been rapidly expanding during the last two decades, as a result of rapid industrialisation and various economic developments. Wastes generated from a wide variety of industrial, commercial, agricultural and domestic activities are dumped into pits or low - lying area around the Raipur City. The climate in the area is characterised by very hot summer and well distributed rain over four months during monsoon season. Monsoon precipitation begins from mid June and generally remains active till the end of September. The average annual precipitation is ∼1250 mm. In the study area, groundwater lies in the karstified nature of geological formation and is naturally susceptible to contamination by landfills, domestic and industrial wastes. The karstification feature is exposed to the surface in Raipur city at many places. Environmental isotopes ( 2 H, 3 H, 18 O and 13 C) as well as chemistry of the water samples were used to identify a few places, which are prone to contamination in Raipur city. Deterioration of the groundwater quality is not alarming due to thin shale (impervious layer) cover over the

  16. Primacy analysis in the system of Bulgarian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    The concept of "primacy" as introduced by Jefferson in 1939 in urban geography leads to the notion of "dominant city" also known as the primate city. Practically, the notion was extended by Sheppard in view of discussing some "hierarchy". The type of dominance is not universal nor any hierarchy reversal. Both can be time and sample dependent. Thus, as an example taking into consideration the existence of both pieces of the puzzle, we consider and discuss the Bulgarian urban system. It is also interesting to compare data on two groups of cities in different time intervals: (i) the whole Bulgaria city system which contains about 250 cities, - studied in the time interval between 2004 and 2011, and (ii) a system of 33 cities, - studied over the time interval 1887 till 2010. These latter cities are selected because the population was already over 10 000 inhabitants in 1946. It is shown that new additional indices are interestingly introduced in order to compensate defects in the Sheppard index. Numerical illustrations are illuminated through a "length ratio" measure, which allows to distinguish the (often) observed departures from the hyperbolic ranking seen by Jefferson.

  17. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  18. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  19. Smart Cities as Cyber-Physical Social Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos G. Cassandras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging prototype for a Smart City is one of an urban environment with a new generation of innovative services for transportation, energy distribution, healthcare, environmental monitoring, business, commerce, emergency response, and social activities. Enabling the technology for such a setting requires a viewpoint of Smart Cities as cyber-physical systems (CPSs that include new software platforms and strict requirements for mobility, security, safety, privacy, and the processing of massive amounts of information. This paper identifies some key defining characteristics of a Smart City, discusses some lessons learned from viewing them as CPSs, and outlines some fundamental research issues that remain largely open.

  20. Generalized hydrogeologic framework and groundwater budget for a groundwater availability study for the glacial aquifer system of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Bayless, E. Randall; Dudley, Robert W.; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Qi, Sharon L.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.

    2017-12-14

    The glacial aquifer system groundwater availability study seeks to quantify (1) the status of groundwater resources in the glacial aquifer system, (2) how these resources have changed over time, and (3) likely system response to future changes in anthropogenic and environmental conditions. The glacial aquifer system extends from Maine to Alaska, although the focus of this report is the part of the system in the conterminous United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The glacial sand and gravel principal aquifer is the largest source of public and self-supplied industrial supply for any principal aquifer and also is an important source for irrigation supply. Despite its importance for water supply, water levels in the glacial aquifer system are generally stable varying with climate and only locally from pumping. The hydrogeologic framework developed for this study includes the information from waterwell records and classification of material types from surficial geologic maps into likely aquifers dominated by sand and gravel deposits. Generalized groundwater budgets across the study area highlight the variation in recharge and discharge primarily driven by climate.

  1. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  2. A study on the groundwater flow system for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The basic framework of groundwater flow is defined as a conceptual 3-D unit of groundwater system based on hydrogeological environments. The fundamental parameters consisting of groundwater system should include topography, geology and climatic conditions. Climatic conditions control the distribution and amounts of groundwater in an interesting study area. The driving forces responsible for groundwater movement are mainly determined by topographic characteristics. The configuration of groundwater system is also controlled by topography. The geological setting and structures control the reservoir size and groundwater flow path. The hydrogeological setting in Korea was classified by primarily topographic characteristics and considered by geological structures and tectonic division. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitude. 35 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  3. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  4. Public transport traffic management systems simulation in Craiova city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    Urban transport is a comprehensive and dynamic mechanism. Therefore, all the problems for improving and reorganization of the system can be examined only in the light of a systemic approach. Currently, public passenger transport is one of the most important branches of the urban development in cities and metropolis. Public passenger transport activity and all the steps taken to improve that activity are considered to be of great social importance. In the current stage of city development, one of the main tasks is to create a public passenger transportation system that is safe, affordable, economical, reliable and environmentally friendly. The important role of passenger transport in the city's economy and achieving important social services to the population, dictates the need to introduce measures in the system that are harmonious, balanced and effective. This can only be done, in the context of current development, only after the system as a whole is tested extensively through special traffic and management software. (Author)

  5. Adsorptive properties of alluvial soil for arsenic(V) and its potential for protection of the shallow groundwater among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Mei, Jinhua; Luo, Yueping; Qiu, Anni; Wang, Huan

    2017-02-01

    The study area is among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, which was under agricultural use and natural conditions about 10 years ago and now is becoming part of the metropolis because of the urban expansion. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms and capabilities of the local alluvial soil layer for protecting the local shallow groundwater from arsenic pollution by field surveys and batch experiments. The field surveys showed that there was an acidic tendency of the groundwater, and phosphate, nitrate, and arsenic in the groundwater significantly increased comparing to their reference values. It indicates that the disturbance of the former agricultural land due to the change of land use may be responsible for these changes. From the experimental results, the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil for As(V) was as low as 0.334 mg/g, and lower As(V) adsorption capacities were obtained at higher As(V) concentration, higher pH, and lower temperature. The presence of H 2 PO 4 - and SiO 3 2- posed negative, while HCO 3 - slight positive, and SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and Cl - negligible influences on the As(V) adsorption. The surface-derived organic matter played a negative role in the adsorption process, and low specific surface area influenced adsorption capacity of the soil. The study reveals that the local soil layer shows poor potential for protection of the local shallow groundwater from As(V) pollution, and the change trends of the groundwater environments due to more intensive anthropogenic activities will further weaken this potential and increase the risk of the groundwater contamination.

  6. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, S. K.; Clark, J. F.; Bennett, M. W.; Richardson, E.; Stute, M.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, South Florida, from the rise in sea level at the end of the last glacial period may be indicative of changes coastal aquifers will experience with continued sea level rise. As sea level rises, the hydraulic head near the coast increases. Coastal aquifers can therefore experience decreased groundwater gradients (increased residence times) and seawater intrusion. Stable isotopes of water, dissolved noble gas temperatures, radiocarbon and He concentrations were analyzed in water collected from 68 wells in the Floridan aquifer system throughout South Florida. Near the recharge area, geochemical data along groundwater flow paths in the Upper Floridan aquifer show a transition from recently recharged groundwater to glacial-aged water. Down gradient from this transition, little variation is apparent in the stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures, indicating that most of the Upper Floridan aquifer contains groundwater recharged during the last glacial period. The rapid 120-meter rise in sea level marking the end of the last glacial period increased the hydraulic head in the Floridan aquifer system near the coast, slowing the flow of groundwater from the recharge area to the ocean and trapping glacial-aged groundwater. The raised sea level also flooded half of the Florida platform and caused seawater to intrude into the Lower Floridan. This circulation of seawater in the Lower Floridan continues today as our data indicate that the groundwater is similar to modern seawater with a freshwater component entering vertically from the recharge area to the Upper Floridan.

  7. City gas supply management system. Toshi gas kyokyu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, S [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-05

    Supply and control system of city gas (about 90% is LNG) at Tokyo Gas Company is summarized. The LNG is delivered from the high pressure, A-middle pressure and B-middle pressure stations through the low pressure governors at about 3,000 locations to the low-pressure conduit networks. The information system department uses a large-size general purpose IBM computer as a host computer, control computers at each station, and communication networks consisted mainly of the in-house wireless networks. The trunk lines are all looped, and the important facilities are dualized. Characteristic functions include the supply prediction, which takes into account the past supply and ambient temperature records, a day of the week for a particular date, and demand fluctuation trends; adjustments of each holder based on the prediction and restrictions; and piping network simulation to decide gas manufacturing patterns, and determine reasonability of local construction of complicated conduits. The monitoring and control system as the central nerve includes a quick block-wide operation at an accident from earthquake and the like to prevent wide area disasters. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Groundwater System of Sundarbans (Basanti), West Bengal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopmann, Moritz; Binning, Philip John; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    In Basanti, a rural block in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, the water availability is vital for its inhabitants. Groundwater levels are decreasing, and a proper understanding of key factors influencing the water resource is required. In the following, a social review of Basanti is given followed...... by a geologic and hydrostratigraphic analysis. The main hydrologic flows, a water balance, and the trend of salinity in the groundwater are presented. Finally, available long- and short-term drawdown data of South 24 Parganas and Basanti to determine groundwater level and annual recharge trends. The assessment...

  9. Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

    2005-03-01

    There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use. sostenible. Las razones son: (1) los conceptos y definiciones actuales son ambiguos y sin base física de modo que no pueden usarse para aplicación cuantitativa, (2) existe necesidad de eliminar interpretaciones variables y mal interpretaciones y aportar bases sanas para aplicación, (3) la noción de que todos los sistemas de aguas subterráneas son o pueden ser sostenibles no esvalida, (4) frecuentemente existen un numero excesivo de factores ligados a la definición de producción sostenible los cuales no son fácil de cuantificar, (5) frecuentemente existe confusión entre la producción optima de un establecimiento y la

  10. Geothermal energy systems plan for Boise City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This is a plan for development of a downtown Boise geothermal district space heating system incorporating legal, engineering, organizational, geological, and economic requirements. Topics covered include: resource characteristics, system design and feasibility, economic feasibility, legal overview, organizational alternatives, and conservation. Included in appendices are: property ownership patterns on the Boise Front, existing hot well data, legal briefs, environmental data, decision point communications, typical building heating system retrofit schematics, and background assumptions and data for cost summary. (MHR)

  11. Hydrochemistry of the groundwater flow systems in the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.

    1984-12-01

    A comprehensive range of geochemical and isotopic parameters were analysed in the groundwater samples taken from the high permeability formations in the Harwell region. These analyses were undertaken as part of a hydro-chemical validation of groundwater circulation patterns derived from potentiometric data. Hydro-chemical investigations were concentrated upon the Corallian and Great Oolite formations since these respectively overlie and underlie the Oxford Clay. (author)

  12. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  13. Home Photovoltaic System Design in Pangkalpinang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunanda, Wahri

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to obtain the design of home photovoltaic systems in Pangkalpinang and the opportunity of economic savings. The system consists of photovoltaic with batteries. Based on electricity consumption of several houses with installed power of 1300 VA and 2200 VA in Pangkalpinang for one year, the daily load of photovoltaic system is varied to 40%, 30% and 20% of the average value of the daily home electricity consumption. The investment costs, the cost of replacement parts and the cost of electricity consumption accrued to PLN during lifetime of systems (25 years) are also calculated. The result provided that there are no economic saving opportunities for photovoltaic systems with batteries at home with installed power of 1300 VA and 2200 VA in Pangkalpinang. The most economical is the photovoltaic system with the daily load of 20% of the average value of the daily home electricity consumption. The configuration of photovoltaic system for 1300 VA home consists of 10 modules of 200 wattpeak and 4 batteries 150 AH, 12 Volt while photovoltaic system for 2200 VA home consists of 15 modules of 200 wattpeak and 6 batteries 150 AH,12Volt.

  14. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  15. Isotopic study of the effect of Tarbela reservoir on the groundwater system in the downstream areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Ali, M.; Latif, Z.

    1994-04-01

    Isotopic studies were carried out on the right side of river Indus, downstream of Tarbela dam to study the effect of Tarbela Reservoir on the groundwater system. The main objectives of the study were to determine the hydraulic connection, if any, between the Tarbela Lake and the groundwater appearing in the ponds near Gadon Amazai, see the effect of Tarbela dam on the groundwater system in the downstream areas, compute the relative contribution of different recharge sources towards groundwater system and to estimate residence time of groundwater in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the ponds near Gadoon Amazai area are being recharged by local rains and there is no contribution of Tarbela lake. The area around Gadoon Amazai, Topi and Kalabat is solely recharged by local rains while the area around Swabi, Zaida and Lahor has mixed recharge with major contribution from local canal system. Tritium data suggests that the residence time of groundwater in the study area varies from a few years to 30 years. Te groundwater in the area has low dissolved salt contents and is, generally, of good quality. (author) 19 figs

  16. Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan Aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for selected city of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year investigation of the Upper Floridan aquifer and ground-water flow system in Leon County, Florida, and surrounding counties of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia began in 1990. The purpose of the investigation was to describe the ground-water flow system and to delineate the contributing areas to selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells. The investigation was prompted by the detection of low levels of tetrachloroethylene in ground-water samples collected from several of the city's water-supply wells. Hydrologic data and previous studies indicate that; ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer can be considered steady-state; the Upper Floridan aquifer is a single water-bearing unit; recharge is from precipitation; and that discharge occurs as spring flow, leakage to rivers, leakage to the Gulf of Mexico, and pumpage. Measured transmissivities of the aquifer ranged from 1,300 ft2/d (feet squared per day) to 1,300,000 ft2/d. Steady-state ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer was simulated using a three-dimensional ground- water flow model. Transmissivities ranging from less than 5,000 ft2/d to greater than 11,000,000 ft2/d were required to calibrate to observed conditions. Recharge rates used in the model ranged from 18.0 inches per year in areas where the aquifer was unconfined to less than 2 inches per year in broad areas where the aquifer was confined. Contributing areas to five Tallahassee water-supply wells were simulated by particle- tracking techniques. Particles were seeded in model cells containing pumping wells then tracked backwards in time toward recharge areas. The contributing area for each well was simulated twice, once assuming a porosity of 25 percent and once assuming a porosity of 5 percent. A porosity of 25 percent is considered a reasonable average value for the Upper Floridan aquifer; the 5 percent porosity simulated the movement of ground-water through only solution-enhanced bedding plains

  17. Pump Hydro Energy Storage systems (PHES) in groundwater flooded quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been evoked. However, these flooded quarries are generally connected to unconfined aquifers. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent aquifers. Conversely, water exchanges between the quarry and the aquifer may also influence the water level fluctuations in the lower reservoir. Using numerical modelling, this study investigates the interactions between generic flooded open pit quarries and adjacent unconfined aquifers, during various pump-storage cyclic stresses. The propagation of sinusoidal stresses in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry are studied. Homogeneous rock media and the presence of fractures in the vicinity of the quarry are considered. Results show that hydrological quarry - rock interactions must be considered with caution, when implementing pump - storage systems. For rock media characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and porosity values, water volumes exchanges during cycles may affect significantly the amplitude of the water level fluctuations in the quarry, and as a consequence, the instantaneous electricity production. Regarding the impact of the pump - storage cyclic stresses on the surrounding environment, the distance of influence is potentially high under specific conditions, and is enhanced with the occurrence of rock heterogeneities, such as fractures. The impact around the quarry used as a lower reservoir thus appears as an important constraining factor regarding the feasibility of pump - storage systems, to be assessed carefully if groundwater level fluctuations around the quarry

  18. Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talat, B.; Ahsan-Ullah

    2005-01-01

    The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

  19. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  20. Iodine mobilization in groundwater system at Datong basin, China: Evidence from hydrochemistry and fluorescence characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Guo, Wei; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Yaqing; Kong, Shuqiong

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the speciation of iodine in groundwater is essential for understanding its hydrogeochemical behavior in aquifer systems. To quantify the variations in iodine speciation and assess factors controlling the distribution and transformation of iodine, 82 groundwater samples and 1 rain water were collected from the Datong basin, northern China in this study. Factor analysis (FA) and excitation emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) were used to clarify the potential relationships among iodine species and other hydrochemical parameters. The iodine concentrations of groundwater range from 6.23 to 1380 μg L{sup −1} with 47% of samples exceeding its drinking water level of 150 μg L{sup −1} as recommended by the Chinese government. 57% of samples have ratios of iodate to total iodine greater than 60%, while iodide as the major species in 22% of the samples. Significant amounts of organic iodine with concentrations higher than 100 μg L{sup −1} were observed in 9 groundwater samples. Redox conditions of groundwater system strongly affect iodine concentration and speciation of inorganic iodine in groundwater, and extremely reducing condition restricts the iodine release from sediments into groundwater. The results of FA show that iodine mobilization in groundwater is related to the nature of dissolved organic matter. EEM-PARAFAC model demonstrates the dominance of terrestrial DOM sources and the presence of microbial activities in groundwater system of the Datong basin. It is proposed that degradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides are major hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the mobilization of iodine release and the genesis of organic iodine. - Highlights: • Iodine species in groundwater was studied from Datong basin, northern China. • Weakly alkaline environment favors the accumulation of iodine in groundwater. • Iodate is the major species of iodine in groundwater from Datong

  1. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  2. Simulation and Prediction of Groundwater Pollution from Planned Feed Additive Project in Nanning City Based on GMS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yimin; Lan, Junkang; Wen, Zhixiong

    2018-01-01

    In order to predict the pollution of underground aquifers and rivers by the proposed project, Specialized hydrogeological investigation was carried out. After hydrogeological surveying and mapping, drilling, and groundwater level monitoring, the scope of the hydrogeological unit and the regional hydrogeological condition were found out. The permeability coefficients of the aquifers were also obtained by borehole water injection tests. In order to predict the impact on groundwater environment by the project, a GMS software was used in numerical simulation. The simulation results show that when unexpected sewage leakage accident happened, the pollutants will be gradually diluted by groundwater, and the diluted contaminants will slowly spread to southeast with groundwater flow, eventually they are discharged into Gantang River. However, the process of the pollutants discharging into the river is very long, the long-term dilution of the river water will keep Gantang River from being polluted.

  3. Random matrices and the New York City subway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Aukosh; Trogdon, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    We analyze subway arrival times in the New York City subway system. We find regimes where the gaps between trains are well modeled by (unitarily invariant) random matrix statistics and Poisson statistics. The departure from random matrix statistics is captured by the value of the Coulomb potential along the subway route. This departure becomes more pronounced as trains make more stops.

  4. Random matrices and the New York City subway system

    OpenAIRE

    Jagannath, Aukosh; Trogdon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We analyze subway arrival times in the New York City subway system. We find regimes where the gaps between trains exhibit both (unitarily invariant) random matrix statistics and Poisson statistics. The departure from random matrix statistics is captured by the value of the Coulomb potential along the subway route. This departure becomes more pronounced as trains make more stops.

  5. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-01-01

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility's operations will also be presented

  6. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  7. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  8. A geographic information system-based 3D city estate modeling and simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Xiaoli; Li, Sha

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a 3D city simulation system which is based on geographic information system (GIS), covering all commercial housings of the city. A regional- scale, GIS-based approach is used to capture, describe, and track the geographical attributes of each house in the city. A sorting algorithm of "Benchmark + Parity Rate" is developed to cluster houses with similar spatial and construction attributes. This system is applicable for digital city modeling, city planning, housing evaluation, housing monitoring, and visualizing housing transaction. Finally, taking Jingtian area of Shenzhen as an example, the each unit of 35,997 houses in the area could be displayed, tagged, and easily tracked by the GIS-based city modeling and simulation system. The match market real conditions well and can be provided to house buyers as reference.

  9. Determination of timescales of nitrate contamination by groundwater age models in a complex aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Lee, E.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.; Green, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Timing and magnitudes of nitrate contamination are determined by various factors like contaminant loading, recharge characteristics and geologic system. Information of an elapsed time since recharged water traveling to a certain outlet location, which is defined as groundwater age, can provide indirect interpretation related to the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system. There are three major methods (apparent ages, lumped parameter model, and numerical model) to date groundwater ages, which differently characterize groundwater mixing resulted by various groundwater flow pathways in a heterogeneous aquifer system. Therefore, in this study, we compared the three age models in a complex aquifer system by using observed age tracer data and reconstructed history of nitrate contamination by long-term source loading. The 3H-3He and CFC-12 apparent ages, which did not consider the groundwater mixing, estimated the most delayed response time and a highest period of the nitrate loading had not reached yet. However, the lumped parameter model could generate more recent loading response than the apparent ages and the peak loading period influenced the water quality. The numerical model could delineate various groundwater mixing components and its different impacts on nitrate dynamics in the complex aquifer system. The different age estimation methods lead to variations in the estimated contaminant loading history, in which the discrepancy in the age estimation was dominantly observed in the complex aquifer system.

  10. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  11. Isotopes reveal dynamics of groundwater system in Region 2, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, N.D.S.; Racadio, C.D.T.; Sucgang, R.J.; Castañeda, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Steady economic and population growth in Region 2 could lead to an exponential increase freshwater demand. However, region 2’s main source of freshwater is groundwater and, if not checked and managed carefully, it could eventually affect the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources in Water Resource Region 2 (WRR2). Stable isotopes along with Tritium analysis in different water bodies such as rain, shallow and deep groundwater, springs and rivers were used to gain insight about the hydrological process in WRR2. Local meteoric water line for WRR2 was found to be δ2H = 8.6 δ 18O + 13.3 (r = 0.98). The estimated annual mean, which was used as a local index was to be -7.1 ‰ δ “1”8O_v_s_m_o_w_-_s_l_a_p. Shallow wells (20 – 30 m) and production wells (multi-screened wells, max depth of about 100 – 120m) were found to exhibit relatively more enrich than the index (i.e. -7.1‰) with means of -6.2 ‰ (s.d. 1.1‰, n=19) and -6.6 ‰ (s.d. 0.9; n= 151), respectively, which was an indication of infiltration of evaporated waters possibly from river and irrigation waters. Tritium analysis were done on selected sites to identify groundwater age (GWA) and possibly track the flow of groundwater from recharge areas (such as in Nueva Vizcaya, GWA = 3 years) down to the plains (Tuguegarao, GWA range from 9 to 30 years). Groundwaters drawn from production wells in Tuguegarao with ages of more than 30 years suggest that more fraction of water were being drawn from deeper aquifers. Such scenario could mean that were less water in shallow aquifers (e.g. 30 m deep) which are typically younger in age than waters found at deeper aquifers (e.g. 100 m deep). (author)

  12. Estimation of the sources and flow system of groundwater in Fuji-Gotenba area by stable isotopic analysis and groundwater flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Shingo; Miyaike, Shusaku; Ii, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Ryota; Ito, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the source and chemical character of the groundwater provides an important strategy for the quality management of mineral water and food materials. In order to identify a source and the flow paths of groundwater used for mineral water, the water quality and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of well water in Gotenba city were studied. The electrical conductivity and chemical character of sampled water are similar to those of well water and spring water discharged elsewhere around Mt. Fuji. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of water samples indicate their origin to be solely meteoric and the oxygen isotopic ratios suggest that the groundwater mainly originated from the mountain-side of Mt. Fuji at altitudes of from 1500 m to 2300 m. A subsequent simulation of groundwater showed that the distribution of the total head and the Darcy velocity are down streamlines from mountain-sides toward the study area in Gotenba city. The altitudes of discharge obtained by the simulation are above 2000 m, and these correspond well with altitudes estimated from δ 18 O values of the samples. (author)

  13. Assessment of well vulnerability for groundwater source protection based on a solute transport model: a case study from Jilin City, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Lai, Desheng; Teng, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-01

    Well vulnerability assessment is essential for groundwater source protection. A quantitative approach to assess well vulnerability in a well capture zone is presented, based on forward solute transport modeling. This method was applied to three groundwater source areas (Jiuzhan, Hadawan and Songyuanhada) in Jilin City, northeast China. The ratio of the maximum contaminant concentration at the well to the released concentration at the contamination source ( c max/ c 0) was determined as the well vulnerability indicator. The results indicated that well vulnerability was higher close to the pumping well. The well vulnerability in each groundwater source area was low. Compared with the other two source areas, the cone of depression at Jiuzhan resulted in higher spatial variability of c max/ c 0 and lower minimum c max/ c 0 by three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that the denitrification rate in the aquifer was the most sensitive with respect to well vulnerability. A process to derive a NO3-N concentration at the pumping well is presented, based on determining the maximum nitrate loading limit to satisfy China's drinking-water quality standards. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for improving the precision of this well vulnerability assessment approach are discussed.

  14. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    by USGS at the site and results from other studies support, and are consistent with, a conceptual model of a layered leaky aquifer where the dip of the beds has a strong control on hydraulic connections in the groundwater system. Connections within and (or) parallel to bedding tend to be greater than across bedding. Transmissivities of aquifer intervals isolated by packers ranged over three orders of magnitude [from about 2.8 to 2,290 square feet per day (ft2/d) or 0.26 to 213 square meters per day (m2/d)], did not appear to differ much by mapped geologic unit, but showed some relation to depth being relatively smaller in the shallowest and deepest intervals (0 to 50 ft and more than 250 ft below land surface, respectively) compared to the intermediate depth intervals (50 to 250 ft below land surface) tested. Transmissivities estimated from multiple-observation well aquifer tests ranged from about 700 to 2,300 ft2/d (65 to 214 m2/d). Results of chemical analyses of water from isolated intervals or monitoring wells open to short sections of the aquifer show vertical differences in concentrations; chloride and silica concentrations generally were greater in shallow intervals than in deeper intervals. Chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/L), combined with distinctive chloride/bromide ratios, indicate a different source of chloride in the western part of North Penn Area 7 than elsewhere in the site. Groundwater flow at a regional scale under steady-state conditions was simulated by use of a numerical model (MODFLOW-2000) for North Penn Area 7 with different layers representing saprolite/highly weathered rock near the surface and unweathered competent bedrock. The sedimentary formations that underlie the study area were modeled using dipping model layers for intermediate and deep zones of unweathered, fractured rock. Horizontal cell model size was 100 meters (m) by 100 meters (328 ft by 328 ft), and model layer thickness ranged from 6 m (19

  15. Complex groundwater flow systems as traveling agent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver López Corona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing field data from pumping tests, we show that as with many other natural phenomena, groundwater flow exhibits complex dynamics described by 1/f power spectrum. This result is theoretically studied within an agent perspective. Using a traveling agent model, we prove that this statistical behavior emerges when the medium is complex. Some heuristic reasoning is provided to justify both spatial and dynamic complexity, as the result of the superposition of an infinite number of stochastic processes. Even more, we show that this implies that non-Kolmogorovian probability is needed for its study, and provide a set of new partial differential equations for groundwater flow.

  16. Groundwater flow and mixing in a wetland–stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2013-01-01

    steady-state groundwater model that was calibrated against average head observations. The model results were tested against groundwater fluxes determined from streambed temperature measurements. Discharge varied up to one order of magnitude across the stream and the model was successful in capturing...... in the top of the aquifer and immediately underneath the streambed no NO3- was detected deeper within the aquifer. An inverse relationship between NO3- and SO42- suggests that pyrite oxidation takes place in the deeper parts of the aquifer. Simulated flow path lines showed very different origins for deeper...

  17. City transport monitoring and routes optimal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gargasas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of further development of geographic informational systems with traffic monitoring channel (GIS-TMC in order to present the road users with effective information about the fastest (the shortest in respect of time routes and thus to improve the use of existing city transport infrastructure. To solve this task it is suggested to create dynamic (automatically updated in real time street passing duration base, for support of which a city transport monitoring system operating in real time is necessary, consisting of a network of sensors, a data collection communications system and a data processing system. In the article it is shown that to predict the street passing duration it is enough to measure speed of transport in the characteristic points of the street. Measurements of traffic density do not significantly improve accuracy of forecasting the street passing time. Analytical formulas are presented meant to forecast the street passing time.

  18. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtensimer, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface) and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface) to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE), soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012–Dec 2013) at 2 to 3 days (n = 13), weekly (n = 29), biweekly (n = 17), and monthly (n = 5) intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15). Samples were analyzed for total P (TP), orthophosphate-P (PO4–P), and other–P (TP—PO4-P). The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater. PMID:28107505

  19. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mechtensimer

    Full Text Available Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE, soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012-Dec 2013 at 2 to 3 days (n = 13, weekly (n = 29, biweekly (n = 17, and monthly (n = 5 intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15. Samples were analyzed for total P (TP, orthophosphate-P (PO4-P, and other-P (TP-PO4-P. The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater.

  20. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO_3"− concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ"1"8O, δ"2H) analysis, "3H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the

  1. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  2. Groundwater arsenic content in Raigon Aquifer System (San Jose, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manay, N.; Piston, M.; Goso, C.; Fernnandez, T.; Rejas, M.; Garcia Valles, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a Medical Geology research issue, an environmental arsenic risk assessment study in the most important sedimentary aquifer in southern Uruguay is presented. The Raigon Aquifer System is the most exploited in Uruguay. It has a surface extent of about 1,800 square kilometres and 10,000 inhabitants in San Jose Department, where it was studied. Agriculture and cattle breeding are the main economic activities and this aquifer is the basic support. The groundwater sampling was done on 37 water samples of PRENADER (Natural Resources Management and Irrigation Development Program) wells. Outcropping sediments of Raigon Formation and the overlying Libertad Formation were also sampled in the Kiyu region. The analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed 80% samples with arsenic levels exceeding the 10 μg/l of WHO as limit for waters, and 11% exceeds the 20 μg/l limit of uruguayan regulation. The median, maximum and minimum water arsenic concentrations determined have been 14.24, 24.19 and 1.44 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, nine sediment samples of Raigon and Libertad Formations in Kiyu region were analysed and yielded median, maximum and minimum arsenic concentrations of 5.03, 9.82 and 1.18 ppm, respectively. This issue leads to the supposition that the population, as well as industrial and agricultural activities, are consuming water with arsenic concentrations over the national and international maximum recommended limit.

  3. Arsenic mobilization in a freshening groundwater system formed within glaciomarine deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, R.; Kirste, D.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic release to groundwater and conditions favoring As mobility are investigated in a system of aquifers formed within unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. The studied groundwater system is comprised of unconfined aquifers formed in glaciofluvial sediments with Ca–Mg–HCO 3 groundwater, and confined aquifers formed within glaciomarine sediments with high As (above 10 μg/L) Na–HCO 3 or Na–Cl groundwater. A positive relationship of As concentrations with the Na/(Ca + Mg) ratio of groundwater indicates that As release occurs in glaciomarine sediments concurrent to cation exchange reactions related to groundwater freshening. Arsenic is mobile in confined aquifers as a result of groundwater basic pH which prevents arsenate from adsorbing to mineral surfaces, and reducing conditions that favor speciation to arsenite. Selected extractions applied to sediment core samples indicate that As occurs in sediments predominantly in sulfide minerals and in Mn oxides and/or Fe oxyhydroxides. General positive relationships between As and the reduced species Fe 2+ , NH 3 and dissolved S 2− suggest that As release occurs at increasingly reducing conditions. Despite likely As release via Fe oxyhydroxide reductive dissolution, Fe remains at relatively low concentrations in groundwater (up to 0.37 mg/L) as a result of possible Fe adsorption and Fe reprecipitation as carbonate minerals favored by basic pH and high alkalinity. The presence of S 2− in some samples, a negative relationship between δ 34 S of SO 4 and SO 4 2- concentrations, and a positive relationship between δ 34 S and δ 18 O of SO 4 indicate that groundwater in confined aquifers is undergoing bacterial SO 4 reduction.

  4. Assessing groundwater availability and the response of the groundwater system to intensive exploitation in the North China Plain by analysis of long-term isotopic tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Cheng, Zhongshuang; Wei, Wen; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-03-01

    The use of isotope tracers as a tool for assessing aquifer responses to intensive exploitation is demonstrated and used to attain a better understanding of the sustainability of intensively exploited aquifers in the North China Plain. Eleven well sites were selected that have long-term (years 1985-2014) analysis data of isotopic tracers. The stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H and hydrochemistry were used to understand the hydrodynamic responses of the aquifer system, including unconfined and confined aquifers, to groundwater abstraction. The time series data of 14C activity were also used to assess groundwater age, thereby contributing to an understanding of groundwater sustainability and aquifer depletion. Enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope (18O) and elevated concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate were found in groundwater abstracted from the unconfined aquifer, which suggests that intensive exploitation might induce the potential for aquifer contamination. The time series data of 14C activity showed an increase of groundwater age with exploitation of the confined parts of the aquifer system, which indicates that a larger fraction of old water has been exploited over time, and that the groundwater from the deep aquifer has been mined. The current water demand exceeds the sustainable production capabilities of the aquifer system in the North China Plain. Some measures must be taken to ensure major cuts in groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers after a long period of depletion.

  5. geochemical studies of groundwater systems of semiarid yola area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    formula: SAR= NA/Ca[(Ca + Mg)/2]0.5. The sodium adsorption ratio gives a clear idea about the adsorption of sodium by soil. It is the proportion of sodium to calcium and magnesium which affect the availability of the water to the crop. The sodium adsorption ratio of both surface water and groundwater obtained in the ...

  6. Screening Assessment of Radionuclide Migration in Groundwater from the “Dneprovskoe” Tailings Impoundment (Dneprodzerzhynsk City) and Evaluation of Remedial Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalskyi, O.; Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Ryazantsev, V. [State Nuclear Regularity Committee of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of the hydrogeological conditions at the “Dneprovskoe” (“D”) tailings impoundment –object of the former industrial association of “Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant”, which contains uranium ore processing wastes. This radioactively polluted site is located in a densely populated region (at the outskirts of Dneprodzerginsk City) near the major watercourse of the Ukraine — Dnieper River.The mathematical modeling utilized Visual Modflow (for groundwater flow) and Ecolego (Facilia AB, Sweden) radioecology modeling software (for radionuclide transport).Modeling results indicate the possibility of essential radioactive contamination in future of the phreatic aquifer in alluvial deposits between the “D” tailings and the Dnieper River (mainly due to migration of uranium). Therefore long-term management strategies should preclude water usage from the aquifer in the zone of the in-fluence of the “D” tailings. Filtration discharge of uranium to the Dnepr River does not represent a significant risk due to large dilution by surface waters. The important modeling conclusion is that besides the uranium ore processing wastes inside the tailings, the major source of radionuclide migration to groundwater is represented by contaminated geological deposits below the tailings. This last source was formed due to leakage of wastewaters during the operational period of the “D” tailings (1954–1968). Therefore an exemption and re-disposal of wastes from the “D” tailings to a more safe storage location (proposed by some remedial plans) will not provide significant benefit from the viewpoint of minimizing of radionuclide transport to the groundwater and Dnieper River (especially in short-and medium-term perspective). The rational remedial strategy for the “D” tailings is conservation of tailing wastes in-situ by means of specially designed “zero flux” soil screen, which would minimize infiltration of

  7. STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEM IN DARB EL-ARBAEIN, SOUTHWESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashouty Mohamed El

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Darb El Arbaein, the groundwater is the only water resources. The aquifer system starts from Paleozoic-Mesozoic to Upper Cretaceous sandstone rocks. They overlay the basement rocks and the aquifer is confined. In the present research, the performance of the statistical analyses to classify groundwater samples depending on their chemical characters has been tested. The hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data of 92 groundwater samples was obtained from the GARPAD authority in northern, central, and southern Darb El Arbaein. A robust classification scheme for partitioning groundwater chemistry into homogeneous groups was an important tool for the characterization of Nubian sandstone aquifer. We test the performance of the many available graphical and statistical methodologies used to classify water samples. R-mode, Q-mode, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were investigated. All the methods were discussed and compared as to their ability to cluster, ease of use, and ease of interpretation. The correlation investigation clarifies the relationship among the lithology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic. Factor investigation revealed three factors namely; the evaporation process-agriculturalimpact-lithogenic dissolution, the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer system, and the surface meteoric water that rechargethe aquifer system. Two main clusters that subdivided into four sub clusters were identified in groundwater system based on hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data. They reflect the impact of geomedia, hydrogeology, geographic position, and agricultural wastewater. The groundwater is undersaturated with respect to most selected minerals. The groundwater was supersaturated with respect to iron minerals in northern and southern Darb El Arbaein. The partial pressure of CO2 of the groundwater versus saturation index of calcite shows the gradual change in PCO2 from atmospheric to the present aquifer

  8. Application of Fe-Cu/Biochar System for Chlorobenzene Remediation of Groundwater in Inhomogeneous Aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zhang; Yanqing Wu; Pingping Zhao; Xin Shu; Qiong Zhou; Zichen Dong

    2017-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CB), as a typical Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC), is toxic, highly persistent and easily migrates in water, posing a significant risk to human health and subsurface ecosystems. Therefore, exploring effective approaches to remediate groundwater contaminated by CB is essential. As an enhanced micro-electrolysis system for CB-contaminated groundwater remediation, this study attempted to couple the iron-copper bimetal with biochar. Two series of columns using sands with differ...

  9. Simulated effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and Piney Point aquifer, Maurice and Cohansey River Basins, Cumberland County and vicinity, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Alison D.; Buxton, Debra E.

    2018-05-10

    aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Various groundwater-withdrawal rates were input to the steady-state New Jersey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis model to assess changes in water levels in the Piney Point aquifer.The three steady-state scenarios for the New Jersey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis model included the annual average 2004‒08 withdrawals for each well in the groundwater-flow model. The results of scenario 6 were used for comparison to the results of scenarios 7 and 8. The groundwater withdrawals in scenario 7 are the same as in scenario 6, except withdrawals from 50 municipal public-supply wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system that are within the boundary of the Cumberland County study area were increased to estimated 2050 withdrawals. In addition, a municipal public-supply well from nine municipalities in the study area pumping from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was assigned the estimated 2050 demand for the Piney Point aquifer instead. The groundwater withdrawals in scenario 8 are the same as in scenario 6, except withdrawals from the municipal public-supply wells in the municipalities of Vineland City, Millville City, and Monroe Township were assigned the full-allocation withdrawals. In addition, the full-allocation withdrawals pumped from one existing municipal public-supply well in each of the three municipalities pumping from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system were assigned to pump from the Piney Point aquifer instead. The results of the scenarios indicate that the Piney Point aquifer could provide a limited option for public supply in the southeastern part of Cumberland County with constraints on withdrawal rates and the number and proximity of wells additional to those already pumping from the Piney Point aquifer in Bridgeton City and Buena Borough. The transmissivity of the Piney Point aquifer in the Cumberland County study area is about an order of magnitude lower than the average transmissivity of the Kirkwood

  10. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater, surface water and groundwater of Nairobi and Kisumu city, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K'oreje, K O; Vergeynst, L; Ombaka, D; De Wispelaere, P; Okoth, M; Van Langenhove, H; Demeestere, K

    2016-04-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have not received a lot of attention in developing countries, particularly Africa, although problems regarding water quantity and quality are often even more severe than in more developed regions. This study presents general water quality parameters as well as unique data on concentrations and loads of 24 pharmaceuticals including antibiotic, anti(retro)viral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and psychiatric drugs in three wastewater treatment plants, three rivers and three groundwater wells in Nairobi and Kisumu. This allowed studying removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment, identifying important sources of pharmaceutical pollution and distinguishing dilution effects from natural attenuation in rivers. In general, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, being important in the treatment of common African diseases such as HIV and malaria, were in all matrices more prevalent as compared to the Western world. Wastewater stabilization ponds removed pharmaceuticals with an efficiency between 11 and 99%. Despite this large range, a different removal is observed for a number of compounds, as compared to more conventional activated sludge systems. Total concentrations in river water (up to 320 μg L(-1)) were similar or exceeded concentrations in untreated wastewater, with domestic discharges from slums, wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste dumpsites identified as important sources. In shallow wells situated next to pit latrines and used for drinking water, the recalcitrant antiretroviral nevirapine was measured at concentrations as high as 1-2 μg L(-1). Overall, distinct pharmaceutical contamination patterns as compared to the Western world can be concluded, which might be a trigger for further research in developing regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  12. Development of a biotreatment system for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, B.R.; Kurisko, P.R.; Ensley, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Inadvertent release of fuels and solvents into soil has resulted in groundwater contamination across the United States. This paper reports on the development of biologically based systems for treating mixtures of chemical contaminants which often requires knowledge of both degradative pathways and interactions between individual chemicals. These issues may necessitate the use of specialized microorganisms and/or treatment systems designed to overcome these limitations. One strategy for the treatment of chemical mixtures which cannot be source separated, such as contaminated groundwater, is a modular system to sequentially biodegrade groups of compatible chemicals. A two-stage bioreactor system was constructed for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and TCE. This treatment system is undergoing development for a field pilot demonstration. Successful implementation of this system should result in significant cost and time savings compared to competitive technologies

  13. Knowledge, transparency, and refutability in groundwater models, an example from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Belcher, Wayne; Sweetkind, Donald; Tiedeman, Claire; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates how available knowledge can be used to build more transparent and refutable computer models of groundwater systems. The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, which surrounds a proposed site for a high level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, is used to explore model adequacy, identify parameters important to (and informed by) observations, and identify existing old and potential new observations important to predictions. Model development is pursued using a set of fundamental questions addressed with carefully designed metrics. Critical methods include using a hydrogeologic model, managing model nonlinearity by designing models that are robust while maintaining realism, using error-based weighting to combine disparate types of data, and identifying important and unimportant parameters and observations and optimizing parameter values with computationally frugal schemes. The frugal schemes employed in this study require relatively few (10–1000 s), parallelizable model runs. This is beneficial because models able to approximate the complex site geology defensibly tend to have high computational cost. The issue of model defensibility is particularly important given the contentious political issues involved.

  14. the influence of the urban transport system in java on city fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nick

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... traffic jam, the use of space, environment conservation (exhaust ... road condition [9], road network patterns [4];. [10]. Data transportation system of the city and the ... cities, 4 big cities and 13 towns, not the city of. Jakarta, not ...

  15. The drainage information and control system of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tonglei; Li, Lei; Liu, JiChang; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Song, Zengzhong; Liu, Lianhai; Hu, Zichen

    2018-03-01

    At present, due to the continuous expansion of city and the increase of the municipal drainage facilities, which leads to a serious lack of management and operation personnel, the existing production management pattern already can't adapt to the new requirements. In this paper, according to river drainage management, flood control, water management, auditing, administrative license, etc. different business management requirement, an information management system for water planning and design of smart city based on WebGIS in Linyi was introduced, which can collect the various information of gate dam, water pump, bridge sensor and traffic guide terminal nodes etc. together. The practical application show that the system can not only implement the sharing, resources integration and collaborative application for the regional water information, but also improve the level of the integrated water management.

  16. An introduction to geographic information systems as applied to a groundwater remediation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammock, J.K.; Lorenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    While the attention to environmental issues has grown over the past several years, so has the focus on groundwater protection. Addressing the task of groundwater remediation often involves a large-scale program with numerous wells and enormous amounts of data. This data must be manipulated and analyzed in an efficient manner for the remediation program to be truly effective. Geographic Information System's (GIS) have proven to be an extremely effective tool in handling and interpreting this type of groundwater information. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to GIS technology, describe how it is being used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to handle groundwater data and demonstrate how it may be used in the corporate Westinghouse environment

  17. Deliverable 4.2-2: Stressor propagation through surface-groundwater linkages and its effect on aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaandorp, Vince; de Louw, Perry; Bloomfield, John

    2017-01-01

    The good ecological status of Europe’s freshwaters is still lacking. This paper reviews the role of groundwater in these systems and demonstrates that it is an important factor to include in surface water management. Groundwater influences streamflow, water chemistry and water temperature...... and connects rivers and streams with their catchment and thus functions as a pathway for stressors to reach the surface water. A new ‘Groundwater DPS’ framework is proposed which shows how groundwater fits in the system of a stressed aquatic ecosystem. The functioning of this framework is demonstrated using...... examples from four different European lowland catchments: the Thames, Odense, Regge and Dinkel catchments. The importance of groundwater varies between scales, between catchments and within catchments. The Groundwater DPS will aid water managers in understanding the importance of groundwater...

  18. The Ubiquitous-Eco-City of Songdo: An Urban Systems Perspective on South Korea's Green City Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mullins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, within the broader context of studies on smart cities, there has been a growing body of academic research on networked cities and “computable cities” by authors including Manuel Castells (Castells, 1989; Castells & Cardoso, 2005, William Mitchell (1995, Michael Batty (2005, 2013, and Rob Kitchin (2011. Over the last decade, governments in Asia have displayed an appetite and commitment to construct large scale city developments from scratch—one of the most infamous being the smart entrepreneurial city of Songdo, South Korea. Using Songdo as a case study, this paper will examine, from an urban systems perspective, some of the challenges of using a green-city model led by networked technology. More specifically, this study intends to add to the growing body of smart city literature by using an external global event—the global financial crisis in 2008—to reveal what is missing from the smart city narrative in Songdo. The paper will use the definition of an urban system and internal subsystems by Bertuglia et al. (1987 and Bertuglia, Clarke and Wilson (1994 to reveal the sensitivity and resilience of a predetermined smart city narrative. For instance, what happens if the vision moves from the originally intended international-orientated population towards remarketing the city to attract a domestic middle-class population. The lens of the financial crisis in 2008 revealed that the inherent inflexibility of a closed-system approach in Songdo was not sufficiently resilient to external shocks. The shift towards a domestic middle-class population revealed the inequality in accessing the city services in a system designed with formalized and rigid inputs and outputs. By focusing predominantly on technology, the social dimensions of the city were not part of Songdo’s smart city vocabulary. Therefore, in adopting a technologically deterministic approach (Mullins & Shwayri, 2016 to achieving efficiency and combating environmental

  19. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  20. Improvement of colloid sampling techniques in groundwater and actinide characterisation of the groundwater systems at Gorleben (FRG) and El Berrocal (E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearlove, J.P.L.; Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-08-01

    Two sites, the Gorleben site (FRG) and the El Berrocal Experimental station (E) have been studied to evaluate different sampling and analytical techniques for the characterisation of particulates (> 1000 nm size), colloids (1-1000 nm size) and the solution phase (<1 nm) in groundwaters in terms of their physical, chemical and actinide composition. The uptake characteristics of the field ultrafiltration system used to separate the colloid fraction from the solution phase in the groundwater have also been studied. (Author)

  1. Modelling climate change effects on a dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneca S̀anchez, M.; Gunnink, J.L.; Baaren, E.S. van; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; Louw, P.G.B. de

    2012-01-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being

  2. Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%—45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%—66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%—48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%—72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

  3. Micropollutants in groundwater from septic systems: Transformations, transport mechanisms, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Wilson, P Chris; Williams, Clinton F

    2017-10-15

    Septic systems may contribute micropollutants to shallow groundwater and surface water. We constructed two in situ conventional drainfields (drip dispersal and gravel trench) and an advanced drainfield of septic systems to investigate the fate and transport of micropollutants to shallow groundwater. Unsaturated soil-water and groundwater samples were collected, over 32 sampling events (January 2013 to June 2014), from the drainfields (0.31-1.07 m deep) and piezometers (3.1-3.4 m deep). In addition to soil-water and groundwater, effluent samples collected from the septic tank were also analyzed for 20 selected micropollutants, including wastewater markers, hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), a plasticizer, and their transformation products. The removal efficiencies of micropollutants from septic tank effluent to groundwater were similar among three septic systems and were 51-89% for sucralose and 53->99% for other micropollutants. Even with high removal rates within the drainfields, six PPCPs and sucralose with concentrations ranging from septic systems to ecosystem and human health is warranted for the long-term sustainability of septic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the fifth international groundwater conference on the assessment and management of groundwater resources in hard rock systems with special reference to basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangarajan, M.; Mayilswami, C.; Kulkarni, P.S.; Singh, V.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater resources in hard rock regions with limited renewable potential have to be managed judiciously to ensure adequate supplies of dependable quantity and quality. It is a natural resource with economic, strategic and environmental value, which is under stress both due to changing climatic and anthropogenic factors. Therefore the management strategies need to be aimed at sustenance of this limited resource. In India, and also elsewhere in the world major parts of the semi-arid regions are characterized by hard rocks and it is of vital importance to understand the nature of the aquifer systems and its current stress conditions. Though the achievements through scientific development in exploration and exploitation are commendable, it has adversely affected the hard rock aquifer system, both in terms of quantity and quality; which is of major concern today. In order to reverse the situation, better management strategy of groundwater resources needs to be devised for prevention of further degradation of quality and meeting out the future demand of quantity. This necessitates: understanding the flow mechanism, evaluating the potential and evolving optimal utilization schemes, and assessing and monitoring quality in the changing scenario of anthropogenically induced agricultural, urban, industrial and climatic change. The groundwater flow mechanism through fractures in hard rocks is yet to be fully understood in terms of fracture geometry and its relation to groundwater flow. The characterization of flow geometry in basaltic aquifer is yet to be fully explored. Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic factors is very slow process with long-term impacts on carbon cycle and global climatic change on one hand and quality on the other. It is generally recognized that the prevention of groundwater pollution is cheaper than its remedial measures in the long run. Furthermore, because of the nature of groundwater flow and the complexity and management uncertainty of

  5. Classification as a generic tool for characterising status and changes of regional scale groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Haaf, Ezra

    2016-04-01

    Regional hydrogeology is becoming increasingly important, but at the same time, scientifically sound, universal solutions for typical groundwater problems encountered on the regional scale are hard to find. While managers, decision-makers and state agencies operating on regional and national levels have always shown a strong interest in regional scale hydrogeology, researchers from academia tend to avoid the subject, focusing instead on local scales. Additionally, hydrogeology has always had a tendency to regard every problem as unique to its own site- and problem-specific context. Regional scale hydrogeology is therefore pragmatic rather than aiming at developing generic methodology (Barthel, 2014; Barthel and Banzhaf, 2016). One of the main challenges encountered on the regional scale in hydrogeology is the extreme heterogeneity that generally increases with the size of the studied area - paired with relative data scarcity. Even in well-monitored regions of the world, groundwater observations are usually clustered, leaving large areas without any direct data. However, there are many good reasons for assessing the status and predicting the behavior of groundwater systems under conditions of global change even for those areas and aquifers without observations. This is typically done by using rather coarsely discretized and / or poorly parameterized numerical models, or by using very simplistic conceptual hydrological models that do not take into account the complex three-dimensional geological setup. Numerical models heavily rely on local data and are resource-demanding. Conceptual hydrological models only deliver reliable information on groundwater if the geology is extremely simple. In this contribution, we present an approach to derive statistically relevant information for un-monitored areas, making use of existing information from similar localities that are or have been monitored. The approach combines site-specific knowledge with conceptual assumptions on

  6. The evaluation system of city's smart growth success rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifan

    2018-04-01

    "Smart growth" is to pursue the best integrated perform+-ance of the Economically prosperous, socially Equitable, and Environmentally Sustainable(3E). Firstly, we establish the smart growth evaluation system(SGI) and the sustainable development evaluation system(SDI). Based on the ten principles and the definition of three E's of sustainability. B y using the Z-score method and the principal component analysis method, we evaluate and quantify indexes synthetically. Then we define the success of smart growth as the ratio of the SDI to the SGI composite score growth rate (SSG). After that we select two cities — Canberra and Durres as the objects of our model in view of the model. Based on the development plans and key data of these two cities, we can figure out the success of smart growth. And according to our model, we adjust some of the growth indicators for both cities. Then observe the results before and after adjustment, and finally verify the accuracy of the model.

  7. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  8. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  10. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  11. Earth Resistivity And Self-Potential Study On The Area East Of Sohag City And Their Groundwater Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H. A. [حمزه احمد ابراهيم; Bakheit, A. A.; Faheem, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen field vertical electrical soundings have been made in the area east of Sohag to provide hydrogeologic information for groundwater exploration. These sounding are interpreted using programs for the automatic processing and interpretation of Schlumberger sounding curves prepared by Zohdy (1989B). Results of the interpretation indicate the presence of shallow water-bearing layer especially in the southern part of the study area. This aquifer is missing towards the east. In certain parts...

  12. Geochemical and isotopic determination of deep groundwater contributions and salinity to the shallow groundwater and surface water systems, Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A.; Carroll, K. C.; Kubicki, C.; Purtshert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, extending from southern New Mexico to Chihuahua, Mexico, is a priority transboundary aquifer under the 2006 United States­-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing groundwater use by municipal, industrial, and agricultural users on both sides of the international border raise concerns about long-term aquifer sustainability. Relative contributions of present-day and "paleo" recharge to sustainable fresh groundwater yields has not been determined and evidence suggests that a large source of salinity at the distal end of the Mesilla Basin is saline discharge from deep groundwater flow. The magnitude and distribution of those deep saline flow paths are not determined. The contribution of deep groundwater to discharge and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface water of the Mesilla Basin will be determined by collecting discrete groundwater samples and analyzing for aqueous geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as the radioisotopes of argon and krypton. Analytes include major ions, trace elements, the stable isotopes of water, strontium and boron isotopes, uranium isotopes, the carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gas concentrations and helium isotope ratios. Dissolved gases are extracted and captured from groundwater wells using membrane contactors in a process known as ultra-trace sampling. Gas samples are analyzed for radioisotope ratios of krypton by the ATTA method and argon by low-level counting. Effectiveness of the ultra-trace sampling device and method was evaluated by comparing results of tritium concentrations to the krypton-85 content. Good agreement between the analyses, especially in samples with undetectable tritium, indicates that the ultra-trace procedure is effective and confirms that introduction of atmospheric air has not occurred. The geochemistry data indicate a complex system of geochemical

  13. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  14. Installation of reactive metals groundwater collection and treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.K.; Primrose, A.L.; Uhland, J.

    1998-01-01

    Three groundwater plumes contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site are scheduled for remediation by 1999 based on the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) (DOE, 1996). These three plumes are among the top 20 environmental cleanup sites at Rocky Flats. One of these plumes, the Mound Site Plume, is derived from a previous drum storage area, and daylights as seeps near the South Walnut Creek drainage. Final design for remediation of the Mound Site Plume has been completed based on use of reactive metals to treat the contaminated groundwater, and construction is scheduled for early 1998. The two other plumes, the 903 Pad/Ryan's Pit and the East Trenches Plumes, are derived from VOCs either from drums that leaked or that were disposed of in trenches. These two plumes are undergoing characterization and conceptual design in 1998 and construction is scheduled in 1999. The contaminants of concern in these plumes are tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride and low levels of uranium and americium

  15. Boundary delineation for regional groundwater flow through geographic information system (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tadashi; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo; Hyodo, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Radionuclide migration toward the human environment is to be assessed as the part of long-term safety assessments of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Geologic processes, which include volcanic activity, hydrothermal activity, seismicity and deformation, bring about hydrogeologic changes in the regional groundwater flow system around a repository site. Groundwater flow systems in Japan have been studied in several sites such as Tono mine, Kamaishi mine and Horonobe area, but methodology of studies in these sites does not have fully developed. This study was conducted to develop methodologies of boundary delineation for regional groundwater flow systems. Geographic Information System, GIS, was applied using available topographic, hydrologic and geologic data for an area of interest. Miyakoji in the Abukuma Mountains was selected as the area, for the reason of its simple geologic setting formed by granitic rocks and topographically gentle hills of drainage basin. Data used in this study cover topographic sheets, digital elevation model, satellite imagery, geologic maps, topographic classification maps, soil distribution maps and landuse maps. Through the GIS techniques using these data, thematic maps on topographic features, surface conditions, land coverage, geology and geologic structure and weathered crust were developed, and these thematic maps were further applied to extract four factors affecting the regional groundwater flows: topographic condition, precipitation recharge, fracture characteristics and potential flows. The present study revealed that, taking the potential groundwater flows and characteristics of fractured zones in the area into consideration, the groundwater flow system in Miyakoji drainage basin should be bounded by the Otakine Mountain and the northern part of Tokoha Drainage Basin. The delineated area is larger than understood before. (author)

  16. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson

    2009-11-01

    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  17. Quantifying changes in water use and groundwater availability in a megacity using novel integrated systems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, D. W.; Xu, T.; Deines, J. M.; Cao, G.; Nagelkirk, R.; Viña, A.; McConnell, W.; Basso, B.; Kendall, A. D.; Li, S.; Luo, L.; Lupi, F.; Ma, D.; Winkler, J. A.; Yang, W.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.

    2017-08-01

    Water sustainability in megacities is a growing challenge with far-reaching effects. Addressing sustainability requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach able to capture interactions among hydrology, population growth, and socioeconomic factors and to reflect changes due to climate variability and land use. We developed a new systems modeling framework to quantify the influence of changes in land use, crop growth, and urbanization on groundwater storage for Beijing, China. This framework was then used to understand and quantify causes of observed decreases in groundwater storage from 1993 to 2006, revealing that the expansion of Beijing's urban areas at the expense of croplands has enhanced recharge while reducing water lost to evapotranspiration, partially ameliorating groundwater declines. The results demonstrate the efficacy of such a systems approach to quantify the impacts of changes in climate and land use on water sustainability for megacities, while providing a quantitative framework to improve mitigation and adaptation strategies that can help address future water challenges.

  18. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  19. Composition of Groundwater Bacterial Communities before and after Air Surging in a Groundwater Heat Pump System According to a Pyrosequencing Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal energy of groundwater has aroused increasing interest as a solution to climate change. The groundwater heat pumps (GWHP system using groundwater is the most environmentally friendly system to date and has been examined in several studies. However, biological clogging by microorganisms negatively affects the thermal efficiency of the GWHP system. In this study, we employed air surging, the most popular among well management methods, and pyrosequencing to analyze the genetic diversity in bacteria before and after air surging in a geothermal well. Furthermore, the diversity of dominant bacterial genera and those related to clogging were evaluated. The bacterial diversity of the groundwater well increased after air surging. Nevertheless, the proportion of bacterial genera thought to be related to microbiological clogging decreased. In cooling and heating systems based on the geothermal energy of groundwater, the wells should be maintained regularly by air surging to reduce efficiency problems caused by microbiological clogging and to prevent secondary damage to human health, e.g., pneumonia due to human pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter.

  20. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  1. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  2. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  3. Iodine speciation and diffusion in a sand-groundwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Haigh, D.G.; Allen, M.R.; Williams, G.M.; Warwick, P.

    1991-01-01

    This study lies within the Mirage II research programme (migration of radionuclides in the geosphere) set up by the Commission of the European Communities and supported by the UK Department of the Environment. The work forms part of the project entilled In situ determination of the effects of organics on the mobility of radionuclides in controlled conditions of groundwater flow which is being carried out by the British Geological Survey at Drigg in Cumbria, on land owned by British Nuclear Fuel plc. The study involves the detailed geochemical and hydrogeological characterization of a confined aquifer of glacial sand, the laboratory scale investigation of radionuclide sorption processes and how these are affected by the presence of natural and anthropogenic organic compounds. Ultimately the results of field hydraulic testing and laboratory studies of radionuclide sorption will be used to predict the outcome of a field tracer experiment using conservative and reactive radionuclide species

  4. Autoradiographic studies of actinide sorption in groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kelley, G.D.; Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiography is a convenient and sensitive technique for the study of spacial distributions of alpha radioactive nuclides on slabs of rock or on other planar surfaces. The autoradiographic camera contains an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a plastic scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of the specimen. As an example of the use of the autoradiographic method, a series of sorption experiments were carried out in which synthetic groundwater solutions of americium, neptunium, uranium, and plutonium were contacted with Climax Stock granite under aerated and anoxic conditions at pH 8 to 9. The sorption observed at specific mineral sites was correlated with data on sorption of these actinides on pure minerals

  5. Cloud-Enhanced Robotic System for Smart City Crowd Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaqur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics in smart cities is an emerging paradigm that enables autonomous robotic agents to communicate and collaborate with a cloud computing infrastructure. It complements the Internet of Things (IoT by creating an expanded network where robots offload data-intensive computation to the ubiquitous cloud to ensure quality of service (QoS. However, offloading for robots is significantly complex due to their unique characteristics of mobility, skill-learning, data collection, and decision-making capabilities. In this paper, a generic cloud robotics framework is proposed to realize smart city vision while taking into consideration its various complexities. Specifically, we present an integrated framework for a crowd control system where cloud-enhanced robots are deployed to perform necessary tasks. The task offloading is formulated as a constrained optimization problem capable of handling any task flow that can be characterized by a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG. We consider two scenarios of minimizing energy and time, respectively, and develop a genetic algorithm (GA-based approach to identify the optimal task offloading decisions. The performance comparison with two benchmarks shows that our GA scheme achieves desired energy and time performance. We also show the adaptability of our algorithm by varying the values for bandwidth and movement. The results suggest their impact on offloading. Finally, we present a multi-task flow optimal path sequence problem that highlights how the robot can plan its task completion via movements that expend the minimum energy. This integrates path planning with offloading for robotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate cloud-based task offloading for a smart city crowd control system.

  6. Creating a Liveable City - Eco-services, Systems and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Dean, M.; Birtles, P. J.; Hore, J.; Dahlenburg, J.

    2014-12-01

    The use of an ecosystem service framework for natural resource management has gained increasing traction in the public sector. This is of especial interest in cities as residual ecosystems - typically located along creeks and estuaries, or remaining in scattered pockets throughout the urban area - offer some of the highest value social and economic returns per capita for the land area they occupy, yet are often impractical to manage from more traditional approaches to conservation. We posit that the well-being of humans and other species is the outcome of healthy, functioning ecosystems, and that, from a policy perspective, it is essential to consider services in this context. We arrange ecosystem services into three categories: life-enabling, life-sustaining and life-fulfilling, in a modification to the categories of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, and identify additional eco-services unique to urban areas. At local scale, these contribute to the well-being of city residents and positively affect quality of life, forming essential elements of urban liveability. However, dynamics of co-located built and natural environments challenge the capacity of ecosystems to function and provide their full suite of services. Using Sydney as an example, we outline a modular framework of socio-ecological systems and places to show how eco-services supporting liveability can be considered in conceptual and physical space. At a policy level, framing systems-based management objectives that protect, improve and re-discover desirable ecosystem services within the city (as opposed to further increasing the environmental footprint outside), will allow for unique, positive, socially-enabling outcomes for urban centres, in Australia, and globally.

  7. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: jiangjyj@swu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  8. Tidal variability of nutrients in a coastal coral reef system influenced by groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Shuling; Wang, Zhangyong; Jing, Wenping; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Zhouling; Tan, Ehui; Dai, Minhan

    2018-02-01

    To investigate variation in nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in a spring-neap tide in a coral reef system influenced by groundwater discharge, we carried out a time-series observation of these nutrients and 228Ra, a tracer of groundwater discharge, in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. The maximum 228Ra, 45.3 dpm 100 L-1, appeared at low tide and the minimum, 14.0 dpm 100 L-1, appeared during a flood tide in the spring tide. The activity of 228Ra was significantly correlated with water depth and salinity in the spring-neap tide, reflecting the tidal-pumping feature of groundwater discharge. Concentrations of all nutrients exhibited strong diurnal variation, with a maximum in the amplitude of the diel change for nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the spring tide of 0.46, 1.54, 0.12, and 2.68 µM, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were negatively correlated with water depth during the spring tide but showed no correlation during the neap tide. Nitrite was positively correlated with water depth in the spring and neap tide due to mixing of nitrite-depleted groundwater and nitrite-rich offshore seawater. They were also significantly correlated with salinity (R2 ≥ 0.9 and P reef system was closely related with biological processes during both tidal periods, but the biological influence appeared to be less dominant, as inferred from the less significant correlations (R2 = 0.16) during the spring tide when groundwater discharge was more prominent. Thus, the variability of nutrients in the coral reef system was regulated mainly by biological uptake and release in a spring-neap tide and impacted by mixing of tidally driven groundwater and offshore seawater during spring tide.

  9. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater flow systems in Alpine areas are often complex and challenging to investigate due to special topographic and climatic conditions governing groundwater recharge and bedrock flow. Studies seeking to characterize high-alpine groundwater systems remain rare, but are of high interest, e.g. for water supply, hydropower systems, traffic tunnels or rock slope deformation and landslide hazards. The goal of this study is to better understand the current and past groundwater flow systems of the UNESCO World Heritage mountain ridge separating the great Aletsch glacier and the Rhone valley, considering climatic and glacier fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods. This ridge is crossed by a hydropower bypass drift (Riederhornstollen) and is composed of fractured crystalline rocks overlain by various types of landslides and glacial deposits. Surface hydrology observations (fracture properties, groundwater seepage, spring lines and physico-chemical parameters) and hydropower drift inflow measurements contributed to the characterization of bedrock hydraulic conductivities and preferential groundwater pathways. Basic conceptual hydrogeological models were tested with observed drift inflows and the occurrence of springs using free-surface, variably saturated, vertical 2D groundwater flow models (using the code SEEP/W from GeoStudio 2007). Already simple two-layer models, representing profile sections orthogonal to the mountain ridge, provided useful results. Simulations show that differences in the occurrence of springs on each side of the mountain ridge are likely caused by the occurrence of glacial till (generating perched groundwater), the deep-seated sagging landslide mass, faults and asymmetric ridge topography, which together force the main groundwater flow direction to be oriented towards the Rhone valley, even from beyond the mountain ridge. Surprisingly, the most important springs (those with high discharge rates) are located at high elevations

  10. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Balali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  11. Response of the groundwater system in the Guanzhong Basin (central China) to climate change and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenke; Zhang, Zaiyong; Duan, Lei; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhang, Qian; Dai, Meiling; Liu, Huizhong; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yibo

    2018-03-01

    The Guanzhong Basin in central China features a booming economy and has suffered severe drought, resulting in serious groundwater depletion in the last 30 years. As a major water resource, groundwater plays a significant role in water supply. The combined impact of climate change and intensive human activities has caused a substantial decline in groundwater recharge and groundwater levels, as well as degradation of groundwater quality and associated changes in the ecosystems. Based on observational data, an integrated approach was used to assess the impact of climate change and human activities on the groundwater system and the base flow of the river basin. Methods included: river runoff records and a multivariate statistical analysis of data including historical groundwater levels and climate; hydro-chemical investigation and trend analysis of the historical hydro-chemical data; wavelet analysis of climate data; and the base flow index. The analyses indicate a clear warming trend and a decreasing trend in rainfall since the 1960s, in addition to increased human activities since the 1970s. The reduction of groundwater recharge in the past 30 years has led to a continuous depletion of groundwater levels, complex changes of the hydro-chemical environment, localized salinization, and a strong decline of the base flow to the river. It is expected that the results will contribute to a more comprehensive management plan for groundwater and the related eco-environment in the face of growing pressures from intensive human activities superimposed on climate change in this region.

  12. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of urbanization on hydrochemical evolution of groundwater and on unsaturated-zone gas composition in the coastal city of Tel Aviv, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberbrand, M.; Rosenthal, E.; Shachnai, E.

    2001-08-01

    The coastal city of Tel Aviv was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. The number of its inhabitants and its water consumption increased rapidly. This study analyses a 15-year record (1934-1948) of pre-industrial development of groundwater chemistry in the urban area. Archive data on concentrations of major ions, dissolved gases (CO 2 and O 2), organic matter, and pH were available for each half-year during the period of 1934-1948. The major factors causing changes in the chemistry of groundwater flowing in three sandy sub-aquifers have been seawater encroachment due to overpumping, and infiltration of effluents from pit-latrine collectors. Influence of these factors decreases with depth. Landward-penetrating seawater passed through clayey coastal sediments, interbedded among sands and calcareous sandstones, and spread into the Kurkar Group aquifer. This has led to exchange of sodium (dominant in seawater) with calcium adsorbed on clay particles, enriching groundwater with calcium. Intensity of cation exchange decreases inland and with depth. Infiltration of pit-latrine effluents has introduced large amounts of ammonium into the unsaturated zone. Its rapid oxidation in unsaturated sediments has caused massive nitrate production, accompanied by pore-water acidification. This process induces dissolution of vadose carbonate, resulting in enrichment of groundwater recharge in calcium. Anthropogenically induced dissolution of calcite in the unsaturated zone has been the major factor for the increase of Ca 2+ concentration in groundwater, accounting for about 80% of this increase. In the interface zone, an additional 20% of calcium has been supplied by cation exchange. Owing to pH increase caused by denitrification in the aquifer, Ca 2+-rich waters supersaturated with calcite could be formed, especially in the capillary fringe of the uppermost sub-aquifer, which could induce calcite precipitation and ultimately lead to the cementation of sandy aquifers. Urban

  14. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  15. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  16. Installation of the multi-packer system for the long-term monitoring of deep groundwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon; Kim, Geon Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The groundwater system in the deep geological environment is very important to evaluate the behavior of the radionuclide migration and near-field barrier system. The multi-packer system was installed to derive the long-term change of the groundwater pressure and its quality in the several isolated monitoring zones with depth in the study sites. The monitoring zones were basically determined by the spatial distribution characteristics of the conductive fracture and their hydraulic properties. To recover the natural groundwater condition, the borehole water was purged after completing the installation. From this equipment, the in-situ data will be provided to the radionuclide migration and system development study. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  17. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  18. Estimation of groundwater recharge in sedimentary rock aquifer systems in the Oti basin of Gushiegu District, Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifa, George Yamoah; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Chegbeleh, Larry Pax

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable development and the management of groundwater resources for optimal socio-economic development constitutes one of the most effective strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change in rural areas where poverty is a critical cause of environmental damage. This research assessed groundwater recharge and its spatial and temporal variations in Gushiegu District in the Northern Region of Ghana, where groundwater is the main source of water supply for most uses. Isotopic data of precipitation and groundwater were used to infer the origin of groundwater and the possible relationship between groundwater and surface water in the partially metamorphosed sedimentary aquifer system in the study area. Though the data do not significantly establish strong relation between groundwater and surface water, the study suggests that groundwater in the area is of meteoric origin. However, the data also indicate significant enrichment of the heavy isotopes (18O and 2H) in groundwater relative to rainwater in the area. The Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) and Water Table Fluctuations (WTF) techniques were used to quantitatively estimate the groundwater recharge in the area. The results suggest groundwater recharge in a range of 13.9 mm/y - 218 mm/y, with an average of 89 mm/yr, representing about 1.4%-21.8% (average 8.9%) of the annual precipitation in the area. There is no clearly defined trend in the temporal variations of groundwater recharge in the area, but the spatial variations are discussed in relation to the underlying lithologies. The results suggest that the fraction of precipitation that reaches the saturated zone as groundwater recharge is largely controlled by the vertical hydraulic conductivities of the material of the unsaturated zone. The vertical hydraulic conductivity coupled with humidity variations in the area modulates the vertical infiltration and percolation of precipitation.

  19. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Office. Annual report for fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This edition of the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO) for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater programs at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants (PGDP and PORTS, respectively.) This report describes the administrative framework of the GWPO including staffing, organization, and funding sources. In addition, summaries are provided of activities involving the Technical Support staff at the five facilities. Finally, the results of basic investigations designed to improve our understanding of the major processes governing groundwater flow and contaminant migration on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are reported. These investigations are conducted as part of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Studies (ORRHAGS) program. The relevance of these studies to the overall remediation responsibilities of Energy Systems is discussed

  20. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Benedict, F.C. Jr.; Rose, T.P.; Hershey, R.L.; Paces, J.B.; Peterman, Z.E.; Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Stetzenbach, K.J.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.M.; Eaton, G.F.; Smith, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units

  1. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  2. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  3. Smart City Platform Development for an Automated Waste Collection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicerone Laurentiu Popa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, governments and companies are looking for solutions to increase the collection level of various waste types by using new technologies and devices such as smart sensors, Internet of Things (IoT, cloud platforms etc. In order to fulfil this need, this paper presents solutions provided by a research project involving the design, development and implementation of fully automated waste collection systems with an increased usage degree, productivity and storage capacity. The paper will focus on the main results of this research project in turning the automated waste collection system into a smart system so that it can be easily integrated in any smart city infrastructure. For this purpose, the Internet of Things platform for the automated waste collection system provided by the project will allow real time monitoring and communication with central systems. Details about each module are sent to the central systems: various modules’ statuses (working, blocked, needs repairs or maintenance etc.; equipment status; storage systems status (allowing full reports for all waste types; the amount of waste for each module, allowing optimal discharging; route optimization for waste discharging etc. To do that, we describe here an IoT cloud solution integrating device connection, data processing, analytics and management.

  4. Uncertainty quantification of surface-water/groundwater exchange estimates in large wetland systems using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Metz, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most watershed studies include observation-based water budget analyses to develop first-order estimates of significant flow terms. Surface-water/groundwater (SWGW) exchange is typically assumed to be equal to the residual of the sum of inflows and outflows in a watershed. These estimates of SWGW exchange, however, are highly uncertain as a result of the propagation of uncertainty inherent in the calculation or processing of the other terms of the water budget, such as stage-area-volume relations, and uncertainties associated with land-cover based evapotranspiration (ET) rate estimates. Furthermore, the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchanges can be magnified in large wetland systems that transition from dry to wet during wet periods. Although it is well understood that observation-based estimates of SWGW exchange are uncertain it is uncommon for the uncertainty of these estimates to be directly quantified. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to (1) quantify the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchange in large wetland systems and (2) evaluate how different approaches for partitioning land-cover data in a watershed may affect the water-budget uncertainty. We have used Python with the Numpy, Scipy.stats, and pyDOE packages to implement an unconstrained Monte Carlo approach with Latin Hypercube sampling to quantify the uncertainty of monthly estimates of SWGW exchange in the Floral City watershed of the Tsala Apopka wetland system in west-central Florida, USA. Possible sources of uncertainty in the water budget analysis include rainfall, ET, canal discharge, and land/bathymetric surface elevations. Each of these input variables was assigned a probability distribution based on observation error or spanning the range of probable values. The Monte Carlo integration process exposes the uncertainties in land-cover based ET rate estimates as the dominant contributor to the uncertainty in SWGW exchange estimates. We will discuss

  5. Evaluation of an integrated treatment system for MGP site groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, O.K.; Grey, G.M.; Maiello, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Initially studied at bench scale, process sequences comprising dissolved air flotation (DAF), aerobic biological oxidation, air stripping, filtration, and carbon adsorption were demonstrated at pilot scale at a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in New Jersey. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the primary organics in the groundwater, ranging from levels of 2 to 8 mg/L and 0.3 to 27 mg/L, respectively; chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were from 60 to 4,500 mg/L. Significant levels of dense, emulsified, and nonaqueous tars and oils were present in the more highly contaminated waters and were effectively removed by DAF. Carbon-based fluidized-bed biological treatment of the DAF subnatant at COD loadings between 2 and 4 g/L-d yielded effluent-soluble COD levels between 40 and 60 mg/L, with both residual BTEX and PAH concentrations ranging from nondetect levels to 0.1 mg/L. Subsequent polishing by filtration and carbon adsorption resulted in additional COD removal and nondetect levels of volatiles and semivolatiles. Air stripping was effective in lieu of the biological process for both volatile organic compound (VOC) and PAH removal

  6. Characterization of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine G.; Ge, Shemin; Caine, Jonathan S.; Manning, A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-table elevation measurements and aquifer parameter estimates are rare in alpine settings because few wells exist in these environments. Alpine groundwater systems may be a primary source of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems. Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed in Colorado, USA comprised of highly fractured Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks with wells completed to various depths. Primary study objectives include determining hydrologic properties of shallow bedrock and surficial materials, developing a watershed water budget, and testing the consistency of measured hydrologic properties and water budget by constructing a simple model incorporating groundwater and surface water for water year 2005. Water enters the study area as precipitation and exits as discharge in the trunk stream or potential recharge for the deeper aquifer. Surficial infiltration rates ranged from 0.1-6.2??0-5 m/s. Discharge was estimated at 1.28??10-3 km3. Numerical modeling analysis of single-well aquifer tests predicted lower specific storage in crystalline bedrock than in ferricrete and colluvial material (6.7??10-5-2.10??0-3 l/m). Hydraulic conductivity in crystalline bedrock was significantly lower than in colluvial and alluvial material (4.3??10-9 -2.0??10-4 m/s). Water budget results suggest that during normal precipitation and temperatures water is available to recharge the deeper groundwater flow system. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  7. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  8. LOCALIZATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN GLOBAL CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vershinina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the S. Sassen’s research and writing focuses on globalization (including social, economic and political dimensions, global cities, migration, the new networked technologies, and changes within the liberal state that result from current transnational conditions. The main features of the global cities are examined on examples. The global economy is far from being placeless, has and needs very specific territorial insertions, and that this need is sharpest in the case of highly globalized and electronic sectors such as finance. Large corporate firms needed access to a whole new mix of complex specialized services almost impossible to produce in-house as had been the practice. This new economic logic would generate high-level jobs and lowwage jobs; it would need far fewer middle-range jobs than traditional corporations. The transformation of the socio-economic systems at the global and national levels, the associated changes of urban communities life is considered.

  9. Modeling Groundwater Flow System of a Drainage Basin in the Basement Complex Environment of Southwestern Nigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwumiju, Akinola S.; Olorunfemi, Martins O.

    2018-05-01

    This study attempted to model the groundwater flow system of a drainage basin within the Basement Complex environment of Southwestern Nigeria. Four groundwater models were derived from Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Data, remotely sensed data, geological information (hydrolineaments and lithology) and borehole data. Subsequently, two sub-surface (local and regional) flow systems were delineated in the study area. While the local flow system is controlled by surface topography, the regional flow system is controlled by the networks of intermediate and deep seated faults/fractures. The local flow system is characterized by convergence, divergence, inflow and outflow in places, while the regional flow system is dominated by NNE-SSW and W-E flow directions. Minor flow directions include NNW-SSE and E-W with possible linkages to the main flow-paths. The NNE-SSW regional flow system is a double open ended flow system with possible linkage to the Niger Trough. The W-E regional flow system is a single open ended system that originates within the study area (with possible linkage to the NNE-SSW regional flow system) and extends to Ikogosi in the adjoining drainage basin. Thus, the groundwater drainage basin of the study area is much larger and extensive than its surface drainage basin. The all year round flowing (perennial) rivers are linked to groundwater outcrops from faults/fractures and contact zones. Consequently, larger percentage of annual rainwater usually leaves the basin in form of runoff and base flow. Therefore, the basin is categorized as a donor basin but with suspected subsurface water input at its northeastern axis.

  10. Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a strong development of coastal areas with a high concentration of water-demanding human activities, resulting in weakly controlled withdrawals of groundwater which accentuate the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. The worsening of groundwater quality is a huge problem especially for those regions, like Salento (southern Italy), where a karst aquifer system represents the most important water resource because of the deficiency of a well developed superficial water supply. In this frame, the first 2D numerical model describing the groundwater flow in the karst aquifer of Salento peninsula was developed by Giudici et al. [1] at the regional scale and then improved by De Filippis et al. [2]. In particular, the estimate of the saturated thickness of the deep aquifer highlighted that the Taranto area is particularly sensitive to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, both for the specific hydrostratigraphic configuration and for the presence of highly water-demanding industrial activities. These remarks motivate a research project which is part of the research program RITMARE (The Italian Research for the Sea), within which a subprogram is specifically dedicated to the problem of the protection and preservation of groundwater quality in Italian coastal aquifers and in particular, among the others, in the Taranto area. In this context, the CINFAI operative unit aims at providing a contribution to the characterization of groundwater in the study area. The specific objectives are: a. the reconstruction of the groundwater dynamic (i.e., the preliminary identification of a conceptual model for the aquifer system and the subsequent modeling of groundwater flow in a multilayered system which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphical point of view); b. the characterization of groundwater outflows through submarine and subaerial springs and the water exchanges with the shallow coastal water bodies (e.g. Mar Piccolo) and the off

  11. Groundwater flow system stability in shield settings a multi-disciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.R.; Goodwin, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program (DGRTP) several Geoscience activities are focused on advancing the understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and geochemical stability in a Shield setting as affected by long-term climate change. A key aspect is developing confidence in predictions of groundwater flow patterns and residence times as they relate to the safety of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel waste. A specific focus in this regard has been placed on constraining redox stability and groundwater flow system dynamics during the Pleistocene. Attempts are being made to achieve this through a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach intent on; i) demonstrating coincidence between independent geo-scientific data; ii) improving the traceability of geo-scientific data and its interpretation within a conceptual descriptive model(s); iii) improving upon methods to assess and demonstrate robustness in flow domain prediction(s) given inherent flow domain uncertainties (i.e. spatial chemical/physical property distributions; boundary conditions) in time and space; and iv) improving awareness amongst geo-scientists as to the utility various geo-scientific data in supporting a repository safety case. Coordinated by the DGRTP, elements of this program include the development of a climate driven Laurentide ice-sheet model to constrain the understanding of time rate of change in boundary conditions most affecting the groundwater flow domain and its evolution. Further work has involved supporting WRA Paleo-hydrogeologic studies in which constrained thermodynamic analyses coupled with field studies to characterize the paragenesis of fracture infill mineralogy are providing evidence to premise understandings of possible depth of penetration by oxygenated glacial recharge. In parallel. numerical simulations have been undertaken to illustrate aspect of groundwater flow system stability and evolution in a Shield setting. Such simulations

  12. Construction and calibration of a groundwater-flow model to assess groundwater availability in the uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Williston Basin, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.

    2018-05-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater-flow model for the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability in the area. The assessment was done because of the potential for increased demands and stresses on groundwater associated with large-scale energy development in the area. As part of this assessment, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed as a tool that can be used to simulate how the groundwater-flow system responds to changes in hydrologic stresses at a regional scale.The three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s numerical finite-difference groundwater model with the Newton-Rhapson solver, MODFLOW–NWT, to represent the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems for steady-state (mean) hydrological conditions for 1981‒2005 and for transient (temporally varying) conditions using a combination of a steady-state period for pre-1960 and transient periods for 1961‒2005. The numerical model framework was constructed based on existing and interpreted hydrogeologic and geospatial data and consisted of eight layers. Two layers were used to represent the glacial aquifer system in the model; layer 1 represented the upper one-half and layer 2 represented the lower one-half of the glacial aquifer system. Three layers were used to represent the lower Tertiary aquifer system in the model; layer 3 represented the upper Fort Union aquifer, layer 4 represented the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit, and layer 5 represented the lower Fort Union aquifer. Three layers were used to represent the Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the model; layer 6 represented the upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit, layer 7 represented the lower Hell Creek aquifer, and layer 8 represented the Fox

  13. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992–2013). Sites were chosen from 718 public drinking-water systems with a range of hydrogeological conditions. Focus was on testing the value of indicato...

  14. Using SWAT-MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interactions in an intensively irrigated stream-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigated watersheds in semi-arid regions face challenges such as waterlogging, high soil salinity, reduced crop yield, and leaching of chemical species due to extreme shallow water tables resulting from long-term intensive irrigation. Hydrologic models can be used to evaluate the impact of land management practices on water yields and groundwater-surface water interactions in such regions. In this study, the newly developed SWAT-MODFLOW, a coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model, is applied to a 950 km2 watershed in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (southeastern Colorado). The model accounts for the influence of canal diversions, irrigation applications, groundwater pumping, and earth canal seepage losses. The model provides a detailed description of surface and subsurface flow processes, thereby enabling detailed description of watershed processes such as runoff, infiltration, in-streamflow, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer system with sources and sinks (e.g. pumping, seepage to subsurface drains), and spatially-variable surface and groundwater exchange. The model was calibrated and tested against stream discharge from 5 stream gauges in the Arkansas River and its tributaries, groundwater levels from 70 observation wells, and evapotranspiration (ET) data estimated from satellite (ReSET) data during the 1999 to 2007 period. Since the water-use patterns within the study area are typical of many other irrigated river valleys in the United States and elsewhere, this modeling approach is transferable to other regions.

  15. Geothermal District Heating System City of Klamath Falls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J; Rafferty, Kevin

    1991-12-01

    The city of Klamath Falls became interested in the possibility of a establishing geothermal district heating system for downtown government buildings in January 1977. Since that time, the project has undergone some controversial and interesting developments that may be of educational value to other communities contemplating such a project. The purpose and content of this article is to identify the historical development of the project; including the design of the system, well owner objections to the project, aquifer testing, piping failure, and future expansion and marketing incentives. The shallow geothermal reservoir in Klamath falls extends for at least 6.8 miles in a northwest-southeast direction, as shown on Figure 1, with a width of about 2 miles. More than 550 thermal wells ranging in depth from about 10 to 2,000 ft, and obtaining or contacting water from 70 to 230oF, have been drilled into the reservoir. The system is not geologically homogeneous. Great variations in horizontal permeability and many vertical discontinuities exist because of stratigraphy and structure of the area. Basalt flows, eruptive centers, fluvial and lacustrine deposits, diatomite and pyroclastic materials alternate in the rock column. Normal faults with large throw (estimated up to 1,700 ft) are spaced less than 3,300 ft apart and appear to be the main avenue of vertical movement of hot fluids. In order to more effectively utilize this resource, the city of Klamath Falls decided in 1978 to apply for a federal grant (Program Opportunity Notice to cost share field experiment projects) to construct a geothermal district heating system that would deliver geothermal fluids to areas not located on the resource. In 1977, several Geo-Heat Center staff members visited Reykjavik, Iceland, to study the design of their geothermal district heating systems. This was in part the basis for the conceptual design and feasibility study (Lund, 1979) of a downtown commercial district. The main difference

  16. Fiber optic perimeter system for security in smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Zboril, Ondrej; Novak, Martin; Jargus, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Protection of persons and assets is the key challenge of Smart City safeguards technologies. Conventional security technologies are often outdated and easy to breach. Therefore, new technologies that could complement existing systems or replace them are developed. The use of optical fibers and their subsequent application in sensing is a trend of recent years. This article discusses the use of fiber-optic sensors in perimeter protection. The sensor consists of optical fibers and couplers only and being constructed without wires and metal parts bring many advantages. These include an absence of interference with electromagnetic waves, system presence can be difficult to detect as well as affect its operation. Testing installation of perimeter system was carried out under reinforced concrete structure. Subjects walked over the bridge at different speeds and over the different routes. The task for the system was an absolute detection of all subjects. The proposed system should find application mainly in areas with the presence of volatile substances, strong electromagnetic fields, or in explosive areas.

  17. A Comprehensive System for Monitoring Urban Accessibility in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Gilart-Iglesias, Virgilio; Pérez-Del Hoyo, Raquel; Andújar-Montoya, María Dolores

    2017-08-09

    The present work discusses the possibilities offered by the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies with the aim of designing a system to dynamically obtain knowledge of accessibility issues in urban environments. This system is facilitated by technology to analyse the urban user experience and movement accessibility, which enabling accurate identification of urban barriers and monitoring its effectiveness over time. Therefore, the main purpose of the system is to meet the real needs and requirements of people with movement disabilities. The information obtained can be provided as a support service for decision-making to be used by city government, institutions, researchers, professionals and other individuals of society in general to improve the liveability and quality of the lives of citizens. The proposed system is a means of social awareness that makes the most vulnerable groups of citizens visible by involving them as active participants. To perform and implement the system, the latest communication and positioning technologies for smart sensing have been used, as well as the cloud computing paradigm. Finally, to validate the proposal, a case study has been presented using the university environment as a pre-deployment step in urban environments.

  18. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  19. Simulation of groundwater flow in the glacial aquifer system of northeastern Wisconsin with variable model complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Clark, Brian R.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2017-05-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment seeks to map estimated intrinsic susceptibility of the glacial aquifer system of the conterminous United States. Improved understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics that explain spatial patterns of intrinsic susceptibility, commonly inferred from estimates of groundwater age distributions, is sought so that methods used for the estimation process are properly equipped. An important step beyond identifying relevant hydrogeologic datasets, such as glacial geology maps, is to evaluate how incorporation of these resources into process-based models using differing levels of detail could affect resulting simulations of groundwater age distributions and, thus, estimates of intrinsic susceptibility.This report describes the construction and calibration of three groundwater-flow models of northeastern Wisconsin that were developed with differing levels of complexity to provide a framework for subsequent evaluations of the effects of process-based model complexity on estimations of groundwater age distributions for withdrawal wells and streams. Preliminary assessments, which focused on the effects of model complexity on simulated water levels and base flows in the glacial aquifer system, illustrate that simulation of vertical gradients using multiple model layers improves simulated heads more in low-permeability units than in high-permeability units. Moreover, simulation of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in coarse-grained and some fine-grained glacial materials produced a larger improvement in simulated water levels in the glacial aquifer system compared with simulation of uniform hydraulic conductivity within zones. The relation between base flows and model complexity was less clear; however, the relation generally seemed to follow a similar pattern as water levels. Although increased model complexity resulted in improved calibrations, future application of the models using simulated particle

  20. Understanding bicycling in cities using system dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Woodcock, James

    2017-12-01

    Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) of cycling in three contrasting contexts: Auckland, London and Nijmegen. We combined qualitative interviews and workshops to develop the CLDs. We used the three CLDs to compare and contrast influences on cycling at different points on a "cycling trajectory" and drew out policy insights. The three CLDs consisted of feedback loops dynamically influencing cycling, with significant overlap between the three diagrams. Common reinforcing patterns emerged: growing numbers of people cycling lifts political will to improve the environment; cycling safety in numbers drives further growth; and more cycling can lead to normalisation across the population. By contrast, limits to growth varied as cycling increases. In Auckland and London, real and perceived danger was considered the main limit, with added barriers to normalisation in London. Cycling congestion and "market saturation" were important in the Netherlands. A generalisable, dynamic causal theory for urban cycling enables a more ordered set of policy recommendations for different cities on a cycling trajectory. Participation meant the collective knowledge of cycling stakeholders was represented and triangulated with research evidence. Extending this research to further cities, especially in low

  1. Review of passive groundwater remediation systems: Lessons learned Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    One of the proposed solutions for treatment of the contaminated groundwater in the Bear Creek Valley is the installation of a passive treatment system. Such a system would use a reactive media installed in a continuous trench or in a gate as part of a barrier wall and gate system. This report evaluates information on five similar systems [no information was available on two additional systems] and evaluates the shortcomings and the advantages of each. Section 5 provides a short summary of the findings and presents some recommendations on how to avoid some of the common problems encountered with the existing systems

  2. Effects of climate change on groundwater: observed and forecasted trends on Italian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveri, Marco; Menichini, Matia; Provenzale, Antonello; Scozzari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater represents the main source of water supply at global level. In Italy, as well as in most European countries, water needs are mainly covered by groundwater exploitation. The reliance on this resource is continuously growing, given the key role that groundwater plays for mitigating the climate change/variability and for addressing the significant increase in the global water demand. Despite this, and unlike surface waters, groundwater bodies have not been widely studied, and there is a general paucity of quantitative information, especially in relation to climate change. Although groundwater systems are more resilient to climate change than surface waters, they are affected both directly and indirectly. The estimation of the entity of these effects is mandatory for a reliable management of this crucial resource. The analysis of hydro-meteorological data over a few decades highlights that also the Italian territory is experiencing a change of the climate regime. Besides the increase of mean annual temperature, observed in particular since the early 1980s, longer and more frequent drought periods have been registered, as well as an increase of extreme events characterized by heavy rainfall. It is also noticeable a decrease in total rainfall, that is much more evident in the period from January to June. In addition to the reduced yearly inputs from precipitation, such trends determine also a lower snow accumulation and earlier snow melt in mountain areas, a general increase of evapotranspiration rates and an increased runoff fraction of the effective rainfall amount. As flood hydrographs of several major Italian rivers (e.g., Po, Brenta and Arno rivers) confirm, evident effects concern surface water resources. The main observed phenomena consist in the decline of mean annual discharge, the increase of extreme events with high discharge concentrated in short periods, and longer and earlier periods of low base flow. Impacts on groundwater recharge are not well

  3. Groundwater levels, geochemistry, and water budget of the Tsala Apopka Lake system, west-central Florida, 2004–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Metz, Patricia A.; Ryan, Patrick J.; Fulkerson, Mark; Downing, Harry C.

    2017-12-18

    Tsala Apopka Lake is a complex system of lakes and wetlands, with intervening uplands, located in Citrus County in west-central Florida. It is located within the 2,100 square mile watershed of the Withlacoochee River, which drains north and northwest towards the Gulf of Mexico. The lake system is managed by the Southwest Florida Water Management District as three distinct “pools,” which from upstream to downstream are referred to as the Floral City Pool, Inverness Pool, and Hernando Pool. Each pool contains a mixture of deep-water lakes that remain wet year round, ephemeral (seasonal) ponds and wetlands, and dry uplands. Many of the major deep-water lakes are interconnected by canals. Flow from the Withlacoochee River, when conditions allow, can be diverted into the lake system. Flow thorough the canals can be used to control the distribution of water between the three pools. Flow in the canals is controlled using structures, such as gates and weirs.Hydrogeologic units in the study area include a surficial aquifer consisting of Quaternary-age sediments, a discontinuous intermediate confining unit consisting of Miocene- and Pliocene-age sediments, and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer, which consists of Eocene- and Oligocene-age carbonates. The fine-grained quartz sands that constitute the surficial aquifer are generally thin, typically less than 25 feet thick, within the vicinity of Tsala Apopka Lake. A thin, discontinuous, sandy clay layer forms the intermediate confining unit. The Upper Floridan aquifer is generally unconfined in the vicinity of Tsala Apopka Lake because the intermediate confining unit is discontinuous and breached by numerous karst features. In the study area, the Upper Floridan aquifer includes the upper Avon Park Formation and Ocala Limestone. The Ocala Limestone is the primary source of drinking water and spring flow in the area.The objectives of this study are to document the interaction of Tsala Apopka Lake, the surficial aquifer

  4. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Groundwater discharge and phosphorus dynamics in a flood-pulse system: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Supcharoen, Ratsirin; Sioudom, Khamfeuane; Kum, Veasna; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan

    2017-06-01

    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia), a classic example of a "flood pulse" system, is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about six fold. The lake is likely phosphorus limited and we hypothesized that groundwater discharge, including recirculated lake water, may represent an important source of P and other nutrients. To address this question, we surveyed hundreds of kilometers of the lake for natural 222Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth. All major inorganic nutrients and phosphorus species were evaluated by systematic sampling throughout the lake. Results showed that there were radon hotspots, all at the boundaries between the permanent lake and the floodplain, indicating likely groundwater inputs. A radon mass balance model indicates that the groundwater flow to Tonle Sap Lake is approximately 10 km3/yr, about 25% as large as the floodwaters entering from the Mekong River during the wet monsoon. Our results suggest that the groundwater-derived dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) contribution to Tonle Sap is more than 30% of the average inflows from all natural sources. Since the productivity of the lake appears to be phosphorus limited, this finding suggests that the role of groundwater is significant for Tonle Sap Lake and perhaps for other flood pulse systems worldwide.

  6. Multivariate analysis of the heterogeneous geochemical processes controlling arsenic enrichment in a shallow groundwater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuangbing; Liu, Changrong; Wang, Yanxin; Zhan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various geochemical processes on arsenic enrichment in a high-arsenic aquifer at Jianghan Plain in Central China were investigated using multivariate models developed from combined adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results indicated that the optimum variable group for the AFNIS model consisted of bicarbonate, ammonium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, fluorescence index, pH, and siderite saturation. These data suggest that reductive dissolution of iron/manganese oxides, phosphate-competitive adsorption, pH-dependent desorption, and siderite precipitation could integrally affect arsenic concentration. Analysis of the MLR models indicated that reductive dissolution of iron(III) was primarily responsible for arsenic mobilization in groundwaters with low arsenic concentration. By contrast, for groundwaters with high arsenic concentration (i.e., > 170 μg/L), reductive dissolution of iron oxides approached a dynamic equilibrium. The desorption effects from phosphate-competitive adsorption and the increase in pH exhibited arsenic enrichment superior to that caused by iron(III) reductive dissolution as the groundwater chemistry evolved. The inhibition effect of siderite precipitation on arsenic mobilization was expected to exist in groundwater that was highly saturated with siderite. The results suggest an evolutionary dominance of specific geochemical process over other factors controlling arsenic concentration, which presented a heterogeneous distribution in aquifers. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file.

  7. Quantifying the energy required for groundwater pumping across a regional aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Shugert, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater pumping can be a substantial source of energy expenditure, particularly in semiarid regions with large depths to water. In this study we assessed the energy required for groundwater pumping in the Denver Basin aquifer system, a group of sedimentary rock aquifers used for municipal water supply in Colorado. In recent decades, declining water levels in the Denver Basin aquifers has resulted in increased pumping lifts and higher energy use rates. We quantified the spatially variable energy intensity for groundwater pumping by analyzing spatial variations in the lift requirement. The median energy intensities for two major aquifers were 1.2 and 1.8 kWh m-3. Considering typical municipal well production rates and household water use in the study area, these results indicate that the energy cost associated with groundwater pumping can be a significant fraction (>20%) of the total electricity consumption for all household end uses. Pumping at this scale (hundreds of municipal wells producing from deep aquifers) also generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Analytical wellfield modeling conducted as part of this study clearly demonstrates how multiple components of the lift impact the energy requirement. Results provide guidance for water management strategies that reduce energy expenditure.

  8. The impact of low-temperature seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) systems on chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater: Modeling of spreading and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Hartog, N.; Valstar, J.; Post, V.E.A.; Breukelen, B.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater systems are increasingly used for seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) for periodic heating and cooling of buildings. Its use is hampered in contaminated aquifers because of the potential environmental risks associated with the spreading of contaminated groundwater, but

  9. Golan Heights Groundwater Systems: Separation By REE+Y And Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Knoeller, K.; Roediger, T.; Weise, S.; Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.; Guttman, J.

    2008-12-01

    In a semi-arid to arid country like Israel, all freshwater resources are under (over-) utilization. Particularly, the Golan Heights rank as one of the most important extraction areas of groundwater of good quality and quantity. Additionally the mountain range feed to a high degree the most important freshwater reservoir of Israel, the Sea of Galilee. Hence, knowing the sources and characters of the Golan Heights groundwater systems is an instantaneous demand regarding sustainable management and protection. Within the "German-Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Research Program for the Sustainable Utilisation of Aquifer Systems", hundreds of water samples were taken from all over the Jordan-Dead Sea rift-system to understand groundwater flow-systems and salinisation. For that purpose, each sample was analysed for major and minor ions, rare earth elements including yttrium (REY) and stable isotopes of water (d18O, d2H). The REY distribution in groundwater is established during infiltration by the first water-rock interaction and consequently reflects the leachable components of sediments and rocks of the recharge area. In well- developed flow-systems, REY are adsorbed onto pore surfaces are in equilibrium with the percolating groundwater, even if the lithology changes (e.g. inter-aquifer flow). Thus, groundwater sampled from wells and springs still show the REY distribution pattern established in the recharge area. Since high temperatures do not occur in Golan Heights, d2H and d18O are less controlled by water-rock interaction than by climatic and geomorphological factors at the time of replenishment. Applying the REY signature as a grouping criterion of groundwaters, d18O vs. d2H plots yield a new dimension in interpreting isotope data. The combined use of hydrochemical and isotopic methods enabled us to contain the areas of replenishment and the flow-paths of all investigated groundwater in the Golan Heights. Despite location, salinity or temperature of spring or

  10. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  11. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B

    2018-06-15

    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Economic Security of the City in the Strategic Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubarieva Iryna O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of economic security of the city in the strategic management system. The article describes the process of ensuring the economic security of the city. The organizational approach was approved using the example of Kharkiv city. The list of threats to the economic security of the city and their urgency is justified by combining such methods as expert surveys, SWOT-analysis and the hierarchy analysis method. There proposed a methodical approach to assessing the economic security of the city based on a hierarchically built system of indices (integral, complex and partial, which allowed determining the level of economic security of the city and imbalances in the development of its functional components. It is proposed to work out scenarios for ensuring the economic security of the city by combining the cognitive modeling and the scenario approach, which makes it possible to determine directions of the implementation of the strategy for ensuring the economic security of the city and choose leverages of state regulation. There presented a mechanism for ensuring the economic security of the city, which includes the following elements: an action plan to implement the strategy for ensuring the economic security of the city; institutional and organizational support; programming and project planning; scientific and methodological support; financial support. The obtained results reveal, deepen and establish conceptual foundations for ensuring the economic security of the city.

  13. Identifying three-dimensional nested groundwater flow systems in a Tóthian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Junzhi; Ji, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Nested groundwater flow systems have been revealed in Tóth's theory as the structural property of basin-scale groundwater circulation but were only well known with two-dimensional (2D) profile models. The method of searching special streamlines across stagnation points for partitioning flow systems, which has been successfully applied in the 2D models, has never been implemented for three-dimensional (3D) Tóthian basins because of the difficulty in solving the dual stream functions. Alternatively, a new method is developed to investigate 3D nested groundwater flow systems without determination of stagnation points. Connective indices are defined to quantify the connection between individual recharge and discharge zones along streamlines. Groundwater circulation cells (GWCCs) are identified according to the distribution of the connective indices and then grouped into local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This method requires existing solution of the flow velocity vector and is implemented via particle tracking technique. It is applied in a hypothetical 3D Tóthian basin with an analytical solution of the flow field and in a real-world basin with a numerical modeling approach. Different spatial patterns of flow systems compared to 2D profile models are found. The outcrops boundaries of GWCCs on water table may significantly deviate from and are not parallel to the nearby water table divides. Topological network is proposed to represent the linked recharge-discharge zones through closed and open GWCCs. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the development of GWCCs depends on the basin geometry, hydraulic parameters and water table shape.

  14. EUGRIS: ''European Substainable Land and Groundwater Management Information System''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, J. [Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation outlines and Accompanying Measure with the FP 5 to develop an web based EUropean Sustainable Land and GRoundwater Management Information System information system (EUGRIS). The management of contaminated land and groundwater requires an interdisciplinary approach and a considerable amount of supporting technical information and knowledge. EUGRIS will provide a generally available comprehensive and overarching information and innovation resource, to support both research and practical contaminated land and groundwater management. EUGRI is a gateway to provide a 'one stop shop' for information provided by research projects, legislation, standards, best practice and other technical guidance and policy/regulatory publications from the EC, participating Member and Accession States and from various international networks dealing with groundwater and land management issues. Different types of user can access information through different windows according to their needs. EUGRIS will provide its visitors with summary information (digests) and links to sources of more detailed and/or original information in a scaleable holistic and contexturally meaningful way. EUGRIS is being built in three stages: the design of the information system, the development of its software implementation, and the population of the system with information. The presentation is focussed on the concept of the development of the information system with the individual work packages. In the second part of the lecture in particular the work procedures are presented for the content wise replenishment by EUGRIS. The data collation for the proven pilot countries and the production of a European research data base, which opens contents and results of European-wide locked and current projects, form the emphasis thereby. (orig.)

  15. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    When assessing hydrogeological conditions at the regional scale, the analyst is often confronted with uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes while having to base inference on scarce and patchy data. Haaf and Barthel (2015) proposed a concept for handling this predicament by developing a groundwater systems classification framework, where information is transferred from similar, but well-explored and better understood to poorly described systems. The concept is based on the central hypothesis that similar systems react similarly to the same inputs and vice versa. It is conceptually related to PUB (Prediction in ungauged basins) where organization of systems and processes by quantitative methods is intended and used to improve understanding and prediction. Furthermore, using the framework it is expected that regional conceptual and numerical models can be checked or enriched by ensemble generated data from neighborhood-based estimators. In a first step, groundwater hydrographs from a large dataset in Southern Germany are compared in an effort to identify structural similarity in groundwater dynamics. A number of approaches to group hydrographs, mostly based on a similarity measure - which have previously only been used in local-scale studies, can be found in the literature. These are tested alongside different global feature extraction techniques. The resulting classifications are then compared to a visual "expert assessment"-based classification which serves as a reference. A ranking of the classification methods is carried out and differences shown. Selected groups from the classifications are related to geological descriptors. Here we present the most promising results from a comparison of classifications based on series correlation, different series distances and series features, such as the coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform and the intrinsic mode functions of empirical mode decomposition. Additionally, we show examples of classes

  16. The `Henry Problem' of `density-driven' groundwater flow versus Tothian `groundwater flow systems' with variable density: A review of the influential Biscayne aquifer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, K. U.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal groundwater flow investigations at the Biscayne Bay, south of Miami, Florida, gave rise to the concept of density-driven flow of seawater into coastal aquifers creating a saltwater wedge. Within that wedge, convection-driven return flow of seawater and a dispersion zone were assumed by Cooper et al. (1964) to be the cause of the Biscayne aquifer `sea water wedge'. This conclusion was based on the chloride distribution within the aquifer and on an analytical model concept assuming convection flow within a confined aquifer without taking non-chemical field data into consideration. This concept was later labelled the `Henry Problem', which any numerical variable density flow program must be able to simulate to be considered acceptable. Both, `density-driven flow' and Tothian `groundwater flow systems' (with or without variable density conditions) are driven by gravitation. The difference between the two are the boundary conditions. 'Density-driven flow' occurs under hydrostatic boundary conditions while Tothian `groundwater flow systems' occur under hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Revisiting the Cooper et al. (1964) publication with its record of piezometric field data (heads) showed that the so-called sea water wedge has been caused by discharging deep saline groundwater driven by gravitational flow and not by denser sea water. Density driven flow of seawater into the aquifer was not found reflected in the head measurements for low and high tide conditions which had been taken contemporaneously with the chloride measurements. These head measurements had not been included in the flow interpretation. The very same head measurements indicated a clear dividing line between shallow local fresh groundwater flow and saline deep groundwater flow without the existence of a dispersion zone or a convection cell. The Biscayne situation emphasizes the need for any chemical interpretation of flow pattern to be supported by head data as energy indicators of flow fields

  17. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-08-15

    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling the geochemical fate and transport of wastewater-derived phosphorus in contrasting groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Claudette; Slomp, Caroline P.; Regnier, Pierre; Meile, Christof; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2007-06-01

    A 1D reactive transport model (RTM) is used to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the fate of phosphorus (P) in the saturated zone of two contrasting aquifer systems. We use the field data from two oxic, electron donor-poor, wastewater-impacted, sandy Canadian aquifers, (Cambridge and Muskoka sites) as an example of a calcareous and non-calcareous groundwater system, respectively, to validate our reaction network. After approximately 10 years of wastewater infiltration, P is effectively attenuated within the first 10 m downgradient of the source mainly through fast sorption onto calcite and Fe oxides. Slow, kinetic sorption contributes further to P removal, while precipitation of phosphate minerals (strengite, hydroxyapatite) is quantitatively unimportant in the saturated zone. Nitrogen (N) dynamics are also considered, but nitrate behaves essentially as a conservative tracer in both systems. The model-predicted advancement of the P plume upon continued wastewater discharge at the calcareous site is in line with field observations. Model results suggest that, upon removal of the wastewater source, the P plume at both sites will persist for at least 20 years, owing to desorption of P from aquifer solids and the slow rate of P mineral precipitation. Sensitivity analyses for the non-calcareous scenario (Muskoka) illustrate the importance of the sorption capacity of the aquifer solids for P in modulating groundwater N:P ratios in oxic groundwater. The model simulations predict the breakthrough of groundwater with high P concentrations and low N:P ratios after 17 years at 20 m from the source for an aquifer with low sorption capacity (< 0.02% w/w Fe(OH) 3). In this type of system, denitrification plays a minor role in lowering the N:P ratios because it is limited by the availability of labile dissolved organic matter.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of flow systems, groundwater recharge and transmissivities using environmental tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adar, E M [Ben-Gurion Univ. of Negev, Sede Boker Campus (Israel). Water Resources Center

    1996-10-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic concepts and formulations on the compartmental (mixing-cell) approach for interpretation of isotope and natural tracer data to arrive at quantitative estimates related to groundwater systems. The theoretical basis of the models and the specific solution algorithms used are described. The application of this approach to field cases are described as illustrative examples. Results of sensitivity analyses of the model to different parameters are provided. (author). 81 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of flow systems, groundwater recharge and transmissivities using environmental tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adar, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic concepts and formulations on the compartmental (mixing-cell) approach for interpretation of isotope and natural tracer data to arrive at quantitative estimates related to groundwater systems. The theoretical basis of the models and the specific solution algorithms used are described. The application of this approach to field cases are described as illustrative examples. Results of sensitivity analyses of the model to different parameters are provided. (author). 81 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Potential Offshore Submarine Groundwater in the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system (Algarve, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugman, Rui; Stigter, Tibor; Monteiro, Jose Paulo

    2015-04-01

    The Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system on the south coast of Portugal is an important source of groundwater for agriculture and tourism, as well as contributing to significant freshwater discharge along the coast in the form of inter- and sub-tidal springs and maintaining groundwater dependent ecosystems along the Quarteira stream. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the area was investigated within the scope of a multidisciplinary research project FREEZE (PTDC/MAR/102030/2008) which aimed to identify and characterize the effects of the hydrological/hydrogeological conditions on associated ecosystems. As well as near shore submarine springs, signs of SGD were found several kilometres from the shoreline during offshore CTD and geophysical surveys. On-land geophysical and offshore seismic surveys supplied data to update the 3D hydrogeological conceptual model of the aquifer system. Numerical models were applied to test the possibility of an offshore continuation of fresh groundwater over several kilometres under local conditions. Due to the high computational demand of variable density modelling, in an initial phase simplified 2D cross section models were used to test the conceptual model and reduce uncertainty in regards to model parameters. Results confirm the potential for SGD several kilometres from the coast within a range of acceptable values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge of the system. This represents the initial step in developing and calibrating a 3D regional scale model of the system, which aims to supply an estimate of the spatial distribution of SGD as well as serve as a decision support tool for the local water resources management agency.

  2. Temperature distribution by the effect of groundwater flow in an aquifer thermal energy storage system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, B.

    2005-12-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) can be a cost-effective and renewable energy source, depending on site-specific thermohydraulic conditions. To design an effective ATES system, the understanding of thermohydraulic processes is necessary. The heat transfer phenomena of an aquifer heat storage system are simulated with the scenario of heat pump operation of pumping and waste water reinjection in a two layered confined aquifer model having the effect of groundwater movement. Temperature distribution of the aquifer model is generated, and hydraulic heads and temperature variations are monitored at both wells during simulation days. The average groundwater velocities are determined with two assumed hydraulic gradients set by boundary conditions, and the effect of groundwater flow are shown at the generated thermal distributions at three different depth slices. The generated temperature contour lines at the hydraulic gradient of 0.001 are shaped circular, and the center is moved less than 5 m to the east in 365 days. However at the hydraulic gradient of 0.01, the contour centers of the east well at each depth slice are moved near the east boundary and the movement of temperature distribution is increased at the lower aquifer. By the analysis of thermal interference data between two wells the efficiency of a heat pump operation model is validated, and the variation of heads is monitored at injection, pumping and stabilized state. The thermal efficiency of the ATES system model is represented as highly depended on groundwater flow velocity and direction. Therefore the hydrogeologic condition for the system site should be carefully surveyed.

  3. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  4. Simulating Salt Movement using a Coupled Salinity Transport Model in a Variably Saturated Agricultural Groundwater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kivi, S.; Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    Salinization is one of the major concerns in irrigated agricultural fields. Increasing salinity concentrations are due principally to a high water table that results from excessive irrigation, canal seepage, and a lack of efficient drainage systems, and lead to decreasing crop yield. High groundwater salinity loading to nearby river systems also impacts downstream areas, with saline river water diverted for application on irrigated fields. To assess the different strategies for salt remediation, we present a reactive transport model (UZF-RT3D) coupled with a salinity equilibrium chemistry module for simulating the fate and transport of salt ions in a variably-saturated agricultural groundwater system. The developed model accounts not for advection, dispersion, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, oxidation-reduction, sorption, complexation, ion exchange, and precipitation/dissolution of salt minerals. The model is applied to a 500 km2 region within the Lower Arkansas River Valley (LARV) in southeastern Colorado, an area acutely affected by salinization in the past few decades. The model is tested against salt ion concentrations in the saturated zone, total dissolved solid concentrations in the unsaturated zone, and salt groundwater loading to the Arkansas River. The model now can be used to investigate salinity remediation strategies.

  5. Groundwater availability of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Kahle, S.C.; Ely, D.M.; Burns, E.R.; Snyder, D.T.; Haynes, J.V.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Morgan, D.S.

    2015-09-22

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers about 44,000 square miles of southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6-billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples, hops, and eight other commodities. Groundwater pumpage and surface-water diversions supply water to croplands that account for about 5 percent of the Nation’s irrigated lands. Groundwater also is the primary source of drinking water for the more than 1.3 million people in the study area. Increasing competitive demands for water for municipal, fisheries/ecosystems, agricultural, domestic, hydropower, and recreational uses must be met by additional groundwater withdrawals and (or) by changes in the way water resources are allocated and used throughout the hydrologic system. As of 2014, most surface-water resources in the study area were either over allocated or fully appropriated, especially during the dry summer season. In response to continued competition for water, numerous water-management activities and concerns have gained prominence: water conservation, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, pumpage effects on streamflow, and effects of climate variability and change. An integrated understanding of the hydrologic system is important in order to implement effective water-resource management strategies that address these concerns.

  6. The fluoride in the groundwater of Guarani Aquifer System: the origin associated with black shales of Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M. L.; Vieiro, A. P.; Machado, G.

    2008-09-01

    This work presents petrological and geochemical results of the black shales interval from Permian and Devonian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil and its relationships with fluoride of groundwater from Guarani Aquifer System. The Guarani Aquifer, located in South Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentine, presents contents of fluoride higher than the Brazilian accepted potability limits. Several hypotheses have been presented for the origin of the fluoride in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer. Microcrystalline fluorite was registered in black shales of Ponta Grossa and Irati formations from Paraná Basin. The results shown in this work suggest that fluoride present in groundwater of Guarani Aquifer can be originated in deeper groundwater that circulates in Ponta Grossa and Irati formations. The interaction of the groundwater coming from deeper black shales with the groundwater-bearing Aquifer Guarani System occurs through regional fragile structures (faults and fractures) that constitute excellent hydraulic connectors between the two sedimentary packages. The microcrystalline fluorite registered in Ponta Grossa and Irati Formations can be dissolved promoting fluoride enrichment in groundwater of these black shales and Guarani Aquifer System.

  7. Groundwater model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system version 3.0: Incorporating revisions in southwestern Utah and east central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-12-01

    The groundwater model described in this report is a new version of previously published steady-state numerical groundwater flow models of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system, and was developed in conjunction with U.S. Geological Survey studies in Parowan, Pine, and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. This version of the model is GBCAAS v. 3.0 and supersedes previous versions. The objectives of the model for Parowan Valley were to simulate revised conceptual estimates of recharge and discharge, to estimate simulated aquifer storage properties and the amount of reduction in storage as a result of historical groundwater withdrawals, and to assess reduction in groundwater withdrawals necessary to mitigate groundwater-level declines in the basin. The objectives of the model for the area near Pine and Wah Wah Valleys were to recalibrate the model using new observations of groundwater levels and evapotranspiration of groundwater; to provide new estimates of simulated recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and interbasin flow; and to simulate the effects of proposed groundwater withdrawals on the regional flow system. Meeting these objectives required the addition of 15 transient calibration stress periods and 14 projection stress periods, aquifer storage properties, historical withdrawals in Parowan Valley, and observations of water-level changes in Parowan Valley. Recharge in Parowan Valley and withdrawal from wells in Parowan Valley and two nearby wells in Cedar City Valley vary for each calibration stress period representing conditions from March 1940 to November 2013. Stresses, including recharge, are the same in each stress period as in the steady-state stress period for all areas outside of Parowan Valley. The model was calibrated to transient conditions only in Parowan Valley. Simulated storage properties outside of Parowan Valley were set the same as the Parowan Valley properties and are not considered calibrated. Model observations in GBCAAS v. 3.0 are

  8. Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary describes highlights from the report, "Building Management Information Systems to Coordinate Citywide Afterschool Programs: A Toolkit for Cities." City-led efforts to build coordinated systems of afterschool programming are an important strategy for improving the health, safety and academic preparedness of children…

  9. Ecohydrological Investigations of a Groundwater-Lake System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mette Cristine Schou

    are very dynamic systems on a spatial scale. Variability in meteorology can lead to variability in the hydrology, and in some cases ignite transient effects that are temporally distinct and difficult to capture. •To some extend the lakes acts as sentinel for all the in and out-puts to the system as well....... On densely vegetated areas (~9000 plants m-2), the vertical hydraulic conductivity was lower compared to non-vegetated sediment. Disturbing the top layer of the sediment lead to a significant increase in hydraulic conductivity on the vegetated sediment, whereas the non-vegetated sediment was not affected...... greatly qualifies the results of ecological studies....

  10. Sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to the complexity of aquifer systems for monitoring of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Rishma, C.; Singh, Chandan K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is aimed at assessment of groundwater storage under different terrestrial conditions. The main objective of the presented study is to highlight the significance of aquifer complexity to improve the performance of GRACE in monitoring groundwater. Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, central India, was selected as the study area for analysis, since the region comprises a simple aquifer system in the western region and a complex aquifer system in the eastern region. Groundwater-level-trend analyses of the different aquifer systems and spatial and temporal variation of the terrestrial water storage anomaly were studied to understand the groundwater scenario. GRACE and its field application involve selecting four pixels from the GRACE output with different aquifer systems, where each GRACE pixel encompasses 50-90 monitoring wells. Groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) are derived for each pixel for the period 2002 to 2015 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models (GWSAGRACE) as well as the actual field data (GWSAActual). Correlation analysis between GWSAGRACE and GWSAActual was performed using linear regression. The Pearson and Spearman methods show that the performance of GRACE is good in the region with simple aquifers; however, performance is poorer in the region with multiple aquifer systems. The study highlights the importance of incorporating the sensitivity of GRACE in estimation of groundwater storage in complex aquifer systems in future studies.

  11. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this paragraph. (b) Separate monitoring systems for each waste management component of a facility are... which circumscribes the several waste management components. (c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a... Section 265.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  12. Improving Transgender Healthcare in the New York City Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Mohamed; Ayad, John; Tungol, Jose Gabriel; MacDonald, Ross; Dickey, Nathaniel; Venters, Homer

    2016-04-01

    Correctional settings create unique challenges for patients with special needs, including transgender patients, who have an increased rate of overall discrimination, sexual abuse, healthcare disparities, and improper housing. As part of our correctional health quality improvement process, we sought to review and evaluate the adequacy of care for transgender patients in the New York City jail system. Using correctional pharmacy records, transgender patients receiving hormonal treatment were identified. A brief in-person survey was conducted to evaluate their care in the community before incarceration, medical care in jail, and experience in the jail environment. Survey findings and analysis of transgender patient healthcare-related complaints revealed opportunities for improvements in the provision of care and staff understanding of this population. Utilizing these findings, we conducted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) trainings in all 12 jail clinics for medical, nursing, and mental health staff. Three months after LGBT training, patient complaints dropped by over 50%. After the development and implementation of a newly revised transgender healthcare policy, complaints dropped to zero within 6 months. Our efforts to assess the quality of care provided to transgender patients revealed significant areas for improvement. Although we have made important gains in providing quality care through the implementation of policies and procedures rooted in community standards and the express wishes of our patients, we continue to engage this patient population to identify other issues that impact their health and well-being in the jail environment.

  13. Systemic Competitiveness of SMEs in Mexico City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Saavedra García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply the model of systemic competitiveness, SMEs in Mexico City. Developing four levels of competitiveness: macro level (economic environment, meso level (regional environment, Level Goal (Environment Socioeconomic and micro Level (internal factors. Data collection was done through fieldwork and archival research. The main findings are among the major strengths of the economic environment: high level of gross domestic product, high labor productivity and fiscal autonomy, the main weaknesses: the unions and the unemployment rate; meanwhile stand between foreign investment opportunities between threats and insecurity, corruption and difficulty in business transactions. In the regional setting a positive and 1 perfect relationship between the number of economic units and per capita GDP was found. With regard to socio-cultural factors, presents lower levels of poverty and unemployment to the rest of the country. Finally, at the micro level, the competitiveness of SMEs is in direct relation to the size of the company and the industry sector shows higher competitiveness trade and services sectors.

  14. Launching automated rotary parking system: Towards traffic congestion free Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohummad Shariful; Tithi, Afshana Morshed; Hossain, Farzad; Shetu, Rifat Sultana; Amin, S. M. Abdullah Al; Chowdhury, Shakia Zannatul Ferdous

    2017-12-01

    Bangladesh is the most densely populated city in the whole world, which is visible more in the capital city Dhaka. People have to suffer and valuable times are being wasted for this chronic quandary. Lack of proper planning of the city, different speed vehicles on the same road, over population, inadequate road space, unplanned stoppage or parking etc. are responsible for causing the traffic congestion in Dhaka City. Among those insufficient/unplanned parking system is one of the main reasons for causing traffic congestion. The automated rotary car parking system is the best and suitable because of its less utilization of space compared to other systems. It is a friendly parking system due to the non-utilization of noise/pollution related mechanism. The aim of this paper is to develop an automated car parking system with a minimum cost for reducing congestion in Dhaka city.

  15. Pavement management system for City of Madison : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Keeping city streets in good state of repair has been a significant challenge for small communities : where both road repair budgets and staff resources are lacking. To prevent pavement deterioration at : a large scale, local governments need to find...

  16. The study of the interactions between groundwater and Sava River water in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system (Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzel, Janja; Solomon, D. Kip; Blažeka, Željko; Ogrinc, Nives

    2018-01-01

    River basin aquifers are common sites for drinking water wells as bank filtration can be a cost effective pretreatment technology. A groundwater vulnerability to pollution depends on a groundwater mean residence time and on a relative contribution of river water versus local precipitation to groundwater. Environmental isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δ2H), tritium (3H) and concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) were used to investigate hydrological pathways, mean residence time and interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system in Slovenia. δ18O and δ2H values indicate a spatial variability of the influence of individual groundwater sources inside the aquifer - local precipitation and the Sava River water. Fractions of river water in groundwater depend on the depth of perforated screens in the pumping wells and their distance from the Sava River. It was estimated that groundwater at wells Kleče 11, Hrastje 3, and Hrastje 8 is mostly composed of recently infiltrated local precipitation, while the Sava River is the dominant source of groundwater at the well Jarški prod 1. Groundwater at wells Kleče 8, Kleče 12, and Jarški prod 3 contains on average between 41% and 48% of the Sava River water. The 3H and 3H/3He methods indicate short mean residence time of groundwater present at Jarški prod (2-7 years) and Hrastje (7-8 years). A small fraction (pollution.

  17. A Mamdani Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System for Improvement of Groundwater Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoubi, Belgacem; Dabbaghi, Radhia; Kharroubi, Adel

    2018-01-23

    Assessing groundwater vulnerability is an important procedure for sustainable water management. Various methods have been developed for effective assessment of groundwater vulnerability and protection. However, each method has its own conditions of use and, in practice; it is difficult to return the same results for the same site. The research conceptualized and developed an improved DRASTIC method using Mamdani Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS-DRASTIC). DRASTIC and M-ANFIS-DRASTIC were applied in the Jorf aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, and results were compared. Results confirm that M-ANFIS-DRASTIC combined with geostatistical tools is more powerful, generated more precise vulnerability classes with very low estimation variance. Fuzzy logic has a power to produce more realistic aquifer vulnerability assessments and introduces new ways of modeling in hydrogeology using natural human language expressed by logic rules. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Threshold amounts of organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Thomas, Lashun K.; Bradley, Paul M.; Rectanus, Heather V.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer sediment and groundwater chemistry data from 15 Department of Defense facilities located throughout the United States were collected and analyzed with the goal of estimating the amount of natural organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems. Aquifer sediments were analyzed for hydroxylamine and NaOH-extractable organic carbon, yielding a probable underestimate of potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC). Aquifer sediments were also analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) using an elemental combustion analyzer, yielding a probable overestimate of bioavailable carbon. Concentrations of PBOC correlated linearly with TOC with a slope near one. However, concentrations of PBOC were consistently five to ten times lower than TOC. When mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed at each site were plotted versus PBOC, it showed that anoxic conditions were initiated at approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC. Similarly, the accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products relative to parent compounds increased at a PBOC concentration of approximately 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) in sediments also increased at approximately 200 mg/kg, and bioassays showed that sediment CO2 production correlated positively with THAA. The results of this study provide an estimate for threshold amounts of bioavailable carbon present in aquifer sediments (approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC; approximately 1,000 to 2,000 mg/kg of TOC) needed to support reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems.

  19. Implications of Self-Potential Distribution for Groundwater Flow System in a Nonvolcanic Mountain Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada-nori Goto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-potential (SP measurements were conducted at Mt. Tsukuba, Japan, which is a nonvolcanic mountain, to infer groundwater flow system in the mountain. Survey routes were set around the northern slope, and the reliability of observed SP anomaly was checked by using SP values along parallel survey routes; the error was almost within 10 mV. The FFT analysis of the spatial SP distribution allows us a separation of raw data into two components with shorter and longer wavelength. In the shorter (altitudinal wavelength than ∼200 meters, several positive SP peaks of more than 100 mV in magnitude are present, which indicate shallow perched water discharges along the slope. In the regional SP pattern of longer wavelength, there are two major perturbations from the general trend reflecting the topographic effect. By comparing the SP and hydrological data, the perturbation around the foothill is interpreted to be caused by heterogeneous infiltration at the ground surface. The perturbation around the summit is also interpreted to be caused by heterogeneous infiltration process, based on a simplified numerical modeling of SP. As a result, the SP pattern is well explained by groundwater flow and infiltration processes. Thus, SP data is thought to be very useful for understanding of groundwater flow system on a mountain scale.

  20. Evaluation of the long-term evolution of the groundwater system in the Mizunami area, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi; Milodowski, Antoni E.; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for assessing the evolution of the long-term groundwater system, using fracture-filling calcite. Fracture-filling calcite mineralization in deep (to ca. 1000 m) granitic rocks in Mizunami area, Japan, was studied. Four generations (I to IV) of calcite precipitation can be differentiated based on their paragenetic relationships, morphological and isotopic characteristics. Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios suggest that the Calcite I is of hydrothermal origin. On the other hand, Calcite II, IV and III were precipitated from freshwater and marine water, respectively. The Mizunami Group strata (Tertiary), which overly the basement Toki granite (Cretaceous), were initially deposited in a lacustrine environment but later became marine. Lacustrine conditions were re-established during the deposition of the upper Seto Group (Quaternary). It is suggested that both of deposition of the marine upper part of the Mizunami Group and the precipitation of Calcite III were possibly related to the same transgression event. This was followed by the precipitation of Calcite IV during subsequent fresh water flushing of the earlier marine groundwater. In summary, integrated morphological, mineralogical, microchemical and isotopic analysis of multilayered calcite fracture mineralization provides valuable information to evaluate the long-term evolution of groundwater system. (author)

  1. Numerical modeling of remediation of groundwater in a wellfield of in-situ leaching of uranium by pump-and-treat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Junwen; Shi Wenge; Yang Yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the hydrogeological conditions at the investigated site, the coupled mathematic model about the flow and the contaminant transportation in groundwater was established. The software Visual MODflow, the most popular simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transportation, was used to study the contaminants distribution in groundwater during pumping at different pumping rates, and to determine the pumping well arrangement and optimal pumping rate, which directs the remediation of contaminated groundwater by the pump-and-treat system. (authors)

  2. A cost-effective system for in-situ geological arsenic adsorption from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yanxin; Zhao, Jie; Han, Hongyin; Deng, Yamin; He, Xin; Dong, Yihui

    2013-11-01

    An effective and low-cost in-situ geological filtration system was developed to treat arsenic-contaminated groundwater in remote rural areas. Hangjinhouqi in western Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China, where groundwater contains a high arsenic concentration, was selected as the study area. Fe-mineral and limestone widely distributed in the study area were used as filter materials. Batch and column experiments as well as field tests were performed to determine optimal filtration parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology for arsenic removal under different hydrogeochemical conditions. A mixture containing natural Fe-mineral (hematite and goethite) and limestone at a mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most effective for arsenic removal. The results indicated that Fe-mineral in the mixture played a major role for arsenic removal. Meanwhile, limestone buffered groundwater pH to be conducive for the optimal arsenic removal. As(III) adsorption and oxidation by iron mineral, and the formation of Ca-As(V) precipitation with Ca contributed from limestone dissolution were likely mechanisms leading to the As removal. Field demonstrations revealed that a geological filter bed filled with the proposed mineral mixture reduced groundwater arsenic concentration from 400 μg/L to below 10 μg/L. The filtration system was continuously operated for a total volume of 365,000L, which is sufficient for drinking water supplying a rural household of 5 persons for 5 years at a rate of 40 L per person per day. © 2013.

  3. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  4. Policy options and system supplies on socialization standard management of city agricultural laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yujuan

    2007-01-01

    It is a social system engineering to solve problems of city agricultural laborers, inevitably concerning series of social phenomenon and the social issues of the city and countryside relations, the government function, the city management, the fair efficiency, the population flows, the labor employment, the social security, and so on. Furthermore, it also involves the profoundly political and economic system reforms, the transformation of government functions, the system perfection, legal administration, the social stability in China. The city government, as the direct superintendent of the agricultural laborers, should adopt the conception of the system engineering to construct anew mechanism of the city agricultural laborers socialization standard management, which has a profound theoretical and practical significance.

  5. Groundwater Flow Model of Göksu Delta Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Çelik, Mehmet; Arslan, Şebnem; Engin, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    Like many other coastal areas, Göksu Delta (Mersin-Silifke, Southern Turkey) is a preferred place for human settlement especially due to its productive farmlands and water resources. The water dependent ecosystem in Göksu delta hosts about 332 different plant species and 328 different bird species besides serving for human use. Göksu Delta has been declared as Special Environmental Protection Zone, Wildlife Protection Area, and RAMSAR Convention for Wetlands of International Importance area. Unfortunately, rising population, agricultural and industrial activities cause degradation of water resources both by means of quality and quantity. This problem also exists for other wetlands around the world. It is necessary to prepare water management plans by taking global warming issues into account to protect water resources for next generations. To achieve this, the most efficient tool is to come up with groundwater management strategies by constructing groundwater flow models. By this aim, groundwater modeling studies were carried out for Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. As a first and most important step in all groundwater modeling studies, geological and hydrogeological settings of the study area have been investigated. Göksu Delta, like many other deltaic environments, has a complex structure because it was formed with the sediments transported by Göksu River throughout the Quaternary period and shaped throughout the transgression-regression periods. Both due to this complex structure and the lack of observation wells penetrating deep enough to give an idea of the total thickness of the delta, it was impossible to reveal out the hydrogeological setting in a correct manner. Therefore, six wells were drilled to construct the conceptual hydrogeological model of Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. On the basis of drilling studies and slug tests that were conducted along Göksu Delta, hydrostratigraphic units of the delta system have been obtained. According to

  6. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2017-11-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  7. Flood and Traffic Wireless Monitoring System for Smart Cities

    KAUST Repository

    Moussa, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The convergence of computation, communication and sensing has led to the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which allow distributed monitoring of physical phenomena over extended areas. In this thesis, we focus on a dual flood and traffic flow WSN applicable to urban environments. This fixed sensing system is based on the combination of ultrasonic range-finding with remote temperature sensing, and can sense both phenomena with a high degree of accuracy. This enables the monitoring of urban areas to lessen the impact of catastrophic flood events, by monitoring flood parameters and traffic flow to enable public evacuation and early warning, allocate the resources efficiently or control the traffic to make cities more productive and smarter. We present an implementation of the device, and illustrate its performance in water level estimation and rain detection using a novel combination of L1 regularized reconstruction and machine learning algorithms on a 6-month dataset involving four different sensors. Our results show that water level can be estimated with an uncertainty of 1 cm using a combination of thermal sensing and ultrasonic distance measurements. The demonstration of the performance included the detection of an actual flash flood event using two sensors located in Umm Al Qura University (Mecca). Finally, we show that Lagrangian (mobile) sensors can be used to inexpensively increase the performance of the system with respect to traffic sensing. These sensors are based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), which have never been investigated in the context of traffic ow monitoring before. We investigate the divergence of the speed estimation process, the lack of the calibration parameters of the system, and the problem of reconstructing vehicle trajectories evolving in a given transportation network. To address these problems, we propose an automatic calibration algorithm applicable to IMU-equipped ground vehicles, and an L1 regularized least squares

  8. Quantification of benzene in groundwater sources and risk analysis in a popular South Indian Pilgrimage City – A GIS based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Senthil kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research work quantified the concentration of benzene in a total of hundred groundwater samples at the proximity of petrol bunks and residential places in Madurai District. The average values recorded in Jan 2011, Feb 2011 and Mar 2011 were 0.100 mg L−1 (10 times of PL, 0.138 mg L−1 (14 times of PL and 0.060 mg L−1 (6 times of PL respectively. A significant variation in the benzene level during February–March 2011 was validated through Student’s t-test analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis using dendograms revealed the un-symmetric distribution of benzene during the study period. The cancer risk analysis at corporate locations among children was seven folds higher as compared to the risk of adults. The benzene concentration levels are interpreted using Arc Geographical Information System (Arc GIS through thematic maps.

  9. Evaluation of influence of splay fault growth on groundwater flow around geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Shizuka; Takeda, Seiji; Sakai, Ryutaro; Shimada, Taro; Munakata, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tadao

    2017-01-01

    In geological disposal, the direct effect of active faults on geological repositories is avoided at the stage of site characterization, however, uncertainty remains for the avoidance of faults derived from active faults, which are concealed deep under the ground and are difficult to detect by site investigation. In this research, the influence of the growth of undetected splay faults on a natural barrier in a geological disposal system due to the future action of faults was evaluated. We investigated examples of splay faults in Japan and set conditions for the growth of splay faults. Furthermore, we assumed a disposal site composed of sedimentary rock and made a hydrogeological model of the growth of splay faults. We carried out groundwater flow analyses, changing parameters such as the location and depth of the repository and the growth velocity of splay faults. We carried out groundwater flow analyses, changing parameters such as the location and depth of the repository and the growth velocity of splay faults. The results indicate that the main flow path from the repository is changed into an upward flow along the splay fault due to its growth and that the average velocity to the ground surface becomes one or two orders of magnitude higher than that before its growth. The results also suggest that splay fault growth leads to the possibility of the downward flow of oxidizing groundwater from the ground surface area. (author)

  10. Chemical reactions in the bedrock-groundwater system of importance for the sorption of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.; Krajewski, T.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Most suggested alternatives for deep underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes rely upon several independent barriers like resistant canister materials, waste forms of low solubility in groundwaters and the use of back-fill material of low permeability and with nuclide retaining capacity. These barriers would retard the eventual release of radionuclides from the repository into the groundwater/bedrock system. The final and the only non-engineered barrier would be the host-rock itself. It would be desirable if the rock alone would be able to retain the long-lived radionuclides coming from the waste for long enough times to allow decay to harmless activity levels before they might reach the biosphere. The biological hazards from high-level reprocessng waste as well as from unreprocessed spent uranium fuel are dominated by the actinides and their daughter products (americium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, radium) from about three hundred years after discharge from the reactor up to millions of years. In order to allow predictions of the migration of the actinides in the ground, the chemical behavior of these elements in groundwater under environmental conditions and their interactions with geologic media must be studied in detail. In this paper, studies of the sorption of americium (trivalent) and neptunium (pentavalent under oxic conditions) on some major rock-forming minerals of igneous rocks and accessory minerals are reported

  11. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  12. Pollutants transport and distribution studies in groundwater system by nuclear, geophysics and hydrogeochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Daud Mohamad

    2000-01-01

    In Malaysia, the most common means of managing municipal refuse is by dumping it indiscriminately in piles on the selected open land. Leachate that is formed primarily in association with precipitation that infiltrates through the refuse normally results in the migration of leachate into underlying groundwater zone. The study of pollutant transport derived from domestic refuse and their impact on water quality in groundwater system has been performed in a selected landfill site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan. The study involved the determination of flow velocity and flow direction of pollutants by nuclear techniques and a detail survey by geophysical method as well as hydrogeochemical approach as a supporting evidence of pollution occurrence. Hydrogeochemical approach involved the determination of pollutants species such as chloride and nitrate. A network of about 30 observation points had been identified and sampled. The results of the study have shown that the pollutants were concentrated at the middle of the dumping site and transported with the flow velocity between 0.2-15.4 metres per day toward northeast direction. Furthermore, the study established that the municipal or domestic landfalls are considered as one of the potential sources of groundwater pollution in Malaysia

  13. Fingerprinting groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Young, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System (GCAS) is a critical issue due to depletion of fresh groundwater and concerns for potential seawater intrusion. The study objective was to assess sources of groundwater salinity in the GCAS using ˜1,400 chemical analyses and ˜90 isotopic analyses along nine well transects in the Texas Gulf Coast, USA. Salinity increases from northeast (median total dissolved solids (TDS) 340 mg/L) to southwest (median TDS 1,160 mg/L), which inversely correlates with the precipitation distribution pattern (1,370- 600 mm/yr, respectively). Molar Cl/Br ratios (median 540-600), depleted δ2H and δ18O (-24.7‰, -4.5‰) relative to seawater (Cl/Br ˜655 and δ2H, δ18O 0‰, 0‰, respectively), and elevated 36Cl/Cl ratios (˜100), suggest precipitation enriched with marine aerosols as the dominant salinity source. Mass balance estimates suggest that marine aerosols could adequately explain salt loading over the large expanse of the GCAS. Evapotranspiration enrichment to the southwest is supported by elevated chloride concentrations in soil profiles and higher δ18O. Secondary salinity sources include dissolution of salt domes or upwelling brines from geopressured zones along growth faults, mainly near the coast in the northeast. The regional extent and large quantities of brackish water have the potential to support moderate-sized desalination plants in this location. These results have important implications for groundwater management, suggesting a current lack of regional seawater intrusion and a suitable source of relatively low TDS water for desalination.

  14. Arsenic transport in groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone of a mine-influenced stream-aquifer system

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the transport of dissolved arsenic in groundwater, surface water and the hyporheic zone in a stream-aquifer system influenced by an abandoned arsenopyrite mine. Mine tailing piles consisting of a host of arsenic-bearing minerals including arsenopyrite and scorodite remain adjacent to the stream and represent a continuous source of arsenic. Arsenic loads from the stream, springs, and groundwater were quantified at the study reach on nine dates from January to August 2005 and ...

  15. The Influence of the Urban Transport System in Java on City Fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system of city transportation and city typology in Central Java affects the fluctuation of fuel consumption. The population size, number of private motor vehicles, RGDP (Regional Gross Domesic Product), number of motorcycles and road length have high correlation with fuel consumption. The higher the population size, ...

  16. The Effect of Used Information Technology, Internal Control, and Regional Accounting System on the Performance of City Governance Agency of Banda Aceh City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Djalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of utilization of information technology, internal control system, and regional financial accounting system on the performance of city government agencies in Banda Aceh city government, Indonesia.The population of the research is 39 city government agencies (SKPK of Banda Aceh and by using the simple random sampling technique, it is selected 28 agencies within city government as a sample and employed 84 persons as respondents. The primary data of this research arecollected by using questionnaire and analyzed by using the multiple regression regresion method with a SPSS application software.The result shows that perceived by simultaneously statistical test indicated that the utilization of information technology, internal control system and implementation of regionalfinancial accounting system have a significant positive effect on the performance of city government agency. Similarly, tested partially, utilization of information technology, internalcontrol system, and implementation of the regional financial accounting system also have a significant positive effect on the performance of city government agencies in the city government of Banda Aceh, Indonesia.Keywords: Information Technology, Internal Control System, Regional Financial Accounting System, and Performance of City Governance.

  17. Integrating groundwater stress in life-cycle assessments – An evaluation of water abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Ryle Nørskov; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Henriksen, H. J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding groundwater abstraction effects is vital for holistic impact assessments in areas depending on groundwater resources. The objective of our study was to modify the state-of-the-art AWaRe (available water remaining), freshwater impact assessment specifically for use in LCAs in areas...... and adjusts demarcations in order to improve the representation of the heterogeneity of groundwater catchments. The applicability of AGWaRe was demonstrated on three groundwater systems producing 5 million m3 water for the city of Copenhagen, namely Advanced Treatment of Groundwater, Simple Treatment...... of Groundwater and Infiltration of Reclaimed water. Results were normalised to compare with other effects of supplying water to an average Danish person. The normalised impacts for drinking water for one person ranged between 0.1 and 39 PE (person equivalent) for the three systems, which indicates that effects...

  18. Tidal variability of nutrients in a coastal coral reef system influenced by groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate variation in nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in a spring–neap tide in a coral reef system influenced by groundwater discharge, we carried out a time-series observation of these nutrients and 228Ra, a tracer of groundwater discharge, in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. The maximum 228Ra, 45.3 dpm 100 L−1, appeared at low tide and the minimum, 14.0 dpm 100 L−1, appeared during a flood tide in the spring tide. The activity of 228Ra was significantly correlated with water depth and salinity in the spring–neap tide, reflecting the tidal-pumping feature of groundwater discharge. Concentrations of all nutrients exhibited strong diurnal variation, with a maximum in the amplitude of the diel change for nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the spring tide of 0.46, 1.54, 0.12, and 2.68 µM, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were negatively correlated with water depth during the spring tide but showed no correlation during the neap tide. Nitrite was positively correlated with water depth in the spring and neap tide due to mixing of nitrite-depleted groundwater and nitrite-rich offshore seawater. They were also significantly correlated with salinity (R2  ≥  0.9 and P < 0.05 at the ebb flow of the spring tide, negative for nitrate and phosphate and positive for nitrite, indicating the mixing of nitrite-depleted, nitrate- and phosphate-rich less saline groundwater and nitrite-rich, nitrate- and phosphate-depleted saline offshore seawater. We quantified variation in oxidized nitrogen (NOx and phosphate contributed by biological processes based on deviations from mixing lines of these nutrients. During both the spring and neap tide biologically contributed NOx and phosphate were significantly correlated with regression slopes of 4.60 (R2  =  0.16 in the spring tide and 13.4 (R2  =  0.75 in the neap tide, similar to the composition of these

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  20. Occurrences of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) in the Pearl River Estuary (China), a large river-groundwater-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Xiqian; Zhai, Weidong; Dai, Minhan; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2012-12-01

    This study for the first time examined dissolved metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) together with dissolved oxygen and carbonate system in the whole Pearl River Estuary system, from the upper rivers to the groundwater discharges until the estuarine zone, and explored their potential impacts in the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) during May-August 2009. This river-groundwater-estuary system was generally characterized by low dissolved metal levels as a whole, whilst subject to severe perturbations locally. In particular, higher dissolved Cu and Cd occurred in the North River (as high as 60 nmol/L of Cu and 0.99 nmol/L of Cd), as a result of an anthropogenic source from mining activities there. Dissolved Cu levels were elevated in the upper estuary near the city of Guangzhou (Cu: ˜40 nmol/L), which could be attributable to sewage and industrial effluent discharges there. Elevated dissolved metal levels (Cu: ˜20-40 nmol/L; Cd: ˜0.2-0.8 nmol/L) also occurred in the groundwaters and parts of the middle and lower estuaries, which could be attributable to a series of geochemical reactions, e.g., chloride-induced desorption from the suspended sediments, oxidation of metal sulfides, and the partial dissolution of minerals. The high river discharge during our sampling period (May-August 2009) significantly diluted anthropogenic signals in the estuarine mixing zone. Of particular note was the high river discharge (which may reach 18.5 times as high as in the dry season) that transported anthropogenic signals (as indicated by dissolved Cu and Cd) into the adjacent shelf waters of the northern SCS, and might have led to the usually high phytoplankton productivity there (chlorophyll-a value >10 μg/L).

  1. The geochemistry of Don Juan Pond: Evidence for a deep groundwater flow system in Wright Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Sletten, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Don Juan Pond (DJP), Antarctica, is one of the most unusual surface waters on Earth because of its CaCl2-rich composition. To investigate the evolution of pond waters during closed-basin evaporation and to understand the source of brines responsible for the chemistry of DJP, we apply a newly developed low-temperature aqueous model in the Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl system to DJP. By modeling the closed-basin evaporation of DJP and comparing ionic ratios between DJP surface water, deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and other surface chemistries in Wright Valley, we find that DJP is best explained by upwelling deep groundwater, as opposed to recent hypotheses proposing shallow groundwater sources. The early closed-basin evolution of brines in our model accurately predicts observed chemistries in DJP; however, late-stage closed-basin evaporation produces Mg-K-rich brines and salts that do not match the CaCl2-rich brine in DJP. Based on groundwater inflow rates to DJP, we estimate that even the most concentrated brines in DJP have undergone closed-basin evaporation for less than a year. To explain the observed lack of Mg2+ and K+ accumulation in DJP over time, and the surprisingly young age for the brines, we deduce that DJP is a localized upwelling from a regional groundwater flow-through system in which evaporated DJP brines are recycled back into the subsurface over yearly timescales. The existence of a regional groundwater flow system beneath DJP has implications for water and solute budgets in cold desert ecosystems, and may provide clues for the formation of groundwater and aqueous flows on Mars.

  2. Controlling sewer systems – a critical review based on systems in three EU cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, D.

    2017-01-01

    The term Real Time Control (RTC) is widely used to describe all types of control systems in sewer systems. Today the term covers everything from the simplest to the most advanced types of control systems, making it difficult to communicate about sewer system control in a precise manner, as well...... as search and find specific types of control systems for comparison. Through a survey of implemented control systems in three EU cities today and with the perspectives of current research within the field of sewer system control, the needs for a new control system design framework is identified....... With the basis of existing frameworks for control system design, a new time-scale dependent framework is proposed. We believe this comprehensive time-scale dependent framework can help water utilities to retrofit and design new control solutions and facilitate knowledge sharing about existing designs....

  3. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  4. Characterization of the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat City by joint inversion of VES and TEM data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Massoud

    2014-12-01

    In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along 3 profiles trending NE–SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid-like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line–line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geoelectrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water-bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

  5. A heat pipe solar collector system for winter heating in Zhengzhou city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat pipe solar collector system for winter heating is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The hourly heat collecting capacity, water temperature and contribution rate of solar collector system based on Zhengzhou city typical sunshine are calculated. The study reveals that the heat collecting capacity and water temperature increases initially and then decreases, and the solar collector system can provide from 40% to 78% heating load for a 200 m2 villa with in Zhengzhou city from November to March.

  6. China's Development of Low-Carbon Eco-Cities and Associated Indicator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    China's urban population surpassed its rural population historically in 2011, when the number of Chinese living in towns and cities reached about 690 million1. In the years to come, cities in China will face major challenges as their rapidly increasing populations burden already crowded infrastructure systems and exacerbate environmental and climate change issues, threatening public health and quality of life. Low-carbon cities may be key to addressing those challenges, especially as regards mitigating and adapting to climate change. Government entities at both the central and local level have moved aggressively on building low-carbon eco-cities. According to statistics reported by the Chinese Society for Urban Studies, by February of 2011, China will have 230 cities at the prefecture-and-above level that have proposed to establish themselves as “eco-cities,” accounting for 80.1% of the 287 such cities nationally. Of those 230 cities, 133, or 46.3%, have established targets to develop specifically as “lowcarbon cities” (Chinese Society for Urban Studies 2011). Given the proposed scale of the effort, China’s potential success or failure in demonstrating and implementing low-carbon eco-cities could greatly affect how the world addresses both the climate change impacts of urbanization and the sustainable development of cities. Despite the multiple guidelines that have been developed, it remains unclear what defines a low-carbon eco-city. Additionally, although more than 100 indicators have been used or proposed for assessing such cities, few relate directly to energy use or carbon emissions. Nonetheless, policy makers and leaders continue to demand comprehensive toolboxes to facilitate development of low-carbon eco-cities. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review of the development of low-carbon eco-cities in China. The paper also qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes 11 major indicator systems that researchers, planners

  7. New directions in development of city energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Branko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the world level, the 20th century saw an increase from 220 million urbanites in 1900 to 2.84 billion in year 2000. The present century will match this absolute increase in about four decades. Developing regions, as a whole, will account for 93% of this growth [1]. Until now humankind has lived and worked primarily in rural areas. But the world is about to leave its rural past behind. Today we are witness, for the first time, that more than half of the globe’s population is living in towns and cities. The number and proportion of urban dwellers will continue to rise quickly. Urban population will grow to 4.9 billion by 2030. At the global level, all of future population growth will be in towns and cities [1]. Two centuries ago there was only one city on the planet that could say it had a million inhabitants - that was London. Today more than 400 cities can boast that - 408 to be precise, according to the Earth Policy Institute. But today a population of 1 million people means nothing; we are moving into the era of megacities of 10 million (and more people. Today, there are 20 so-called megacities, whose population, and therefore energy needs, easily exceed some countries population, according to Earth Policy Institute. More people now live in Tokyo than Canada, for example [2]. Despite only occupying 2% of the world's surface area, they are responsible for 75% of the world's energy consumption.

  8. Simulation of large-scale soil water systems using groundwater data and satellite based soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Complex concepts for the physically correct depiction of dominant processes in the hydrosphere are increasingly at the forefront of hydrological modelling. Many scientific issues in hydrological modelling demand for additional system variables besides a simulation of runoff only, such as groundwater recharge or soil moisture conditions. Models that include soil water simulations are either very simplified or require a high number of parameters. Against this backdrop there is a heightened demand of observations to be used to calibrate the model. A reasonable integration of groundwater data or remote sensing data in calibration procedures as well as the identifiability of physically plausible sets of parameters is subject to research in the field of hydrology. Since this data is often combined with conceptual models, the given interfaces are not suitable for such demands. Furthermore, the application of automated optimisation procedures is generally associated with conceptual models, whose (fast) computing times allow many iterations of the optimisation in an acceptable time frame. One of the main aims of this study is to reduce the discrepancy between scientific and practical applications in the field of hydrological modelling. Therefore, the soil model DYVESOM (DYnamic VEgetation SOil Model) was developed as one of the primary components of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. DYVESOMs structure provides the required interfaces for the calibrations made at runoff, satellite based soil moisture and groundwater level. The model considers spatial and temporal differentiated feedback of the development of the vegetation on the soil system. In addition, small scale heterogeneities of soil properties (subgrid-variability) are parameterized by variation of van Genuchten parameters depending on distribution functions. Different sets of parameters are operated simultaneously while interacting with each other. The developed soil model is innovative regarding concept

  9. Basin F Subregional Groundwater Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazion, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The groundwater flow system at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is complex. To evaluate proposed remedial alternatives, interaction of the local groundwater flow system with the present contamination control systems must be understood...

  10. The Practical Application of Aqueous Geochemistry in Mapping Groundwater Flow Systems in Fractured Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, G.; Seok, E.; Gale, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Flow to underground mines and open pits takes place through an interconnected network of regular joints/fractures and intermediate to large scale structural features such as faults and fracture zones. Large scale features can serve either as high permeability pathways or as barriers to flow, depending on the internal characteristics of the structure. Predicting long term water quality in barrier-well systems and long-term mine water inflows over a mine life, as a mine expands, requires the use of a 3D numerical flow and transport code. The code is used to integrate the physical geometry of the fractured-rock mass with porosity, permeability, hydraulic heads, storativity and recharge data and construct a model of the flow system. Once that model has been calibrated using hydraulic head and permeability/inflow data, aqueous geochemical and isotopic data provide useful tools for validating flow-system properties, when one is able to recognize and account for the non-ideal or imperfect aspects of the sampling methods used in different mining environments. If groundwater samples are collected from discrete depths within open boreholes, water in those boreholes have the opportunity to move up or down in response to the forces that drive groundwater flow, whether they be hydraulic gradients, gas pressures, or density differences associated with variations in salinity. The use of Br/Cl ratios, for example, can be used to determine if there is active flow into, or out of, the boreholes through open discontinuities in the rock mass (i.e., short-circuiting). Natural groundwater quality can also be affected to varying degrees by mixing with drilling fluids. The combined use of inorganic chemistry and stable isotopes can be used effectively to identify dilution signals and map the dilution patterns through a range of fresh, brackish and saline water types. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen are nearly ideal natural tracers of water, but situations occur when deep

  11. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2016-05-05

    ,905 acre-ft/yr (7 percent of total simulated inflow). Simulated outflow from the model primarily was through discharge to streams, lakes, springs, seeps, and Puget Sound (594,595 acre-ft/yr; 95 percent of total simulated outflow excluding changes in storage) and through withdrawals from wells (30,761 acre-ft/yr; 5 percent of total simulated outflow excluding changes in storage).Six scenarios were formulated with input from project stakeholders and were simulated using the calibrated model to provide representative examples of how the model could be used to evaluate the effects on water levels and stream baseflows of potential changes in groundwater withdrawals, in consumptive use, and in recharge. These included simulations of a steady-state system, no-pumping and return flows, 15-percent increase in current withdrawals in all wells, 80-percent decrease in outdoor water to simulate effects of conservation efforts, 15-percent decrease in recharge from precipitation to simulate a drought, and particle tracking to determine flow paths.Changes in water-level altitudes and baseflow amounts vary depending on the stress applied to the system in these various scenarios. Reducing recharge by 15 percent between 2005 and 2012 had the largest effect, with water-level altitudes declining throughout the model domain and baseflow amounts decreasing by as much as 18 percent compared to baseline conditions. Changes in pumping volumes had a smaller effect on the model. Removing all pumping and resulting return flows caused increased water-level altitudes in many areas and increased baseflow amounts of between 1 and 3 percent.

  12. Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramers, Anna; Wangel, Josefin; Johansson, Stefan; Höjer, Mattias; Finnveden, Göran; Brandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult. - Highlights: • Cities' climate targets are almost impossible to compare and benchmark. • There is a need for consistent protocols and frameworks supporting target setting. • A framework with key methodological considerations for cities' climate targets is identified. • The framework is used to explore the climate targets for eight European cities. • The difference between production- and consumption based accounting is illustrated in a new way

  13. The prehospital emergency care system in Mexico City: a system's performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Luis Mauricio Pinet

    2006-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the highest mortality rates in Mexico, with non-intentional injuries as a leading cause of death among persons 1-44 years of age. Emergency medical services (EMS) in Mexico can achieve high levels of efficiency by offering high quality medical care at a low cost through adequate system design. The objective of this study was to determine whether the prehospital EMS system in Mexico City meets the criteria standards established by the American Ambulance Association Guide for Contracting Emergency Medical Services (AAA Guide) for highly efficient EMS systems. This retrospective, descriptive study, evaluated the structure of Mexico City's EMS system and analyzed EMS response times, clinical capacity, economic efficiency, and customer satisfaction. These results were compared with the AAA guide, according to the soc ial, economic, and political context in Mexico. This paper describes the healthcare system structure in Mexico, followed by a description of the basic structure of EMS in Mexico City, and of each tenet described in the AAA guide. The p aper includesdata obtained from official documents and databases of government agencies, and operative and administrative data from public and private EMS providers. The quality of the data for response times (RT) were insufficient and widely varied among providers, with a minimum RT of 6.79 minutes (min) and a maximum RT of 61 min. Providers did not define RT clearly, and measured it with averages, which can hide potentially poor performance practices. Training institutions are not required to follow a standardized curriculum. Certifications are the responsibility of the individual training centers and have no government regulation. There was no evidence of active medical control involvement in direct patient care, and providers did not report that quality assurance programs were in place. There also are limited career advancement opportunities for EMS personnel. Small economies of scale may not allow

  14. Urban heat islands in the subsurface of German cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Zhu, K.; Bayer, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the subsurface of many cities there are widespread and persistent thermal anomalies (subsurface urban heat islands) that result in a warming of urban aquifers. The reasons for this heating are manifold. Possible heat sources are basements of buildings, leakage of sewage systems, buried district heating networks, re-injection of cooling water and solar irradiation on paved surfaces. In the current study, the reported groundwater temperatures in several German cities, such as Berlin, Munich, Cologne and Karlsruhe, are compared. Available data sets are supplemented by temperature measurements and depth profiles in observation wells. Trend analyses are conducted with time series of groundwater temperatures, and three-dimensional groundwater temperature maps are provided. In all investigated cities, pronounced positive temperature anomalies are present. The distribution of groundwater temperatures appears to be spatially and temporally highly variable. Apparently, the increased heat input into the urban subsurface is controlled by very local and site-specific parameters. In the long-run, the superposition of various heat sources results in an extensive temperature increase. In many cases, the maximum temperature elevation is found close to the city centre. Regional groundwater temperature differences between the city centre and the rural background are up to 5 °C, with local hot spots of even more pronounced anomalies. Particular heat sources, like cooling water injections or case-specific underground constructions, can cause local temperatures > 20°C in the subsurface. Examination of the long-term variations in isotherm maps shows that temperatures have increased by about 1°C in the city, as well as in the rural background areas over the last decades. This increase could be reproduced with trend analysis of temperature data gathered from several groundwater wells. Comparison between groundwater and air temperatures in Karlsruhe, for example, also indicates a

  15. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35 degrees N., long 115 degrees W and lat 38 degrees N., long 118 degrees W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system

  16. Implications of Self-Potential Distribution for Groundwater Flow System in a Nonvolcanic Mountain Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Tada-nori; Kondo, Kazuya; Ito, Rina; Esaki, Keisuke; Oouchi, Yasuo; Abe, Yutaka; Tsujimura, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Self-potential (SP) measurements were conducted at Mt. Tsukuba, Japan, which is a nonvolcanic mountain, to infer groundwater flow system in the mountain. Survey routes were set around the northern slope, and the reliability of observed SP anomaly was checked by using SP values along parallel survey routes; the error was almost within 10 mV. The FFT analysis of the spatial SP distribution allows us a separation of raw data into two components with shorter and longer wavelength. In the shorter ...

  17. Basic concepts and formulations for isotope geochemical modelling of groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the basic chemical principles and methodologies for geochemical models and their use in the field of isotope hydrology. Examples of calculation procedures are given on actual field data. Summary information on available PC software for geochemical modeling is included. The specific software, NETPATH, which can be used for chemical speciation, mass balance and isotope balance along a flow path in groundwater systems, is discussed at some length with an illustrative example of its application to field data. (author). Refs, 14 figs, 15 tabs

  18. Analysis of TCE Fate and Transport in Karst Groundwater Systems Using Statistical Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems are highly productive and provide an important fresh water resource for human development and ecological integrity. Their high productivity is often associated with conduit flow and high matrix permeability. The same characteristics that make these aquifers productive also make them highly vulnerable to contamination and a likely for contaminant exposure. Of particular interest are trichloroethylene, (TCE) and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). These chemicals have been identified as potential precursors of pre-term birth, a leading cause of neonatal complications with a significant health and societal cost. Both of these contaminants have been found in the karst groundwater formations in this area of the island. The general objectives of this work are to: (1) develop fundamental knowledge and determine the processes controlling the release, mobility, persistence, and possible pathways of contaminants in karst groundwater systems, and (2) characterize transport processes in conduit and diffusion-dominated flow under base flow and storm flow conditions. The work presented herein focuses on the use of geo-hydro statistical tools to characterize flow and transport processes under different flow regimes, and their application in the analysis of fate and transport of TCE. Multidimensional, laboratory-scale Geo-Hydrobed models (GHM) were used for this purpose. The models consist of stainless-steel tanks containing karstified limestone blocks collected from the karst aquifer formation of northern Puerto Rico. The models integrates a network of sampling wells to monitor flow, pressure, and solute concentrations temporally and spatially. Experimental work entails injecting dissolved CaCl2 tracers and TCE in the upstream boundary of the GHM while monitoring TCE and tracer concentrations spatially and temporally in the limestone under different groundwater flow regimes. Analysis of the temporal and spatial concentration distributions of solutes

  19. Basic concepts and formulations for isotope geochemical modelling of groundwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, R M [The Queen` s University, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-10-01

    This chapter describes the basic chemical principles and methodologies for geochemical models and their use in the field of isotope hydrology. Examples of calculation procedures are given on actual field data. Summary information on available PC software for geochemical modeling is included. The specific software, NETPATH, which can be used for chemical speciation, mass balance and isotope balance along a flow path in groundwater systems, is discussed at some length with an illustrative example of its application to field data. (author). Refs, 14 figs, 15 tabs.

  20. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  1. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for most of the rural communities in Africa (approximately 75% of Africans has confidence in groundwater as their major source of drinking water). Many African countries has affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater (up to 90 mg/L), generating the contamination of waters, soils and food, in particular in the eastern part of the continent. It seems that fluoride concentration is linked to geology of the Rift Valley: geogenic occurrence of fluoride is often connected to supergenic enrichment due to the weathering of alkaline volcanic rocks, fumaric gases and presence of thermal waters. The H2020 project FLOWERED (de-FLuoridation technologies for imprOving quality of WatEr and agRo-animal products along the East African Rift Valley in the context of aDaptation to climate change) wish to address environmental and health (human and animal) issues associated to the fluoride contamination in the African Rift Valley, in particular in three case study area located in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. FLOWERED aims to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale through a strong interdisciplinary research approach. It implies knowledge of geology, hydrogeology, mineralogy, geochemistry, agronomy, crop and animal sciences, engineering, technological sciences, data management and software design, economics and communication. The proposed approach is based on a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological setting, with the identification and mapping of the specific geological conditions of water contamination and its relation with the different land uses. The East African Rift System (EARS) groundwater circulation and storage, today already poorly understood, is characterized by a complex arrangement of aquifers. It depends on the type of porosity and permeability created during and after the rock formation, and is strongly conditioned by the

  2. The fate of ammonium-nitrogen in leachate contaminated groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Atta; W, Yaacob W. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical conditions influences strongly on ammonium attenuation and ultimately its long-term fate in the subsurface. The purpose of this work was to identify the conditions influencing the persistence of ammonium-nitrogen in the contaminated groundwater system of Taman Beringin ex-landfill site in Malaysia. This study applies hydrogeochemical data extractions techniques of redox sensitive groundwater species from previously installed monitoring wells between February to August 2014. Electrochemical measurements of Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) were collected successively with several other physicochemical parameters including pH, Temperature, and DO in the landfill site. The result show that the mean concentration of NH4-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N are: (47.98±81.83 mg/L), (0.17±0.22 mg/L) and (6.11± 8.74 mg/L) respectively. The mean range of redox potentials (-10.25±128.28 mV) delineated areas of strongly reducing conditions. Based on the evaluation of the data, NH4-N, NO2-N and NO3-N accounts for 89.98%, 0.28% and 9.7% respectively of the groundwater concentration of total nitrogen, while a miniature proportion of oxidisable nitrogen concentrations (10.02%) are attributed t o biological process of nitrification. Relationship exist between data set NH4-N and ORP (r = -0.65009). It was concluded that although biological attenuation processes are effectively decreasing the ammonia concentrations in some of the wells, the processes are inhibited by chemical conditions that were attributed to Fe reducing conditions as observed in some of the wells. NH4-N will remain persistent and at elevated levels as much as the conditions persist and contributes in determining the fate of NH4-N in the Taman Beringin ground water system.

  3. Application of Fe-Cu/Biochar System for Chlorobenzene Remediation of Groundwater in Inhomogeneous Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorobenzene (CB, as a typical Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC, is toxic, highly persistent and easily migrates in water, posing a significant risk to human health and subsurface ecosystems. Therefore, exploring effective approaches to remediate groundwater contaminated by CB is essential. As an enhanced micro-electrolysis system for CB-contaminated groundwater remediation, this study attempted to couple the iron-copper bimetal with biochar. Two series of columns using sands with different grain diameters were used, consisting of iron, copper and biochar fillings as the permeable reactive barriers (PRBs, to simulate the remediation of CB-contaminated groundwater in homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. Regardless of the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous porous media, the CB concentrations in the effluent from the PRB columns were significantly lower than the natural sandy columns, suggesting that the iron and copper powders coupled with biochar particles could have a significant removal effect compared to the natural sand porous media in the first columns. CB was transported relatively quickly in the heterogeneous porous media, likely due to the fact that the contaminant residence time is proportional to the infiltration velocities in the different types of porous media. The average effluent CB concentrations from the heterogeneous porous media were lower than those from homogeneous porous media. The heterogeneity retarded the vertical infiltration of CB, leading to its extended lateral distribution. During the treatment process, benzene and phenol were observed as the products of CB degradation. The ultimate CB removal efficiency was 61.4% and 68.1%, demonstrating that the simulated PRB system with the mixture of iron, copper and biochar was effective at removing CB from homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers.

  4. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  5. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  6. Study of Earthquake Disaster Prediction System of Langfang city Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Dian; Li, Pan; Zhang, YunHui; Zhang, RuoFei

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, according to the status of China’s need to improve the ability of earthquake disaster prevention, this paper puts forward the implementation plan of earthquake disaster prediction system of Langfang city based on GIS. Based on the GIS spatial database, coordinate transformation technology, GIS spatial analysis technology and PHP development technology, the seismic damage factor algorithm is used to predict the damage of the city under different intensity earthquake disaster conditions. The earthquake disaster prediction system of Langfang city is based on the B / S system architecture. Degree and spatial distribution and two-dimensional visualization display, comprehensive query analysis and efficient auxiliary decision-making function to determine the weak earthquake in the city and rapid warning. The system has realized the transformation of the city’s earthquake disaster reduction work from static planning to dynamic management, and improved the city’s earthquake and disaster prevention capability.

  7. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  8. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.The three-dimensional, groundwater flow model developed for this investigation used the numerical code MODFLOW–NWT to represent changes in groundwater pumping and aquifer recharge from predevelopment (before 1900) to future conditions, from 1900 to 2058. The model was constructed using existing hydrogeologic and geospatial information to represent the aquifer system geometry, boundaries, and hydraulic properties of the 19 separate regional aquifers and confining units within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system and was calibrated using an inverse modeling parameter-estimation (PEST) technique.The parameter estimation process was achieved through history matching, using observations of heads and flows for both steady-state and transient conditions. A total of 8,868 annual water-level observations from 644 wells from 1986 to 2008 were combined into 29 water-level observation groups that were chosen to focus the history matching on specific hydrogeologic units in geographic areas in which distinct geologic and hydrologic conditions were observed. In addition to absolute water-level elevations, the water-level differences between individual measurements were also included in the parameter estimation process to remove the systematic bias caused by missing hydrologic stresses prior to 1986. The total average residual of –1.7 feet was normally distributed for all head groups, indicating minimal bias. The average absolute residual value

  9. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  10. Cities: Managing densely settled social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan. Grove

    2009-01-01

    The transition from a rural to urban population represents a demographic, economic, cultural, and environmental tipping point. In 1800, about 3% of the world’s human population lived in urban areas. By 1900, this proportion rose to approximately 14% and now exceeds 50% in 2008. Nearly every week 1.3 million additional people arrive in the world’s cities (about 70...

  11. The Development of the Model for the Park and Ride System in the Major Lithuanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Palevičius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Park and Ride (P&R is the original transport system of public passengers, acting as a traditional supplement of public transport. The system is becoming widely popular in European cities. The central core of this system is composed of parking facilities in the specified parking areas at the approaches to the city with connections to public transport or special buses that allow people reach the city centre. The P&R system is based on a reduction in car density in the city centre as well as on a decrease in traffic noise, air and visual pollution. Furthermore, the P&R system is an economical and time-saving way to travel. This article has been prepared according to structural support provided by the European Union (EU for the purpose of developing the P&R system in five major Lithuanian cities – Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Siauliai and Panevezys. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the development and application of the theoretical model of the P&R system to Lithuanian cities according to external good and bad practice.

  12. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  13. Comprehensive studies of hydrogeochemical processes and quality status of groundwater with tools of cluster, grouping analysis, and fuzzy set method using GIS platform: a case study of Dalcheon in Ulsan City, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Rajesh, R; Lee, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Prasanna, M V

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed at developing comprehensive assessments of physicochemical quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes at Dalcheon in Ulsan City, Korea. The mean concentration of major ions represented as follows: Ca (94.3 mg/L) > Mg (41.7 mg/L) > Na (19.2 mg/L) > K (3.2 mg/L) for cations and SO4 (351 mg/L) > HCO3 (169 mg/L) > Cl (19 mg/L) for anions. Thematic maps for physicochemical parameters of groundwater were prepared, classified, weighted, and integrated in GIS method with fuzzy logic. The maps exhibited that suitable zone of drinking and irrigation purpose occupied in SE, NE, and NW sectors. The undesirable zone of drinking purpose was observed in SW and central parts and that of irrigation was in the western part of the study area. This was influenced by improperly treated effluents from an abandoned iron ore mine, irrigation, and domestic fields. By grouping analysis, groundwater types were classified into Ca(HCO3)2, (Ca,Mg)Cl2, and CaCl2, and CaHCO3 was the most predominant type. Grouping analysis also showed three types of irrigation water such as C1S1, C1S2, and C1S3. C1S3 type of high salinity to low sodium hazard was the most dominant in the study area. Equilibrium processes elucidated the groundwater samples were in the saturated to undersaturated condition with respect to aragonite, calcite, dolomite, and gypsum due to precipitation and deposition processes. Cluster analysis suggested that high contents of SO4 and HCO3 with low Cl was related with water-rock interactions and along with mining impact. This study showed that the effluents discharged from mining waste was the main sources of groundwater quality deterioration.

  14. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer was monitored during 1991-95 at the Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota. The objectives of the study were to:

  15. Curricular Design for Intelligent Systems in Geosciences Using Urban Groundwater Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Pierce, S. A.; Fuentes-Pineda, G.; Arora, R.

    2016-12-01

    Geosciences research frequently focuses on process-centered phenomena, studying combinations of physical, geological, chemical, biological, ecological, and anthropogenic factors. These interconnected Earth systems can be best understood through the use of digital tools that should be documented as workflows. To develop intelligent systems, it is important that geoscientists and computing and information sciences experts collaborate to: (1) develop a basic understanding of the geosciences and computing and information sciences disciplines so that the problem and solution approach are clear to all stakeholders, and (2) implement the desired intelligent system with a short turnaround time. However, these interactions and techniques are seldom covered in traditional Earth Sciences curricula. We have developed an exchange course on Intelligent Systems for Geosciences to support workforce development and build capacity to facilitate skill-development at the undergraduate student-level. The first version of this course was offered jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México as an intensive, study-abroad summer course. Content included: basic Linux introduction, shell scripting and high performance computing, data management, experts systems, field data collection exercises and basics of machine learning. Additionally, student teams were tasked to develop a term projects that centered on applications of Intelligent Systems applied to urban and karst groundwater systems. Projects included expert system and reusable workflow development for subsidence hazard analysis in Celaya, Mexico, a classification model to analyze land use change over a 30 Year Period in Austin, Texas, big data processing and decision support for central Texas groundwater case studies and 3D mapping with point cloud processing at three Texas field sites. We will share experiences and pedagogical insights to improve future versions of this course.

  16. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  17. Water resilient green cities in Africa Newsletter issue 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Fryd, Ole

    2015-01-01

    recharge and provide additional ecosystem services to the benefit of the citizens’ everyday life. Cities in Africa, like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salam, Tanzania, do not have adequate city-wide conventional urban water systems like centralized, pipe-based water supply, drainage and sanitation......Many cities around the world are exploring green infrastructures with landscape-based systems as solutions to complement the limited capacity or extend the conventional water systems. In addition to improving flood protection, these landscape-based systems can support water supply, groundwater...

  18. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  19. Evaluation of energy consumption of treating nitrate-contaminated groundwater by bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconet, Daniele; Zou, Shiqiang; Capodaglio, Andrea G; He, Zhen

    2018-09-15

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a mounting concern for drinking water production due to its healthy and ecological effects. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are a promising method for energy efficient nitrate removal, but its energy consumption has not been well understood. Herein, we conducted a preliminary analysis of energy consumption based on both literature information and multiple assumptions. Four scenarios were created for the purpose of analysis based on two treatment approaches, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and controlled biocathodic denitrification (CBD), under either in situ or ex situ deployment. The results show a specific energy consumption based on the mass of NO 3 - -N removed (SEC N ) of 0.341 and 1.602 kWh kg NO 3 - -N -1 obtained from in situ and ex situ treatments with MFCs, respectively; the main contributor was the extraction of the anolyte (100%) in the former and pumping the groundwater (74.8%) for the latter. In the case of CBD treatment, the energy consumption by power supply outcompeted all the other energy items (over 85% in all cases), and a total SEC N of 19.028 and 10.003 kWh kg NO 3 - -N -1 were obtained for in situ and ex situ treatments, respectively. The increase in the water table depth (from 10 to 30 m) and the decrease of the nitrate concentration (from 25 to 15 mg NO 3 - -N) would lead to a rise in energy consumption in the ex situ treatment. Although some data might be premature due to the lack of sufficient information in available literature, the results could provide an initial picture of energy consumption by BES-based groundwater treatment and encourage further thinking and analysis of energy consumption (and production). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Elitist Multiobjective Tabu Search for Optimal Design of Groundwater Remediation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Jinguo; Zhou, Zhifang

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a new multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), the elitist multiobjective tabu search (EMOTS), and incorporates it with MODFLOW/MT3DMS to develop a groundwater simulation-optimization (SO) framework based on modular design for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using pump-and-treat (PAT) technique. The most notable improvement of EMOTS over the original multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the elitist strategy, selection strategy, and neighborhood move rule. The elitist strategy is to maintain all nondominated solutions within later search process for better converging to the true Pareto front. The elitism-based selection operator is modified to choose two most remote solutions from current candidate list as seed solutions to increase the diversity of searching space. Moreover, neighborhood solutions are uniformly generated using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) in the bounded neighborhood space around each seed solution. To demonstrate the performance of the EMOTS, we consider a synthetic groundwater remediation example. Problem formulations consist of two objective functions with continuous decision variables of pumping rates while meeting water quality requirements. Especially, sensitivity analysis is evaluated through the synthetic case for determination of optimal combination of the heuristic parameters. Furthermore, the EMOTS is successfully applied to evaluate remediation options at the field site of the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. With both the hypothetical and the large-scale field remediation sites, the EMOTS-based SO framework is demonstrated to outperform the original MOTS in achieving the performance metrics of optimality and diversity of nondominated frontiers with desirable stability and robustness. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  2. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  3. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  4. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  5. Chemical evolution of deep groundwaters in granites, information acquired from natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.

    1993-01-01

    A research program has been carried out for five years, concerning a major aspect of deep radioactive waste disposals: groundwaters in the host-rock. The following items have been examined: the exact composition of confined waters, excluding those which are found in highly conductive (even deep) fractures; evolution path from surface waters to confined waters; possible influence of the repository on the composition of groundwaters; possible influence of groundwaters on the elements which could escape the repository (major elements, trace elements, radioactive elements). The following methodology is used: groundwater sampling and analysis, identification of the major phenomena controlling element concentration in groundwaters, modelling, modelling validation. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  7. Study on protection and reclamation for the groundwater resources in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ig-Hwan; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Byung-Dae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)

    1999-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the protection of contaminated groundwater and reclamation in the Pusan area. Groundwater Busan city is highly subjected to groundwater contamination due to its unfavorable geographical features; it is located in the estuaries of the Nakdong river, most of the urban area are composed of highlands, and the large population resides in the downhill. Heavy pumping and deterioration of groundwater are currently found to be significant compared to other major cities, resulting in shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater. The first step of the research aims at investigating hydrogeological features which includes analysis of climate and hydrologic data, investigation of geology and structural pattern, acquisition of hydrological data, inspection of wells, measurement of groundwater level, analysis of water samples, investigation of groundwater contamination, isotope analysis, and monitoring water level by automated data logger to identify seawater intrusion. The second step is to simulate the two-dimensional flow model after construction of the database. Aside from this, abandoned wells were transformed into observation wells. An effort for remedy of contaminated groundwater was made and the water quality was constantly monitored to improve the deteriorated water to the drinking water. Kriging analysis and geostatistical analysis were carried out in order to verify the effect of seawater intrusion, showing that there is no clear evidence of seawater intrusion. Instead, it is clear that groundwater in the inland district was preferentially contaminated by pollutants originated from human activities. Based on the two-dimensional flow model, only 0.021 m{sup 3} may be allocated to each person a day from public wells for emergency. In order to ensure that protection and remediation of groundwater of the Busan area are able to accomplish, well-controlled management of aquifer systems needs to be maintained and

  8. Stormwater Effects on Heavy Metal Sequestration in a Bioretention System in Culver City, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousavich, D. J.; Ellis, A. S.; Dorsey, J.; Johnston, K.

    2017-12-01

    Rain Gardens, also referred to as bioretention or biofilters, are often used to capture or filter urban runoff before it drains into surface or groundwater systems. The Culver City Rain Garden (CCRG) is one such system that is designed to capture and filter runoff from approximately 11 acres of mixed-use commercial and industrial land before it enters Ballona Creek. The EPA has designated Ballona Creek as an impaired waterway and established Total Maximum Daily Loads for heavy metals. Previous research has utilized sequential extractions to establish trends in heavy metal sequestration for Cu, Pb, and Zn in bioretention media. The aim of this project is to evaluate if there is a difference in heavy metal sequestration between dry and wetted bioretention media. To characterize the stormwater at the site, influent and surface water were collected and analyzed for sulfate and heavy metals 3 times during the 2016-2017 storm season. Two soil cores from the CCRG were acquired in the summer of 2017 to analyze soil metal sequestration trends. They will be subjected to different wetting conditions, sectioned into discrete depths, and digested with an established sequential extraction technique. Surface water in the CCRG shows average Dissolved Oxygen during wet conditions of 2.92 mg/L and average pH of 6.1 indicating reducing conditions near the surface and the possible protonation of adsorption sites during wet weather conditions. Influent metal data indicate average dissolved iron levels near 1 ppm and influent Cu, Pb, and Zn levels near 0.05, 0.01, and 0.5 ppm respectively. This coupled with average surface water sulfate levels near 3 ppm indicates the potential for iron oxide and sulfide mineral formation depending on redox conditions. The sequential extraction results will elucidate whether heavy metals are adsorbed or are being sequestered in mineral formation. These results will allow for the inclusion of heavy metal sequestration trends in the design of further

  9. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  10. Groundwater contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon due to diesel spill from a telecom base station in a Nigerian City: assessment of human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu Cornelius; Ochonogor, Alfred

    2018-03-26

    Diesel pollution of groundwater poses great threat to public health, mainly as a result of the constituent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the human health risk exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel contaminated groundwater used by several families at Ring Road, Jos, Nigeria (as caused by diesel spill from a telecom base station) was assessed. Prior to the groundwater being treated, the residents were using the water after scooping off the visible diesel sheen for purposes of cooking, washing, and bathing. Until this study, it is not clear whether the groundwater contamination had resulted in sub-chronic exposure of the residents using the water to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the extent of the PAHs posing a health risk. The diesel contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated nearby groundwater (control) were collected and analyzed for PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dosage of the dermal and oral ingestion entry routes of PAHs was determined. The estimation of the non-carcinogenic health risk was via hazard quotients (HQ) and the associated hazard index (HI), while the estimation of the carcinogenic health risk was via lifetime cancer risks (LCR) and the associated risk index (RI). Obtained results indicate that the exposure of the residents to the PAHs may have made them susceptible to the risk of non-carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)pyrene and the carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  11. Origin and distribution of saline groundwaters in the upper Miocene aquifer system, coastal Rhodope area, northeastern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, C. P.; Diamantis, I. B.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the origins and distribution of saline groundwaters in the coastal area of Rhodope, Greece. The aquifer system includes two aquifers within coarse-grained alluvial sediments in the coastal part of the study area. Two major water-quality groups occur in the study area, namely Ca2+-rich saline groundwater and Ca2+-poor, almost fresh groundwater. The main process controlling the groundwater chemistry is the exchange of calcium and sodium between the aquifer matrix and intruding seawater. The natural salt water in the study area is probably residual water that infiltrated the aquifer system during repeated marine transgressions in late Pleistocene time. Seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer system occurs as a result of overpumping in two seawater wedges separated vertically by a low-permeability layer. The rate of intrusion averages 0.8 m/d and is less than expected due to a decline of the aquifer's permeability at the interface with the seawater. The application of several hydrochemical techniques (Piper and Durov diagrams; Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Br-/Cl- molar ratios; Ca2+/Mg2+ weight ratio; and chloride concentrations), combined with field observations, may lead to a better explanation of the origin of the saline groundwater.

  12. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.

    1988-01-01

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  13. Design and testing of a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system for predicting concentrations of agrichemicals in groundwater across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E; Voss, Frank D.

    2016-03-29

    Efforts to assess the likelihood of groundwater contamination from surface-derived compounds have spanned more than three decades. Relatively few of these assessments, however, have involved the use of process-based simulations of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface, or compared the predictions from such models with measured data—especially over regional to national scales. To address this need, a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system was constructed to use transport-and-fate simulations to predict the concentration of any surface-derived compound at a specified depth in the vadose zone anywhere in the conterminous United States. The system was then used to simulate the concentrations of selected agrichemicals in the vadose zone beneath agricultural areas in multiple locations across the conterminous United States. The simulated concentrations were compared with measured concentrations of the compounds detected in shallow groundwater (that is, groundwater drawn from within a depth of 6.3 ± 0.5 meters [mean ± 95 percent confidence interval] below the water table) in more than 1,400 locations across the United States. The results from these comparisons were used to select the simulation approaches that led to the closest agreement between the simulated and the measured concentrations.The P-GWAVA system uses computer simulations that account for a broader range of the hydrologic, physical, biological and chemical phenomena known to control the transport and fate of solutes in the subsurface than has been accounted for by any other vulnerability assessment over regional to national scales. Such phenomena include preferential transport and the influences of temperature, soil properties, and depth on the partitioning, transport, and transformation of pesticides in the subsurface. Published methods and detailed soil property data are used to estimate a wide range of model input parameters for each site, including surface

  14. Implementation Of L-System In Procedural City Generation Using Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Sujarwo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses about the design and implementation of procedural content generation using java, especially the generation of virtual city. It is applied by using L-System to generate the elements of the city and also using some images as the base models. This method is proven to be more effective because it can produce almost unlimited variations of city in short amount of time without any needs to modify the application. The result of this application is a road map which can be used in many areas such as virtual reality, games, or other related purposes.

  15. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  16. Ground-water pumpage in the Willamette lowland regional aquifer system, Oregon and Washington, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Charles A.; Broad, Tyson M.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage for 1990 was estimated for an area of about 5,700 square miles in northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington as part of the Puget-Willamette Lowland Regional Aquifer System Analysis study. The estimated total ground-water pumpage in 1990 was about 340,000 acre-feet. Ground water in the study area is pumped mainly from Quaternary sediment; lesser amounts are withdrawn from Tertiary volcanic materials. Large parts of the area are used for agriculture, and about two and one-half times as much ground water was pumped for irrigation as for either public- supply or industrial needs. Estimates of ground- water pumpage for irrigation in the central part of the Willamette Valley were generated by using image-processing techniques and Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Field data and published reports were used to estimate pumpage for irrigation in other parts of the study area. Information on public- supply and industrial pumpage was collected from Federal, State, and private organizations and individuals.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMATED ROAD TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS IN MINSK AS PART OF THE INTELLECTUAL CITY TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of Minsk city transport system performance. It is shown that the growth of car ownership has caused a number of problems, among which the low-speed communication, bad driving modes, the presence of elevated levels of congestion and accidents. The corresponding figures for accidents in Minsk and some cities in the world that allow to characterize the transport system of the city of Minsk, as satisfactory. To improve the system and improve the quality of traffic necessary to create intelligent transport system of the city of Minsk. Intelligent Transportation System, being a global trend, enables dramatically improve road quality. Automated traffic control system and other subsystems as part of the Intelligent Transportation Systems are tools for achieving the goals for improving the safety and comfort of road users. It is proposed as a base for its creation to choose an automated traffic control system, which has a corresponding functional, structural, organizational and institutional provisions for its development. The technological requirements for the functioning of an integrated system, which relate to the level of efficiency, including accidents on sections of the road network included in the created system. Modernization of the automated traffic control system and its transformation into an intelligent transport system will reduce emergency, economic and environmental, and social costs in the road traffic is not less than 15 % from their current level, despite the steady growth of car ownership in the city. It is planned to create a complete intelligent transportation system.

  18. Development of a groundwater monitoring system at Horonobe Underground Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanjo, Isao; Amano, Yuki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Hiroaki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Morikawa, Keita; Hosoya, Shinichi

    2012-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops basic investigation techniques for deep geological environment around Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Horonobe area, Japan. The observation technique of hydrochemical condition in low permeable sedimentary rock around the facility is one of R and D subjects. We report, 1) development of hydrochemical monitoring system to observe water pressure, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, redox potential and temperature, 2) hydrochemical observation results around URL under construction. The applicability of the hydrochemical monitoring system is evaluated for low permeable sedimentary rock bearing abundant dissolved gases. The hydrochemical observation during facility construction demonstrates that pH and redox potential of groundwater almost did not changed even at hydraulic disturbed zone (water pressure decreased zone). A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  19. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs

  20. What Drives Saline Circulation Cells in Coastal Aquifers? An Energy Balance for Density-Driven Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C. F.; Michael, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We formulate the energy balance for coastal groundwater systems and apply it to: (1) Explain the energy driving offshore saline circulation cells, and; (2) Assess the accuracy of numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems. The flow of fresh groundwater to the ocean is driven by the loss of potential energy as groundwater drops from the elevation of the inland watertable, where recharge occurs, to discharge at sea level. This freshwater flow creates an underlying circulation cell of seawater, drawn into coastal aquifers offshore and discharging near shore, that adds to total submarine groundwater discharge. The saline water in the circulation cell enters and exits the aquifer through the sea floor at the same hydraulic potential. Existing theory explains that the saline circulation cell is driven by mixing of fresh and saline without any additional source of potential or mechanical power. This explanation raises a basic thermodynamic question: what is the source of energy that drives the saline circulation cell? Here, we resolve this question by building upon Hubbert's conception of hydraulic potential to formulate an energy balance for density-dependent flow and salt transport through an aquifer. We show that, because local energy dissipation within the aquifer is proportional to the square of the groundwater velocity, more groundwater flow may be driven through an aquifer for a given energy input if local variations in velocity are smoothed. Our numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems show that dispersion of salt across the fresh-saline interface spreads flow over larger volumes of the aquifer, smoothing the velocity field, and increasing total flow and submarine groundwater discharge without consuming more power. The energy balance also provides a criterion, in addition to conventional mass balances, for judging the accuracy of numerical solutions of non-linear density-dependent flow problems. Our results show that some numerical

  1. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  2. Pioneering driverless electric vehicles in Europe: the City Automated Transport System (CATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Christie , Derek; Koymans , Anne; Chanard , Thierry; Lasgouttes , Jean-Marc; Kaufmann , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The City Automated Transport System (CATS) was a collaborative FP7 European project that lasted from 2010 to 2014. Its objective was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of driverless electric vehicles in European cities. This contribution explains how the project was implemented by 11 teams in five countries, culminating with practical trials of driverless vehicles in Strasbourg, France; Ploiesti, Romania; and Lausanne, Switzerland. The Navya vehicles used we...

  3. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  4. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it

  5. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS, and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM for two reasons: first, there is a large area where groundwater is saline; and second, there is a high surface irrigation supply to most of the canal commands, e.g., average annual supply to rice command is 1723 mm, close to the annual reference crop evapotranspiration for the area, while there is an additional annual rainfall of about 200 mm. These high irrigation allocations, even in areas where groundwater is fresh, create strong disincentives for farmers to use groundwater. Consequently, areas are waterlogged to the extent of 50% and 70% before and after the monsoon, respectively, which contributes to surface salinity through capillary rise. In Sindh, about 74%–80% of the available groundwater recharge is lost in the form of non-beneficial evaporation. This gives rise to low cropping intensities and yields compared to fresh groundwater areas elsewhere in the IBIS. The drought of 1999–2002 has demonstrated a reduction in waterlogging without any corresponding reduction in crop yields. Therefore, in order to efficiently meet current water requirements of all the sectors, i.e., agriculture, domestic and industrial, an ab initio level of water reallocation and efficient water management, with consideration to groundwater quality and its safe yield, in various areas are recommended. This might systematically reduce the waterlogged areas, support greater cropping intensity than is currently being practiced, and free up water for horizontal expansion, such as in the Thar Desert.

  6. Hydrogeologic setting, conceptual groundwater flow system, and hydrologic conditions 1995–2010 in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2018-05-04

    The hydrogeologic setting and groundwater flow system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina is dominated by the highly transmissive Floridan aquifer system. This principal aquifer is a vital source of freshwater for public and domestic supply, as well as for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the southeastern United States. Population growth, increased tourism, and increased agricultural production have led to increased demand on groundwater from the Floridan aquifer system, particularly since 1950. The response of the Floridan aquifer system to these stresses often poses regional challenges for water-resource management that commonly transcend political or jurisdictional boundaries. To help water-resource managers address these regional challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Availability and Use Science Program began assessing groundwater availability of the Floridan aquifer system in 2009.The current conceptual groundwater flow system was developed for the Floridan aquifer system and adjacent systems partly on the basis of previously published USGS Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) studies, specifically many of the potentiometric maps and the modeling efforts in these studies. The Floridan aquifer system extent was divided into eight hydrogeologically distinct subregional groundwater basins delineated on the basis of the estimated predevelopment (circa 1880s) potentiometric surface: (1) Panhandle, (2) Dougherty Plain-Apalachicola, (3) Thomasville-Tallahassee, (4) Southeast Georgia-Northeast Florida-South South Carolina, (5) Suwannee, (6) West-central Florida, (7) East-central Florida, and (8) South Florida. The use of these subregions allows for a more detailed analysis of the individual basins and the groundwater flow system as a whole.The hydrologic conditions and associated groundwater budget were updated relative to previous RASA studies to include additional data collected since the 1980s and to reflect the

  7. Spatial variability of the response to climate change in regional groundwater systems -- examples from simulations in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Michael S.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Chang, Heejun; Hulbe, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial variability of the response of aquifer systems to climate change in and adjacent to the Cascade Range volcanic arc in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon using downscaled global climate model projections to drive surface hydrologic process and groundwater flow models. Projected warming over the 21st century is anticipated to shift the phase of precipitation toward more rain and less snow in mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in smaller winter snowpack and in a shift in the timing of runoff to earlier in the year. This will be accompanied by spatially variable changes in the timing of groundwater recharge. Analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data and modeling studies show that groundwater plays a key role in determining the response of stream systems to climate change. The spatial variability in the response of groundwater systems to climate change, particularly with regard to flow-system scale, however, has generally not been addressed in the literature. Here we simulate the hydrologic response to projected future climate to show that the response of groundwater systems can vary depending on the location and spatial scale of the flow systems and their aquifer characteristics. Mean annual recharge averaged over the basin does not change significantly between the 1980s and 2080s climate periods given the ensemble of global climate models and emission scenarios evaluated. There are, however, changes in the seasonality of groundwater recharge within the basin. Simulation results show that short-flow-path groundwater systems, such as those providing baseflow to many headwater streams, will likely have substantial changes in the timing of discharge in response changes in seasonality of recharge. Regional-scale aquifer systems with flow paths on the order of many tens of kilometers, in contrast, are much less affected by changes in seasonality of recharge. Flow systems at all spatial scales, however, are likely to reflect

  8. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  9. Sustainability of groundwater supplies in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.

    2016-08-31

    Groundwater is the Nation’s principal reserve of freshwater. It provides about half our drinking water, is essential to food production, and facilitates business and industry in developing economic well-being. Groundwater is also an important source of water for sustaining the ecosystem health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. The decreases in groundwater levels and other effects of pumping that result from large-scale development of groundwater resources have led to concerns about the future availability of groundwater to meet all our Nation’s needs. Assessments of groundwater availability provide the science and information needed by the public and decision makers to manage water resources and use them responsibly.

  10. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  11. Assessment on seasonal variation of groundwater quality of phreatic aquifers - A river basin system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.

    suspended solids (TDS), fluoride and total iron content will help to identify the quality of ground water. Groundwater contamination can often have serious ill ef- fects on human health. Groundwater with low pH values can cause gastrointestinal disorders... is considered as an important parameter for irrigation and industrial purposes. Total dissolved solids help to identify the potability of groundwater. Total iron content may not have direct effects on human health but is of importance due to aesthetic reasons...

  12. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  13. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... intermediate during abiotic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, with the latter formed during bacterial sulfate reduction. The formed elemental sulfur may be used by the specific microbial community found in this aquifer for the oxidation of organic contaminants such as toluene. In contrast, reoxidation...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....

  14. Evaluation of the groundwater Hydric resources of the Guarani Aquifer System from Municipality of Araguari, Minas Gerais Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L. . E- mail: menegasse@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; De Carvalho Filho, C.; Costa Camargos, C. .E- mail: cacf@cdtn.br; E- mail: rena@cpd.ufmt.br

    2007-01-01

    The municipality of Araguari, with a total territorial area of 2.745.85 km2, is located in the western border of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and is situated at the northeastern limit of the Guarani Aquifer System-GAS. This work intends to increase the knowledge of the quantitative potencial and of the dynamics of the GAS in the Municipality bythe development of the following technical activities: elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeologic model of the GAS in the municipality; evaluation of the groundwater recharge; evaluation of groundwater reserves and resources; hydrochemical characterization; investigacion of the provenance and dynamics of groundwater by means of the stable isotopes analysis; elaboration of a hydrogeologic mathematical model of Bauru Aquifer; and evaluation of the natural vulnerability of Bauru Aquifer to anthropic pollution

  15. THE PROBLEM OF INTERCEPTING PARKING SYSTEMS DESIGN IN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hetsovych

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consistent determination of the main problems concerning the system of intercepting parking – lot design with the purpose of transport systems improvement downtown is grounded. The given approach allows to fully satisfy the demand for parking-lots of urban transport systems in combination with the system of downtown parkings and the capacity of the highway network.

  16. The backend design of an environmental monitoring system upon real-time prediction of groundwater level fluctuation under the hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Chun; Hong, Yao-Ming; Kan, Yao-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater level represents a critical factor to evaluate hillside landslides. A monitoring system upon the real-time prediction platform with online analytical functions is important to forecast the groundwater level due to instantaneously monitored data when the heavy precipitation raises the groundwater level under the hillslope and causes instability. This study is to design the backend of an environmental monitoring system with efficient algorithms for machine learning and knowledge bank for the groundwater level fluctuation prediction. A Web-based platform upon the model-view controller-based architecture is established with technology of Web services and engineering data warehouse to support online analytical process and feedback risk assessment parameters for real-time prediction. The proposed system incorporates models of hydrological computation, machine learning, Web services, and online prediction to satisfy varieties of risk assessment requirements and approaches of hazard prevention. The rainfall data monitored from the potential landslide area at Lu-Shan, Nantou and Li-Shan, Taichung, in Taiwan, are applied to examine the system design.

  17. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  18. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The connection between inland and coastal aquifers near Kona, Hawai‘i is uncertain. • If connected, increased inland groundwater pumping may threaten coastal ecosystems. • Connection of inland and coastal aquifers was investigated using geochemical data. • Stable isotope results provide strong evidence of a connection between the systems. • Other geochemical data suggest a connection but are not conclusive. - Abstract: Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is a coastal sanctuary on the western side of the Island of Hawai‘i that was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities. KAHO contains a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources and water-related habitat for species that have been declared as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or are candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are dependent on coastal unconfined groundwater in a freshwater-lens system. The coastal unconfined-groundwater system is recharged by local infiltration of rainfall but also may receive recharge from an inland groundwater system containing groundwater impounded to high altitudes. The area inland of and near KAHO is being rapidly urbanized and increased groundwater withdrawals from the inland impounded-groundwater system may affect habitat and water quality in KAHO, depending on the extent of connection between the coastal unconfined groundwater and inland impounded-groundwater. An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area. Analyses of major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, and strontium-isotope ratio results from ocean, fishpond, anchialine pool, and groundwater samples were consistent with a linear

  19. Groundwater age determination using 85Kr and multiple age tracers (SF6, CFCs, and 3H to elucidate regional groundwater flow systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kagabu

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The groundwater ages could not be estimated using CFCs or SF6, particularly in the urban areas because of artificial additions to the concentration over almost the entire study area. However, even in these regional circumstances, apparent ages of approximately 16, 36, and not less than 55 years were obtained for three locations on the A–A’ line (recharge area, discharge area, and stagnant zone of groundwater, respectively from 85Kr measurements. This trend was also supported by lumped parameter model analysis using a time series of 3H observations. In contrast, along the B–B’ line, the groundwater age of not less than 55 years at three locations, including the recharge to discharge area, where CFCs and SF6 were not detected, implies old groundwater: this is also the area in which denitrification occurs. In the C area, very young groundwater was obtained from shallow water and older groundwater was detected at greater depths, as supported by the long-term fluctuations of the NO3−–N concentration in the groundwater. The results of this study can be effectively used as a “time axis” for sustainable groundwater use and protection of groundwater quality in the study area, where groundwater accounts for almost 100% of the drinking water resources.

  20. Environmental isotope study of groundwater systems in the Republic of Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.Ch.; Saliege, J.F.; Zuppi, G.M.; Pouchan, P.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental isotopes and hydrogeochemistry are being used to shed new light on the occurrence of present-day recharge and on the origin of groundwater systems in the Republic of Djibouti. Furthermore, an attempt is also being made to evaluate palaeohydrological conditions during the past 6000 years. From stable isotope data which lie along a correlation line at a slope of 8 in the diagram delta 2 H-delta 18 O, it can be concluded that recharge occurs by rapid seepage in fractured rocks without evaporation. Some waters from hot springs show an oxygen shift, indicating the occurrence of an exchange process with rocks at high temperatures. The following conclusions can be reached from tritium and 14 C content of waters. Groundwaters can be divided into two groups: one deriving from recent recharge (last five or six years) corresponding to water with rather fast circulations in fractured media; and a second group, pre-bomb recharged corresponding to water with low flow rates in porous media. Only one sample (Yoboki) seems to derive from about 10-year-old recharge. In the case of Abhe hot spring, a 14 C age of about 1200 years may be evaluated. The calcite concretions of the Abhe Lake Basin are believed to have formed as a result of the mixing of lake water (sodium-carbonate type) with groundwater (sodium-chloride, calcium-sulphate type). From the 13 C and 14 C content it appears that the dissolved carbon of present-day lake water is in, or close to, equilibrium with the atmosphere. Consequently, it is assumed that such was also the case during the whole Holocene. The 18 O content of palaeolake water, evaluated from the calcite isotopic composition with the palaeo-temperature equation, was originally more negative than the present one. This is interpreted as due to the fact that the Holocene lake was fed by large floods and that significant seepage occurred through the lake bottom with a consequent reduction of the evaporation effects. (author)

  1. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  2. Anti-saturation system for surface nuclear magnetic resonance in efficient groundwater detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yujing; Sun, Yong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Compared to other geophysical techniques, the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method could provide unique insights into the hydrologic properties of groundwater in the subsurface. However, the SNMR signal is in the order of nanovolts (10-9 V), and the complex environmental noise, i.e., the spike and the harmony noise (10-4 V), can reach up to 105 times the signal amplitude. Saturation of the amplifier is therefore a serious problem in current SNMR systems. In this study, we propose an anti-saturation method based on an instantaneous floating-point amplifier. The gain of a programmable amplifier is controlled by the value of the input signal. A regulating speed of 50 kS/s is thus achieved to satisfy the self-adaptive adjustment of the real-time SNMR system, which replaces the original man-made setting gain. A large dynamic range of 192.65 dB with a 24-bit high speed analog-digital converter module is then implemented. Compared to traditional SNMR instruments, whose magnification factor is fixed during the experiment, our system can effectively inhibit the distortion of the SNMR signal in both laboratory and field settings. Furthermore, an improved SNR, which is realized by the real-time SNMR system, enables the accurate inversion of the aquifer. Our study broadens the applicability of SNMR systems to use in and around developed areas.

  3. The foundation of computer based closed radionuclide sources turnover control system in Moscow city region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.E.; Kozlov, A.A.; Lavrov, K.N.; Sobolev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of Closed Radionuclide Sources (CRS) automated account and control in Moscow city and Moscow region. Information relations structure between authorities and enterprises is shown. Special computer oriented system of CRS turnover monitoring is used for this purposes. Its possibilities and numeric characteristics of database are mentioned. This system benefit and application aspects are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  5. Risk mapping of NO/sub 3/-N contamination on groundwater under intensive rice-based cropping systems in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, C.M.; Baga, M.C.S.; Valencia, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater resources in a 265 ha watershed of highly diversified and intensive rice-based environment was endangered to NO/sub 3/-N contamination with spatial degree of influence and temporal vulnerability risks as affected by intensive cropping systems with application of high N-fertilizer and judicious use of groundwater for irrigation. Such nitrate contamination levels are above the World Health Organization's maximum contamination level of 10 ppm for drinking water. Tree-joining, complete cluster analysis of monthly groundwater depths on observation wells revealed three distinct groups of wells differentiated by groundwater depths. Planting of nitrate catch crops such as legumes to reduce groundwater contamination and vigorous information dissemination on ill-effects of high NO/sub 3/-N, as well as groundwater recharging were considered to reduce contamination. However, the groundwater extraction for irrigation is still sustainable due to natural recharging of rainfall and hydraulic connections from surface water along rivers and creeks. The combined-use of GIS and GPS proved useful for spatial and temporal risk mapping assessment on groundwater NO/sub 3/-N vulnerability among other geo-referenced attributes of groundwater and other environmental considerations at the study site. Such systems analysis tools can be used by planners, researchers, extension workers, students and farmers for other sustainable development and environmental risk mapping, assessment, extrapolation analysis and strategic planning of sustainable development of the environment. (author)

  6. Optimizing the design of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)

  7. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  8. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  9. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  10. Cities' Role in Mitigating United States Food System Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Eugene A; Heller, Martin C; Guthrie, Peter M

    2018-05-15

    Current trends of urbanization, population growth, and economic development have made cities a focal point for mitigating global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The substantial contribution of food consumption to climate change necessitates urban action to reduce the carbon intensity of the food system. While food system GHG mitigation strategies often focus on production, we argue that urban influence dominates this sector's emissions and that consumers in cities must be the primary drivers of mitigation. We quantify life cycle GHG emissions of the United States food system through data collected from literature and government sources producing an estimated total of 3800 kg CO 2 e/capita in 2010, with cities directly influencing approximately two-thirds of food sector GHG emissions. We then assess the potential for cities to reduce emissions through selected measures; examples include up-scaling urban agriculture and home delivery of grocery options, which each may achieve emissions reductions on the order of 0.4 and ∼1% of this total, respectively. Meanwhile, changes in waste management practices and reduction of postdistribution food waste by 50% reduce total food sector emissions by 5 and 11%, respectively. Consideration of the scale of benefits achievable through policy goals can enable cities to formulate strategies that will assist in achieving deep long-term GHG emissions targets.

  11. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems.

  12. Effects of past and future groundwater development on the hydrologic system of Verde Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Communities in central Arizona’s Verde Valley must manage limited water supplies in the face of rapidly growing populations. Developing groundwater resources to meet human needs has raised questions about the effects of groundwater withdrawals by pumping on the area’s rivers and streams, particularly the Verde River. U.S. Geological Survey hydrologists used a regional groundwater flow model to simulate the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow in the Verde River. The study found that streamflow in the Verde River between 1910 and 2005 had been reduced as the result of streamflow depletion by groundwater pumping, also known as capture. Additionally, using three hypothetical scenarios for a period from 2005 to 2110, the study’s findings suggest that streamflow reductions will continue and may increase in the future.

  13. Heterogeneous redox reactions in groundwater flow systems - Investigation and application of two different coupled codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingsten, W.; Carnahan, C.L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-05-01

    Two simulators of reactive chemical transport are applied to a set of problems involving heterogeneous reactions of uranium species. The simulators use similar algorithms to compute the heterogeneous chemical equilibria, but they use different approaches to the computation of solute transport and to the coupling of transport with chemical reactions. One simulator (MCOTAC) sequentially couples calculations of static chemical equilibria to a random-walk simulation of solute advection and dispersion. The other simulator (THCC) directly couples mass action relations for chemical equilibria to finite-difference representations of the solute transport equations. The aim of the comparison was to demonstrate the applicability of the newly developed code MCOTAC to redox problems, and to identify and investigate general differences between the two types of codes within these applications. The chosen heterogeneous redox systems are hypothetically generate systems which provide numerical difficulties within the coupled code calculation. Uranium, an important component of heterogeneous redox systems consisting of uraniferous solids and natural groundwaters, was chosen as a main component in the example redox systems because of practical interest for performance assessment of geological repositories for nuclear wastes. The calculations show reasonable agreement, in general, between the two computational approaches. Specific areas of disagreement arise from numerical difficulties to each approach. Such `benchmarking` can enhance confidence in the overall performance of individual simulators while identifying aspects that may require further investigations and possible modifications. (author) figs., tabs., 7 refs.

  14. Simulating the reactive transport of nitrogen species in a regional irrigated agricultural groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    The fate and transport of nitrogen (N) species in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems is governed by irrigation patterns, cultivation practices, aquifer-surface water exchanges, and chemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction, volatilization, and sorption, as well as the presence of dissolved oxygen (O2). We present results of applying the newly-developed numerical model RT3D-AG to a 50,400-ha regional study site within the Lower Arkansas River Valley in southeastern Colorado, where elevated concentrations of NO3 have been observed in both groundwater and surface water during the recent decade. Furthermore, NO3 has a strong influence on the fate and transport of other contaminants in the aquifer system such as selenium (Se) through inhibition of reduction of dissolved Se as well as oxidation of precipitate Se from outcropped and bedrock shale. RT3D-AG, developed by appending the multi-species reactive transport finite-difference model RT3D with modular packages that account for variably-saturated transport, the cycling of carbon (C) and N, and the fate and transport of O2 within the soil and aquifer system, simulates organic C and organic N decomposition and mineralization, oxidation-reduction reactions, and sorption. System sources/sinks consist of applied fertilizer and manure; crop uptake of ammonium (NH4) and NO3 during the growing season; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 associated with irrigation water and canal seepage; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 transferred to canals and the Arkansas River from the aquifer; and dead root mass and after-harvest stover mass incorporated into the soil organic matter at the end of the growing season. Chemical reactions are simulated using first-order Monod kinetics, wherein the rate of reaction is dependent on the concentration of the reactants as well as temperature and water content of the soil. Fertilizer and manure application timing and loading, mass of seasonal crop uptake, and end-of-season root mass and stover mass are

  15. Expert System Development for Urban Fire Hazard Assessment. Study Case: Kendari City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridala, S.; Yudono, A.; Ramli, M. I.; Akil, A.

    2017-08-01

    Kendari City is a coastal urban region with the smallest area as well as the largest population in Southeast Sulawesi. Fires in Kendari City had rather frequently occurred and caused numerous material losses. This study aims to develop a model of urban fire risk and fire station site assessment. The model is developed using Expert Systems with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The high risk of fire area is the area which of high building density with combustible material, not crossed by arterial nor collector road. The fire station site should be appropriately close by high risk of fire area, located on arterial road and near with potential water resource.

  16. Internet Portal For A Distributed Management of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, U. F.; Rueppel, U.; Gutzke, T.; Seewald, G.; Petersen, M.

    The management of groundwater resources for the supply of German cities and sub- urban areas has become a matter of public interest during the last years. Negative headlines in the Rhein-Main-Area dealt with cracks in buildings as well as damaged woodlands and inundated agriculture areas as an effect of varying groundwater levels. Usually a holistic management of groundwater resources is not existent because of the complexity of the geological system, the large number of involved groups and their divergent interests and a lack of essential information. The development of a network- based information system for an efficient groundwater management was the target of the project: ?Grundwasser-Online?[1]. The management of groundwater resources has to take into account various hydro- geological, climatic, water-economical, chemical and biological interrelations [2]. Thus, the traditional approaches in information retrieval, which are characterised by a high personnel and time expenditure, are not sufficient. Furthermore, the efficient control of the groundwater cultivation requires a direct communication between the different water supply companies, the consultant engineers, the scientists, the govern- mental agencies and the public, by using computer networks. The presented groundwater information system consists of different components, especially for the collection, storage, evaluation and visualisation of groundwater- relevant information. Network-based technologies are used [3]. For the collection of time-dependant groundwater-relevant information, modern technologies of Mobile Computing have been analysed in order to provide an integrated approach in the man- agement of large groundwater systems. The aggregated information is stored within a distributed geo-scientific database system which enables a direct integration of simu- lation programs for the evaluation of interactions in groundwater systems. Thus, even a prognosis for the evolution of groundwater states

  17. Website as Co-Created Decision Support System Towards Enhanced Experience of Solo City Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Sarjono Putro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The linkage among information-intensive era, technology, and tourism industry build inseparable genetic relationship which is supposed to be realized in practice. Let alone in this digital era, the urgency to exploit information to the next level resulted in the need to bring a higher game on the technology in order to manage information effectively and efficiently. Tourism industry is categorized as complex system regarding the components substituted it. The diverse elements which interact with dynamics pace give birth to complex tasks to manage by the responsible parties and consequently enhance experience in tourism industry. Competing with complex situation, computerized decision system is urgently needed to collect and also distribute accurate knowledge of tourism industry, collaborate with both supporting public and private sectors, and gain rationality for all stakeholders in the system. Solo city, known also as Surakarta and located in Central Java (Indonesia, is obliged to do its tourism industry justice as it is an important vehicle for regional development of the city. Tourism industry of Solo city represents the major and significant contributor to the local economy to the point where tourism is the brand of Solo city. Taking the prior research finding, value orchestration platform to promote tourism in batik Solo industrial cluster into the reference, this study improves the model by highlighting the duality function the tourism website supposed to have using hashtag (# minings principle as the latest user interface technology. This study proposes a collaborative website platform as a co-created decision support system to enhance tourism experience for tourist as consumer and optimize management process for Department of Culture and Tourism of Solo city as provider. Keywords: Decision support system, hashtag mining, service-dominant logic, solo city, tourism experience

  18. Evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points in old Jammu City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Meenakshi; Dutta, S P S

    2011-10-01

    To assess water quality of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points, viz. Parade Ground, Mohalla Paharian, Purani Mandi, Malhotrian Street, Raghunathpura and Hari Market in old Jammu city of India, water parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, sulphate, silicate, nitrate, phosphate, iron, copper, zinc, lead and chromium were analyzed during the years 2000-2001/2001-2002. There was alteration in water quality parameters in the distribution system caused by entry of sewage, soil, etc. through dislocation, cracks, valve regulators/turncock, defective joints, breakage, etc. in the pipes through crossing and deposits of biofilms inside the pipes, dead ends and their degradation through microbes. Comparison of water quality with National and International Standards revealed that all the parameters were within permissible limits of drinking water standards. Water Quality Index (WQI) of various physico-chemical parameters revealed that the water of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points was fit for human consumption as it was found under the category of good (WQI < 50).

  19. Ground-water flow and saline water in the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds of Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry S.

    2003-01-01

    Population and tourism continues to grow in Virginia Beach, Virginia, but the supply of freshwater is limited. A pipeline from Lake Gaston supplies water for northern Virginia Beach, but ground water is widely used to water lawns in the north, and most southern areas of the city rely solely on ground water. Water from depths greater than 60 meters generally is too saline to drink. Concentrations of chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Virginia Beach, Department of Public Utilities, investigated the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds to determine the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential uses, and its susceptibility to contamination. Aquifers and confining units of the southern watersheds were delineated and chloride concentrations in the aquifers and confining units were contoured. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model of the shallow aquifer system reached steady state with regard to measured chloride concentrations after 31,550 years of freshwater recharge. Model simulations indicate that if freshwater is found in permeable sediments of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, such a well field could supply freshwater, possibly for decades, but eventually the water would become more saline. The rate of saline-water intrusion toward the well field would depend on the rate of pumping, aquifer properties, and on the proximity of the well field to saline water sources. The steady-state, ground-water-flow model also was used to simulate drawdowns around two hypothetical well fields and drawdowns around two hypothetical open-pit mines. The chloride concentrations simulated in the model did not approximate the measured concentrations for some wells, indicating sites where local hydrogeologic units or unit properties do not conform to the simple hydrogeology of the model. The Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown

  20. Environmental isotope study related to groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in Quaternary aquifers of North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigan; Payne, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    An isotopic hydrology section across the North China Plain has been studied to investigate problems of groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in a semi-arid pre-mountain artesian basin. Two local and one regional flow system along the section have been recognized. Turnover time of water for alluvial fan, shallow and regional systems are estimated to be the order of 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 years respectively. Specific flow rates for the three systems have been calculated. Only less than 5 percent of flow from alluvial fan is drained by the regional flow system and the rest, in natural conditions, discharges at surface in the front edge of an alluvial fan and forms a groundwater discharge belt at a good distance away from the mountain foot. Developed in the alluvial plain and coastal plain areas the shallow flow system embraces a series of small local systems. Groundwater in these systems appears to be the salt carrier during continental salinization. It washes salt out of the recharge area and deep-occurred strata by circulating and carries it up to the surface in lowland areas. Consequently, in parallel with salinization at surface a desalinization process occurs at depth, which provides an additional explanation for the existing thick deep fresh water zone in most arid and semi-arid regions, where continental salting process is in progress. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  2. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Helena M B; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R Russell M; Gusmão, Norma B; Lima, Nelson

    2016-03-09

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens.

  3. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M.B. Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a block water pipes; (b cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c act as pathogens or allergens and (d cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife—Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively, followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each, Curvularia (5% and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%. Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Design and applications of Computed Industrial Tomographic Imaging System (CITIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, G.S.; Umesh Kumar; Datta, S.S.; Rao, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomographic imaging is an advanced technique for nondestructive testing (NDT) and examination. For the first time in India a computed aided tomography system has been indigenously developed in BARC for testing industrial components and was successfully demonstrated. The system in addition to Computed Tomography (CT) can also perform Digital Radiography (DR) to serve as a powerful tool for NDT applications. It has wider applications in the fie