WorldWideScience

Sample records for city air quality

  1. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...... and emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  2. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  3. Air quality early-warning system for cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Yang, Wendong; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become a serious issue in many developing countries, especially in China, and could generate adverse effects on human beings. Air quality early-warning systems play an increasingly significant role in regulatory plans that reduce and control emissions of air pollutants and inform the public in advance when harmful air pollution is foreseen. However, building a robust early-warning system that will improve the ability of early-warning is not only a challenge but also a critical issue for the entire society. Relevant research is still poor in China and cannot always satisfy the growing requirements of regulatory planning, despite the issue's significance. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid air quality early-warning system was successfully developed, composed of forecasting and evaluation. First, a hybrid forecasting model was proposed as an important part of this system based on the theory of "decomposition and ensemble" and combined with the advanced data processing technique, support vector machine, the latest bio-inspired optimization algorithm and the leave-one-out strategy for deciding weights. Afterwards, to intensify the research, fuzzy evaluation was performed, which also plays an indispensable role in the early-warning system. The forecasting model and fuzzy evaluation approaches are complementary. Case studies using daily air pollution concentrations of six air pollutants from three cities in China (i.e., Taiyuan, Harbin and Chongqing) are used as examples to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed air quality early-warning system. Experimental results demonstrate that both the accuracy and the effectiveness of the developed system are greatly superior for air quality early warning. Furthermore, the application of forecasting and evaluation enables the informative and effective quantification of future air quality, offering a significant advantage, and can be employed to develop rapid air quality early-warning systems.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  5. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air...

  6. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  7. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  8. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  9. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air ... to shop; availability and safety of bike paths; parking costs; and access to public transportation. Specifically, the ...

  10. Analysis on the Characteristics of Environmental Kuznets Curve and Assessment of Air Quality in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the characteristics of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and assess air quality in Qingdao City. [Method] The EKC characteristics of Qingdao from 1996 to 2008 were studied based on air pollutant discharge indices, air pollution indices and economic data from the environmental quality reports and statistics yearbooks of Qingdao, and the air quality of Qingdao City was assessed. [Result] With the increase of GDP per capita, the total discharge of industrial waste gases impro...

  11. A methodology for evaluating air pollution strategies to improve the air quality in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.S.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative has developed a methodology to assist decision makers in determining optimum pollution control strategies for atmospheric pollutants. The methodology introduces both objective and subjective factors in the comparison of various strategies for improving air quality. Strategies or group of options are first selected using linear programming. These strategies are then compared using Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. The decision tree for the Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis was generated by a panel of experts representing the organizations in Mexico that are responsible for formulating policy on air quality improvement. Three sample strategies were analyzed using the methodology: one to reduce ozone by 33% using the most cost effective group of options, the second to reduce ozone by 43% using the most cost effective group of options and the third to reduce ozone by 43% emphasizing the reduction of emissions from industrial sources. Of the three strategies, the analysis indicated that strategy 2 would be the preferred strategy for improving air quality in Mexico City.

  12. PM2.5 data reliability, consistency, and air quality assessment in five Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuan; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Huang, Hui; Chen, Song Xi

    2016-09-01

    We investigate particulate matter (PM2.5) data reliability in five major Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Shenyang by cross-validating data from the U.S. diplomatic posts and the nearby Ministry of Environmental Protection sites based on 3 years' data from January 2013. The investigation focuses on the consistency in air quality assessment derived from the two data sources. It consists of studying (i) the occurrence length and percentage of different PM2.5 concentration ranges; (ii) the air quality assessment for each city; and (iii) the winter-heating effects in Beijing and Shenyang. Our analysis indicates that the two data sources produced highly consistent air quality assessment in the five cities. This is encouraging as it would inject a much needed confidence on the air pollution measurements from China. We also provide air quality assessments on the severity and trends of the fine particulate matter pollution in the five cities. The assessments are produced by statistically constructing the standard monthly meteorological conditions for each city, which are designed to minimize the effects of confounding factors due to yearly variations of some important meteorological variables. Our studies show that Beijing and Chengdu had the worst air quality, while Guangzhou and Shanghai faired the best among the five cities. Most of the five cities had their PM2.5 concentration decreased significantly in the last 2 years. By linking the air quality with the amount of energy consumed, our study suggests that the geographical configuration is a significant factor in a city's air quality management and economic development.

  13. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  14. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  15. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  16. A Tale of Two Cities - HSI-DOAS Measurements of Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Leigh, Roland; Anand, Jasdeep; McNally, Michael; Lawrence, James; Monks, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy is now commonly used as an air quality measuring system; primarily through the measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) both as a ground-based and satellite technique. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95˚ field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5˚ below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1˚ per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. CityScan has been deployed in both London and Bologna, Italy during 2012. The London deployment took place as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project in January and July/August. CityScan was deployed in Bologna in June as part of the large EU project PEGASOS. Analysis of both of these campaigns of data will be used to give unprecedented levels of spatial information to air quality measurements whilst also showing the difference in air quality between a relatively isolated mega city and a smaller city situated in a very polluted region; in this case the Po Valley. Results from multiple City

  17. URBAIR. Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia. DKI JAKARTA City Specific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenskei, K.E.; Gram, F.; Hagen, L.O.; Larssen, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsthoorn, Z.; Soedomo, M.; Achmadi, U.F.

    1996-03-01

    Started by the World Bank in 1992, the URBAIR programme develops a generalized Air Quality Management Strategy (AQMS) to be used for Asian cities and applies strategy to develop action plans to improve the air quality in DKI Jakarta, Greater Bombay, Kathmandu Valley and Metro Manila. This report describes the development of an action plan for Jakarta City, based on assessment of emissions and air quality in the metropolitan area, population exposure and health effects (damage), the assessment of costs related to the damage and to a number of proposed abatement measures, and a cost-benefit analysis. This is the main report; there is an accompanying report containing appendices on air quality measurements, emission factors and inventory, exposure calculation etc. 38 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. From homo sapiens to homo automobilis. revisiting air quality management in Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    César Nava Escudero

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes fifteen years (1990-2005) of air quality management in Mexico City. By looking at three interlinked issues (urban and population growth; the current air quality situation; and road vehicle emissions) it concludes that as long as Mexican authorities continue to rely on the introduction of new technologies and the implementation of diverse but insufficient traffic management schemes and to disregard the importance of seriously compromising on public transport rather than on...

  19. Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, Claudine; Karatzas, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    The holistic approach to sustainable urban planning implies using different models in an integrated way that is capable of simulating the urban system. As the interconnection of such models is not a trivial task, one of the key elements that may be applied is the description of the urban geometric properties in an "interoperable" way. Focusing on air quality as one of the most pronounced urban problems, the geometric aspects of a city may be described by objects such as those defined in CityGML, so that an appropriate air quality model can be applied for estimating the quality of the urban air on the basis of atmospheric flow and chemistry equations. In this paper we first present theoretical background and motivations for the interconnection of 3D city models and other models related to sustainable development and urban planning. Then we present a practical experiment based on the interconnection of CityGML with an air quality model. Our approach is based on the creation of an ontology of air quality models ...

  20. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  1. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  2. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas...... as physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas....... The results presented show the simplicity of using 3D city models as a physical data input in air quality modelling and the 3D air quality will improve insight for visual impact analysis (i.e. analysing the immersion of are circulation zone). The results are advantageous for city planners, architects...

  3. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  4. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  5. MCCM-WEPS: Coupling of Meteorological, Air Quality and Erosion Models for Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, E. N.; Tatarko, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; García, A. R.; Caetano, E.

    2007-05-01

    Since natural dust emissions are an important factor in the air quality of Mexico City, a modeling effort to quantify their sources and evaluate their impact on the population is presented. The meteorological and air quality model Multiscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM) provides the meteorological inputs to the erosion model Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) that then provides the natural PM10 emissions to be transported. The system was developed to study the particles dispersion from natural sources (unprotected soils) as agricultural lands and Lake of Texcoco. These sources are located around the Valley of Mexico City. As a result of this research we developed a system with the capability of modeling the phenomenon of air pollution by natural particles emitted by wind erosion and to generate case study scenarios useful to propose control policies. Some of them are presented here. Also an effort to predict with anticipation this phenomenon is under way.

  6. The covariance of air quality conditions in six cities in Southern Germany - The role of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzed air quality in six cities in Southern Germany (Ulm, Augsburg, Konstanz, Freiburg, Stuttgart and Munich), in conjunction with the prevailing synoptic conditions. Air quality was estimated through the calculation of a daily Air Stress Index (ASI) constituted by five independent components, each one expressing the contribution of one of the five main pollutants (PM10, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO) to the total air stress. As it was deduced from ASI components, PM10 from combustion sources and photochemically produced tropospheric O3 are the most hazardous pollutants at the studied sites, throughout cold and warm periods respectively, yet PM10 contribute substantially to the overall air stress during both seasons. The influence of anticyclonic high pressure systems, leading to atmospheric stagnation, was associated with increased ASI values, mainly due to the entrapment of PM10. Moderate air stress was generally estimated in all cities however a cleaner atmosphere was detected principally in Freiburg when North Europe was dominated by low pressure systems. Daily events of notably escalated ASI values were further analyzed with backward air mass trajectories. Throughout cold period, ASI episodes were commonly related to eastern airflows carrying exogenous PM10 originated from eastern continental Europe. During warm period, ASI episodes were connected to the arrival of regionally circulated air parcels reflecting lack of dispersion and accumulation of pollutants in accordance with the synoptic analysis.

  7. Air Quality in Megacities: Lessons Learned from Mexico City Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunities for better jobs, access to city services, cultural and educational activities, and a desire for more stimulating human interaction. At the same time, many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, giving rise to the phenomenon of megacities. In recent decades air pollution has become not only one of the most important environmental problems of megacities, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. Although the progress to date in combating air pollution problems in developed and some developing world megacities has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. This talk will present the results and the lessons learned from field measurements conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities - over the past decade. While each city has its own unique circumstances, the need for an integrated assessment approach in addressing complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in solving air pollution problems in megacities; a mix of policy measures based on sound scientific findings will be necessary to improve air quality, protect public health, and mitigate climate change.

  8. New considerations for PM, black carbon and particle number concentration for air quality monitoring across different European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Reche, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Pey, J.; T. Moreno; Rodríguez, S.; Y. González; R. Fernández-Camacho; J. de la Rosa; Dall'Osto, M; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Hueglin, C.; R. M. Harrison; Quincey, P.

    2011-01-01

    In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM) are exceeded. Emissions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been implemented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air ...

  9. Development and testing of an air quality model for Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; Streit, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cruz, X.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Russell, A.G.; McNair, L.A. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-03-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo have embarked on a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The intent is to develop a modeling system which can address the behavior of pollutants in the region so that option for improving Mexico City air quality can be properly evaluated. In February of 1991, the project conducted a field program which yielded a variety of data which is being used to evaluate and improve the models. Normally the worst air quality for both primary and photochemical pollutants occurs in the winter Mexico City. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of earth surface skin temperatures, and (4) tethersonde measurements of wind, temperature and ozone vertical profiles. A three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence meteorological model (HOTMAC) was modified to include an urban canopy and urban heat sources. HOTMAC is used to drive an Monte-Carlo kernel dispersion code (RAPTAD). HOTMAC also provides winds and mixing heights for the CIT photochemical model which was developed by investigators at the California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.

  10. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  11. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.

  12. Saturday Driving Restrictions Fail to Improve Air Quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W.

    2017-02-01

    Policymakers around the world are turning to license-plate based driving restrictions in an effort to address urban air pollution. The format differs across cities, but most programs restrict driving once or twice a week during weekdays. This paper focuses on Mexico City, home to one of the oldest and best-known driving restriction policies. For almost two decades Mexico City’s driving restrictions applied during weekdays only. This changed recently, however, when the program was expanded to include Saturdays. This paper uses hourly data from pollution monitoring stations to measure the effect of the Saturday expansion on air quality. Overall, there is little evidence that the program expansion improved air quality. Across eight major pollutants, the program expansion had virtually no discernible effect on pollution levels. These disappointing results stand in sharp contrast to estimates made before the expansion which predicted a 15%+ decrease in vehicle emissions on Saturdays. To understand why the program has been less effective than expected, the paper then turns to evidence from subway, bus, and light rail ridership, finding no evidence that the expansion was successful in getting drivers to switch to lower-emitting forms of transportation.

  13. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  14. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  15. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  16. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations experiments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4, a global chemical transport model, have been used to provide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well, but some differences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been "tagged" to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmospheric composition in the region around Mexico City, when averaged over the month. However, considerable variation in the fire contribution (2–15% of total CO is seen during the month. The transport and photochemical aging of Mexico City emissions were studied using tags of CO emissions for each day, showing that typically the air near Mexico City was a combination of many ages. Ozone production in MOZART-4 is shown to agree well with the net production rates from box model calculations constrained by the MILAGRO aircraft measurements. Ozone production efficiency derived from the ratio of Ox to NOz is higher in MOZART-4 than in the observations for moderately polluted air. OH reactivity determined from the MOZART-4 results shows the same increase in relative importance of oxygenated VOCs downwind of Mexico City as the reactivity inferred from the observations. The amount of ozone produced by emissions from Mexico City and surrounding areas has been quantified in the model by

  17. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations experiments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4, a global chemical transport model, have been used to provide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well, but some differences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been "tagged" to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmospheric composition in the region around Mexico City when averaged over the month. However, considerable variation in the fire contribution (2–15% of total CO is seen during the month. The transport and photochemical aging of Mexico City emissions were studied using tags of CO emissions for each day, showing that typically the air downwind of Mexico City was a combination of many ages. Ozone production in MOZART-4 is shown to agree well with the net production rates from box model calculations constrained by the MILAGRO aircraft measurements. Ozone production efficiency derived from the ratio of Ox to NOz is higher in MOZART-4 than in the observations for moderately polluted air. OH reactivity determined from the MOZART-4 results shows the same increase in relative importance of oxygenated VOCs downwind of Mexico City as the reactivity inferred from the observations. The amount of ozone produced by emissions from Mexico City and surrounding areas has been quantified in the

  18. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  19. Study on an air quality evaluation model for Beijing City under haze-fog pollution based on new ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Dong-Jun

    2014-08-28

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive evaluation model based on an entropy weighting method and nearest neighbor method was developed. The entropy weighting method was used to determine the weights of indicators, and the nearest neighbor method was utilized to evaluate the air quality levels. Then the comprehensive evaluation model was applied into the practical evaluation problems of air quality in Beijing to analyze the haze-fog pollution. Two simulation experiments were implemented in this study. One experiment included the indicator of PM2.5 and was carried out based on the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012); the other experiment excluded PM2.5 and was carried out based on the old Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-1996). Their results were compared, and the simulation results showed that PM2.5 was an important indicator for air quality and the evaluation results of the new Air Quality Standards were more scientific than the old ones. The haze-fog pollution situation in Beijing City was also analyzed based on these results, and the corresponding management measures were suggested.

  20. Assessing the regional impacts of Mexico City emissions on air quality and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mena-Carrasco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Mexico City (MCMA emissions is examined by studying its effects on air quality, photochemistry, and on ozone production regimes by combining model products and aircraft observations from the MILAGRO experiment. The influence of MCMA emissions to enhancements in surface level NOx, CO, and O3 concentrations are confined to distances <200 km. However, the extent of the influence is significantly larger at higher altitudes. Broader MCMA impacts (some 900 km Northeast of the city are shown for specific outflow conditions in which enhanced ozone, NOy, and MTBE mixing ratios over the Gulf of Mexico are linked to MCMA by source tagged tracers and sensitivity runs. This study shows that the "footprint" of MCMA on average is fairly local, with exception to reactive nitrogen, which can be transported long range in the form of PAN, acting as a reservoir and source of NOx with important regional ozone formation implications. The simulated effect of MCMA emissions of anthropogenic aerosol on photochemistry showed a maximum regional decrease of 40% in J[NO2→NO+O], and resulting in the reduction of ozone production by 5–10%. Observed ozone production efficiencies and photolysis rates are evaluated as a function of distance from MCMA, and by modeled influence from MCMA. These tend to be much lower closer to MCMA, and with higher MCMA influence. This research shows that MCMA emissions have a discernible effect on regional air quality and photochemistry, both contributing large amounts of ozone and its precursors, but with caveat that aerosol concentrations hinder formation of ozone to its potential due to its reduction in photolysis rates.

  1. Impact air quality by wildfire and agricultural fire in Mexico city 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Campos, Alejandra; Agustín García Reynoso, José; Castro Romero, Telma Gloria; Carbajal Pérez, José Noel; Mar Morales, Bertha Eugenia; Gerardo Ruiz Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale process natural combustion where different types of flora and fauna of different sizes and ages are consumed. Consequently, forest fires are a potential source of large amounts of air pollutants that must be considered when trying to relate emissions to the air quality in neighboring cities of forest areas as in the Valley of Mexico. The size, intensity and occurrence of a forest fire directly dependent variables such as weather conditions, topography, vegetation type and its moisture content and the mass of fuel per hectare. An agricultural fire is a controlled combustion, which occurred a negligence can get out of control and increase the burned area or the possibly become a wildfire. Once a fire starts, the dry combustible material is consumed first. If the energy release is large and of sufficient duration, drying green material occurs live, with subsequent burning it. Under proper fuel and environmental conditions, this process can start a chain reaction. These events occur mainly in the dry season. Forest fires and agriculture fires contribute directly in the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere; The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by a wildfire are the PM10, PM2.5, NOx and VOC's, the consequences have by fire are deforestation, soil erosion or change of structure and composition of forests (Villers, 2006), also it affects ecosystems and the health of the population. In this study the impact of air quality for the emissions of particulate matter less than ten microns PM10, by wildfire and agricultural fire occurred on the same day and same place, the study was evaluated in Mexico City the Delegation Milpa Alta in the community of San Lorenzo Tlacoyucan, the fire occurred on 3rd March, 2015, the wildfire duration 12 hours consuming 32 hectares of oak forest and the agricultural fire duration 6 hours consumed 16 hectares of corn. To evaluate the impact of air quality the WRF-Chem, WRF-Fire and METv3

  2. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  3. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  4. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  5. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  6. Air quality in North America's most populous city – overview of the MCMA-2003 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory field measurements in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in February 2002 set the stage for a major air quality field measurement campaign in the spring of 2003 (MCMA-2003. Involving over 100 scientists from more than 30 institutions in Mexico, the United States and Europe, MCMA-2003 revealed important new insights into the meteorology, primary pollutant emissions, ambient secondary pollutant precursor concentrations, photochemical oxidant production and secondary aerosol particle formation in North America's most populated and polluted megacity. A description of meteorological and atmospheric chemistry and aerosol microphysics measurements performed during MCMA-2003 is presented. More than 40 published or submitted MCMA-2003 research papers are reviewed and key discoveries pertinent to understanding and improving air quality in Mexico City and similar megacities in the developing world are summarized.

  7. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA, secondary OA (SOA, total OA (TOA, and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  8. The web system for operative description of air quality in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. A.; Starchenko, A. V.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Development and implementation of information-computational system (ICS) is described. The system is oriented on the collective usage of the calculation's facilities in order to determine the air quality on the basis of photochemical model. The ICS has been implemented on the basis of the middleware of ATMOS web-portal [1, 2]. The data and calculation layer of this ICS includes: Mathematical model of pollution transport based on transport differential equations. The model describes propagation, scattering and chemical transformation of the pollutants in the atmosphere [3]. The model may use averaged data value for city or forecast results obtained with help of the Chaser model.[4] Atmospheric boundary layer model (ABLM) [3] is used for operative numerical prediction of the meteorological parameters. These are such parameters as speed and direction of the wind, humidity and temperature of the air, which are necessary for the transport impurity model to operate. The model may use data assimilation of meteorological measurements data (including land based observations and the results of remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere) or the weather forecast results obtained with help of the Semi-Lagrange model [5]. Applications for manipulation of data: An application for downloading parameters of atmospheric surface layer and remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere from the web sites (http://meteo.infospace.ru and http://weather.uwyo.edu); An application for uploading these data into the ICS database; An application for transformation of the uploaded data into the internal data format of the system. At present this ICS is a part of "Climate" web site located in ATMOS portal [5]. The database is based on the data schemes providing the calculation in ICS workflow. The applications manipulated with the data are working in automatic regime. The workflow oriented on computation of physical parameters contains: The application for the calculation of

  9. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  10. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    NOx (due to suppressed titration often leads to increased O3. The influence over rural areas is however always in favor of improved air quality, i.e. both NOx and/or NMVOC reduction ends up in decreased ozone pollution, mainly in terms of exceedances.

  11. Air quality estimates in Mediterranean cities using high resolution satellite technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Satellite imaging is an essential tool for monitoring air pollution because, unlike ground observations, it supplies continuous data with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. Satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals reflect particle abundance in the atmospheric column. This data provide some indication on the extent of particle concentrations. However, it is difficult to retrieve AOD at high spatial resolution above areas with high surface reflectance and heterogeneous land cover, such as urban areas. Therefore, many crowded regions worldwide including Israel, AOD climatology are still uncertain because of the high ground reflectance and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. This study aims to investigate the spatial variability of AOD within Israeli and several other Mediterranean cities. In addition, we aim to characterize the impact of climatic condition on pollution patterns in-and-between cities and to identify days when cities exhibit the highest variability in AOD. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in pollution levels between adjacent locations. We will report on spatial variability in AOD levels derived from high 1km resolution MAIAC AOD algorithm on a temporal basis, in relation to season and synoptic-meteorological conditions.

  12. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  13. Impact of the Popocatepetl's volcanic activity on the air quality of Puebla City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Gay, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Flores, Y. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report measurements of atmospheric pollutants in Puebla City, including those registered during the period characterized by intense volcanic activity from Popocatepetl volcano between December 2000 and January 2001. We used a gaussian air dispersion model to calculate the impact of sulfur compounds from volcanic emissions on the measurements of these compounds in the stations belonging to Puebla City Atmospheric Monitoring Network. The data show that during the analyzed period, this volcanic emissions affected the air quality, increasing the indexes of PM{sub 1}0, CO and sulfur compounds. Also, the results of applying a Gaussian air dispersion model to these sulfur compounds explains the measurements from Tecnologico station for days with intense volcanic activity and wind coming from the volcano to Puebla City. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reportan mediciones de contaminantes atmosfericos en la ciudad de Puebla, incluyendo las registradas durante el periodo caracterizado por una intensa actividad del volcan Popocatepetl, entre diciembre de 200 y enero de 2001. Aplicamos un modelo de dispersion gaussiano para calcular el impacto de las emisiones volcanicas de compuestos de azufre en las mediciones de estos compuestos en las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo Atmosferico de la ciudad de Puebla. Los datos muestran que durante el periodo analizado, las emisiones volcanicas afectaron la calidad del aire incrementando los indices de PM{sub 1}0, CO y compuestos de azufre. Ademas, los resultados del modelo gaussiano de dispersion del aire para los compuestos de azufre, explican las mediciones de la estacion Tecnologico para los dias con intensa actividad volcanica y viento viniendo del volcan hacia la ciudad de Puebla.

  14. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 μg m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 μg m(-3) and 2.7 μg m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively.

  15. Air quality simulation of NOX over the tropical coastal city Chennai in southern India with FLEXPART-WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.

  16. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J. L.; González, U.

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption in a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber.

  17. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J.L.; Gonzalez, U. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption on a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber. (Author)

  18. Comparative analysis of air quality in cities and forests; Vergleichende Analyse der Luftqualitaet in Stadt und Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzarakis, A.; Mayer, H.; Sczepanski, P. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1999-07-01

    The present study was dedicated to a comparative analysis of air quality in cities and nearby forests. The study was based on half-hour mean values of the ''classical'' air pollutants nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) measured in the time from 1992 to 1996 at the official air quality measuring stations of Stuttgart Centre, Stuttgart Bad Cannstadt and Welzheimer Forest on the one hand and Freiburg Centre, Northern Freiburg and South Black Forest on the other. The results obtained show substance-specific differences that are associated with distances to certain anthropogenic emitters and modulated by the pollutants' average baseline concentrations at the individual monitoring stations. [German] Auf der Grundlage von Halbstundenmittelwerten der 'klassischen' Luftschadstoffe Stickstoffmonoxid (NO), Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) und Ozon (O{sub 3}) aus dem Zeitraum 1992 bis 1996, die an den amtlichen Luftqualitaetsmessstellen Stuttgart-Mitte, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt und Welzheimer Wald einerseits sowie Freiburg-Mitte, Freiburg-Nord und Schwarzwald-Sued andererseits erhoben wurden, erfolgt eine vergleichende Analyse der Luftqualitaet in der Stadt und einem nahen Wald. Die Ergebnisse spiegeln substanzspezifische Unterschiede wider, die durch die raeumliche Entfernung zu anthropogenen Emittenten gepraegt sind und durch das mittlere Niveau der untersuchten Luftschadstoffe an den einzelnen Messstellen modifiziert werden. (orig.)

  19. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities : A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  20. Observation of Dust and Smoke Plume Transport and Impact on Remote Sensing of Air Quality in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshary, F.; Wu, Y.; Han, Z. T.; Nazmi, C.; Gross, B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-range transport of aloft aerosol plumes affects both air quality and climate on regional and continental scales. Asian dust impacts on the western US and Canada have been extensively analyzed, yet such quantitative demonstrations are not well documented in the northeastern US. Similarly, episodes of continental transport of smoke plumes from forest fires in western US and Canada impact visibility and air quality in the US east coast. In this study, we present the synergistic observation of transported dust and smoke aerosol plumes in New York City (NYC, 40.821ºN, 73.949ºW), using a combination of a ground-based multiple-wavelength lidar, a CIMEL sunphotometer/radiometer, satellite sensors such as CALIOP and MODIS/VIIRS, and NAAPS aerosol forecast model. We show case studies of trans-Pacific Asian dust transport to the northeast US driven by the strong western or polar jets. The potential impact of the plumes on the local air quality is indicated by the plumes mixing down into boundary layer and the coincident increase of the ground PM measurement. Using multi-year lidar and sunphotometer observations, range-resolved monthly occurrence frequency of aloft aerosol plumes and modification of local aerosol optical properties are presented. The transport paths and the optical properties of aerosol for each clustered path are characterized. We further demonstrate the impact of these aloft plumes on the surface PM2.5 estimates from MODIS and VIIRS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD), and observe that when the aloft plumes-layer AODs are filtered out using lidar, the correlation between AOD-PM2.5 is much improved.

  1. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  2. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China:A case study on an industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieyun Ma; Honghong Yi; Xiaolong Tang; Yan Zhang; Ying Xiang; Li Pu

    2013-01-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction,also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders.The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China,Xuanwei in Yunnan Province,was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system.First,our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10.Second,after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015,ambient concentration of SO2,NOx and PM 10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated,and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented.Last but not least,a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation.However,there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future.In spatial allocation,reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx.These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy

  3. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy.

  4. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    CERN Document Server

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  5. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  6. Bioindication and air quality in European cities: research, application, communication. 3. Hohenheim workshop on Bioindication at the Power Plant Altbach/Deizisau 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A.; Fomin, A.; Klumpp, G.; Ansel, W. (eds.) [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    2002-07-01

    In many European cities the air quality is still unsatisfactory, despite a successful reduction of the emission of air pollutants during the last decades. Measurements of ambient air pollutant concentrations are being made by physical and chemical methods in order to control whether the air quality standards are complied with. The harmful effects of air pollutants on living organisms, however, can only be demonstrated and determined by the use of bioindicator plants. Furthermore, bioindication makes air pollution problems visible and understandable to people directly and within their everyday life. Thus, the exposure of bioindicator plants also aims at raising the environmental awareness of the urban population and at inducing an environmentally friendly behaviour in the sense of a sustainable urban development. The utilisation of bioindicator plants in science and research, their application in routine air quality control and their use for environmental communication and education were the topics of the Third Hohenheim Workshop on Bioindication in March 2001. The 'European Network for the Assessment of Air Quality by the Use of Bioindicator Plants (EuroBionet)' as well as other bioindication projects on local, national and international level were in the centre of interest of this meeting. (orig.)

  7. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  8. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gases can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for ... to evening. In cities larger than 350,000 people, state and local agencies are ... days when air quality is poor, run the air conditioning and limit your child's ...

  9. On the usefulness of atmospheric measurements for air quality evaluation in the context of recent urban meteorology findings in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Nunez, X.; Jazcilevich Diamant, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: xochitl@atmosfera.unam.mx

    2007-10-15

    In many cities, the main tool used to assess pollution abatement policies is the air quality information obtained from local monitoring network. However, in the context of a complex meteorology and land use such as those prevailing in Mexico City, the point-wise character and lack of detailed chemistry of this information may confer conflictive or biased information. The approach to understand the problem could be not based on solid ground. It is not until the measurement effort is complemented with detailed meteorological and air quality modeling that proper use of the information can be assured. In order to provide an example of this assertion, the usefulness of measured air quality data is gauged in a simplified manner, constructing three dimensional graphs containing local emission concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations, that we call ozone isopleths, for three sites in Mexico City. Together with corresponding wind rose data, an interpretation of the air pollution transport in the Valley of Mexico using only measured data is attempted. This interpretation, based on measured information subject to local influences, is compared with recent air quality modeling results showing that when measured data is used in conjunction with air quality modeling a better interpretation of air pollution problem can be obtained. A correct strategy to study the air quality problem, especially in the case of Mexico City where complex meteorology and land use is present, should be that both endeavors, measuring and modeling, are pursued with equal vigor. [Spanish] En muchas ciudades la herramienta principal en la evaluacion de las politicas para el control de la contaminacion es la informacion de calidad del aire proveniente de las redes locales de mediciones. Sin embargo, en el contexto de una meteorologia compleja y el uso de suelo de la Ciudad de Mexico, el caracter puntual y la carencia de

  10. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  11. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory (with a horizontal resolution of 3 × 3 km) of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed, incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough on-site survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small interannual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at nine state-operated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground

  12. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Kirenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja. PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3 and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3 but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3. In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  13. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  14. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  15. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  16. In depth analysis of the role of the mountain gap south of the Valley of Mexico on the air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo Ruiz Suarez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    38 days of air quality observations in Tenango del Aire (TENAI), south of Mexico City during MILAGRO were analyzed. That site was managed by FQA-CCA-UNAM's team with a mobile laboratory equipped with standard air quality monitors: O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2 and surface meteorological parameters. Hosted additional instruments were: CH2O, column NO2 (DOAS), backscatter (Lidar) and pilot balloons. Also, an ultra light plane from IMK-IFU, equipped with O3, PM10, CN, Dew Point monitors flew around the Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl volcanoes and above of TENAI some days during MILAGRO. Atop of TENAI, the ultra light descended in spiral until near ground and ascended to resume its path. In addition to these measurements, UNAM team ran air quality numerical simulations using the Mesoscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM) and an online coupled Wind Erosion Processor to MCCM we call WEPS-MCCM. The combined observations on the ground, the ultra light plane and the models results enabled us to carry out an in depth analysis of air quality in such important region south of Mexico City. Comparison were made with the episodes classification proposed by De Foy; Ozone North and South, Convection North and South, Cold Surge and South Venting to characterize dynamics in the Valley of Mexico. The aim was to define how well connected is TENAI with the air quality network in the MCMA. The influence of the mountain gap on ozone and PM10 levels in Mexico City is analyzed by episode type. Also, the impact of the mega city of Mexico on the nearby region to the south can be understood by observations in TENAI. More polluted episode types in TENAI are those called: Cold Surge, Ozone South and South Venting due to a wind shift occurring in early afternoon that brings back polluted air that was drained south during the morning and returns back to TENAI rich in aged air parcels. March 17 was chosen to show the integrated analysis of all variables observed and modeled (MCCM) in TENAI. In that day

  17. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  18. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  19. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  20. Urban air quality in a mid-size city - PM2.5 composition, sources and identification of impact areas: From local to long range contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Cazzaro, Marta; Innocente, Elena; Visin, Flavia; Hopke, Philip K.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to European citizens. Combustion processes and traffic-related emissions represent the main primary particulate matter (PM) sources in urban areas. Other sources can also affect air quality (e.g., secondary aerosol, industrial) depending on the characteristics of the study area. Thus, the identification and the apportionment of all sources is of crucial importance to make effective corrective decisions within environmental policies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of different emissions sources on PM2.5 concentrations and compositions in a mid-size city in the Po Valley (Treviso, Italy). Data have been analyzed to highlight compositional differences (elements and major inorganic ions), to determine PM2.5 sources and their contributions, and to evaluate the influence of air mass movements. Non-parametric tests, positive matrix factorization (PMF), conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) have been used in a multi-chemometrics approach to understand the areal-scale (proximate, local, long-range) where different sources act on PM2.5 levels and composition. Results identified three levels of scale from which the pollution arose: (i) a proximate local scale (close to the sampling site) for traffic non-exhaust and resuspended dust sources; (ii) a local urban scale (including both sampling site and areas close to them) for combustion and industrial; and (iii) a regional scale characterized by ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. This approach and results can help to develop and adopt better air quality policy action.

  1. The Data Integrity Research of Air Quality Monitoring System in the City%空气质量监测系统数据完整性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊楷; 谷小娅

    2013-01-01

      空气质量监测指对存在于空气中的污染物进行定点、连续或定时的采样和测量,并将监测发送到监控中心,加以分析并得到相关的数据[1]。该文主要介绍城市空气质量在线监测系统的数据完整性研究,系统的分析了影响数据完整性的因素,并提出了相应的解决方案。该研究方案解决了空气质量在线监测系统中经常出现的监测数据丢失、损害的问题,并且能够方便、有效地运用到其他环保监控系统中。%Air quality monitoring refers the polluted substances that presented in the air to carry on sampling and measurement continuously and timing, the data is sent to the monitoring center,and to be analyzed. This paper describes the Integrity for that data of Air Quality Online Monitoring System in the city of ZhengZhou, analyzed the Influencing factors for data Integrity Sys-tematicly, and Propose solutions. the research program make The usual problems of the Air Quality Online Monitoring System that Appeared contains that Detect data lost、damaged can be solved, and can be Applied in the other Environmental protection Monitoring system.

  2. Environmental life quality perception in the city of general Daniel Cerri, Buenos Aires, Argentina: Proposal for a qualitative research methodology in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Spagnolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and perceptual approach adopted by the geographical science may turn out to be very significant for territory environmental management. Such an approach does not intend to replace the qualitative approach, though it does propose their complementarity. The general aim of this paper is getting to know what the inhabitants of the city of General Daniel Cerri [Bahía Blanca, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina] believe the quality of their environmental life is. As for the methodology used, a population survey was conducted, which was representative of the population being studied. The survey was divided in three parts: a structural part, which will enable us to learn how the information possessed about the place is perceived; an evaluative section, which will show the way space is valued in connection with the decisions that should be made; and a preferential one, focused on the analysis of the preferences towards certain places

  3. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  4. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  5. Multipollutant air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  6. Urban air quality management - current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, N. [Sheffield City Council, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Environment and Regulatory Services; Virtanen, T. [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Mladonicky, P. [National Centre of Health Promotion, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2002-07-01

    In 1996 the EC adopted the Ambient Air Quality and Assessment Directive, which is designed to provide a comprehensive strategy for the management of air quality in Member States, linking controls on emissions with the attainment of air quality objectives. The subsequent Daughter Directives provide limit values, based on health effects, for specified pollutants. In essence Member States have to monitor and assess air quality and where necessary draw up air pollution minimisation plans. This paper explores the practical issues facing three European cities, Sheffield, Helsinki and Bratislava as they face the challenge of implementing action necessary to bring about improvements in air quality by 2010. There are very different problems to resolve due to each City's particular characteristics, although they all share the same cause of the problem - road traffic. Although the technical solutions appear to be relatively straight forward each city faces the problems of trying to educate its citizens, to bring about changes in individual behaviour so that everyone can benefit from better air quality. Sheffield now faces an added level of complexity as its economic performance is below the European average and it has attained Objective 1 status which will introduce a huge investment to kick start the economy and make sure it continues to thrive. (orig.)

  7. Air Quality Status and Trend Analysis from 2006 to 2010 in Nanping City%南平市2006~2010年空气质量状况及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方惠兰

    2012-01-01

    以南平市近5年空气质量监测数据为基础,分析了近年来南平市各污染物年际变化和季节性变化规律,探讨了南平市空气质量变化趋势及影响因素,为改善南平市空气质量状况提供科学依据。%Based on the air quality monitoring data during the nearly five years in nanping City, this paper ana- lyses the interannual variability and seasonal variation of each pollutant in recent years in Nanping City,in- vestigates the air quality trends and influencing factors, so as to provide a scientific basis for improving the air quality situation.

  8. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Negative Air Ion Concentrations in Danqinghe Experimental Forest,Harbin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, air ions, especially of negative air ion has received a universal attention for its health function. The density of negative air ion has become one of the important indexes that measure the air quality grade. With the air ions counter made in Japan, the spatial distribution characteristics of negative air concentrations at specific time in Danqinghe Experimental Forest were measured and studied, Harbin City, and the air quality was assessed by using ion polarity ration (q) and air ion asses...

  9. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  10. Effect of Revised "Ambient Air Quality Standards" on Assessing Results of the Ambient Air Quality in the Cities of Sichuan Province%修订《环境空气质量标准》对四川省城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全利; 余恒; 王晓波

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, according to the monitoring data of ambient air quality in provincially administered municipalities during the "llth Five Year Plan", and based on the comparison of difference between the new Ambient Air Quality Standards and the old, the effects of revised "Ambient Air Quality Standards" on assessing results of the ambient air quality in the cities of Sichuan province were analyzed.%根据“十一五”期间和2011年四川省省控城市环境空气质量监测数据,在比较新、旧环境空气质量标准不同的基础上,本文分析了修订后的《环境空气质量标准》对四川省城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响。

  11. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  12. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  13. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  14. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  15. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  16. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  17. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: findings from the New York City "Summer Streets" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Thomas H; Hall, Andrew; Zhang, K Max; Anguita, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 μm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles.

  18. Survey and Assessment of Land Ecological Quality in Cixi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbao; LIU; Zhiyuan; CHEN; Weifeng; PAN; Shaojuan; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Soil,atmosphere,water and quality of agricultural product constitute the content of land ecological quality.Cixi City,through survey pilot project of basic farmland quality,carried out high precision soil geochemical survey and survey of agricultural products,irrigation water and air quality,and established ecological quality evaluation model of land.Based on the evaluation of soil geochemical quality,we conducted comprehensive quality assessment of atmosphere,water,agricultural products,and assessed the ecological quality of agricultural land in Cixi City.The evaluation results show that the ecological quality of most agricultural land in Cixi City is excellent,and there is ecological risk only in some local areas such as urban periphery.The experimental results provide demonstration and basis for the fine management of basic farmland and ecological protection.

  19. The Effect of Dust Storm on the Microbial Quality of Ambient Air in Sanandaj: A City Located in the West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the dust storm can cause diseases such as Asthma, Pneumonia, and respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air-borne particles with airborne microorganisms in normal and dusty days in Sanandaj, a city located in the west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Air sampling was conducted during the normal and dusty days through Andersen single-stage impactor (28.3 L/min) for 2.5 min. Air par...

  20. How to improve the air quality over mega-cities in China? – Pollution characterization and source analysis in Shanghai before, during, and after the 2010 World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2013-02-01

    ion components increased in 2010, owing to the lifting of emission control measures after the Expo. SO42− was found least increased while NO3− and Ca2+ had tremendous increases of 150% and 320%, respectively. No successive control measures with the loose regulations after the Expo were responsible for this jump of the bad quality. The ratio of NO3−/SO42− in PM2.5 over Shanghai had a significant increasing trend from ~0.3 in the early 2000s to more than 1.0 in 2010, indicating the increasing role of mobile sources. Reducing NOx emission will be China's priority in the future to improve the air quality over the mega-cities. In addition, lowering mineral aerosol components (e.g. Ca2+ was also demonstrated to be beneficial for alleviating air pollution in China.

  1. Innovation quality in knowledge cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    competitions and the realized impacts of winning an award are largely the same: media coverage and a credibility boost. The importance of innovation awards in innovation policy was, however, considered only as mediocre or modest. As a conclusion it can be stated that innovation awards are an additional tool...... for innovation promotion, alongside innovation inducement policies including tax reductions and direct funding, as they produce significant positive effects for the award winning companies, and an additional indicator of innovation quality in the context of knowledge cities....

  2. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  3. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  4. The Fuzzy Synthesizing Evaluation of City's Environmental Quality Based on GIOWA Operator: A Case of 13 Cities of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xianchun; Ling Kang; Guo Cunzhi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the generally induced ordered weighted averaging (GIOWA) operator is used to construct the fuzzy evaluating system of the quality of a city's environment including air, water and noise.Based on the part data of air, water and noise of the 13 cities under the jurisdiction of Jiangsu provincial government in 2002, a case study is given. The evaluating results show that the evaluating system of the quality of a city's environment based on the GIOWA operator can reflect the condition of pollution controlled and environmental quality of a city in a period of time.

  5. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  6. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  7. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  8. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  9. 修订《环境空气质量标准》对南充市城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响%Effect of Revised"Ambient Air Quality Standards"on Assessing Results of the Ambient Air Quality in the City of Nanchong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷熊; 钟利健

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air pollution monitoring data, the variation was compared with revised API and current API, the effects of re-vised"Ambient Air Quality Standards"on assessing results of the ambi-ent air quality in the city of Nanchong were analyzed.%利用2009年至2012年空气污染监测数据,比较现行 API 指数和修正后 API 指数的差异,分析了修订后的《环境空气质量标准》对南充城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响。

  10. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  11. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  12. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Markakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (−3.5 ppb in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large

  13. Estudio del impacto en la calidad del aire de las fuentes puntuales en la ciudad de pinar del Río A study of the impact of stationary sources on the air quality of pinar del Rio city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Fonseca Hernandez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio del impacto de las fuentes fijas en la Ciudad de Pinar del Río utilizando el sistema de modelación MM5-CALMET-CALPUFF. Se simuló la dispersión de SO2, NOx, PM25, PM10 y CO emitidos por las 21 fuentes durante 15 días representativos del período lluvioso, además de la depositación húmeda de SO4(2- y NO3-. Se observó que las máximas concentraciones se producen en horarios de la mañana y noche. Se observó que producto de estas emisiones se ven afectados algunas zonas cercanas a la ciudad como Minas de Matahambre, San Juan y Martínez, Santa María, San Luis, El Corojo, Hermanos Saíz, Viñales, Pilotos, Consolación del Sur y las Ovas. Los valores de concentración medios diarios de NOx y SO2 sobrepasaron sus concentraciones máximas admisibles según la NC 39: 1999 y estuvieron por encima de los valores guías de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y los valores estándares EPA.A study of the impact of stationary sources on air quality on the city of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, using the modeling system MM5-CALMET-CALPUFF was made. The dispersion of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10 and PM25 emitted from 21 sources during 15 days is simulated by the model. This period is representative of the rainy season in Cuba (Summer. The of SO4(2- and NO3- wet deposition was also simulated. It was observed that the highest concentrations occur in the morning and evening. These emissions affected some neighboring cities as Santa Maria and Viñales. The daily average concentration values of NOx and SO2 exceeded their maximum permissible concentrations according to the Cuban standards, the guideline values of the World Health Organization and the EPA standards. The southwest area of the city is the most affected one with the highest concentration level.

  14. Cause and Countermeasure Analysis on the Decreasing of Air Quality in Bole City%博乐市空气质量下降原因及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚坚艰; 辛红云

    2016-01-01

    指出了“十二五”博乐市空气质量下降明显,通过分析空气中主要污染物的时空变化趋势,在调查博乐市工业污染源现状、地形气象条件以及环境要素时空分布的基础上,定性地揭示了社会、经济等人为活动以及自然因素对博乐市空气环境质量造成的影响。并在博乐市资源环境承载能力的基础上,提出了污染防治重点、产业结构调控建议及对策。%This paper pointed out that the air quality in Bole City decreased significantly during “12th Five -Year Plan” .By analyzing the spatial and temporal trends of the main air pollutants ,on the basis of investigating industrial pollution status ,weather and terrain conditions ,and temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors in Bole City ,we qualitatively revealed the influences on air environmental quality in Bole City caused by social activities , economic activities and natural factors .Based on the resources and environment carrying capacity of Bole City ,we put forward the key point of pollution prevention ,and suggestions and countermeasures for industrial structure regula‐tion ., .

  15. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  16. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  17. [Air quality and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  18. A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  19. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  20. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  1. Urban air pollution & its assessment in Lucknow City--the second largest city of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Alfred; Fatima, Nishat

    2014-08-01

    Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76 μg/m(3)) and 226 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91 μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies.

  2. 青岛市环境库兹涅茨曲线特征分析及空气质量评价%Analysis on Environmental Kuznets Curve Characteristics and Air Quality Assessment in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国华; 王志宪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析青岛市环境库兹涅茨曲线(EKC)特征,并对其环境空气质量进行评价.[方法]以青岛市历年环境质量报告书和青岛市统计年鉴为依据,选取1996~2008年青岛市空气污染物排放指数、空气污染指数和经济数据,探究青岛市环境库兹涅茨曲线特征,并对其环境空气质量进行评价.[结果]随着人均GDP的增长,1996~2008年青岛市工业废气排放总量呈明显上升趋势,其EKC曲线呈倒U型;二氧化硫、工业烟尘和工业粉尘排放量整体呈下降趋势,二氧化硫和工业烟尘的EKC曲线呈近似倒N型;空气污染综合指数也呈下降趋势,其EKC曲线也呈倒N型.近13年来,青岛市区空气中SO2、颗粒物和NO2污染程度总体呈下降趋势,特别是颗粒物污染程度下降明显.自2001年来,可吸入颗粒物取代SO2成为环境空气主要污染物,空气污染类型开始由煤烟型向煤烟与机动车复合型转变.青岛市政府部门对工业废气治理项目的大力推进是青岛市环境大气污染逐渐降低的重要原因.[结论]该研究为青岛市环境政策的制定提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to analyze environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) characteristics and assess air quality in Qingdao City. [ Method] The EKC characteristics of Qingdao from 1996 to 2008 were studied based on air pollutant discharge indices, air pollution indices and economic data from the environmental quality reports and statistics yearbooks of Qingdao, and the air quality of Qingdao City was assessed. [ Result ] With the increase of GDP per capita, the total discharge of industrial waste gases improved remarkably, and its EKC showed inverted U type. Meanwhile, the discharge of sulfur dioxide, industrial fumes and industrial dusts decreased on the whole, and EKC of sulfur dioxide and industrial fumes was close to inverted N type. In addition, air pollution composite index also showed decrease trend, and its EKC showed inverted

  3. HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL OZONE PRECURSORS IN MEXICO CITY AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban air pollution is an environmental problem in many cities around the world that has serious immediate and long-term implications to the health of the population and to the physical environment. Mexico City, in particular, faces a severe air pollution problem. The city is...

  4. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  6. Some Thoughts on the City Traffic and Air Quality Improvement of Hangzhou%关于杭州城市交通与空气质量改善的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴士南; 郎国伟; 赵建国

    2013-01-01

    To improve the city traffic jam is a system engine-ering, scientific planning, green travel is the fundament, and human behavior in traffic is the guarantee. In this paper, by dr-awing on the advanced city of the practice at home and abroad, it puts forward the optimization of the configuration of primary and secondary roads, and the adjustment of regional facilities layout, greatly improving the city traffic congestion problems, so as to improve the air quality in the city.%  改善城市交通拥堵是个系统工程,科学规划、绿色出行是根本,交通参与人的行为是保障。本文通过借鉴国内外先进城市的做法,提出优化主次干道的配置,及调整区域设施的布局,大大改善城市交通拥堵问题,从而改善城市空气质量。

  7. Air Quality and Health Risk Assessment of Linfen City%临汾市区空气质量与健康风险评价∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫殿清; 贾陈忠; 张仲伍

    2016-01-01

    空气污染对人体健康会产生多方面的影响,根据临汾市年2001-2005和2014-2015空气质量监测资料,利用美国环保局的健康风险评价模型,评价了空气中主要污染物SO2和NO2对人体的健康风险。结果表明:临汾市空气质量处于中度污染水平,但有逐年好转的趋势; SO2和NO2等污染物对人体健康风险的影响处在0.0139×10-6~0.0029×10-6之间,表示健康风险不明显。%Air pollution on human health will produce the effect of many sided, according to the years 2001-2005 and 2014-2015 of Linfen air quality monitoring data, using the environmental protection bureau of health risk assessment model, the main pollutants in the air SO2 and NO2 risk to human health were evaluated. The results showed that the air quality was in a moderate level of pollution of Linfen, but had a tendency to improve year by year. The effects of pollutants such as SO2 and NO2 on human health risk were between 0. 0139 ×10-6 and 0. 0029 ×10-6 , it showed health risks was not obvious.

  8. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  10. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  11. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  12. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  13. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acqui...

  14. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  15. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald; Wang, Pucai

    2010-05-01

    Within the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 Programme, the AMFIC project consists of an integrated system for monitoring and forecasting tropospheric pollutants over China. Satellite data, in situ measurements and chemical transport model results are used to generate consistent air quality information over China. The system includes a data archive of the recent years, near real time data, and air quality forecasts for several days ahead, which can be find on http://www.amfic.eu. Air pollutants covered are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, methane and aerosol. The AMFIC system has been used to evaluate the effect of the air quality measures which were taken by the Chinese authorities related to the Olympic Games and Paralympics in Beijing. Industrial activities and traffic in and around the city were reduced drastically to improve air quality. To compensate for the atypical meteorological conditions during the Olympic events, tropospheric NO2 column observations from GOME-2 and OMI are interpreted against simulations from the CHIMERE regional chemistry transport model. When compared with the pre-Olympic concentration levels, we find a NO2 reduction of 60% over Beijing and significant reductions in surrounding areas. After the Olympic period, NO2 concentrations slowly return to their pre-Olympic level. The satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations are also used to constrain NOx emissions over China by using data assimilation techniques. We will present the preliminary results of these efforts. The periodical update of the bottom-up emission inventory is expected to reveal emission trends and improve the air quality forecasts for China.

  16. Research on Air Quality and Pollution Control Measures in Jinzhou City%锦州市环境空气质量现状及控制对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2012-01-01

    利用大气污染源和环境质量监测等资料,计算分析了锦州市区环境空气质量现状。结果表明,锦州市环境空气质量呈现逐年改善的趋势,空气污染以煤烟和汽车尾气混合型污染为主。PM10和SO2超过二级标准的天数将近95%出现在采暖期。提出了可行的具体措施,指出采用以集中供热、推广使用天然气、小型锅炉改造工程和控制汽车尾气为主要措施,廉顾绿化,制定市区大气污染治理方案比较合理。%Current air condition in Jinzhou City is analyzed according to variation trend of pollution sources of air quality. It is shown that mixed pollution containing coal smoke and vehicle exhaust is one of the main pollution patterns. 95% days with PM10 and SO2 polluted over the 2nd standard are in heating season. We report reasonable and available methods for air quality modifications, such as central heating, natural gas fuel, mini - boiler alteration, vehicle exhaust control, and green project.

  17. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  18. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  19. Characteristics of air quality and the correlation between API and meteorological elements in major cities of Shandong province%山东重点城市空气质量及其与气象要素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 邱粲; 刘焕彬; 曹洁; 王栋成; 董旭光

    2013-01-01

      利用山东省济南、青岛2001—2010年以及其他7个重点城市2005—2010年逐日空气污染指数(API)和同期的常规气象资料,运用统计方法,分析了各市空气质量年、季变化特征,并利用SPSS软件进一步分析探讨了API指数与风速、气温、降水、湿度、日照时数等气象因子的相关关系。结果表明:济南由于受能源结构、地形、气象条件等因素的影响,API指数累年平均值最大达到91.2,沿海城市空气质量明显好于内陆城市,日照 API 指数最小仅为56.5;从年际变化来看,济南由于加强对空气污染的治理,空气质量明显改善,API指数呈逐年下降趋势,其他城市有不同程度的增加或减小。空气质量具有明显的季节变化,各城市均是夏季空气质量最好,优良率天数频率最多,冬季最差,济南冬季发生轻微污染以上天数的频率最大占39.8%;各城市均以 PM10为首要污染物出现的频率为最多,出现以 NO2、SO2为首要污染物频率最多的城市分别是枣庄、潍坊,出现空气质量为优频率最多的城市是日照;各城市4季 API 指数与同期常规气象要素密切相关,4季API指数与降水均呈负相关,除济南春季外,与风速基本呈负相关,春、夏、秋3个季节API指数与相对湿度基本均成负相关,冬季API指数与日照时数成负相关、与气温、相对湿度成正相关。%Based on the daily Air Pollution Index (API) and regular meteorological observed data of Jinan and Qingdao in 2001—2010 and of seven other cities in Shandong province in 2005—2010, the annual and seasonal variation characteristics of air quality in each city and the correlation between API and wind speed, temperature, precipitation, humidity and sunshine hours are analyzed making use of statistical method and SPSS software. The results indicate that due to the influence of energy structure, topography, and

  20. Global air quality and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  1. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  2. Improving urban air quality in China: Beijing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiming; Wang, Litao

    2005-09-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization because of unprecedented economic growth. As a result, many cities suffer from air pollution. Two-thirds of China's cities have not attained the ambient air quality standards applicable to urban residential areas (Grade II). Particulate matter (PM), rather than sulfur dioxide (SO2), is the major pollutant reflecting the shift from coal burning to mixed source pollution. In 2002, 63.2 and 22.4% of the monitored cities have PM and SO2 concentrations exceeding the Grade II standard, respectively. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration kept a relatively stable level near the Grade II standard in the last decade and had an increasing potential in recent years because of the rapid motorization. In general, the air pollutants emission did not increase as quickly as the economic growth and energy consumption, and air quality in Chinese cities has improved to some extent. Beijing, a typical representative of rapidly developing cities, is an example to illustrate the possible options for urban air pollution control. Beijing's case provides hope that the challenges associated with improving air quality can be met during a period of explosive development and motorization.

  3. Improving urban air quality in China: Beijing case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiming Hao; Litao Wang [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2005-09-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization because of unprecedented economic growth. As a result, many cities suffer from air pollution. Two-thirds of China's cities have not attained the ambient air quality standards applicable to urban residential areas (Grade II). Particulate matter (PM), rather than sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), is the major pollutant reflecting the shift from coal burning to mixed source pollution. In 2002, 63.2 and 22.4% of the monitored cities have PM and SO{sub 2} concentrations exceeding the Grade II standard, respectively. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration kept a relatively stable level near the Grade II standard in the last decade and had an increasing potential in recent years because of the rapid motorization. In general, the air pollutants emission did not increase as quickly as the economic growth and energy consumption, and air quality in Chinese cities has improved to some extent. Beijing, a typical representative of rapidly developing cities, is an example to illustrate the possible options for urban air pollution control. Beijing's case provides hope that the challenges associated with improving air quality can be met during a period of explosive development and motorization. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  5. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  6. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  7. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  8. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  9. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  10. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  11. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  12. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  13. QUALITY EVALUATION OF CHINESE CAPITAL CITIES' LIVING SPACE IN 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-zhong; SUN Feng-hua; GUO Liu-jian; HE Xiao-dong

    2005-01-01

    The quality dimension of the urban living space was addressed much earlier abroad; nevertheless, it has not been studied in the Chinese academia up to date, as evidenced by the limited research literature. Through recourse to Rich BOYER's nine-factor theory, this study attempted to evaluate and rank 31 target cities, by using the data from the China Statistical Yearbook 2002. Our research results show that the quality of a city's living space is in positive correlation with its size, and that there will be changing demands for the quality of the urban living space as a result of future social, economic, sci-tech, cultural and educational developments, combined with the improvement of the overall quality of urban residents. Previous research was focused on the quality of food, housing, education, transportation and entertainment. However, with the development of the knowledge-economy, such factors as information accessibility, green environment, and air quality, will be major considerations in the quality evaluation of the urban living space.

  14. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  15. Indentifying the major air pollutants base on factor and cluster analysis, a case study in 74 Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lan-yue; Du, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Ya-qi; Yang, Yue-yi; Zhang, Jian-min; Deng, Shi-huai; Shen, Fei; Li, Yuan-wei; Xiao, Hong

    2016-11-01

    This article investigated the major air pollutants and its spatial and seasonal distribution in 74 Chinese cities. Factor analysis and Cluster analysis are employed to indentify major factors of air pollutants. The following results are obtained (1) major factors are obtained in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The first factor in spring includes NO2, PM10, CO, and PM2.5; the first factor in summer and autumn includes PM10, PM2.5, CO and SO2; in winter, the first factor includes NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2. (2) In spring, cities of cluster 5 are the severest polluted by emission sources of SO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5; the emission sources of O3 would significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 2; the emission sources of NO2 could significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 3 and cluster 5. (3) In summer, cities of cluster 5 are the severest polluted by automotive emissions and coal flue gas. Cities of cluster 1 are the lightest polluted. Cities of cluster 3 and cluster 2 are polluted by emission sources of SO2 and O3. (4) In Autumn, cities of cluster 3 and 4 are the severest polluted by the emission sources of SO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5; the emission sources of NO2 would significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 5; the emission sources of O3 could significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 1 and cluster 4. (5) In winter, cities of cluster 5 are the severest polluted by the emission sources of SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, and CO; the emission sources of O3 could significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 1 and cluster 5.

  16. Effects of electric vehicles on air quality in street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Schöllnhammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. Electric vehicles (EV are often presented as climate friendly and as a solution for air quality problems in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of this claim is true and to find out the necessary shares of electric vehicles of different types needed to solve air quality problems in street canyons. For example, the German government has formulated the ambitious goal of increasing the amount of electric vehicles in Germany to 1 million in 2020 and 6 million in 2030. Will this improve the air quality significantly? The focus of the present study is the air quality in street canyons, with a focus on PM10 and NO2 concentrations. We concentrate our investigation on road traffic, taking the fleet composition into account. A sensitivity study with a dispersion model was carried out for two street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, typical for moderately polluted street canyons in European cities. It is shown that the reduction potential is larger for NO2 than for PM10. The necessary share of electric vehicles to comply with the limit values lies at about 40 % for NO2 and 100 % for PM10, respectively. Thus, the share of electric vehicles needed to comply with the limit values is far above the goal of the German government.

  17. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  18. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2010-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (author)

  19. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2008-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  20. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.

    2007-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to monitor the levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the concentration trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2006 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Besides this model calculations were carried out to supplement the measurements. NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were at several stations found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply 2005 and in 2010. While the concentrations for most other pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, only a minor decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  1. Nanoparticle air pollution in major cities and its origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang, Qian; Siegmann, Konstantin; Keller, Alejandro; Matter, Ulrich; Scherrer, Leo; Siegmann, H. C.

    Suspended particles with a diameter below 1 μm act as vehicles transporting toxic chemicals into the human respiratory system. It is therefore of interest to record the intensity of these particles and to determine the source from which they were emitted. It is shown that this can be done by simultaneously measuring the light scattering (LS), the photoelectric charging (PC), and the diffusion charging (DC). Particles carrying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) are detected by their large PC and are generated in combustion of organic materials whereas particles from other sources only exhibit LS and DC. The fraction of particle mass due to PPAH is independent of location and weather conditions. As an example of an application, we study the nanoscale particles found on motorways in or near various large cities. The sources of the majority of these particles are Diesel motors or cars with defect catalysts. Promising strategies for improving the air quality emerge from these observations.

  2. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  3. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  4. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  5. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  7. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  8. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  9. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  10. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation of emission levels. With this in mind, measurements of traffic frequency and CO2 concentration were carried out at critical intersections in the city, as well as the monitoring of a vehicle direction at the crossroad. Finally, based on experimental data, different soft computing estimators were developed, such as feed forward neural network, recurrent neural network, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy estimator of CO2 emission levels. Test data for some characteristic cases presented at the end of the paper shows good agreement of developed estimator outputs with experimental data. Presented results are a true indicator of the implemented method usability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008-2/2011: Evaluation of Energy Performances and br. TR35016/2011: Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health and Research of MHD Flows around the Bodies, in the Tip Clearances and Channels and Application in the MHD Pumps Development

  11. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  12. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  13. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  14. Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Douglas G.

    1984-01-01

    Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly concerned with the regulatory use of models, its discussion focused on modeling tall stack, point source emissions.The group agreed that air quality model results should be viewed as containing both reducible error and inherent uncertainty. Reducible error results from improper or inadequate meteorological and air quality data inputs, and from inadequacies in the models. Inherent uncertainty results from the basic stochastic nature of the turbulent atmospheric motions that are responsible for transport and diffusion of released materials. Modelers should acknowledge that all their predictions to date contain some associated uncertainty and strive also to quantify uncertainty.How can the uncertainty be quantified? There was no consensus from the group as to precisely how uncertainty should be calculated. One subgroup, which addressed statistical procedures, suggested that uncertainty information could be obtained from comparisons of observations and predictions. Following recommendations from a previous AMS workshop on performance evaluation (Fox. 1981), the subgroup suggested construction of probability distribution functions from the differences between observations and predictions. Further, they recommended that relatively new computer-intensive statistical procedures be considered to improve the quality of uncertainty estimates for the extreme value statistics of interest in regulatory applications.A second subgroup, which addressed the basic nature of uncertainty in a stochastic system, also recommended that uncertainty be quantified by consideration of the differences between observations and predictions. They suggested that the average of the difference squared was appropriate to isolate the inherent uncertainty that

  15. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  16. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Air Quality Management District regarding specific implementation of parts of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration program. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality...

  17. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  18. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  19. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  20. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  1. METODOLOGÍA PARA EVALUAR EL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LOS PROYECTOS DE REDISEÑO DE RUTAS DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO COLECTIVO EN LAS CIUDADES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: MEDELLÍN METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN PROJECTS REDESIGNING COLLECTIVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES IN THE CITIES. CASE STUDY: MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento establece la metodología y los procedimientos necesarios para evaluar el impacto ambiental sobre la calidad del aire en los proyectos de rediseño de rutas de transporte público colectivo en las principales ciudades del mundo. Para este propósito, se formuló un caso hipotético en la ciudad de Medellín teniendo en cuenta las rutas de transporte público colectivo complementarias al sistema integrado de transporte en el Valle de Aburrá, convirtiendo algunas rutas radiales en rutas transversales o de migración a otras cuencas. Con la reconfiguración propuesta para las rutas de transporte público colectivo la emisión de contaminantes proveniente de los buses no presentó cambios sustanciales. Sin embargo, la concentración de partículas aumentó en ciertos puntos de la zona de estudio y alcanzó valores que superan la norma anual de calidad del aire (50 µg/m³.This document provides the methodology and necessary procedures to assess the environmental impact on air quality in the projects of redesign of collective public transport routes in main cities around the world. For this purpose, it has been formulated a hypothetical case in the city of Medellin keeping in mind the public transport routes that are complementary to the integrated transport system in the Aburrá Valley, transforming some radial routes in transversal routes or migration to other basins. With the reconfiguration proposed for collective public transport routes, pollutant emissions from buses did not show substantial changes. However, the concentration of particles increased at certain points in the study area, reaching values that exceed the annual standard for air quality (50 µg/m³.

  2. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  3. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed in this paper: (C) 2000 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved....

  4. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  5. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  6. Air quality management in China: Issues, challenges, and options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality,identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future,proposed the long-term air pollution control targets,and suggested the options for better air quality in China.With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years,China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption,electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions.Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone,as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country.To protect public health and the eco-system,the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS)and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO).To achieve the air quality targets,the emissions of SO2,NOx,PM10,and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%,40%,50%,and 40%,respectively,on the basis of that in 2005.A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China.The options include development of clean energy resources,promotion of clean and efficient coal use,enhancement of vehicle pollution control,implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2,NOx,VOC,and PM emissions,joint prevention and control of regional air pollution,and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  7. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  8. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  9. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  10. Understanding temporal patterns and characteristics of air quality in Beijing: A local and regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Cai, Jun; Gao, Bingbo

    2016-02-01

    Sources, characteristics and seasonal variation of airborne pollutants in China, especially in Beijing, have been massively examined. However, most studies analyze local air quality from an isolated perspective and interactions between local and regional air quality have not been fully considered. This research attempts to evaluate Beijing air quality at the local and regional scale. The weighted cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) and convergent cross mapping (CCM) method are employed for similarity and causality analysis respectively. At the local scale, the air quality in Beijing experiences frequent and sudden change, yet changes smoothly across a day's time. At the regional scale, the air quality in Beijing and four neighboring cities is compared. The result suggests that although air quality in Beijing and neighboring cities is of some differences, strong bidirectional coupling exists between the local and regional air quality. The research indicates that air quality in Beijing is better than the general situation in this region, and Tianjin should be a good comparative site for monitoring and evaluating air quality in Beijing. This research provides a feasible methodology for comprehensive analysis of local air quality at multiple scales, which may shed some lights on the forthcoming implementation of local air quality evaluation.

  11. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  12. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  13. STEMS-Air: a simple GIS-based air pollution dispersion model for city-wide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David

    2011-05-15

    Current methods of air pollution modelling do not readily meet the needs of air pollution mapping for short-term (i.e. daily) exposure studies. The main limiting factor is that for those few models that couple with a GIS there are insufficient tools for directly mapping air pollution both at high spatial resolution and over large areas (e.g. city wide). A simple GIS-based air pollution model (STEMS-Air) has been developed for PM(10) to meet these needs with the option to choose different exposure averaging periods (e.g. daily and annual). STEMS-Air uses the grid-based FOCALSUM function in ArcGIS in conjunction with a fine grid of emission sources and basic information on meteorology to implement a simple Gaussian plume model of air pollution dispersion. STEMS-Air was developed and validated in London, UK, using data on concentrations of PM(10) from routinely available monitoring data. Results from the validation study show that STEMS-Air performs well in predicting both daily (at four sites) and annual (at 30 sites) concentrations of PM(10). For daily modelling, STEMS-Air achieved r(2) values in the range 0.19-0.43 (pmaps either as a screening process in urban air quality planning and management, or as the basis for health risk assessment and epidemiological studies.

  14. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  15. European urban air quality - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuw, F. de [RIVM, Bilthoven (Niger)

    2002-07-01

    Dispersion models have been applied for an outlook or urban air quality over the next 20 years. Based on emission scenarios developed in the Auto Oil II programme, the air quality in about 200 urban agglomerations within the European Union (EU) is calculated for a reference year (1995) and for the year 2010. Relatively simple, robust tools have been applied, thus allowing a generalisation of the results for the whole EU. The projected air quality gives information on the frequency and severity of exceedance of air quality objectives and on the fraction of EU urban population potentially exposed. The parameter calculated is the urban background concentration, which is representative for the concentration in most of the urban area, with the exception of places under direct influence of sources, such as streets. Pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, PM{sub 10}, Pb, O{sub 3}, CO, and benzene. In 2010, the urban background concentrations will decrease strongly in the set of 200 modelled cities. It is projected, however, that the agreed or proposed air quality standards will still be exceeded in the future. The most serious problems are exceedances of the short- and long-term objectives for PM{sub 10} and exceedance of the long-term objective for NO{sub 2}. Between 2010 and 2020, only a minor reduction in concentration is expected, mainly caused by a reduction in the contribution of long-range transboundary air pollution. (orig.)

  16. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  18. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  19. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  20. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality.

  1. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The e...

  2. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  3. 基于竞争型神经网络的城市空气质量分析%Analysis of City Air Quality Based on Competitive Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊; 王汝凉

    2012-01-01

    该文利用竞争型神经网络来对空气质量进行分类。竞争型神经网络模拟生物神经网络中的神经元之间的兴奋、抑制与竞争的机制,进行网络的学习与训练。竞争型神经网络的输出层神经元能够通过竞争以确定胜者,胜者将指出哪一种原型模式最能代表输入模式。将不同空气质量等级下的各空气指标作为原型模式,通过输入样本模式,利用竞争网络的竞争特点得到胜者,以此得出空气质量等级。%Air quality plays an important role in human's life.We wish to know the air quality grade of living area and measure the effect of the environment on our body with a simple and effective method to classify air quality.This paper uses competitive neural network to classify air quality,to simulate the excitation,inhibition and competitive mechanism existing in biological neural networks for undertaking network learning and training.The neuron in the output layer through competition to determine the winner,who will demonstrate which prototype model can represent the input mode.Air targets can be used in the different level of air quality as prototype model and input sample mode.Then,we the competitive characteristics of the competitive neural network can be taken advantage of so as to produce the winner and get the level of air quality.

  4. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  5. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V.; Pesonen, R.; Karstastenpaeae, R.; Rantakrans, E.; Kukkonen, J.; Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Saari, H.; Hiltunen, V. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  6. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  7. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Nordstroem, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Jansen, S.; Massling, A.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2013-10-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring network. The aim is to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to understand the governing processes that determine the level of air pollution in Denmark. In 2012 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. In addition model calculations were carried out to supplement the measurements. At one street station (H.C. Andersens Boulevard) in Copenhagen NO{sub 2} was found in concentrations above EU limit values while NO{sub 2} levels in Odense, Aarhus and Aalborg were below the limit value. Model calculations indicate exceedances of NO{sub 2} limit values at several streets in Copenhagen. Annual averages of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were below limit values at all stations. The concentrations for most pollutants have been decreasing during the last decades. (Author)

  8. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellemann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Nordstroem, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2012-10-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring network. The aim is to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to understand the governing processes that determine the level of air pollution in Denmark. In 2011 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. In addition model calculations were carried out to supplement the measurements. At one street station (H.C. Andersens Boulevard) in Copenhagen NO{sub 2} was found in concentrations above EU limit values while NO{sub 2} levels in Odense, Aarhus and Aalborg were below the limit value. Model calculations indicate exceedances of NO{sub 2} limit values at several streets in Copenhagen. Annual averages of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were below limit values at all stations. However, concentrations levels in Copenhagen exceeded the daily limit value for PM{sub 10}. Winter salting of roads was one of the main reasons for this exceedance. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing during the last decades, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (Author)

  9. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  10. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality at Dormitories of a University in Qinhuangdao City in Winter%秦皇岛市冬季某高校宿舍空气质量调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 王立鑫; 汪丹丹; 杨晖

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the indoor air quality (IAQ) in dormitories of a university, strengthening the management staff and students understanding of IAQ, and providing a basis to improve the dormitory venti-lation for the engineering design personnel. 20 dormitories of a university are investigated in Qinhuangdao city in winter on IAQ issue by the method of questionnaire investigation and field test. Around 42.5% stu-dents expressed dissatisfaction for IAQ of dormitories, and 60% students thought that the indoor air was“bad” or“not fresh”. Indoor CO2 concentrations of more than 95% dormitories exceeded the limited value of 1000ppm. 45.8% students thought that the thermal sensation was cold, and 70.8% students thought the relative humidity was drying in the dormitories. More than 80% of the students occasionally or often felt lack of attention in the dormitory, more than 95% felt to doze more easily in the dormitory than in the classroom. The ventilation rate in these dormitories is poor in winter. IAQ is not good, and has certain in-fluence to the students’attention and learning state. So the building design personnel, management personnel and undergraduates should understand IAQ much more, and take measures to improve IAQ of the university dormitory.%目的:调查高校宿舍室内空气质量(Indoor air quality,IAQ),加强高校管理人员和学生对IAQ的认识,为工程设计人员改善宿舍通风提供依据。方法:利用主观问卷调查与现场测试相结合的方法,从主观和客观两个方面对秦皇岛市某大学的20个学生宿舍、120人进行冬季IAQ调查研究。结果:42.5%的学生对宿舍IAQ表示不满,认为宿舍内空气“很不新鲜”或“不新鲜”的学生高达60.0%,95%的宿舍室内CO2浓度超过限值1000 ppm。45.8%的学生认为宿舍内偏冷,70.8%的学生认为宿舍内湿度偏干燥。超过80.0%的学生在宿舍中会偶尔或经常出现注意力不集中的现象,95.0%的学

  11. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  12. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  13. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  14. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  15. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  16. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past 3 decades. However, the economic boom came at the cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p100 (defined as ‘slightly polluted’, however, it increased to 21 cities (18% that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13% in 2012 and 35 (29% in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as ‘severely polluted’. API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4% to 7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution vary by seasons and regions, and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country.

  17. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  18. Analysis of major air pollutants and submicron particles in New York City and Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, M.; Hopke, P. K.; Felton, H. D.; Frank, B. P.; Rattigan, O. V.; Wurth, M. J.; LaDuke, G. H.

    2017-01-01

    A year-long sampling campaign of major air pollutants and submicron particle number size distributions was conducted at two sites taken as representative of city-wide air quality in New York City and Long Island, respectively. A number of species were quantified with hourly time resolution, including particle number concentrations in 6 size ranges (20-30 nm, 30-50 nm, 50-70 nm, 70-100 nm, 100-200 nm, and >200 nm), nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, PM2.5 mass concentration and some PM major components (sulfate, organic and elemental carbon). Hourly concentrations of primary and secondary organic carbon were estimated using the EC tracer method. Data were matched with weather parameters and air parcel back-trajectories. A series of tools were thus applied to: (i) study the seasonal, weekly, diurnal cycles of pollutants; (ii) investigate the relationships amongst pollutants through correlation and lagged correlation analyses; (iii) depict the role of atmospheric photochemical processes; (iv) examine the location of the potential sources by mean of conditional bivariate probability function analysis and (v) investigate the role of regional transport of air masses to the concentrations of analyzed species. Results indicate that concentrations of NOx, SO2, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, primary OC and EC are predominantly determined by local sources, but are also affected by regional transports of polluted air masses. On the contrary, the transport of continental polluted air masses has a main effect in raising the concentrations of secondary PM2.5 (sulfate and secondary organic carbon). By providing direct information on the concentrations and trends of key pollutants and submicron particle number concentrations, this study finally enables some general considerations about air quality status and atmospheric processes over the New York City metropolitan area.

  19. Assessment of Soil Quality of Tidal Marshes in Shanghai City

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qing; TAN, JUAN; SHA, Chenyan; RUAN, Junjie; Min WANG; HUANG, Shenfa; Wu, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    We take three types of tidal marshes in Shanghai City as the study object: tidal marshes in mainland, tidal marshes in the rim of islands, and shoal in Yangtze estuary. On the basis of assessing nutrient quality and environmental quality, respectively, we use soil quality index (SQI) to assess the soil quality of tidal flats, meanwhile formulate the quality grading standards, and analyze the current situation and characteristics of it. The results show that except the north of Hangzhou Bay, N...

  20. Call for improving air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  1. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... carbon monoxide sulfur dioxide nitrogen dioxide Using a color-coded system, the Air Quality Index indicates when ...

  2. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  3. Building and evaluating sensor-based Citizens' Observatories for improving quality of life in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Schneider, Philipp; Høiskar, Britt Ann; Grossberndt, Sonja; Naderer, Clemens; Robinson, Johanna; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    Urban air quality, the environmental quality of public spaces and indoor areas such as schools, are areas of great concern to citizens and policymakers. However, access to information addressing these areas is not always available in a user-friendly manner. In particular, the quality and quantity of this information is not consistent across these areas, and does not reflect differences in needs among users. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project will build on the concept of the Citizens' Observatories to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, and enable them to support and influence decision making by policymakers. To achieve this goal, CITI-SENSE will develop, test, demonstrate and validate a community-based environmental monitoring and information system using low-cost sensors and Earth Observation applications. Key to achieving this goal is the chain "sensors-platforms-products-users" linking providers of technology to users: (i) technologies for distributed monitoring (sensors); (ii) information and communication technologies (platform); (iii) information products and services (products); (iv) and citizen involvement in both monitoring and societal decisions (users). The CITI-SENSE observatories cover three empowerment initiatives: urban air quality; public spaces; and school indoor quality. The empowerment initiatives are being performed at nine locations across Europe. Each location has adapted the generic case study to their local circumstances and has contacted the urban stakeholders needed to run the study. The empowerment initiatives are divided into two phases: a first phase (Pilot Study), and a second phase (Full Implementation). The main goal of the Pilot Study is to test and evaluate the chain "sensors-platform-products-users". To assess the results of the empowerment initiatives, key performance indicators (KPIs) are being developed; these include questionnaires for users. The KPIs will be used to design the full

  4. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Selected References. May, 1989. 18. EPA. Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers. December 1991. 19. Fanger , P.O...1979. 6. Fanger , P.O. Introduction of the Olf and Decipol Units to Quantify Air Pollution Perceived by Humans Indoors and Outdoors. Energy and...Buildings. 12:1-6, 1988. 7. Fanger , P. et al. Air Pollution Sources in Assembly Halls Quantified by the Olf Unit. Energy and Buildings. 12: 7-19, 1988. 8

  5. Variations in dust contributions to air quality impairment in a temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolin; Guan, Chunzhu; Zhao, Junling; Li, Jiannan

    2017-01-01

    Dust associated visibility impairment is the most noticeable air pollution phenomena, has important implications regarding air quality in developing cities. We integrated the commonly reported visibility with remote sensing, found that dust emission tended to decrease over Xilingol grassland. The temporal coherency between dust event and visibility reduction demonstrated dust was an important factor responsible for air quality impairment, but the differences in seasonal patterns and long-term trends among stations manifested some drops in visibility couldn’t be solely attributed to dust activity. It is urgent to conclude the causes of visibility reduction in developing cities susceptible to dust impact in recent years.

  6. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.;

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  7. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  8. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... authority to address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final...

  9. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... authority to address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final...

  10. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  1. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  8. RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN «STREET CANYONS» OF CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Rusakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to state analyze of atmospheric air at its pollution with vehicle emissions in Dnipropetrovsk city, the development a numerical model and applied computing program for research of air pollution level with vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». Methodology. To achieve the research purpose it was studied the dynamic of change concentration of different pollutants that have been fixed on monitoring station of air quality in Dnipropetrovsk city. It was performed level assessment of air pollution from traffic (according to the Main Statistical Office in Dnipropetrovsk region. It was developed methodology for numerical calculation of concentration the atmospheric air pollution from vehicle emissions. To solve hydrodynamic task of determining velocity field of wind flow in streets the model of separated flows of an inviscid fluid was used; to solve the task of the calculation process of dispersion pollution the equation of convective-diffusion transfer of pollutant was used. To implement the proposed methodology we used implicit difference schemes. Findings.In the work a mathematical numerical model was developed and computing programs on its base were created. It allows conducting the computational experiments for evaluation the level of air pollution from vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». As a result of research regulations on change concentration of carbon monoxide near a considered group of buildings at different pollutant emissions were established. Originality.This numerical model was developed which allows accounting the hydrodynamic impact of group buildings on dispersion of pollutants when the wind speed and the vertical diffusion coefficient vary with height. Practical value. Conducting such class of computational experiments is necessary in the case of reconstruction of city

  9. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  10. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.; Manscher, O. H.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. This report presents...... Copenhagen the same program is con-ducted as at the street stations with the inclusion of O3. Only NO, NO2 and O3 are reported from the other rural site. Air quality limit values have been implemented in Den-mark for NO2, SO2, TSP in order to protect human health. All limit values are based on EU limit...

  11. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  12. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  13. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  14. Air Quality Model System For The Vienna/bratislava Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, B. C.; Schmittner, W.; Kromp-Kolb, H.

    A model system has been build up, consisting of the mesoscale meteorological fore- cast model MM5 and the chemical air-quality model CAMx. The coarse grid covers central Europe. By nesting, a spatial resolution of 3 km is reached for the core area, which includes the cities of Vienna (Austria) and Bratislava (Slovakia). In a first approach, the model system has been applied to a 6-day period in Febru- ary 1997, which was characterized by stagnant meteorological conditions. During this episode, primary pollutants like CO and NO2 have been compared with ambient mea- surements for the validation of the new model system. In the future it is foreseen to improve the spatial resolution, to apply the model system also for ozone and particulates, and to utilize it for a short-time forecast of air-quality parameters.

  15. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  16. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence on thermodynamics, gas and aerosol composition of city air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhegova, Nina; Belan, Boris; Antokhin, Pavel; Zhidovkhin, Evgenii; Ivlev, Georgii; Kozlov, Artem; Fofonov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    from the obvious inflow of anthropogenic heat, an additional source of moisture has been discovered in the city. Apparently, it is automobile transport. 2. The measurements have discovered areas with significantly exceeded daily and one-time MPCs for such dangerous polluting agents as CO, NO, NO2. These are the areas with the most intensive car traffic. 3. A high level of ozone concentration has been discovered in the city's background area and the Academgorodok. 4. It is necessary to build up statistics for this type of studies and introduce this method into the air quality control methodology. As an addition to the practiced methods it will allow to achieve a more complete and correct picture of air pollution. 1. WHO. Air quality guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999. Downloaded in February 2002 2. B. D. Belan, O. A. Pelymskii, Uzhegova N.V. (2009) Atmos. Oceanic Opt. Study of the Anthropogenic Component of Urban Heat Balance. Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 441-445. 3. Arshinov, M.Y., B.D. Belan, D.K. Davydov, G.A. Ivlev, A.V. Kozlov, D.A. Pestunov, E.V. Pokrovskii, D.V. Simonenkov, N.V. Uzhegova, A.V. Fofonov (2005) Atmos. Oceanic Opt. AKV-2 mobile station and its use in Tomsk city as an example. No. 8, pp. 575-580

  17. Adjustment of the Automatic Monitoring Points of Air Quality in Mengzi City%蒙自市环境空气质量自动监测点位调整研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of economy and urbanization in Mengzi,the original air quality automatic monitoring points could not meet the requirements of the urban ambient air quality monitoring any more.Therefore, it is necessary to redistribute the monitoring sites in Mengzi.According to the practical work experiences and the national relevant provisions,the present situation of ambient air quality automatic monitoring point was described as well as the shortcomings of the current distribution of the sites.The adjustment proposal of the new distribution of the monitoring sites was put forward.The feasibility of the proposal was analyzed.%选取蒙自市环境空气质量自动监测点位作为研究对象,根据实际的工作经验和国家的相关规定,叙述了蒙自市现阶段环境空气质量自动监测点位的现状,分析了现阶段环境空气质量自动监测点位存在的不足,最后提出蒙自市环境空气质量自动监测点位调整的实施方案,并对该方案进行分析得出可行结论。

  18. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  19. Seasonality and Dynamic Spatial Contagion of Air Pollution in 42 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiong He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much.

  20. Seasonality and dynamic spatial contagion of air pollution in 42 Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhanqiong; Sriboonchita, Songsak; He, Min

    2013-01-01

    To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs) of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs) between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i) the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii) the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii) the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv) comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much.

  1. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  2. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  3. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Luo

    Full Text Available With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita, the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2 and the air pollution index (API from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC, that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  4. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  5. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  6. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  7. Methodology for Air Quality Forecast Downscaling from Regional- to Street-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mahura, Alexander; Amstrup, Bjarne; Hansen Saas, Bent; Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Lorenzen, Thomas; Weismann, Jakob

    2010-05-01

    The most serious air pollution events occur in cities where there is a combination of high population density and air pollution, e.g. from vehicles. The pollutants can lead to serious human health problems, including asthma, irritation of the lungs, bronchitis, pneumonia, decreased resistance to respiratory infections, and premature death. In particular air pollution is associated with increase in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In 2000 WHO estimated that between 2.5 % and 11 % of total annual deaths are caused by exposure to air pollution. However, European-scale air quality models are not suited for local forecasts, as their grid-cell is typically of the order of 5 to 10km and they generally lack detailed representation of urban effects. Two suites are used in the framework of the EC FP7 project MACC (Monitoring of Atmosphere Composition and Climate) to demonstrate how downscaling from the European MACC ensemble to local-scale air quality forecast will be carried out: one will illustrate capabilities for the city of Copenhagen (Denmark); the second will focus on the city of Bucharest (Romania). This work is devoted to the first suite, where methodological aspects of downscaling from regional (European/ Denmark) to urban scale (Copenhagen), and from the urban down to street scale. The first results of downscaling according to the proposed methodology are presented. The potential for downscaling of European air quality forecasts by operating urban and street-level forecast models is evaluated. This will bring a strong support for continuous improvement of the regional forecast modelling systems for air quality in Europe, and underline clear perspectives for the future regional air quality core and downstream services for end-users. At the end of the MACC project, requirements on "how-to-do" downscaling of European air-quality forecasts to the city and street levels with different approaches will be formulated.

  8. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. Uncertainty in mapping urban air quality using crowdsourcing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Small and low-cost sensors measuring various air pollutants have become available in recent years owing to advances in sensor technology. Such sensors have significant potential for improving high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment as they can be deployed in comparatively large numbers and therefore are able to provide information at unprecedented spatial detail. However, such sensor devices are subject to significant and currently little understood uncertainties that affect their usability. Not only do these devices exhibit random errors and biases of occasionally substantial magnitudes, but these errors may also shift over time. In addition, there often tends to be significant inter-sensor variability even when supposedly identical sensors from the same manufacturer are used. We need to quantify accurately these uncertainties to make proper use of the information they provide. Furthermore, when making use of the data and producing derived products such as maps, the measurement uncertainties that propagate throughout the analysis need to be clearly communicated to the scientific and non-scientific users of the map products. Based on recent experiences within the EU-funded projects CITI-SENSE and hackAIR we discuss the uncertainties along the entire processing chain when using crowdsourcing techniques for mapping urban air quality. Starting with the uncertainties exhibited by the sensors themselves, we present ways of quantifying the error characteristics of a network of low-cost microsensors and show suitable statistical metrics for summarizing them. Subsequently, we briefly present a data-fusion-based method for mapping air quality in the urban environment and illustrate how we propagate the uncertainties of the individual sensors throughout the mapping system, resulting in detailed maps that document the pixel-level uncertainty for each concentration field. Finally, we present methods for communicating the resulting spatial uncertainty

  12. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  13. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  14. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures...... of 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air...

  15. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L. [ICF Kaiser International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  16. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  17. Short Term Air Quality Forecast Using Data Driven Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti S. Tikhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting air quality is a challenge, when there are uncertainties involved in the availability as well as accuracy of the desired data. Most of the developing countries including India often have no formalized forecasting approach. Little data (which may be of suspect quality and inadequate institutional structure to support data collection are the main concerns. Present study suggests a forecasting tool that is seldom used in the field of air quality forecasting; but is a proven robust technique. Thirty six models have been developed with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN considering daily average concentrations of meteorological parameters as well as pollutant concentrations spanning from 2005-2008 for one of the most polluted metropolitan city of India. The models are specific to cases when all the significant input parameters ( data are not available because of various reasons. ANN is used as a benchmarking tool for estimation and prediction of air quality and the results are compared with GP .Performance of all the models has been assessed using r (correlation coefficient, RMSE (root mean square error & d (d statistics.Compared to ANN, GP models seem to work well in all cases considered because of unavailability of data and have an advantage of pollution forecasting equation generated by the model. These equations can be of help for real time forecasting.

  18. Spatial and temporal characteristics of air quality and air pollutants in 2013 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shujun; Cao, Hui; Chen, Ying; Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Tao; Fan, Hailan

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an ever more critical issue in Beijing in more recent years. In this study, we use the air quality index (AQI), corresponding primary pollutant types and meteorological data which are collected at 16 monitoring stations in Beijing between January 2013 and December, 2013 studying the spatial and temporal variations of air quality and air pollutants. The results show that PM2.5 was the most serious pollutant, followed by O3. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 119.5 ± 13.8 μg m(-3) in Beijing. In addition, the air quality varies across different seasons. More specifically, winter season showed the worst air quality. Moreover, while particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were relatively higher in the spring and winter seasons, gaseous pollutants (O3 and NO2) were more serious in the summer and autumn. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, the findings showed that AQI and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in south and lower in the north of the city, and the O3 showed exactly a pattern with the opposite direction-higher in the north and lower in the south. NO2 was found to have a greater impact on the central region compared with that in other regions. Furthermore, PM2.5 was found to be positively correlated with the relative humidity, but negatively correlated with wind speed and atmospheric pressure (P air pollution in Beijing.

  19. Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

    2004-07-01

    This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

  20. Quality of life declines in big and growing cities. Poverty in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    The quality of life in developing countries during the first couple of decades after the Second World War was higher in cities than in small towns and villages. However, the relative advantage of city dwellers in developing countries has declined since the 1970s, with high-growth rate cities experiencing a more severe decline. Infant mortality levels in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s are as high in large cities as in the smallest towns and villages. In most developing regions, big city residents are increasingly disadvantaged, such that researchers and policymakers can no longer assume that the quality of life in urban areas is better than in rural areas. The urban transformation of the developing world is similar to the 19th century urbanization of now-developed countries, but today many more people are crowding into far bigger cities. Using survey information from 43 countries representing 63% of the developing world's urban population outside of China and India, Martin Brockerhoff of the Population Council and Ellen Brennan of the UN Population Division found that rapid population growth and big size have overwhelmed the capacity of cities to provide essential goods and services.

  1. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of air quality microsensors versus reference methods: The EuNetAir joint exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Costa, A. M.; Ginja, J.; Amorim, M.; Coutinho, M.; Karatzas, K.; Sioumis, Th.; Katsifarakis, N.; Konstantinidis, K.; De Vito, S.; Esposito, E.; Smith, P.; André, N.; Gérard, P.; Francis, L. A.; Castell, N.; Schneider, P.; Viana, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Reimringer, W.; Otjes, R. P.; von Sicard, O.; Pohle, R.; Elen, B.; Suriano, D.; Pfister, V.; Prato, M.; Dipinto, S.; Penza, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 1st EuNetAir Air Quality Joint Intercomparison Exercise organized in Aveiro (Portugal) from 13th-27th October 2014, focused on the evaluation and assessment of environmental gas, particulate matter (PM) and meteorological microsensors, versus standard air quality reference methods through an experimental urban air quality monitoring campaign. The IDAD-Institute of Environment and Development Air Quality Mobile Laboratory was placed at an urban traffic location in the city centre of Aveiro to conduct continuous measurements with standard equipment and reference analysers for CO, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and precipitation. The comparison of the sensor data generated by different microsensor-systems installed side-by-side with reference analysers, contributes to the assessment of the performance and the accuracy of microsensor-systems in a real-world context, and supports their calibration and further development. The overall performance of the sensors in terms of their statistical metrics and measurement profile indicates significant differences in the results depending on the platform and on the sensors considered. In terms of pollutants, some promising results were observed for O3 (r2: 0.12-0.77), CO (r2: 0.53-0.87), and NO2 (r2: 0.02-0.89). For PM (r2: 0.07-0.36) and SO2 (r2: 0.09-0.20) the results show a poor performance with low correlation coefficients between the reference and microsensor measurements. These field observations under specific environmental conditions suggest that the relevant microsensor platforms, if supported by the proper post processing and data modelling tools, have enormous potential for new strategies in air quality control.

  3. Cities, productivity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Edward

    2011-07-29

    Technological changes and improved electronic communications seem, paradoxically, to be making cities more, rather than less, important. There is a strong correlation between urbanization and economic development across countries, and within-country evidence suggests that productivity rises in dense agglomerations. But urban economic advantages are often offset by the perennial urban curses of crime, congestion and contagious disease. The past history of the developed world suggests that these problems require more capable governments that use a combination of economic and engineering solutions. Though the scope of urban challenges can make remaining rural seem attractive, agrarian poverty has typically also been quite costly.

  4. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  5. Vehicle inspection and maintenance, and air pollution in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Hector G.; Cabrera, Enrique; Ovalle, Pilar [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Inst. de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Information from the Mandatory Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Program carried out in October 1996 and the first semester of 1998 provides a useful emission database for Mexico City. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) exhaust emission levels were measured for at least a million private and public transportation vehicle. Analysis of this database leads us to conclude that this information can be used to test anti-pollutant policies, and is useful as a performance quality index for vehicle manufacturers. Some of the results of this analysis include: the finding of a typical exhaust emission distribution curve for each vehicle manufacturer, with differences for each brand and model for the same manufacturer, the fact that not all new vehicles pass the I/M test; and public transportation vehicles in Mexico City have almost useless catalytic converters. (Author)

  6. Air quality in Delhi during the CommonWealth Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marrapu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Air quality during The CommonWealth Games (CWG, held in Delhi in October 2010 is analyzed using a new air quality forecasting system established for the Games. The CWG stimulated enhanced efforts to monitor and model air quality in the region. The air quality of Delhi during the CWG had high levels of particles with mean values of PM2.5 and PM10 at the venues of 111 and 238 μg m−3, respectively. Black carbon (BC accounted for ∼10% of the PM2.5 mass. It is shown that BC, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are well predicted, but with positive biases of ∼25%. The diurnal variations are also well captured, with both the observations and the modeled values showing nighttime maxima and daytime minima. A new emissions inventory, developed as part of this air quality forecasting initiative, is evaluated by comparing the observed and predicted species-species correlations (i.e., BC : CO; BC : PM2.5; PM2.5 : PM10. Assuming that the observations at these sites are representative and that all the model errors are associated with the emissions, then the modeled concentrations and slopes can be made consistent by scaling the emissions by: 0.6 for NOx, 2 for CO, and 0.7 for BC, PM2.5 and PM10. The emission estimates for particles are remarkably good considering the uncertainty in the estimates due to the diverse spread of activities and technologies that take place in Delhi and the rapid rates of change. The contribution of various emission sectors including transportation, power, domestic and industry to surface concentrations are also estimated. Transport, domestic and industrial sectors all make significant contributions to PM levels in Delhi, and the sectoral contributions vary spatially within the city. Ozone levels in Delhi are elevated, with hourly values sometimes exceeding 100 ppb. The continued growth of the transport sector is expected to make ozone pollution a more pressing air pollution problem in Delhi. The sector analysis provides useful

  7. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  8. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  9. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  10. Analysis of air quality and nighttime light for Indian urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Prakhar; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Indian urban regions suffer severe air pollution issues. A 2014 study by WHO highlighted that out of 20 cities globally with worst air quality, 13 lie in India. Although insufficient ground monitoring data and incomplete air pollution source characterization impedes putting policy measures to tackle this issue, remote sensing and GIS can overcome this hurdle to some extent. To find out how much of this hazard is due to economic growth, past researches have tried to make use of socio-economic growth indicators like GDP, population or urban area to establish its correlation with air quality in urban centres. Since nightlight has been found to correlate well with economic conditions at national and city level, an attempt has been made to analyse it with air quality levels to find regions with high contribution of anthropogenic emissions. Nighttime light activity was observed through DayNight Band (DNB) of VIIRS sensor while the air quality levels were obtained for ANG and AOD (using MODIS sensor) and SO2 and NO2 (using OMI sensor). We have classified Indian landmass into 4 air-quality and DNB classes: LowLight- HighPollution, HighLight-HighPollution, LowLight-LowPollution and HighLight- LowPollution for each air quality species using June 2014 data. It was found that around half of urban regions show high AOD and ANG values. On the other hand almost all urban regions exhibit high SO2 and NO2 values.

  11. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  12. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Prodanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The results of the physical measures showed that temperatures in the houses were between 15.31–25.6°C, the relative humidity 48.03-81.12%, while the luminance rarely exceeded 8 lux. As for the gasses, the values for NH3 rarely exceeded 8 ppm, although at some measuring points it reached 26 ppm. O2 was generally at 20.9 %, and the levels of CO2 were very low. No presence of H2S and CO was detected. In this study it was concluded that the measurement of the air quality in a house can vary depending of the places this measures are taken. Multiple measurement points are important because they may make the staff aware of the problems connected to low ventilation and culmination of harmful gases. The air quality in different positions in the houses is of great importance not only for the animal welfare, but also for the safety of the staff.

  13. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  14. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District......

  15. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  19. An air pollution modeling study using three surface coverings near the New International Airport of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Arón D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis-Gerardo

    2003-10-01

    The dry lakebed of what once was the lake of Texcoco is the location selected for the New International Airport of Mexico City. This project will generate an important urban development near the airport with regional implications on air quality. Using a prognostic air quality model, the consequences of photochemical air pollution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City resulting from three possible coverings for the areas of the lakebed that are not occupied by the runway and terminal building are investigated. These coverings are desert, grassland, and water and occupy an area of 63 km2. This study is based on a representative high pollution episode. In addition to reducing the emission of primary natural particles, the water covering generates a land-water breeze capable of maintaining enough ventilation to reduce pollutant concentrations over a localized region of the metropolitan area and may enhance the wind speed on the coasts of the proposed lake.

  20. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  1. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  2. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p China in 2012 and with the highest in east China in 2013. In 2012, 5 (4%) of the 120 cities had ≥60 days with API >100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality

  3. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  4. Air quality modeling in Warsaw Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision support of air quality management needs to connect several categories of the input data with the analytical process of air pollution dispersion. The aim of the respective model of air pollution is to provide a quantitative assessment of environmental impact of emission sources in a form of spatial/temporal maps of pollutants’ concentration or deposition in the domain. These results are in turn used in assessment of environmental risk and supporting respective planning actions. However, due to the complexity of the forecasting system and the required input data, such environmental prognosis and related decisions contain many potential sources of imprecision and uncertainty. The main sources of uncertainty are commonly considered meteorological and emission input data. This paper addresses the problem of emission uncertainty, and impact of this uncertainty on the forecasted air pollution concentrations and adverse health effects. The computational experiment implemented for Warsaw Metropolitan Area, Poland, encompasses one-year forecast with the year 2005 meteorological dataset. The annual mean concentrations of the main urban pollutants are computed. The impact of uncertainty in emission field inventory is also considered. Uncertainty assessment is based on the Monte Carlo technique where the regional scale CALPUFF model is the main forecasting tool used in air quality analysis.

  5. Air quality and air quality related values in Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chassahowitzka Wilderness Area is a Class I air quality area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Despite the special protection mandated for...

  6. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - MO 2011 Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Areas (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The St. Louis air quality nonattainment areas geospatial data layer contains regions representing the geographic extent of areas that are estimated to be out of...

  7. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  8. Air quality assessment of low emission zones in Copenhagen. [Denmark]; Luftkvalitetsvurdering af ren-luftzone i Koebenhavn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M.; Brandt, J.; Winther, M.; Ellermann, T.

    2012-09-15

    According to the government agreement from 2011 improved low emission zones have been identified as a measure to improve the air quality in greater Danish cities, and to ensure compliance with air quality limit values for NO{sub 2} of 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as an annual mean. The limit value is violated at H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen which is one of the busiest urban streets in Denmark and a fixed air quality monitor station is also located in the street. Air quality model calculations also shows that some other busy streets in Copenhagen violate the annual air quality limit values for NO{sub 2}. The objective of the project is to assess the impacts of a number of improved low emission zone measures in Copenhagen regarding emissions and air quality with focus on NO{sub 2}. The impact assessment of different scenarios includes assessment of emissions and air quality. The assessment is carried out in great details for NO{sub 2} and to a lesser degree for PM exhaust, PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}. Since air quality assessment is resource demanding only the main scenarios are carried out with the full air quality model whereas the air quality of the scenario variants are assessed based on regression analysis between emissions and air quality in scenarios calculated with the full air quality model. (LN)

  9. FUNGAL FLORA OF THE AIR OF BABOL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Omran

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal conidia and spores are among various organisms found in the air, causing different types of mycoses. In this study (from February 1994 until March 1995 fungal spores and conidia were collected by their settlement on to petri - dishes from 33 locations in Babol city during 4 seasons. Plates of sabouraud dextrose agar were laid 1.5 M. from the ground and then sent to mycology laboratory where they were incubated at room temperature. The fungi were examined by microscop and gross examination. 1520 colonies including 24 genera (Hyphomycetes 27.54% and yeast 25.46% grew on 132 plates (11.5 colonies I plate. The most prevalent fungi isolated in this study were Cladosporiurn, yeast and Penicilliwn, Most of the colonies detected observed in summer (704 colonies, and there had been the least number of colonies isolated in winter (187 colonies.

  10. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  11. Construction of Air Quality Real-time Collaborative Service System in Changzhou City%常州市空气质量实时发布协同服务体系建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙南; 蔡继军

    2014-01-01

    从空气质量实时发布的发布接口、集成环节、发布要素三个方面建立空气质量实时发布协同服务体系,在此基础上建立了协同服务框架,对发布信息的统计计算、数据质控、数据聚合计算、数据自动化处理等功能进行阐述,由此保证了不同层次、不同接口间发布信息的质量和一致性,具有较大的实际应用价值。%On the basis of real-time air quality publishing service systeme stablished from the interfaces,integrated parts and release factors,the framework of collaborative services has been built,which publishes information of statistical computing,data quality con-trol,data aggregation calculation ,automated data processing and other functions,ensuring the quality and consistency of different lev-els and different interfaces.It definitely has practical value.

  12. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. From 2000 a new phase...... concentrations an increase was observed in 1999. This is probably mainly due to the meteorological conditions in 1999. The SO2 concentrations have been continuously decreasing since 1982. In 1999 they were only about 1/10 of the limit values. They are also far below the new values proposed by the EU commission...

  13. 78 FR 30770 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by... Pollution; Chapter I: Pollution Control Board; Subchapter l: Air Quality Standards And Episodes; Part...

  14. Ecoflex: Improving air quality with green dynamic traffic management based on real time air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baalen, J. van; Koning, A. de; Voogt, M.; Stelwagen, U.; Turksma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the world, air quality regulations are breached due to localized high pollution episodes in specific locations, or "hotspots". Advances in air pollution monitoring techniques enable hotspots to be identified more effectively; however challenges remain as to how best to reduce the incidence an

  15. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  16. The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality.

  17. Assessment and prediction of air quality using fuzzy logic and autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Hernández, José Juan; Sánchez-Fernández, Luis P.; Carrasco-Ochoa, Jesús A.; Martínez-Trinidad, José Fco.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, artificial intelligence methods have been used for the treatment of environmental problems. This work, presents two models for assessment and prediction of air quality. First, we develop a new computational model for air quality assessment in order to evaluate toxic compounds that can harm sensitive people in urban areas, affecting their normal activities. In this model we propose to use a Sigma operator to statistically asses air quality parameters using their historical data information and determining their negative impact in air quality based on toxicity limits, frequency average and deviations of toxicological tests. We also introduce a fuzzy inference system to perform parameter classification using a reasoning process and integrating them in an air quality index describing the pollution levels in five stages: excellent, good, regular, bad and danger, respectively. The second model proposed in this work predicts air quality concentrations using an autoregressive model, providing a predicted air quality index based on the fuzzy inference system previously developed. Using data from Mexico City Atmospheric Monitoring System, we perform a comparison among air quality indices developed for environmental agencies and similar models. Our results show that our models are an appropriate tool for assessing site pollution and for providing guidance to improve contingency actions in urban areas.

  18. CitySpace Air Sensor Network Project Conducted to Test New Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CitySpace project is a new research effort by EPA to field test new, lower-cost air pollution sensors in a mid-sized city to understand how this emerging technology can add valuable information on air pollution patterns in neighboorhoods.

  19. RAQ-A Random Forest Approach for Predicting Air Quality in Urban Sensing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruiyun; Yang, Yu; Yang, Leyou; Han, Guangjie; Move, Oguti Ann

    2016-01-09

    Air quality information such as the concentration of PM2.5 is of great significance for human health and city management. It affects the way of traveling, urban planning, government policies and so on. However, in major cities there is typically only a limited number of air quality monitoring stations. In the meantime, air quality varies in the urban areas and there can be large differences, even between closely neighboring regions. In this paper, a random forest approach for predicting air quality (RAQ) is proposed for urban sensing systems. The data generated by urban sensing includes meteorology data, road information, real-time traffic status and point of interest (POI) distribution. The random forest algorithm is exploited for data training and prediction. The performance of RAQ is evaluated with real city data. Compared with three other algorithms, this approach achieves better prediction precision. Exciting results are observed from the experiments that the air quality can be inferred with amazingly high accuracy from the data which are obtained from urban sensing.

  20. RAQ–A Random Forest Approach for Predicting Air Quality in Urban Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality information such as the concentration of PM2.5 is of great significance for human health and city management. It affects the way of traveling, urban planning, government policies and so on. However, in major cities there is typically only a limited number of air quality monitoring stations. In the meantime, air quality varies in the urban areas and there can be large differences, even between closely neighboring regions. In this paper, a random forest approach for predicting air quality (RAQ is proposed for urban sensing systems. The data generated by urban sensing includes meteorology data, road information, real-time traffic status and point of interest (POI distribution. The random forest algorithm is exploited for data training and prediction. The performance of RAQ is evaluated with real city data. Compared with three other algorithms, this approach achieves better prediction precision. Exciting results are observed from the experiments that the air quality can be inferred with amazingly high accuracy from the data which are obtained from urban sensing.

  1. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  2. Assessment of Air Pollution Impacts on Population Health in Bejaia City, Northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENAISSA, Fatima; ALKAMA, Rezak; ANNESI-MAESANO, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background To assess the health impact of air pollution on Bejaia population in the north of Algeria, we carried out a descriptive epidemiologic inquiry near the medical establishments of three areas. Methods From hospital admissions registers, we collected data on the hospital mortality and admissions relating to the various cardiorespiratory pathologies generated by this type of pollution. In parallel, data on the automobile fleet of Bejaia and other measurements were exploited to show that the pollutants concentrations are strongly correlated with the urban traffic concentration. Results This study revealed that the whole of the population is touched, but the sensitivity to pollution can show variations according to the age, the sex and the residence place. Population of Bejaia town marked the most raised death and morbidity rates, followed by that of Kherrata. Weak rates are recorded for the rural population of Feraoun. Stronger correlation (>0.9) is evident amongst CO and deaths due to asthma and COPD in Béjaia city. Conclusion This approach enables us to conclude that the population of Béjaia could not escape the urban pollution generated by her old automobile fleet. Installation of a monitoring and measuring site of air pollution in this city could provide a beneficial tool to protect its inhabitants by informing on air quality they breathe and the measures to following order to minimize the impacts on their health and by alerting the authorities during the critical situations. PMID:26175976

  3. Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

    2003-05-01

    Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  5. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  6. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  7. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  8. Investigation on Air Quality in Newly Decorated Shopping Centers with Different Scales in Zhenjiang City%镇江市新装修的不同规模商场空气卫生质量调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝世轩; 蒋兆峰

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To learn the air quality in newly decorated shopping centers with different scales, provide scientific basis for making prevention and control countermeasure of air quality in shopping centers. [ Methods ] The monitoring points were set in medium and small shopping centers according to Technical rules of health monitoring for public places ( GB/T17220 - 1998 ), and evaluation was conducted according to Health requirements and standards for shopping centre ( bookstore ) ( GB 9670 - 1996 ).[ Results] The qualified rate of formaldehyde in 4 shopping centers was 0.98%, the maximum of 0.91mg/m( was 6. 58 times higher than national standard. The qualified rate of inhalable particulate matter and noise was 98.04% and 19.5% respectively. The values of formaldehyde, noise and inhaluble particulate matter in large-scale shopping centers were higher than that in medium and small shopping centers. [ Conclusion] It is necessary to pay high attention to air pollution by formaldehyde, which is serious in newly decorated shopping centers.%目的 了解镇江市不同规模新装修商场的空气质量状况,为制定商场空气卫生质量防控对策提供科学依据.方法 按照(GB/T17220-1998)对大、中、小型商场设置监测点,依据国家(GB 9670-1996)进行评价.结果 4家商场甲醛合格率仅为0.98%,最大值为0.91mg/m3,超出国家标准6 58倍;可吸入颗粒物合格率为98.04%,噪声合格率仅为19.5%;大型商场的甲醛、噪声和可吸入颗粒物的值要高于中、小型商场.结论 新装修商场空气甲醛污染较为严重,应引起高度重视.

  9. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  11. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  12. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air...

  13. An Association Between Air Quality and COPD in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Ahvaz, capital city of Khuzestan province, with a population of more than 1 million people is very famous in standpoint of air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide is emitted from vehicles and industries which can have short and long term effects on citizens. Evidence Acquisition Data were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment (ADoE. Stations were Naderi, Behdasht Ghadim, Havashenasi, and Mohitzist. The COPD attributed to nitrogen dioxide in Ahvaz city, Iran, in 2011 were calculated by utilizing relative risk and baseline incidence related to health end point nitrogen dioxide. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver 16. Results The highest and lowest annually average nitrogen dioxide concentrations during 2011 were 70 and 21 μg/m3, respectively. The Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and head office of ADoE “Mohitzist” had the highest and the lowest nitrogen dioxide concentrations during 2011, respectively. Approximately 4% of the hospital admission for COPD happened when the nitrogen dioxide concentration was > 10 μg/m3. Low percentage of the observed health endpoints was associated with low concentration of measured nitrogen dioxide. Conclusions Using alternative energy sources, such as solar cooking and electrical heating is effective, as is using fuels such as kerosene or coal rather than biomass. Higher relative risk value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality. The lower level of relative risk value may be achieved if some control strategies for reducing nitrogen dioxide emission are used.

  14. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D.M.; Crabbe, H. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  16. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  17. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  20. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  1. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of... February 10, 1993, by the Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board, containing Regulation...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  4. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  5. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  9. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  10. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  11. Filling the Feedback Gap of Place-Related ‘Externalities’ in Smart Cities: Empowering citizen-sensor-networks for participatory monitoring and planning for a responsible distribution of urban air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, L.J.; Ache, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we present the set-up of the pilot experiment in project “Smart Emission”, constructing an experimental citizen-sensor-network in the city of Nijmegen. This project, as part of research program ‘Maps 4 Society,’ is one of the currently running Smart City projects in the Netherlands.

  12. Urban development and air pollution: Evidence from a global panel of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A. L. Hilber; Charles Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Study examines air pollution concentration in 75 urban areas between 2005 and 2011. Focuses specifically on the impacts of changes in the urban environment and transportation mode on pollution. A surprising finding of the research is that increasing car and population densities significantly reduce air pollution concentration in city centers where air pollution induced health risks are greatest. These effects are largely confined to cities in non-OECD countries. Two possible mechanisms for th...

  13. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    role in improving the air quality of the city.

  14. Air quality modeling in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Batterman, Stuart; Bereznicki, Sarah; Burke, Janet; Dionisio, Kathie; Garcia, Val; Heist, David; Perry, Steve; Snyder, Michelle; Vette, Alan

    2014-08-27

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA). Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined "mini-grids" of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon) were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area.

  15. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  16. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  17. Assessment of the status of urban air pollution and its impact on human health in the city of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Paul, R; Banerjee, R K

    2005-09-01

    Air pollution has significant effects on exacerbation of asthma, allergy and other respiratory diseases. Like many other magacities in the world the ambient air quality of Kolkata is also being deteriorated day by day. Automobile exhausts and certain industrial pollutants produce O(3) by photochemical reactions. The particulate matter, particularly less than 10 microm in size, can pass through the natural protective mechanism of human respiratory system and plays an important role in genesis and augmentation of allergic disorders. Sources of air pollution in the area and the unique problem arising out of the emission from the vehicles, industries, etc. have been described. Ambient air quality was monitored along with micrometeorological data and the results are discussed. The status of air pollution in the area has been evaluated and a questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the allergic symptoms and exposure to assess the respiratory disorders. The data are analysed to evaluate the critical situation arising out of the emission of air pollutants and the impact on human health due to respirable diseases (RDs) to middle class sub-population (activity-wise) in the area are assessed. A strategic air quality management plan has been proposed. For the mitigation of air pollution problems in the city, the different measures to be adopted to maintain the balance between sustainable development and environmental management have been discussed.

  18. Exploiting crowdsourced observations: High-resolution mapping of real-time urban air quality throughout Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vallejo, Islen; van den Bossche, Joris; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    With the technology of air quality sensors improving rapidly in recent years and with an increasing number of initiatives for collecting air quality information being established worldwide, there is a rapidly increasing amount of information on air quality. Such datasets can provide unprecedented spatial detail and thus exhibit a significant potential for allowing to create observation-based high-resolution maps of air quality in the urban environment. However, most datasets of observations made within a citizen science or crowdsourcing framework tend to have highly variable characteristics in terms of quantity, accuracy, measured parameters, and representativeness, and many more. It is therefore currently unknown how to best exploit this information for mapping purposes. In order to address this challenge we present a novel approach for combining crowdsourced observations of urban air quality with model information, allowing us to produce near-real-time, high-resolution maps of air quality in the urban environment. The approach is based on data fusion techniques, which allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with air quality models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The system has been implemented to run in an automated fashion in near real-time (once every hour) for several cities in Europe. Evaluation of the methodology is being carried out using the leave-one-out cross validation technique and simulated datasets. We present case studies demonstrating the methodology for

  19. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality...... in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...... in the displacement ventilated chamber was substantially better than in the case of mixing ventilation....

  20. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  1. 太原市空气质量状况分析报告%The Analysis Report of Air Quality Status in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云芳

    2015-01-01

    概述了太原市空气质量总体状况及污染物情况,分析了影响太原市空气质量状况的原因,探讨了提高太原市空气质量的对策。%This paper briefly expounds the general status of air quality and pollutant situation of Taiyuan City, analyzes some factors influencing the air quality status of Taiyuan City, and puts forward some countermeasures for improving the air quality of Taiyuan City.

  2. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  3. Effectiveness of local air quality measures; Effectiviteit van likale luchtkwaliteitsmaatregelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bommel, R.; Van de Poll, T. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    This article examines the effects of local air quality measures which are calculated by order of the city of Utrecht. The conclusions are that environmental zones and other local measures contribute to meet the targets and improve public health. It is also explained why this is the case, and the question is raised whether or not national measures would be better [Dutch] Dit artikel gaat in op de effecten van lokale maatregelen die zijn berekend in opdracht van de gemeente Utrecht. De conclusie: milieuzones en andere lokale maatregelen dragen bij aan het halen van normen en leveren gezondheidswinst op. Er wordt uitgelegd waarom dat zo is en de vraag wordt gesteld of landelijke maatregelen niet beter zijn.

  4. Air quality in Southern Thailand during haze episode in relation to air mass trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapat Pentamwa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia haze with elevated particulate matter (PM10 often blankets Southern Thailand during June-Augustperiod. During the haze period of August 2005, the highest 24h PM10 concentration was 92 µg/m3 in Songkhla and 108 µg/m3in Phuket. Though the levels were still below the 24h PM10 National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 120 µg/m3, they wereconsiderably higher than the annual average levels of 32 µg/m3 in Songkhla and 56 µg/m3 in Phuket. The variation in dailyPM10 levels during this period was largely dependent on the prevailing wind directions and the intensity of fire, expressed asthe number of hotspots on NOAA satellite images, at the upwind regions. The backward trajectories obtained by HYSPLIT4model revealed that on the days when PM10 peaked the air masses arriving at the cities passed over the intensive fire regionin Sumatra Island. The peak PM10 levels were observed in Phuket on 16th and in Songkhla on 13th August 2005, i.e. duringthe same period when a large number of hotspots were seen in Sumatra Island of Indonesia (10th-16th August 2005. The PM10level dropped when the wind changed direction from southwesterly to southeasterly hence the air mass trajectory did notpass the fire region. The transport time of air masses from the source region to Southern Thailand during this period wasaround 2-3 days.

  5. Air quality improvements following implementation of Lisbon's Low Emission Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F.; Gomes, P.; Tente, H.; Carvalho, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Monjardino, J.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution levels within Lisbon city limits have been exceeding the limit values established in European Union and national legislation since 2001, with the most problematic cases related to the levels of fine particles (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mainly originated by road traffic. With the objective of answering this public health issue, an Air Quality Action Plan was developed in 2006 and the respective Enforcement Plan was published in 2009. From the overall strategy, one of the major measures presented in this strategy was the creation of a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) in Lisbon, which has been operating since July 2011. Implemented at different stages it has progressively expanded its area, including more vehicle types and adopting more stringent requirements in terms of minimum emission standards (currently LEZ phase 2 with EURO 2 in the city center - zone 1 and EURO 1 in the rest of the LEZ area - zone 2). At the same time the road axis comprised of Marquês de Pombal square and Avenida da Liberdade was subjected to profound changes in its traffic circulation model, reducing road traffic volumes. The analysis of the air quality data before and after the LEZ phase 2 has shown positive evolution when comparing the period between 2011 (before measures) and 2013 (after measures). In 2013, there was a reduction in PM10 annual average concentration of 23% and NO2 annual average concentrations of 12%, compared with the year 2011. Although PM10 reductions were more significant inside the LEZ area, the same was not valid for NO2, suggesting that the implementation of these measures was not as effective in reducing NO2 levels as shown by results in other cities like Berlin and London. The results from road traffic characterization indicate a relevant effect on fleet renewal with an overall decrease in the relative weight of pre-EURO 2 vehicles in 2012/2013, compared with data from 2011. An important increase in the share of EURO 4 and EURO 5 vehicles was also

  6. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazcilevich, D. Aron; Garcia, R. Agustin; Suarez, Gerardo Ruiz; Magana, R. Victor; Perez, L. Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Mexico City (Mexico); Fuentes-Gea, Vicente [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios del Posgrado, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  7. Benzene air pollution measuring in the city of Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugrinov Dragan M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pančevo is located at the confluence of the Tamiš and Danube rivers, 8 km from the country’s capital Belgrade. The basic pollution sources are HIP Petrohemija (Oil industry and NIS Rafinerija nafte (Oil refinery which are located south from the city. The measurements of air pollution were done according to the standard methods defined by the regulations of monitoring conditions and air quality requirements, as well as by the procedures for measuring benzene concentration (taking samples with the pump, thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Pančevo has the elaborate system of the measuring points as part of the local system of urban stations for measuring basic and specific polluters. Using this system the measurements were carried out during the course of 24 hours every day in the year 2009 at two measuring points named “Vatrogasni dom” and “Zavod”. By analyzing the obtained results, average yearly concentration is lower at “Vatrogasni dom“ measuring point (2,8g/m3 then at “Zavod” (4,1g/m3. The results that obtained at both measuring points did not exceed the allowed limited value of 5 g/m3.

  8. 城市住区空气负离子浓度时空变化及空气质量评价--以合肥市为例%Spatio-temporal Change of Negative Air Ion Concentration of Urban Residential Area and Air Quality Assessment--Case Study of Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 张之秋

    2014-01-01

    The chosen area for experiments is Hefei city which is in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter area, from the building layout, space form, building density, road network, green plants and other aspects of comprehensive consideration of different environmental characteristics of urban residential areas, twelve test samples are selected to field observations. During August 2013 to January 2014, air ions concentration, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity were measured, and screened and analyzed the data. It is concluded that, ①NAI concentration changes more obvious with the seasons, the highest in summer, the average concentration is about 358/cm3, autumn, the average concentration is about 338/cm3, the lowest in winter, the average concentration is about and 322/cm3. Overall, NAI concentration at 9:00-10:00 and 14:30-15:30 are the highest, at 10:30 and 16:00-16:30 are relatively low. ②NAI concentration of measured samples which have freestyle layout and the obvious open space are higher than others. In summer, the NAI concentration of measured sample 9 is the highest, the average concentration is about 815/cm-3, in autumn the NAI concentration of measured sample 12 is the highest, the average concentration is about 483/cm-3, in winter the NAI concentration of measured sample 9 is the highest, the average concentration is about 407/cm3. At last using monopole coefficient and Anbei air ion index of assessment to assess the air quality of the residential area environment, it is concluded that air cleanliness of the residential areas environment performance to allow and clean mainly, and distributed in the D and B grade level. Based on these results and analyzes the following conclusions show that: ①in different seasons, NAI concentration in residential outdoor environment changes more obviously, the highest in summer and lowest in winter. ②The most important meteorological factor affecting the NAI concentration are wind speed, temperature, relative humidity

  9. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards and... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 2.5 . EPA is approving these revisions in...

  10. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  11. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  12. The Impact of 3D Data Quality on Improving GNSS Performance Using City Models Initial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Adjrad, M.; Groves, P.

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for highly accurate positioning information in urban areas, to support applications such as people and vehicle tracking, real-time air quality detection and navigation. However systems such as GPS typically perform poorly in dense urban areas. A number of authors have made use of 3D city models to enhance accuracy, obtaining good results, but to date the influence of the quality of the 3D city model on these results has not been tested. This paper addresses the following question: how does the quality, and in particular the variation in height, level of generalization and completeness and currency of a 3D dataset, impact the results obtained for the preliminary calculations in a process known as Shadow Matching, which takes into account not only where satellite signals are visible on the street but also where they are predicted to be absent. We describe initial simulations to address this issue, examining the variation in elevation angle - i.e. the angle above which the satellite is visible, for three 3D city models in a test area in London, and note that even within one dataset using different available height values could cause a difference in elevation angle of up to 29°. Missing or extra buildings result in an elevation variation of around 85°. Variations such as these can significantly influence the predicted satellite visibility which will then not correspond to that experienced on the ground, reducing the accuracy of the resulting Shadow Matching process.

  13. The satellite-based remote sensing of particulate matter (PM) in support to urban air quality: PM variability and hot spots within the Cordoba city (Argentina) as revealed by the high-resolution MAIAC-algorithm retrievals applied to a ten-years dataset (2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, Lara Sofia; Carreras, Hebe A.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Barnaba, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major harmful pollutants to public health and the environment [1]. In developed countries, specific air-quality legislation establishes limit values for PM metrics (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) to protect the citizens health (e.g., European Commission Directive 2008/50, US Clean Air Act). Extensive PM measuring networks therefore exist in these countries to comply with the legislation. In less developed countries air quality monitoring networks are still lacking and satellite-based datasets could represent a valid alternative to fill observational gaps. The main PM (or aerosol) parameter retrieved from satellite is the 'aerosol optical depth' (AOD), an optical parameter quantifying the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Datasets from the MODIS sensors on board of the NASA spacecrafts TERRA and AQUA are among the longest records of AOD from space. However, although extremely useful in regional and global studies, the standard 10 km-resolution MODIS AOD product is not suitable to be employed at the urban scale. Recently, a new algorithm called Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was developed for MODIS, providing AOD at 1 km resolution [2]. In this work, the MAIAC AOD retrievals over the decade 2003-2013 were employed to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric aerosols over the Argentinean city of Cordoba and its surroundings, an area where a very scarce dataset of in situ PM data is available. The MAIAC retrievals over the city were firstly validated using a 'ground truth' AOD dataset from the Cordoba sunphotometer operating within the global AERONET network [3]. This validation showed the good performances of the MAIAC algorithm in the area. The satellite MAIAC AOD dataset was therefore employed to investigate the 10-years trend as well as seasonal and monthly patterns of particulate matter in the Cordoba city. The first showed a marked increase of AOD over time, particularly evident in

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF POTABLE WATER IN DEHRADUN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapkota Rajendra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the water quality of the Dehradun City the Capital of Uttarakhand (India by an affable means. The physiochemical and the microbiological studies are most important regions by which we were able to test the portability of water. The isolation and characterization of the pathogenic microorganism from the water sample collected were the main emphasized area of the study. The sample collected from three areas of Dehradun city. Ballupur chowk, Railway station and Doon Hospital. The safest water sample was of the Doon Hospital while the most contaminated sample was from the Railway Station. The bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp. The sample were inoculated and were incubated at 370C for 24 hrs or 48 hrs for appropriate bacterial growth. Thus we can use this study for the assessment of the water sample and to resolve the hygienic problems of the water.

  15. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  16. Ambient air quality and asthma cases in Niğde, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ertan; Özdilek, Hasan Göksel; Kara, Emine Erman

    2013-06-01

    Urban air quality is one of the key factors affecting human health. Turkey has transformed itself into an urban society over the last 30 years. At the same time, air pollution has become a serious impairment to health in many urban areas in the country. This is due to many reasons. In this study, a nonparametric evaluation was conducted of health effects that are triggered by urban air pollution. Niğde, the city which is the administrative centre of Nigde province was chosen of the effects of air pollution since, like many central Turkish cities, it is situated on a valley where atmospheric inversion occurs. In this paper, the relationship between ambient urban air quality, namely PM10 and sulphur dioxide (SO2), and human health, specifically asthma, during the winter season is examined. Air pollution data and asthma cases from 2006 to 2010 are covered in this study. The results of our study indicate that total asthma cases reported in Nigde between 2008 and 2010 were highly dependent on ambient SO2 concentration. More asthma cases were recorded when 30 μg m(-3) or higher SO2 was present in the ambient air than those recorded under cleaner ambient air conditions. Moreover, it was determined that in Nigde in 2010, asthma cases reported in males aged between 45 and 64 were closely correlated with ambient SO2 (α=0.05).

  17. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  20. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  2. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  7. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  10. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... systems (including their brains) arising from Pb exposure may include intelligence quotient (IQ) loss... plants and animals, and neurological effects in vertebrates. V. What are the CAA requirements for...

  11. 荆门市2006-2009年新装修住宅室内空气质量监测结果分析%Analysis on Monitoring Results of Indoor Air Quality of Newly Decorated Apartments in Jingmen City from 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占成; 马晓莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To monitor the pollution levels of formaldehyde, total bacteria, ammonia and radiation in indoor air of newly decorated apartments in Jingmen city, study the factors that influence human health, and put forward the effective prevention and control measures. [Methods]The levels of formaldehyde, ammonia, total bacteria and radiation in indoor air were monitored in 100 newly decorated apartments, and the exceeding standard rates of pollutants were determined according to the Indoor air quality stand-ard (GB/T 18883). [ Results] From 2006 to 2009, the exceeding standard rate of formaldehyde and total bacteria in indoor air of newly decorated apartments in Jingmen city was 70. 0% and 12. 99% respectively. The order of pollution degree was as follows; formaldehyde > total bacteria > ammonia > radiation. The regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between formal-dehyde concentration and related sampling temperature, and the regression equation was Y =0.045 46 + 0.005 75 X. [Conclusion]The pollution of ammonia and the radiation in indoor air of the newly decorated apartments in Jingmen city is slight, the microbial contamination is serious, and the formaldehyde pollution is the most serious. Formaldehyde is the main substance of in-door air pollution. It is necessary to carry out the comprehensive measures which include purification, controlling pollution sources and strengthening ventilation to reduce the formaldehyde pollution in indoor air.%目的 监测荆门市新装修住宅室内空气中的主要污染物甲醛、菌落总数、氨、放射线的污染情况,以探讨对人体影响的因素,提出有效的预防控制措施.方法 对100户新装修住宅室内空气中的甲醛、氨、菌落总数、放射线进行监测;按室内空气质量标准( GB/T 18883)判断各污染物的超标率.结果 荆门市2006-2009年新装修住宅室内空气中甲醛、菌落总数的超标率分别为70.0%,12.99%,污染由重到轻依

  12. Research on Relation between Air Anions and Environment in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIJun; XUQiong; SHIDengrong; TAOKanghua

    2004-01-01

    By measuring the concentration of air anions, thermal-temperature, tree-coverage and bio-diversity in major city greenbelt in Shanghai, this paper analyzed the correlativity between air cleaning index and its influential factors of these city greenbelt, and found that less than 60% of parks' concentration of air inions anions arrived at the general level. There is negative correlation between CI(air clean index) and thermal-temperature, and there is negative correlation between CI and bio-diversity too. There is Positive correlation between CI and tree-coverage.

  13. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  14. Application of grey weighted related degree to the ambient air quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-lin; SHEN Jin; SUN Li-xin; LV Xiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to establish the integrated method to assess the ambient air quality because the atmospheric environmental system is composed of several environmental elements, which contains many contamination factors. In view of the typical grey system character of the monitored data in the ambient air, this paper introduces the weighted value to obtain related degree during applying the method of grey related degree analysis to assess ambient air quality by each polluting factor producing different effects on the environment quality. This method could give more reasonable and reliable evaluating results. Taking the monitored data of Harbin, a provincial city of Heilongjiang, for example in this paper, the result of assessment by this method was coincident with the actual environmental quality of Harbin.

  15. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühn, A.; Farzanega, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The

  16. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  17. Dynamic evaluation of air quality models over European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunis, P.; Pisoni, E.; Degraeuwe, B.; Kranenburg, R.; Schaap, M.; Clappier, A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry-transport models are increasingly used in Europe for estimating air quality or forecasting changes in pollution levels. But with this increased use of modeling arises the need of harmonizing the methodologies to determine the quality of air quality model applications. This is complex for p

  18. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  19. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Burdová, Eva Krídlová; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m³ to 2610 μg/m³. Recommended value (200 μg/m³) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 μm) are determined to be from 16.80 μg/m³ to 30.70 μg/m³ and from 38.30 μg/m³ to 74.60 μg/m³ individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke.

  20. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Krídlová Burdová, Eva; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m3 to 2610 μg/m3. Recommended value (200 μg/m3) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 µm) are determined to be from 16.80 µg/m3 to 30.70 µg/m3 and from 38.30 µg/m3 to 74.60 µg/m3 individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke. PMID:28045447

  1. Assessment of Soil Quality of Tidal Marshes in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing; WANG; Juan; TAN; Jianqiang; WU; Chenyan; SHA; Junjie; RUAN; Min; WANG; Shenfa; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    We take three types of tidal marshes in Shanghai City as the study object:tidal marshes in mainland,tidal marshes in the rim of islands,and shoal in Yangtze estuary.On the basis of assessing nutrient quality and environmental quality,respectively,we use soil quality index(SQI)to assess the soil quality of tidal flats,meanwhile formulate the quality grading standards,and analyze the current situation and characteristics of it.The results show that except the north of Hangzhou Bay,Nanhui and Jiuduansha with low soil nutrient quality,there are not obvious differences in soil nutrient quality between other regions;the heavy metal pollution of tidal marshes in mainland is more serious than that of tidal marshes in the rim of islands;in terms of the comprehensive soil quality index,the regions are sequenced as follows:Jiuduansha wetland>Chongming Dongtan wetland>Nanhui tidal flat>tidal flat on the periphery of Chongming Island>tidal flat on the periphery of Hengsha Island>Pudong tidal flat>Baoshan tidal flat>tidal flat on the periphery of Changxing Island>tidal flat in the north of Hangzhou Bay.Among them,Jiuduansha wetland and Chongming Dongtan wetland have the best soil quality,belonging to class III,followed by Nanhui tidal flat,tidal flat on the periphery of Chongming Island and tidal flat on the periphery of Hengsha Island,belonging to class IV;tidal flat on the periphery of Changxing Island,Pudong tidal flat,Baoshan tidal flat and tidal flat in the north of Hangzhou Bay belong to class V.

  2. Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some trees in Moradabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anamika; Tiwari, P B; Mahima; Singh, Dharmveer

    2009-07-01

    To see the relative tolerance of the plant species, ten different plant species i.e. Ficus rumphii, Pongamia pinnata, Alstonia scholaris, Holoptelea integrifolia, Saraca indica, Pithecolobium dulcis, Cassia simea, Bauhinia variegata, Azadirachta indica and Grewelia robusta was taken from residential (SI), industrial (SII) and commercial (SIII) area of the city as this florais very much common to the Brass city and is planted on the roadside. The quality of air with respect to SPM, SO2 and NO2 has been also assessed on respective sites to see its effect on biochemical parameters of the leaves i.e. pH, total water content, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid and evaluate the (air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of various plants. It was concluded that Pongamia pinnata 15.8, Pithecolobium dulcis 34.8, Holoptelea integrifolia 55.8 and Saraca indica 52.0 have very high APTI value over control so these are considered as high tolerant tree species, Ficus rumphii 35.7, Azadirachta indica 30.5 and Grewelia robusta 34.3 have slightlymoreAPTI value over control so these are considered as moderately tolerant tree species and Alstonia scholaris 21.5, Cassia simea 6.09 and Bauhinia variegata 18.22 have lessAPTI value than control, so these are sensitive species respectively. One way ANOVA finds the obtained values to be highly significant (p < 0.001) at the industrial site. Thus present findings show that Brass and allied industries are the prominent sources responsible for the elevated level of air pollutants at the industrial site.

  3. Potential impacts on air quality of the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The use of ethanol/gasoline mixtures in motor vehicles has been proposed as an alternative fuel strategy that might improve air quality while minimizing US dependence on foreign oil. New enzymatic production methodologies are being explored to develop ethanol as a viable, economic fuel. In an attempt to reduce urban carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone levels, a number of cities are currently mandating the use of ethanol/gasoline blends. However, it is not at all clear that these blended fuels will help to abate urban pollution. In fact, the use of these fuels may lead to increased levels of other air pollutants, specifically aldehydes and peroxyacyl nitrates. Although these pollutants are not currently regulated, their potential health and environmental impacts must be considered when assessing the impacts of alternative fuels on air quality. Indeed, formaldehyde has been identified as an important air pollutant that is currently being considered for control strategies by the State of California. This report focuses on measurements taken in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the summer of 1993 and the winter of 1994 as an initial attempt to evaluate the air quality effects of ethanol/gasoline mixtures. The results of this study have direct implications for the use of such fuel mixtures as a means to reduce CO emissions and ozone in a number of major cities and to bring these urban centers into compliance with the Clean Air Act.

  4. The air quality impact of cordon and distance based road user charging: an empirical study of Leeds, U.K

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, G.; Namdeo, A.K.; Milne, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic assignment, pollutant emission and dispersion models were applied to a major UK city so as to assess the air quality impacts of five road pricing schemes. Schemes were evaluated with reference to: exceedence of air quality standards for six pollutants; greenhouse gas emission; redistribution of pollution, an environmental justice concern; and road network performance as traffic speed and trip distance. Results were compared to alternatives of do nothing, network development and clean ...

  5. Experiences of air quality monitoring in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, I.; Mignanego, L.; Sormani, L. [European Commision - Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)]|[PHYTOS snc, Biassono (Italy)]|[Terra Viva, Vigevano (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Air quality biomonitoring plays an important role in the assessment of air pollution levels and their impact on vegetation. Following observations of constantly high air pollutant levels in the Po Valley, CESI (former ENEL-Research) has been developing several specific research projects since 1986, in order to increase the knowledge about air quality biomonitoring. Four relevant experiences made in the past fifteen years are reported. (orig.)

  6. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  7. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  8. Valuation of improved air quality in Utah County, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C. Arden; Miner, F. Dean

    1988-05-01

    A contingent valuation approach was used to estimate maximum willingness-to-pay for improved air quality in Utah County. Respondents demonstrated a high rate of concern over poor air quality and averaged a willingness-to-pay of 37 per month per household. Noniterative openended questions were used successfully. No information bias was observed but benchmark values did influence bids. Willingness-to-pay for improved air quality was large for both sexes and across all income groups, ages, and occupations.

  9. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  10. Air quality standards and town planning; Luchtkwaliteitsbeleid in ruimtelijk perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, C.E.; Kruyt, H.A.; Dorel, F.G. [Bureau Luchtkwaliteit en Veiligheid, Directie Water en Milieu, Provincie Zuid-Holland, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1998-08-01

    Current levels of air pollutants still cause effects on human health. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to air quality during town planning processes. A study of the Dutch Province of South Holland showed exceedances of air quality standards near motorways in 1995 as well as in 2010. Some objects should be excluded from these zones. These are objects where people either stay during a long time of the day, or are sensitive for air pollutants or places for physical exercising. Examples of these are houses, schools and hospitals. A scheme is presented for local authorities to take Dutch Air Quality Standards into account during physical planning. 7 refs.

  11. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  12. Generation and Quality Analysis of Greywater at Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha Binte Abedin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural resources available in nature is water; however, it is not readily available for domestic use for millions of people across the globe. An increasing global population coupled with growing urbanization worldwide has led to increased demands on water supply. The rapid growth of water-intensive agriculture in developing countries and inefficient water management practices in the developed world are contributing to a global reduction in future freshwater supplies. The world is currently in the midst of cross roads where the unsustainable and impractical uses of water are no longer acceptable. The recycling and reuse of water is therefore imperative in some areas, and increasingly such in the others to meet the demands for urban, industrial and agricultural water requirements. Greywater, which can be defined as all in-building wastewater streams with an exception of toilet wastewater, is a potential water source for urban reuse, as it contains a few or no pathogens and 90 percent less nitrogen than blackwater. This study reveals the generation and quality of greywater in Dhaka City. The groundwater level is depleting by 2/3 of a meter per year in Dhaka. Thus, the recycling and reuse of water have become imperative to meet the demand for it. To analyze the generation of greywater in Dhaka City, water use in five households has been studied and about 67% of water was found to be reusable, whereas about 17% of potable water was wasted in toilet flushing. From the quality analysis, kitchen water was found to be polluted to some degree, and judging by its quality, it should not be reused. Greywater must be treated before any kind of reuse as it exceeds the standards of the acceptable quality of potable water and irrigation water.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.3992

  13. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  14. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  15. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  16. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  17. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  18. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air... for the California SIP, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Rule 502 (New Source...

  19. Air quality in Spain 1990. Calidad del aire en Espaa 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This monograph studies air quality in Spain. It is articulated into 7 chapters: - Air pollution in the world - Air pollution in regions (regional areas) - Air pollution in villages (local areas) - Local networks in Spain - Meteorological characteristics in 1990 - Events - Atmospheric chemistry.

  20. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Sick Building Syndrome Study at Two Selected Libraries in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the association between sick building syndrome (SBS and indoor air pollutants in two libraries. 101 workers in both libraries responded to the questionnaire, which was based on Malaysian Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality 2010 (MCPIAQ for the measurement of SBS occurrences. Measurements of indoor air quality were also performed according to the MCPIAQ methods. Higher prevalence of SBS recorded in Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah (PSZ, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, compared to Perpustakaan Sultan Ismail (PSI (X2 = 38.81, p = 0.000, Johor Bahru City. Significantly higher levels of indoor air pollutants were detected in PSZ compare to PSI for CO, CO2, temperature, bacteria, fungi and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC, while PSI indicated higher level of relative humidity (RH. The levels of CO2, temperature, humidity, TVOC and bacteria counts were the possible major factors contributing to SBS complaints among the workers of both libraries.

  2. Air quality indication in Blace (Southeastern Serbia using lichens as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality investigations have not been undertaken in Blace until now. Identifying the presence of different types of epiphytic lichens was performed in the summer 2012 in Blace (southeastern Serbia, and selected rural settlements around Blace, in order to establish the air quality of the area. The analysis of samples from described localities indicated the presence of 25 lichen taxa from 19 genera. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP, it was found that there are 2 different air pollution zones in Blace: “lichen desert” and “transitional” or “struggle zone”, which includes the periphery of the city. In these zones the air is moderately polluted. In the urban area of Blace there is no “normal” zone, but one was detected in the surrounding rural areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 171025 i br. III 41018

  3. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  4. Regional and local effects of electric vehicles on air quality and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wurzler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. The air pollution burden due to road traffic in a street canyon consists of shares from local traffic and contributions of vehicles driving elsewhere in the city as well as elsewhere on a larger scale. Are electric vehicles a solution for air quality problems in cities? Do they reduce noise levels in street canyons significantly? The aim of this sensitivity study is to investigate the regional and local effects of electric vehicles on noise and air quality taking possible effects of additional electricity production into account. Focus of the present study lies for air quality on the regional scale in North Rhine-Westphalia and the overall effect in some selected street canyons, to be more precise the annual average PM10 and NO2 concentrations. A sensitivity study using the chemistry transport model EURAD and a screening model for street canyons was carried out. The influence on noise levels was analysed based on measurements of vehicles at different speeds. It turns out that road traffic has a significant impact on the regional air pollution levels. Furthermore it is shown that the reduction potential is bigger for NO2 than for PM10. With regard to EC limit value compliance a major share of electric vehicles could be a solution for the NO2 problems in moderately polluted street canyons. One of our findings is that if the additional electricity need causes additional emissions these counteract the possible reduction, especially for PM10. The noise reduction potential of electric vehicles is only significant for vehicles moving at low speeds.

  5. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  6. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  7. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  8. Air Pollution and Countermeasures in City Air Pollution and Countermeasures in City%城市空气污染及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永忠

    2001-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzed the problems of air pollution,the variety of pollutants and their harms to mankind and environme nt,pointed out that air pollution was one of main factors to inhibit city's sust ainable development,described the technical and non-technical countermeasures o f preventing air pollution in city.%本文系统分析了城市空气污染的成因、污染物种类和危 害,指出城市空气污染是制约城市可持续发展的关键因素之一,提出了城市空气污染防治的 技术和非技术措施。

  9. A quantitative approach to the traffic air quality problem: the Traffic Air Quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed S M; Jacko, Robert B

    2008-05-01

    The Traffic Air Quality (TAQ) model is a simple tool to estimate traffic fine particulate emissions on roadways (g/km) and can be used for both real-time analysis and for localized conformity analysis ("hot-spot" analysis for nonattainment areas) as defined by 40 CFR 93.123. This paper is a follow-up to a study published earlier regarding the development of the TAQ model. This paper shows how local air quality levels can be a factor in traffic management in nonattainment areas. Similar to the industrial source quotas measured in tons per year, it is proposed that road segments are to be assigned emission quotas (or TAQ indices) measured in pollutant mass emitted per road length (g/km) above which traffic-measures have to be taken to reduce the fine-particulates emissions on such road links. The TAQ model as well as traffic-rerouting measures along with the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) protocols can be used to have a real-time control of the traffic conditions along expressways to maintain the fine-particulates emissions below the quota assigned per road link and consequently improving the over all local air quality in nonattainment areas.

  10. Modelling of air quality for Winter and Summer episodes in Switzerland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, L.; Oderbolz, D.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Alfarra, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sandradewi, J. [Jisca Sandradewi, Hoexter (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This final report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the modelling of regional air quality for three episodes, January-February 2006, June 2006 and January 2007. The focus of the calculations is on particulate matter concentrations, as well as on ozone levels in summer. The model results were compared with the aerosol data collected by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), which was operated during all three episodes as well as with the air quality monitoring data from further monitoring programs. The air quality model used in this study is described and the results obtained for various types of locations - rural, city, high-altitude and motorway-near - are presented and discussed. The models used are described.

  11. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  12. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  13. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskienė; Kristina Bereišienė

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  14. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE HIGHWAY 25 EXPANSION PROJECT ON AIR QUALITY IN MONTREAL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIABURU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of the highway 25 expansion project on air quality in montreal using gis. The aim of the paper is to assess local air pollution implications of the Highway 25 expansion project from Montreal. The basic concept of the roadway air dispersion model consists in calculating air pollutant levels in the vicinity of a highway by considering it as a line source. To fulfill this assessment, GIS software was used in order to determine pollutant distribution around the study area based on data collected by existing air monitoring stations located in the City of Montreal. GIS interpolation methods, notably Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to generate maps of pollutant concentrations across the study area. From the results, recommendations will be made in regards to the project and appropriate mitigatory alternatives suggested.

  15. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-05-26

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  16. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brienza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  17. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  18. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  19. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  20. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  1. Light, Colour & Air Quality: Important Elements of the Learning Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates studies of the effects of light, color, and air quality on the learning environment. Concludes that studies suggest a role for light in establishing and maintaining physiological functions and balances and a need for improved air quality in airtight, energy efficient buildings. (JHZ)

  2. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  3. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  4. Modelling and analysis of ozone concentration by artificial intelligent techniques for estimating air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Osman

    2017-02-01

    High ozone concentration is an important cause of air pollution mainly due to its role in the greenhouse gas emission. Ozone is produced by photochemical processes which contain nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the lower atmospheric level. Therefore, monitoring and controlling the quality of air in the urban environment is very important due to the public health care. However, air quality prediction is a highly complex and non-linear process; usually several attributes have to be considered. Artificial intelligent (AI) techniques can be employed to monitor and evaluate the ozone concentration level. The aim of this study is to develop an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference approach (ANFIS) to determine the influence of peripheral factors on air quality and pollution which is an arising problem due to ozone level in Jeddah city. The concentration of ozone level was considered as a factor to predict the Air Quality (AQ) under the atmospheric conditions. Using Air Quality Standards of Saudi Arabia, ozone concentration level was modelled by employing certain factors such as; nitrogen oxide (NOx), atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Hence, an ANFIS model was developed to observe the ozone concentration level and the model performance was assessed by testing data obtained from the monitoring stations established by the General Authority of Meteorology and Environment Protection of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The outcomes of ANFIS model were re-assessed by fuzzy quality charts using quality specification and control limits based on US-EPA air quality standards. The results of present study show that the ANFIS model is a comprehensive approach for the estimation and assessment of ozone level and is a reliable approach to produce more genuine outcomes.

  5. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  6. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilation...... rate in real rooms. Relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality were established for differently polluting materials in real rooms. The results showed that the use of low-polluting materials reduced the ventilation rate required to achieve an acceptable level of perceived...... air quality and thereby prevented unnecessary use of energy for ventilation. For some high-polluting materials it will not be realistic in practice to provide enough ventilation to achieve an acceptable level of perceived air quality. Therefore, the use of low-polluting materials should be part...

  7. WSN based indoor air quality monitoring in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. K.; Chew, S. P.; Jusoh, M. T.; Khairunissa, A.; Leong, K. Y.; Azid, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring is essential as the human health is directly affected by indoor air quality. This paper presents the investigations of the impact of undergraduate students' concentration during lecture due to the indoor air quality in classroom. Three environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide are measured using wireless sensor network based air quality monitoring system. This simple yet reliable system is incorporated with DHT-11 and MG-811 sensors. Two classrooms were selected to install the monitoring system. The level of indoor air quality were measured and students' concentration was assessed using intelligent test during normal lecturing section. The test showed significant correlation between the collected environmental parameters and the students' level of performances in their study.

  8. Developing a fuzzy model for Tehran's air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Tokhmehchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to offer a fuzzy approach for calculating Tehran's air pollution index. The method is based on fuzzy analysis model, and uses the information about air quality index (AQI, included on the website of Tehran’s Air Quality Monitoring And Supervision Bureau. The contrived fuzzy logic is considered a powerful tool for demonstrating the information associated with uncertainty. In the end, several graphs visualize this inferential system in various levels of pollution.

  9. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  10. Monitoring of air pollution spread on the car-free day in the city of Veszprém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Nagy, Anna Merényi, Endre Domokos, Ákos Rédey, Tatiana Yuzhakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors which adversely affect environmental quality in many cities all over the world is air pollution, with profound negative effects on human health [1]. Apart from the health risks through the inhalation of gases and particles, urban air pollution is the source of other problems such as accelerated corrosion and deterioration of materials, damage to historical monuments and buildings and damage to vegetation in and around the city [2]. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the vehicle related emissions which are a significant source of air pollutants. The research was conducted during the European Mobolity Week (EMW on the Car-Free Day (CFD. For the characterization of the air quality the generally accepted indicators – O3, CO, SO2, NO/NO2/NOx, PM10, Benzene (B, Toluol (T, Etil-benzene (E, m-, p-Xilol (MP, o-Xilol (O concentrations – were used, which well characterizes the changes in air pollution. The average concentrations measured on the car free day for O3 was 64,5 µg/m3, for NO2 was 6,76 µg/m3, for CO was 127,12 µg/m3, for SO2 was 5,19 µg/m3, for PM10 was 10,88 μg/m3, for Benzene was 0,38 µg/m3, for Toluol was 0,58 µg/m3, for Etil-benzene was 0,22 µg/m3, for MP-Xilol was 1,64 µg/m3 and for O-Xilol was 2,93 µg/m3. The results clearly shows that the daily fluctuation of the air pollutants depending on the traffic.

  11. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  12. Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks using principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (China); He, Hong-Di [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (China); Logistics Research Center, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai (China); Dong, Li-yun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-03-15

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of two statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, for the management of air quality monitoring network of Hong Kong and the reduction of associated expenses. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify city areas with similar air pollution behavior; and (ii) to locate emission sources. The statistical methods were applied to the mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), respirable suspended particulates (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), collected in monitoring network of Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2007. The results demonstrate that, for each pollutant, the monitoring stations are grouped into different classes based on their air pollution behaviors. The monitoring stations located in nearby area are characterized by the same specific air pollution characteristics and suggested with an effective management of air quality monitoring system. The redundant equipments should be transferred to other monitoring stations for allowing further enlargement of the monitored area. Additionally, the existence of different air pollution behaviors in the monitoring network is explained by the variability of wind directions across the region. The results imply that the air quality problem in Hong Kong is not only a local problem mainly from street-level pollutions, but also a region problem from the Pearl River Delta region. (author)

  13. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3......) in the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background air...

  14. Operational air quality forecast guidance for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; McQueen, Jeff; Huang, Jinaping; Djalalova, Irina; Wilczak, James; Huang, Ho-Chun; Wang, Jun; Stein, Ariel; Upadhayay, Sikchya

    2016-04-01

    satellite instruments (Tong et al., 2015) and to use these updated emissions to improve ozone predictions (Pan et al., 2015). An overview of the impacts of these recent and ongoing efforts to improve predictions of ozone, smoke and PM2.5 will be presented. Djalalova, I. et al., 2015: PM2.5 analog forecast and Kalman filter post-processing for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.057. Pan L. et al., 2014: Assessment of NOx and O3 forecasting performances in the U.S. National Air Quality Forecasting Capability before and after the 2012 major emissions updates. Atmospheric Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.06.020. Stein, A. et al., 2015: NOAA's HYSPLIT atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00110.1. Tong, D.Q. et al., 2015: Long-term NOx trends over large cities in the United States during the great recession: Comparison of satellite retrievals, ground observations, and emission inventories. Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.035.

  15. Informing effective smokefree policies in Argentina: air quality monitoring study in 15 cities (2007-2009 Políticas efectivas de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en Argentina: estudio de monitoreo de calidad del aire en 15 ciudades (2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Schoj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate indoor air pollution in hospitality venues in Argentina. Material and Methods. PM2.5 levels were measured in a convenience sample of venues in 15 cities with different legislative contexts following a protocol developed by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Results. 554 samples were collected. Across all 5 smokefree cities the mean PM2.5 level was lower during daytime vs. evening hours, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectively (p=.012. In the three cities evaluated before and after legislation, PM2.5 levels decreased dramatically (pObjetivo. Evaluar la polución ambiental del sector gastronómico en Argentina. Material y métodos. Se midieron los niveles de partículas respirables (PM2.5 en una muestra por conveniencia de establecimientos de 15 ciudades con diferente legislación, siguiendo un protocolo del Instituto de Cáncer Roswell Park. Resultados. Se recolectaron 554 muestras. En cinco ciudades libres de humo (CLH la media de PM2.5 durante el día fue baja y menor a la observada durante la noche, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectivamente (p=.012. En las tres ciudades evaluadas antes y después de la legislación, las PM2.5 disminuyeron drásticamente (p<0.001 cada una. Las PM2.5 fueron cinco veces mayores en ciudades sin legislación comparadas con CLH (p<0.001. En ciudades con restricción parcial, no hubo diferencia significativa entre las PM2.5 en el sector fumador y no fumador (p=0.272. Los sectores no fumadores tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más altos comparados con los lugares 100% libres de humo de la misma ciudad (p= 0.017. Conclusiones. La mayoría de las ciudades participantes en este estudio tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más bajos tras la implementación de leyes pro ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco, por lo que representa una herramienta útil para promover legislación 100% libre de humo en Argentina.

  16. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H.L.M.; Perez, L.; Truëb, S.; Okkerse, W.J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X.C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on u

  17. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  18. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) air quality designations for the Ak-Chin... Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology...

  19. The Valley of Mexico: summary of observational studies on its air quality and effects on vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bauer, L I; Krupa, S V

    1990-01-01

    Present day Mexico City was established on the banks of the now dead Lake Texcoco by Aztec Indians in a.d. 1325. Over time, increasing population growth, urbanization, vehicular traffic and the number of diverse stationary sources, coupled with its topography and the resultant frequency of prevalent stagnant air masses make Mexico City one of the most polluted areas in the world. Use of biological indicator plants since the early 1970s has shown the critical nature of phytotoxic photochemical oxidants in the region. More recent empirical studies with bean, soybean and pine species confirm these observations and raise concern regarding the geographic magnitude of the problem. Surface measurements of air quality in the region are inadequate and require much additional support. Ultimately, ambient air quality measurements must be coupled with the observations on responses of sensitive vegetation. While the results presented in this paper are primarily observational or qualitative, they hopefully serve the purpose of bringing attention to a critical air quality issue in a developing country.

  20. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control...

  1. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  2. Air quality and its integration within urban planning: Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Alicia Corona–Zambrano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of world wide urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution shows a growing trend directly proportional to increasing demands on energy for domestic and industrial activities. From this point of view, cities along with their urban, functional and morphological structure are not being planned with pollution prevention or minimum environmental impacts in mind. This work has two purposes: first, it sets an assessment of air quality in Mexicali by analyzing O3, CO, SO2, NO2 and PM10 emissions in relation to urban structure. And second, the assessment of already implemented urban strategies aimed to minimize environmental impacts. This work also presents a scheme that incorporates air quality issues into town planning and urban management.

  3. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  4. [Improvement of Air Quality During APEC in Beijing in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Li, Yun-ting; Zhang, Da-wei; Chen, Tian; Li, Ling-jun; Li, Jin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Variations of air quality, meteorological conditions and the effect of pollution control measures on particle matter concentrations in Beijing were all analyzed during APEC (from 1st to 12th in November) in 2014 based on the atmospheric pollutant monitoring data, monitoring components of PM2.5, meteorological and remote sensing data and CMB model. The results showed that the average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 were 43,62,8,46 [g.m respectively during APEC and the average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 were decreased by 45%, 43%, 64% and 31% compared to those in the same period of the last 5 years (PM2. was the average of the last 2 years); the concentrations of PM25 at different sites were decreased by 27.4%-35.5%; the concentrations of PM2.5 in the center of city and northern mountainous areas were the lowest, which dropped by 30%-45% compared to those in the same period of the last 5 years while in the southern area the decrement was below 25%; the main component SO4(2-), the substance of the crust, and NO3- were decreased by 50%, 76%, 35% respectively compared to those in the same period in 2013 and the chemical mass balance (CMB) model analysis results indicated that contributions of coal boiler, dust, motor vehicle were 2%, 7%, 30% respectively during APEC; air pollution control measures (coal, dust and traffic management) had a significant effect on reducing pollutant emissions and the pollutant emissions control reduced the concentration peak and delayed the accumulation speed.

  5. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  6. [EVALUATION OF THE AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISK FOR THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF UFA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenkova, G A; Karelin, A O; Askarov, R A; Askarova, Z F

    2015-01-01

    There are presented results of the calculation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks due to the impact of chemical air pollutants for the human health of a large industrial city. Maximal levels of carcinogenic hazards under inhalation route of substances from the air were established to be noted on gasoline, manganese, sulfur dioxide, copper oxide, formaldehyde. In the formation of carcinogenic risk the greatest contribution is made by chromium, gasoline, formaldehyde, benzol. The risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects for the population of the city continues to remain to be high, that requires the development and implementation of planned recreational measures.

  7. 78 FR 41307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Ca on City AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. 78 FR 41342 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Ca on City AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  9. Correlation of gravestone decay and air quality 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooers, H. D.; Carlson, M. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Inkpen, R. J.; Loeffler, S.

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of spatial and temporal variability in surface recession of lead-lettered Carrara marble gravestones provides a quantitative measure of acid flux to the stone surfaces and is closely related to local land use and air quality. Correlation of stone decay, land use, and air quality for the period after 1960 when reliable estimates of atmospheric pollution are available is evaluated. Gravestone decay and SO2 measurements are interpolated spatially using deterministic and geostatistical techniques. A general lack of spatial correlation was identified and therefore a land-use-based technique for correlation of stone decay and air quality is employed. Decadally averaged stone decay is highly correlated with land use averaged spatially over an optimum radius of ≈7 km even though air quality, determined by records from the UK monitoring network, is not highly correlated with gravestone decay. The relationships among stone decay, air-quality, and land use is complicated by the relatively low spatial density of both gravestone decay and air quality data and the fact that air quality data is available only as annual averages and therefore seasonal dependence cannot be evaluated. However, acid deposition calculated from gravestone decay suggests that the deposition efficiency of SO2 has increased appreciably since 1980 indicating an increase in the SO2 oxidation process possibly related to reactions with ammonia.

  10. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  11. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  12. An Analytical Quality Framework for Learning Cities and Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown.…

  13. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... submitted by the Commonwealth of Virginia adding ambient air quality standards and associated reference conditions for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) that are consistent with the 2013 National Ambient...

  14. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehn, A. [Utrecht School of Economics, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reza Farzanega, M. [Dresden University of Technology and ZEW Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  15. The Current Situation of Quality Supervision and Production Safety of Aquatic Products in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqin; ZHOU; Wenjie; LI

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City has been carried out rapidly, and the system of "origin exit, market access, sign traceability, real-time monitoring" has been basically formed, initially realizing the whole-process monitoring on the quality safety of aquatic products from "pond to table". We take the current situation of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City as the study object, take the basic work of supervision on aquatic products in Nanjing City and advancing both in scope and in depth as breakthrough point, to sum up the results achieved in the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City in recent years; make initial exploration and research, in order to consolidate the existing achievements, and further enhance the level of supervision on quality safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City.

  16. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  17. Air Quality in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Airshed in Mexico during April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Suarez, L. G.; Torres Jardón, R.; Torres Jaramillo, J. A.; Barrera, H.; Castro, T.; Mar Morales, B. E.; García Reynoso, J. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-04-01

    East of the Mexico Megacity, is the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala which is reproducing the same patterns of urban sprawl as in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Is an area of high industrial density, the fragmented urban sprawl boost the use of particular cars in detrimental of public transport use. Emissions inventories reflect this fact; they also show a considerable use of biomass energy in households and small using a set of industries and service business. In April 2009 we carried out a preliminary field campaign in the basin, we deployed three mobile units, one in the north, in a site connecting with the valley of Mexico basin, one in the south where it may connect with the Cuautla-Cuernavaca Airshed and one in a receptor site to the Puebla Metropolitan Area. In addition to the available data from local air quality network within the City of Puebla. Analysis of the 2009 data show a complex flow pattern induced by the Popocateptl and Iztaccihuatl volcanoes to the west and La Malinche volcano to the east. Excess NOx emissions in the urban and industrial core lead to very low ozone levels within but high ozone concentrations are observed in the peri-urban and rural areas, exceeding the Mexican Air Quality Standards. In our presentation we will describe and explain these observations and will describe a field campaign to be carried out in March-April 2012 aiming to better document the air quality in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Airshed. Hybrid observation-model maps for ozone critical levels show the population exposed to exeedences to the official standards. AOT40 maps also show that crops and forests in the region are exposed to unhealthy ozone levels. These results add to those from MILAGRO and CARIEM field campaigns on the regional scale of the air quality issues in central Mexico. A point is made on the need to update the Mexicp Air Quality Standard for ozone.

  18. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  19. Individual differences in individualism and collectivism predict ratings of virtual cities' liveability and environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Morrison, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated individual differences in individualism and collectivism as predictors of people's reactions to cities. Psychology undergraduate students (N = 148) took virtual guided tours around historical cities. They then evaluated the cities' liveability and environmental quality and completed measures of individualism and collectivism. Mediation analyses showed that people who scored high in self-responsibility (individualism) rated the cities as more liveable because they perceived them to be richer and better resourced. In contrast, people who scored high in collectivism rated the cities as having a better environmental quality because they perceived them to (1) provide a greater potential for community and social life and (2) allow people to express themselves. These results indicate that people's evaluations of virtual cities are based on the degree to which certain aspects of the cities are perceived to be consistent with individualist and collectivist values.

  20. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  1. Evaluation of air pollution control policies in Mexico City using finite Markov chain observation model

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Hoyos; Pedro Lara; Elba Ortiz; Rafael López; Jesús González

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov observation based model, where the transition matrix is formulated using air quality monitoring data for specific pollutant emissions, with the primary objective to analyze the corresponding stationary distributions and evaluate sceneries for the air quality impact of pollution control policies. The model is non predictive and could be applied to every source of pollutant emissions included in air monitoring data. Two cases of study are presented, ozone and sulfur...

  2. Air quality and Atmospheric resources: Phase 1: Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-26

    The Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) initiative, under the umbrella of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), commissioned a study for the evaluation and the development of sustainable development indicators (SDIs) in the field of air quality and atmospheric resources. The report contained key information with regard to each indicator or indicator set, and no comprehensive comparative analysis was performed. The report was designed to be used as a technical reference. Where appropriate, SDIs developed by foreign organizations were included. The emphasis of the report was: (1) ambient air quality and human health effects, (2) air emissions having transboundary or global implications for ecosystem health and human health, and (3) demand on the atmosphere for environmental services. The bulk of the research was conducted on the Internet. The report was divided into three sections. A review of the availability of SDIs based on ambient air quality measures was discussed in the first section, while the second section was devoted to the availability of SDIs based on pollutant emission levels. The last section contained a systematic review of those SDIs used or being proposed along with the supporting data available to calculate SDI values. Some observations were also made touching on topics such as the abundance of ambient air quality information, the abundance of pollutant emissions information, the linkages between emissions and ambient air quality, the absence of forecasting, the indoor air quality gap, and the connections to human health. refs., 1 fig.

  3. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  4. Can a photocatalytic air purifier be used to improve the perceived air quality indoors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... that the photocatalytic air purifier can supplement ventilation when the indoor air is polluted by building- related sources, but should not be used in spaces where human bioeffluents constitute the main source of pollution.......The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... monitors. The effect cor-responded to approximately doubling the outdoor air supply rate. Operation of the purifier significantly worsened the PAQ in rooms with human bioeffluents, probably due to incomplete oxidation of alcohols which are one of the main pollutants emitted by humans. Present results show...

  5. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  6. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Allometric scaling of UK urban emissions: interpretation and implications for air quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Barnes, Matt; Whyatt, Duncan; Hewitt, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Allometry uncovers structures and patterns by relating the characteristics of complex systems to a measure of scale. We present an allometric analysis of air quality for UK urban settlements, beginning with emissions and moving on to consider air concentrations. We consider both airshed-average 'urban background' concentrations (cf. those derived from satellites for NO2) and local pollution 'hotspots'. We show that there is a strong and robust scaling (with respect to population) of the non-point-source emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, as well as the toxic pollutants nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and 1,3-butadiene. The scaling of traffic-related emissions is not simply a reflection of road length, but rather results from the socio-economic patterning of road-use. The recent controversy regarding diesel vehicle emissions is germane to our study but does not affect our overall conclusions. We next develop an hypothesis for the population-scaling of airshed-average air concentrations, with which we demonstrate that, although average air quality is expected to be worse in large urban centres compared to small urban centres, the overall effect is an economy of scale (i.e., large cities reduce the overall burden of emissions compared to the same population spread over many smaller urban settlements). Our hypothesis explains satellite-derived observations of airshed-average urban NO2 concentrations. The theory derived also explains which properties of nature-based solutions (urban greening) can make a significant contribution at city scale, and points to a hitherto unforeseen opportunity to make large cities cleaner than smaller cities in absolute terms with respect to their airshed-average pollutant concentration.

  8. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  9. [Influence of Burning Fireworks on Air Quality During the Spring Festival in the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Shao-jia; Xie, Wen-zhang; Sun, Jia-ren

    2015-12-01

    Based on data from the air quality monitoring stations in the Pearl River Delta during the 2015 Spring Festival, the regional air quality was investigated and the impact of burning fireworks on urban air quality was assessed. The results showed that: Zhaoqing was the worst polluted city in PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂ and CO in terms of concentrations in the region during the period, Huizhou was the worst polluted city in O₃ and Guangzhou was the most polluted city in NO₂ at the same time. Compared to the data of last year, the SO₂, NO₂, CO, PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ concentrations had decreased significantly, but the O₃ concentration had increased during the Spring Festival. Burning fireworks during the Spring Festival were mainly concentrated in the suburbs. The concentrated discharge of fireworks made the SO₂, PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ concentrations increased significantly in the New Year's Eve night, even multiplied, but had no significant effect on CO, O₃ and NO₂. The rapid decline in PM₂.₅/PM₁₀ proportion was caused by the discharge of fireworks, and the ratio of PM₂.₅/PM₁₀ reached the minimum when concentration of particles reached the peak. By assessing, the maximum contribution of hourly concentration from burning fireworks in each city was between 16 µg · m⁻³ and 65 µg · m⁻³ for PM₂.₅, between 28 µg · m⁻³ and 138 µg · m⁻³ for PM₁₀ and between 9 µg · m⁻³ and 43 µg · m⁻³ for SO₂.

  10. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP)....

  11. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  12. 77 FR 39959 - Draft Guidance To Implement Requirements for the Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Air Quality Monitoring Data Influenced by Exceptional Events AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... for the Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data Influenced by Exceptional Events and associated... Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data Influenced by Exceptional Events and associated attachments and...

  13. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  14. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  15. Butte County Air Quality Management District Stationary Source Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA Public Notice: EPA is finalizing action on three permitting rules submitted as a revision to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP).

  16. A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

  17. Ground-water flow and quality near Canon City, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, G.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water in aquifers that underlie the Lincoln Park area near Canon City, Colorado, contains measurable concentrations of chemical constituents that are similar to those in raffinate (liquid waste) produced by a nearby uranium ore processing mill. The objective of this study was to expand the existing geohydrologic data base by collecting additional geohydrologic and water quality, in order to refine the description of the geohydrologic and geochemical systems in the study area. Geohydrologic data were collected from nine tests wells drilled in the area between the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam and Lincoln Park. Lithologic and geophysical logs of these wells indicated that the section of Vermejo Formation penetrated consisted of interbedded sandstone and shale. The sandstone beds had a small porosity and small hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater flow from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam to Lincoln Park seemed to be along an alluvium-filled channel in the irregular and relatively undescribed topography of the Vermejo Formation subcrop. North of the De Weese Dye Ditch, the alluvium becomes saturated and groundwater generally flows to the northeast. Water samples from 28 sites were collected and analyzed for major ions and trace elements; selected water samples also were analyzed for stable isotopes; samples were collected from wells near the uranium ore processing mill, from privately owned wells in Lincoln Park, and from the test wells drilled in the intervening area. Results from the quality assurance samples indicate that cross-contamination between samples from different wells was avoided and that the data are reliable. Water in the alluvial aquifer underlying Lincoln Park is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type. Small variations in the composition of water in the alluvial aquifer appears to result from a reaction of water leaking from the De Weese Dye Ditch with alluvial material. Upward leakage from underlying aquifers does not seem to be significant in

  18. Integrating High-Resolution Datasets to Target Mitigation Efforts for Improving Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandas, Vivek; Voelkel, Jackson; Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda

    2016-08-05

    Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide. Our results show a maximum value of 197% difference between cadastrally-informed dasymetric system (CIDS) and standard estimations of population exposure to degraded air quality for small spatial extent analyses, and a lack of substantial difference for large spatial extent analyses. These results provide the foundation for improving policies for managing air quality, and targeting mitigation efforts to address challenges of environmental justice.

  19. The Smart Ring Experience in l’Aquila (Italy: Integrating Smart Mobility Public Services with Air Quality Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Gabriella Villani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the “City Dynamics and Smart Environment” activities of the Smart Ring project, a model for the smart city, based on the integration of sustainable urban transport services and environmental monitoring over a 4–5-km circular path, the “Smart Ring”, around the historical center of l’Aquila (Italy. We describe our pilot experience performed during an experimental on-demand public service electric bus, “SmartBus”, which was equipped with a multi-parametric air quality low-cost gas electrochemical sensor platform, “NASUS IV”. For five days (28–29 August 2014 and 1–3 September 2014, the sensor platform was installed inside the SmartBus and measured air quality gas compounds (nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide during the service. Data were collected and analyzed on the bases of an air quality index, which provided qualitative insights on the air status potentially experienced by the users. The results obtained are in agreement with the synoptic meteorological conditions, the urban background air quality reference measurements and the potential traffic flow variations. Furthermore, they indicated that the air quality status was influenced by the gas component NO 2 , followed by H 2 S, SO 2 and CO. We discuss the features of our campaign, and we highlight the potential, limitations and key factors to consider for future project designs.

  20. Impact assessment of PM10 cement plants emissions on urban air quality using the SCIPUFF dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Vincenzo; Cervone, Guido; Iovino, Pasquale

    2016-09-01

    The Second-order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF) model was used to study the impact on urban air quality caused by two cement plants emissions located near the city of Caserta, Italy, during the entire year of 2015. The simulated and observed PM10 concentrations were compared using three monitoring stations located in urban and sub-urban area of Caserta city. Both simulated and observed concentrations are shown to be highest in winter, lower in autumn and spring and lowest in summer. Model results generally follow the pattern of the observed concentrations but have a systematic under-prediction of the concentration values. Measures of the bias, NMSE and RMSE indicate a good correlation between observed and estimated values. The SCIPUFF model data analysis suggest that the cement plants are major sources for the measured PM10 values and are responsible for the deterioration of the urban air quality in the city of Caserta.