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Sample records for citrus variegated chlorosis

  1. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus... of nursery stock to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family... are also requiring propagative seed of these genera imported from all other countries to...

  2. Comparative analysis for quantification of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Packer Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC caused by Xylella fastidiosa is one of the most important diseases for Brazilian citriculture. The CVC is a vascular disease with a long incubation period and symptoms similar to other disorders, and this factors difficult the CVC quantification in the field. Two methods of CVC assessment were compared in this study. The first method was based on a descriptive rating scale with four ratings, commonly used for the disease quantification. The second one was based on the incidence of symptomatic branches. The quantification of CVC through these two methods was carried out in a 10-year-old 'Natal' sweet orange orchard. The descriptive scale considered the symptoms of the entire plant. The disease incidence was evaluated in 36 branches in each plant. The assessments were conducted by three raters in 144 plants in July 2006 and July 2007 as well as in March and November 2008. The descriptive scale did not allow an accurate assessment and resulted in a moderate strength of agreement among the raters. On the other hand, the incidence quantification of CVC through the symptomatic branches showed high repeatability among the raters. We suggest the use of incidence of symptomatic branches as variable for CVC quantification.

  3. Enhanced Reliability and Accuracy for Field Deployable Bioforensic Detection and Discrimination of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, Causal Agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis Using Razor Ex Technology and TaqMan Quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Ouyang; Mohammad Arif; Jacqueline Fletcher; Ulrich Melcher; Francisco Manuel Ochoa Corona

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, accurate and rapid multigene-based assay combining real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex) was validated for detection of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp, a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]). CVC, which is exotic to the United States, has spread through South and Central America and could significantly impact U.S. citrus if it arrives. A method for early, accurate and sensitive detection of Xfp in pl...

  4. Avaliação de tangerinas, tangores e tangelos em relação à clorose variegada dos citros Evaluation of mandarines, tangors and tangelos in relation to the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rodrigues da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, é uma séria ameaça à citricultura brasileira, constituindo-se, atualmente, numa das principais doenças dos citros no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar cultivares de citros introduzidas quanto à suscetibilidade ou resistência à CVC, em condições de campo. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bebedouro-SP. Os materiais genéticos estudados foram cultivares de tangerinas e híbridos (tangores e tangelos introduzidas de bancos de germoplasma da Itália, Portugal, Espanha e Córsega. O trabalho foi constituído por 56 parcelas, com três plantas das quais uma foi inoculada, empregando-se o método de encostia, utilizando-se de mudas previamente infectadas como fontes da bactéria. Foram avaliados os sintomas da doença mediante observação visual através de notas e teste de PCR, específico para Xylella fastidiosa. Os materiais genéticos que se apresentaram positivos ao PCR, mas não apresentaram sintomas, e os que foram negativos ao PCR, possuem um potencial de utilização em programas de melhoramento genético visando à resistência e/ou à tolerância à doença.The Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, caused by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious threat to the Brazilian citriculture, being, actually, one of the mains diseases to the citrus in Brazil. The objective of this work was evaluate citrus cultivars, introduced according to the susceptibility or resistance to CVC, in field conditions. The research was carried in Bebedouro city - São Paulo state - Brazil. The genotypes studied were cultivars of mandarines and hybrids (tangors and tangelos, introduced from the germplasm collections of Italy, Portugal, Spain and Corsica. The work was composed by 56 portions, with 3 plants, being one of them inoculated, using the approach graft method, with infected plants. Were evaluated the symptoms of the disease by visual observation and PCR test

  5. Comportamento sazonal da clorose variegada dos citros em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo Seasonal behaviour of citrus variegated chlorosis in three regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Francisco F. Laranjeira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se a evolução de variáveis relacionadas à clorose variegada dos citros em plantas de três regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Noroeste, Centro e Sul, visando determinar diferenças no padrão sazonal do patógeno, dos vetores, do hospedeiro e da doença. Foram avaliadas mensalmente 20 plantas sintomáticas em talhões de laranja (Citrus sinensis 'Pêra' enxertada em limão (Citrus limonia 'Cravo', em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo, no período de dezembro de 1998 a dezembro de 2000, utilizando-se as seguintes variáveis: número de brotações novas (bn; percentagem de ramos sintomáticos (prs; percentagem de ramos assintomáticos infetados (prai; percentagem total de ramos infetados (ptri e estimativa de concentração bacteriana (ecb. Em cada região foram obtidas as variáveis temperatura mínima, temperatura máxima, precipitação pluviométrica e número de cigarrinhas capturadas em armadilha amarela. Para a determinação de correlação entre variáveis, utilizou-se a análise de Lags Distribuídos e para a comparação de regiões e estações do ano, a análise de Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman e o teste de Nemenyi (pThis work was to characterize the evolution of Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC related variables in plants of three regions in the State of São Paulo (Northeast, Center and South, in order to demonstrate differences in seasonal pattern of the pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, vectors (sharpshooters, host [sweet orange (Citrus sinensis 'Pera' grafted on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia] and disease. Twenty symptomatic plants were evaluated monthly from December 1998 to December 2000. The following variables were measured: number of new flushes (nf, percentage of symptomatic branches (psb, percentage of infected assymptomatic branches (piab, percentage of infected branches (pib, estimation of bacteria concentration (ebc, lower and higher temperatures, rain fall and number of sharpshooters in yellow traps. The

  6. Fluxo de seiva e fotossíntese em laranjeira 'Natal' com clorose variegada dos citros Sap flow and photosynthesis of 'Natal' sweet orange plants with citrus variegated chlorosis

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    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC, no fluxo de seiva, trocas gasosas e atividade fotoquímica em laranjeira 'Natal', com e sem CVC, em condição de campo. O curso diário do fluxo de seiva, potencial da água na folha, assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e eficiência quântica máxima e efetiva do fotossistema II foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. O fluxo de seiva foi 1,9 vez superior nas plantas sadias em relação às doentes. Em plantas doentes ocorreu queda de 43, 28 e 33% na assimilação de CO2, condutância estomática e transpiração, respectivamente. As plantas com CVC apresentaram fotoinibição dinâmica. Uma vez que a eficiência quântica efetiva apresentou um padrão de resposta semelhante, durante o dia, em ambos os tratamentos, o efeito protetor da fotorrespiração no aparato fotoquímico em plantas com CVC é discutido. As quedas de assimilação de CO2, transpiração e de fluxo de seiva, nas plantas com CVC, foram decorrentes do menor valor da condutância estomática, possivelmente causado pela colonização dos vasos do xilema pela Xylella fastidiosa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC on sap flow, gas exchanges and photochemical activity in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with and without CVC under field condition. Diurnal courses of sap flow, leaf water potential, CO2 assimilation rate and transpiration, stomatal conductance, potential and effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a random block design with five repetitions. Healthy plants showed sap flow values around 1.9 times higher than injured ones. Injured plants exhibited reductions of 43, 28 and 33% in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration, respectively. CVC-affected plants showed dynamic

  7. Alternation of host plants as a survival mechanism of leafhoppers Dilobopterus costalimai and Oncometopia facialis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, vectors of the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC Alternância de hospedeiros como mecanismo de sobrevivência das cigarrinhas Dilobopterus costalimai e Oncometopia facialis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, vetoras da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC

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    José Maria Milanez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dilobopterus costalimai (Young and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret are two of the most important species of citrus leafhoppers, vectors of bacterium Xylella fastidiosa which causes the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC disease. To develop a rearing technique for these species under laboratory conditions, the egg laying preference and nymph development were studied in different breeding systems: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia and "falso boldo" (Vernonia condensata as host plants. Trials were set up in a randomized block design with three treatments (n=8. Females of D. costalimai had particular preference for ovipositing on Rangpur lime leaves while O. facialis females placed a higher number of eggs on "falso boldo", but it did not differ statistically from the Rangpur lime. The nymphal viability of D. costalimai was null in Rangpur lime and 58% in "falso boldo". For O. facialis the nymphal viability was 25 and 78% in Rangpur lime and "falso boldo", respectively. "Falso boldo" is more suitable as a host plant to rear the two species of citrus leafhoppers. The alternation of host plants seems to be an important survival mechanism of the CVC-vector species, as shown in natural conditions.Dilobopterus costalimai (Young e Oncometopia facialis (Signoret são duas das mais importantes espécies de cigarrinhas dos citros, transmissoras da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa causadora da doença conhecida como Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC. Com o objetivo de se desenvolver uma técnica de criação destas espécies, em condições de laboratório, estudou-se a preferência por postura e o desenvolvimento ninfal, em diferentes sistemas de criação, tendo como plantas hospedeiras limão cravo (Citrus limonia e falso boldo (Vernonia condensata. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e oito repetições. Fêmeas de D. costalimai tiveram acentuada preferência para ovipositar em folhas de limão cravo, enquanto que fêmeas de O

  8. Comportamento sazonal da clorose variegada dos citros em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo Seasonal behaviour of citrus variegated chlorosis in three regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco F. Laranjeira; Armando Bergamin Filho; Lilian Amorim; João Roberto S. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Caracterizou-se a evolução de variáveis relacionadas à clorose variegada dos citros em plantas de três regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Noroeste, Centro e Sul), visando determinar diferenças no padrão sazonal do patógeno, dos vetores, do hospedeiro e da doença. Foram avaliadas mensalmente 20 plantas sintomáticas em talhões de laranja (Citrus sinensis) 'Pêra' enxertada em limão (Citrus limonia) 'Cravo', em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo, no período de dezembro de 1998 a dezembro de 2000, u...

  9. Nonlinear models for describing the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in groves of two counties at northwestern Paraná state, Brazil = Modelo não-linear para a curva de progresso de incidência da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC em dois municípios da região noroeste do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Matiko Ueda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the production of sweet oranges has been threatened by the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC incited by the gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells. Commercial citrus groves in two counties at the Northwestern Paraná state were evaluated to estimate the disease progression by using parameterizations of nonlinear models. Groves of Citrus sinensis Osbeck, variety “Pêra”, “Valência”, “Natal” and “Folha Murcha” had all the plants evaluated for the presence of disease symptoms. Thereafter, different parameterizations of the Logistic and Gompertz models were fitted to these data. The goodness of fit was evaluated by the intrinsic (IN and parameter-effects (PE curvatures of Bates and Watts, the bias of Box and the Hougaard measures of skewness. In Loanda, the best model was the Fermi-Dirac, and in Nova Esperança the data were best fitted to the parameterization L5, which is also a parameterization from the Logistic model.A citricultura é afetada por diversas doenças, dentre as quais a Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa (Wells. Para a região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, onde foi avaliada a CVC, propõe-se encontrar modelos não-lineares de curvas de progresso de incidência da CVC que representem o percentual de plantas acometidas pela doença. Para avaliar o comprometimento dos pomares com relação à doença, foram escolhidos pomares comerciais em dois municípios, onde foi determinada a proporção de plantas doentes. Foram selecionados talhões de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck nas variedades “Pêra”, “Valência”, “Natal” e “Folha Murcha” e a avaliação de todas as plantas do talhão foi realizada visualmente em relação à presença ou à ausência de sintomas de CVC. Para estimar o modelo que melhor se ajustou aos dados de progresso da proporção da doença em cada talhão, foram considerados modelos não-lineares decrescimento sigmoidal

  10. Análise espaço-temporal da clorose variegada dos citros no Noroeste do Paraná, com uso de PCR para detecção de Xylella fastidiosa = Spatio-temporal analysis of the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC in the Northwest of Paraná, using PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa

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    William Mário de Carvalho Nunes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A citricultura é afetada por inúmeras doenças, como a clorose variegada do citros (CVC, causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a distribuição espacial da doença dentro de pomares comerciais do Noroeste do Paraná com o uso de métodos moleculares. Foram selecionados pomares sintomáticos para CVC com as variedades ‘Pêra’, ‘Valência’ e ‘Folha Murcha’ (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Foram marcadas para cada variedade, 4 plantas-referência positivas para CVC (por sintomas e análise molecular e 8 plantas ao redor de cada uma das plantas-referência foram amostradas, num total de 36 plantas por variedade. Realizou-se o teste da Reação da Polimerase em Cadeia (PCR para detecção da bactéria e na mesma época foram conduzidas avaliações visuais de sintomas de CVC. Os resultados da análise temporal, utilizando-se os modelos Monomolecular, Logístico e Gompertz, apontaram o modelo Logístico como o que melhor se ajustou para descrever o comportamento da doença no tempo, para todas as variedades estudadas. Observou-se que o comportamento espacial da doença diferiu quando a mesma área foiavaliada pelos métodos visual e molecular, resultando em uma diferença no padrão espacial das áreas avaliadas. Portanto, ambos os métodos empregados, sintomas e PCR, foram capazes de constatar asmudanças no padrão espacial apresentado, sendo que a análise molecular (PCR foi mais sensível para detectar as mudanças ocorridas.Countless diseases affect the citriculture, as the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC which is caused by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa.The aim of this work was to determine the space distribution of the disease inside commercial orchards in the Northwest of Paraná, using molecular methods. Symptomatic orchards were selected for CVC with the varieties 'Pêra', 'Valência' and 'Folha Murcha' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. For each variety, 4 positive reference-plant for CVC

  11. Genetic relationships of some Citrus genotypes based on the candidate iron chlorosis genes

    OpenAIRE

    KAÇAR, Yıldız AKA; Özhan ŞİMŞEK; DÖNMEZ, Dicle; BONCUK, Melda; YEŞİLOĞLU, Turgut; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Iron is one of the most important elements in plant mineral nutrition. Fe deficiency is a critical abiotic stress factor for Mediterranean citriculture; the development of marker-assisted selection for this trait would greatly enhance rootstock breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were performed to determine the allelic diversity of genes associated with tolerance to iron chlorosis in citrus. Two candidate iron chlorosis toleran...

  12. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... FR 17289-17295 on April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Arnold Tschanz, Senior Plant... and published in the Federal Register on April 6, 2010 (75 FR 17289-17295, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0052... for HLB and that was published in the Federal Register and effective on June 17, 2010 (75 FR...

  13. THE ENDOPHYTE CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS REDUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUSAN ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIUM FROM CITRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is a disease of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all sweet orange cultivars. Sweet orange trees are sometimes observed to be infected by Xylella fastidiosa without showing seve...

  14. CITRUS AND COFFEE STRAINS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA INDUCE PIERCES DISEASE IN GRAPEVINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in Brazil and Pierces Disease of grapevines in the United States. Both of these diseases cause significant production problems in the respective industries. The recent establishment of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California has ra...

  15. Commercial risk-based survey for HLB and implications for efficacy of Citrus Health Management Areas (CHMAs)

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, T.; Luo, W.; Riley, T; Parnell, S.

    2014-01-01

    The USDA, APHIS, PPQ has been conducting a risk-based multi-pest survey (MPS) for the past two years.  The initial 6 statewide survey cycles were conducted on a 6 week basis, whereas the subsequent 20 cycles have been conducted on a 3-week basis.  HLB and ACP are the two main pests addressed by the MPS but other citrus pests and diseases, i.e., Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC), Citrus Leprosis Virus (CLiV), Citrus Black Spot (CBS) and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC) were also given lesser emphas...

  16. Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary; R. Bruce; Stubben, Christopher J.

    2011-03-22

    The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

  17. Genetic characterization of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from citrus and coffee plants Caracterização genética de Xylella fastidiosa isolada de plantas de citros e café

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Savonitti Miranda; Paulo Roberto Silva Farias; Sérgio Rufo Roberto; Pedro Magalhães Lacava

    2007-01-01

    The Citrus Variegated Chlorosis and the Coffee Leaf Scorch are some of the many destructive diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium limited to the xylem of affected plants. As its genetic characterization is still not well established, different isolates of X. fastidiosa from citrus and coffee were evaluated through RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique to characterize and classify these isolates based on similarity coefficients. Sixteen isolates of X. fas...

  18. Geostical analysis of spatial dynamics of Citrus Variegated Chlorossis Análise da dinâmica espacial da Clorose Variegada dos Citros através da Geoestatística

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    SÉRGIO R. ROBERTO

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dynamics of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC was studied in a five-year old commercial orchard of 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sp. trees, located in the northern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. One thousand trees were assessed in 25 rows of 40 trees, planted at 8 x 5 m spacing. Disease incidence data were taken beginning in March 1994 and ending in January 1996, at intervals of four to five months. Disease aggregation was observed through the dispersion index analysis (Ib, which was calculated by dividing the area into quadrants. CVC spatial dynamics was examined using semivariogram analysis, which revealed that the disease was aggregated in the field forming foci of 10 to 14 m. For each well-fitted model, a kriging map was created to better visualize the distribution of the disease. The spherical model was the best fit for the data in this study. Kriging maps also revealed that the incidence of CVC increased in periods during which the trees underwent vegetative growth, coinciding with greater expected occurrence of insect vectors of the bacterium in the field.A dinâmica espacial da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC foi estudada em um pomar comercial de laranja (Citrus sinensis 'Valência' de cinco anos de idade, localizada na região norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram avaliadas 1.000 plantas em uma quadra disposta em 25 ruas por 40 plantas por rua, plantada no espaçamento 8 x 5 m. As avaliações (presença ou ausência da doença iniciaram-se em março de 1994 e estenderam-se até janeiro de 1996, em um intervalo de quatro a cinco meses entre uma e outra. A agregação da doença foi observada por meio da análise do índice de dispersão (Ib, o qual foi calculado dividindo-se a área em quadrantes. A dinâmica espacial da CVC foi avaliada por análises de semivariogramas e apresentou padrão agregado da doença no campo formando reboleiras de 10 a 14 m. Para cada modelo ajustado, um mapa de krigagem foi

  19. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

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    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em laranjeiras em condições naturais e submetidas à irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A condutância estomática, a transpiração diária e o potencial da água na folha foram menores nas plantas com CVC. A assimilação diária de CO2 foi menor nas laranjeiras com CVC mesmo quando irrigadas. De fato, a irrigação diminuiu o efeito da CVC, porém não impediu o estabelecimento da doença em laranjeiras inoculadas com Xylella fastidiosa. Em relação aos demais tratamentos, as plantas infectadas e mantidas sob condições naturais (sem irrigação apresentaram maior comprometimento das trocas gasosas, mesmo quando as avaliações fisiológicas foram feitas em período úmido (verão.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease that has caused serious economical losses in citrus grove located in the North and Northeastern regions of São Paulo State, where water deficiency and high temperature occur frequently. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of water deficiency on the development of physiological symptoms in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with CVC. Measurements of leaf water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance e CO2 assimilation were taken in plants under natural conditions and submitted to irrigation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications. Stomatal conductance, daily transpiration and leaf water potential were

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; Ashour, Mohamed L; Mulyaningsih, Sri; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The volatile secondary metabolites of essential oils from fruit peel and leaves of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon) were investigated using GLC and GLC-MS (gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Altogether 141 compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.59% and 96.33% of the total hydrodistilled peel and leaf oil, respectively. Limonene occurred in higher amounts in fruit peel (52.73%) than in leaf oil (29.13%). Neral (12.72%), neryl acetate (8.53%), p-menth-1-en-7-al (4.63%), beta-pinene (6.35%), and nerol (4.42%) were the most abundant constituents in leaf oil, whereas gamma-terpinene (9.88%), beta-pinene (7.67%), geranial (4.44%), and neral (3.64%) dominated in the fruit peel oil. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimicrobial activities of the fruit peel essential oil were evaluated. The oil had a low antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of (26.66 +/- 2.07) mg/ml as compared to the efficient antioxidant ascorbic acid [IC50 (16.32 +/- 0.16) microg/ml]. The oil moderately inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with an IC50 value of (32.05 +/- 3.91) microg/ml and had moderate antitrypanosomal activity [IC50 (60.90 +/- 0.91) microg/ml]. In addition, moderate antimicrobial activities were detected against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus capitis, Micrococcus luteus), one Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida parapsilosis). PMID:24066512

  1. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

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    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  2. Fluxo de seiva e fotossíntese em laranjeira 'Natal' com clorose variegada dos citros Sap flow and photosynthesis of 'Natal' sweet orange plants with citrus variegated chlorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Caruso Machado; Ricardo Ferraz de Oliveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Camilo Lázaro Medina; Eduardo Sanches Stuchi; Fábio Ricardo Marin; José Aliçandro Bezerra da Silva; Simone Rodrigues da Silva

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), no fluxo de seiva, trocas gasosas e atividade fotoquímica em laranjeira 'Natal', com e sem CVC, em condição de campo. O curso diário do fluxo de seiva, potencial da água na folha, assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e eficiência quântica máxima e efetiva do fotossistema II foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. O fluxo de seiva foi 1,9...

  3. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

  4. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author)

  5. Genetic interactions reveal that specific defects of chloroplast translation are associated with the suppression of var2-mediated leaf variegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiayan; Zheng, Mengdi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ruijuan; An, Lijun; Rodermel, Steve R; Yu, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development. PMID:23721655

  6. Genetic Interactions Reveal that Specific Defects of Chloroplast Translation are Associated with the Suppression of var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiayan Liu; Mengdi Zheng; Rui Wang; Ruijuan Wang; Lijun An; Steve R. Rodermel; Fei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development.

  7. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic responses resulting from physiological changes that occur in plants displaying citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC symptoms, we adopted a strategy of comparing two EST libraries from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. One of them was prepared with plants showing typical CVC symptoms caused by Xylella fastidiosa and the other with non-inoculated plants. We obtained 15,944 ESTs by sequencing the two cDNA libraries. Using an in silico hybridization strategy, 37 genes were found to have significant variation at the transcriptional level. Within this subset, 21 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in plants with CVC. The main functional categories of the down-regulated transcripts in plants with CVC were associated with metabolism, protein modification, energy and transport facilitation. The majority of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some transcripts associated with adaptation to stress conditions were up-regulated in plants with CVC and could explain why plants remain alive even under severe water and nutritional stress. Others of the up-regulated transcripts are related to defense response suggesting that sweet orange plants activate their defense machinery. The genes associated with stress response might be expressed as part of a secondary response related to physiological alterations caused by the infection.

  8. The Citrus Sanitation Center of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucumán, Argentina El Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres de Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Stein

    Full Text Available In October 2004, the Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (Tucumán, Argentina founded its Citrus Sanitation Center. The goal of this center is to establish and keep a group of the most important citrus varieties and rootstocks true to type and free of graft-transmissible pathogens. These will be used as primary sources of propagating material for citrus growers and researchers in northwestern Argentina. Mother trees of the main commercial citrus varieties were selected from the germplasm bank of the experiment station and were recovered through the standard procedure of shoot tip grafting (STG. Healthy plants are carefully and periodically indexed by biological, serological and molecular methods for tristeza, psorosis, exocortis, cachexia, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker and huanglongbing. The Citrus Sanitation Center will maintain a supply of healthy propagation material and will continue a program initiated in 1966, consting in introducing, producing and releasing nucellar clones.La Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC creó en el año 2004 el Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus (CSC para la ejecución de tareas de limpieza y diagnóstico de virus en cítricos. El objetivo de este centro es establecer y mantener un plantel de plantas madres cítricas, de variedades copa y portainjertos, de alta calidad genética y libre de plagas y enfermedades transmisibles por injerto. Este grupo de plantas se constituye como fuente primaria de material de propagación para productores, viveristas e investigadores del noroeste argentino. Las plantas madres de las principales variedades comerciales de cítricos se seleccionaron del banco de germoplasma de la EEAOC y se recuperaron por la técnica de microinjerto de ápices caulinares, procedimiento estándar utilizado en la limpieza de plantas cítricas. Periódicamente se verifica su sanidad por métodos biológicos, serológicos y moleculares para las

  9. 7 CFR 29.1079 - Variegated (K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated (K). 29.1079 Section 29.1079 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1079 Variegated (K). Any tobacco that does not blend with the normal colors of the...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3076 - Variegated (K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated (K). 29.3076 Section 29.3076 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Variegated (K). Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is yellow, grayish, mottled, or...

  11. Evaluation of low-volume sprayers used in asian citrus Psyllid control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kumayama, Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is a detrimental pest to citrus crops when it serves as a vector of the pathogen that causes greening (huanglongbing, or HLB). Transmission of this disease causes mottling, chlorosis, dieback and reductions in both frui...

  12. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  13. Portable Chemical Sensors for Monitoring Infection-Specific Volatiles in Asymptomatic Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, R.L.; A. A. Aksenov; Thuesen, L.H.; Pasamontes, A.; Cheung, W.H.K.; Peirano, D.J.; Davis, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from all plants, and there is mounting evidence these VOCs reflect internal health status and change in response to pathogen infection and other cues. Our group has developed a portable chemical sensing platform that can monitor for VOC emission changes that result from citrus bacterial and viral infections. To date, our VOC library includes putative signal fingerprints for Huanglongbing (HLB), citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and citrus variegated chl...

  14. Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Luiz R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH, identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly

  15. Caracterização da comunidade bacteriana endofítica de citros por isolamento, PCR específico e DGGE Characterization of the endophytic bacterial community from citrus by isolation, specific PCR and DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Teixeira Lacava

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comunidade bacteriana endofítica de plantas assintomáticas (escapes e afetadas pela clorose variegada dos citros (CVC por meio de isolamento em meio de cultura, técnica de gradiente desnaturante em gel de eletroforese (DGGE e detecção de Methylobacterium mesophilicum e Xyllela fastidiosa por meio de PCR específico, para estudar esta comunidade e sua relação com a ocorrência da CVC. A análise da comunidade bacteriana via DGGE permitiu a detecção de X. fastidiosa, bem como Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp. como endófitos de citros. Foram observados também Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Bacillus spp. Utilizando primers específicos, Methylobacterium mesophilicum e X. fastidiosa também foram observadas, reforçando hipóteses de que estas bactérias podem estar interagindo no interior da planta hospedeira.The aim of this work was to characterize endophytic bacterial community of assintomatic (escape and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC-affected citrus plants using isolation in culture medium, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE technique and Methylobacterium mesophilicum as well as Xylella fastidiosa specific PCR, allowing to assess this community and its interactions with CVC. The study of bacterial community by DGGE analysis allowed the detection of X. fastidiosa, as well as Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp., which were not detected previously. Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus spp. were also observed as endophyte in citrus plants. Using specific primers Methylobacterium mesophilicum and X. fastidiosa were observed, reinforcing that these bacteria could interact inside the host plant.

  16. Precision phenotyping of imidazolinone-induced chlorosis in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochogavía, Ana Claudia; Gil, Mercedes; Picardi, Liliana; Nestares, Graciela

    2014-12-01

    Chlorosis level is a useful parameter to assess imidazolinone resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The aim of this study was to quantify chlorosis through two different methods in sunflower plantlets treated with imazapyr. The genotypes used in this study were two inbred lines reported to be different in their resistance to imidazolinones. Chlorosis was evaluated by spectrophotometrical quantification of photosynthetic leaf pigments and by a bioinformatics-based color analysis. A protocol for pigment extraction was presented which improved pigment stability. Chlorophyll amount decreased significantly when both genotypes were treated with 10 μM of imazapyr. Leaf color was characterized using Tomato Analyzer(®) color test software. A significant positive correlation between color reduction and chlorophyll concentration was found. It suggests that leaf color measurement could be an accurate method to estimate chlorosis and infer chlorophyll levels in sunflower plants. These results highlight a strong relationship between imidazolinone-induced chlorosis and variations in leaf color and in chlorophyll concentration. Both methods are quantitative, rapid, simple, and reproducible. Thus, they could be useful tools for phenotyping and screening large number of plants when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in this species. PMID:25914598

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of floral color variegation in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Zhihong

    2015-09-01

    Variegation in flower is a special trait in ornamental peach (Prunus persica L.). To investigate the mechanism of color variegation, we used a combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to explore the proteomic profiles between variegated flower (VF) and red flower (RF) buds of the peach cultivar 'Sahong Tao'. More than 500 highly reproducible protein spots (P peach flowers. Our study is the first comparative proteomic analysis of floral variegation and will contribute to further investigations into the molecular mechanism of flower petal coloration in ornamental peach. PMID:26192118

  18. Delineating site-specific management zones for pH-induced iron chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron chlorosis can be a yield limiting factor in crop production especially on calcareous soils. Typical management for iron chlorosis includes the use of soil or foliar application of iron fertilizers, or the use of chlorosis tolerant cultivars. However, due to the interspersion of calcareous and n...

  19. Incidência de Dilobopterus costalimai Young e Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, em pomares cítricos no noroeste paranaense = Incidence of Dilobopterus costalimai Young and Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, in citrus orchards in Northwestern Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria Orbolato Gonçalves

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As cigarrinhas das famílias Cicadellidae e Cercopidae são vetores da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells, causadora da Clorose variegada dos citros. Esta doença traz sérios prejuízos à lavoura de citros no Noroeste Paranaense, e é estudada no Brasil desde 1987, quando foi descoberta pela primeira vez na região de Colina, São Paulo. Os vetores transmitem a X. fastidiosa quando se alimentam sugando a seiva do xilema, local onde a bactéria se instala, obstruindo a passagem da seiva. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar aocorrência das cigarrinhas vetoras Dilobopterus costalimai e Acrogonia citrina em pomar comercial de citros. O experimento foi realizado no sítio “Laranjeiras I”, município de Nova Esperança, região noroeste do Paraná, no período de julho de 2004 a agosto de 2006. Foram feitas amostragens mensais, por meio de armadilhas adesivas amarelas (Biocontrole®, nas variedades de laranjeiras [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] Folha Murcha, Valência, Pêra e Natal.Nas variedades Pêra e Valência, a cigarrinha mais capturada foi Dilobopterus costalimai. Os meses de maior ocorrência das espécies foram entre dezembro e maio de cada ano.The sharpshooters of the families Cicadellidae and Cercopidae are vectors of Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis. This disease causes severe damage to the Paraná citrus industry, and it has been studied in Brazil since 1987, when it was discovered for the first time in the area of Colina, SP. The vectors transmit X. fastidiosa when they feed on the xylem sap, where the bacteria settles, obstructing the passage of the sap. This workhad the objective of evaluating the occurrence of the vector sharpshooter Dilobopterus costalimai and Acrogonia citrina in a commercial citrus orchard during the period between July 2004 and August 2006. The experiment was accomplished in the Laranjeiras I farm, in the city of Nova Esperança, northwestern Paraná. The collections

  20. CITRUS AND COFFEE STRAINS OF XYELLA FASTIDIOSA INDUCE PIERCE'S DISEASE IN GRAPEVINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xyella fastidiosa causes Citrus Varigated Chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee Leaf Scorch (CLS) diseases in Brazil and Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapvine in the United States. All three diseases cause significant production problems in the respective industries. The recent establishment of the glassy-winged...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  2. Genetic characterization of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from citrus and coffee plants Caracterização genética de Xylella fastidiosa isolada de plantas de citros e café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Savonitti Miranda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus Variegated Chlorosis and the Coffee Leaf Scorch are some of the many destructive diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium limited to the xylem of affected plants. As its genetic characterization is still not well established, different isolates of X. fastidiosa from citrus and coffee were evaluated through RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique to characterize and classify these isolates based on similarity coefficients. Sixteen isolates of X. fastidiosa were used on this trial, obtained from citrus, coffee and almond. The genetic polymorphism evaluation was performed using six arbitrary 10-base primer pairs. It was possible to establish a dendogram in which the isolates were classified into five groups (A, B, C, D and E. A prevalence of citrus isolates in groups A and D was observed. In groups B and C, there was a prevalence of coffee isolates meanwhile the group D consisted of the almond isolate, solely.A Clorose Variegada dos Citros e a Requeima das Folhas do Cafeeiro são algumas das várias doenças destrutivas causadas pela Xylella fastidiosa, que é uma bactéria gram-negativa e limitada ao xilema de plantas afetadas. Como a sua caracterização genética ainda não está determinada, diferentes isolados da X. fastidiosa de citros e café foram avaliados pela técnica RAPD (Polimorfismo do DNA Amplificado ao Acaso para caracterizar e classificar estes isolados com base em coeficientes de similaridade. Foram utilizados 16 isolados de X. fastidiosa provenientes de citros, café e amêndoa. A avaliação do polimorfismo genético foi realizada utilizando seis iniciadores randômicos de 10 pares de base. Foi possível estabelecer um dendograma no qual os isolados foram classificados em cinco grupos (A, B, C, D e E. Nos grupos A e D existe uma forte predominância de isolados de citros. Nos grupos B e C há predominância de isolados de café enquanto no grupo E ficou apenas o isolado de amêndoa.

  3. Competing Hegemonic Projects within China's Variegated Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller

    2014-01-01

    's administrators reinforced China's state-led development path. Finally, it is highlighted how this difference between state projects is reflected in two antagonistic hegemonic visions for China's national development, illustrated by the populism of former Chongqing Party Chief Bo Xilai vs. the pro-business stance......This article investigates the variegated model of capitalism emerging in China through a comparative analysis of two contrasting local government approaches developed in Chongqing and Guangdong. From 2007 to 2012, elite politicians and intellectuals articulated the Chongqing and Guangdong models as...... contradictory visions for China. Drawing on a three-pronged conceptual framework developed by Bob Jessop, the article de- and reconstructs this dichotomy which has been embraced by some Western scholars. It is argued, first, that the two models involve complimentary accumulation strategies: as Guangdong moves...

  4. GRAPEVINE Fe-CHLOROSIS ON PODUNAVLJE VINEGROWING AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Mato Drenjančević

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic of Podunavlje vinegrowing area in the far east of the Republic of Croatia is carbonate soil with loess as a parent substrate. Chlorosis is common on this soil and it is often caused by excess concentrations of calcium and magnesium and deficiency of iron and zinc. It can also be resulted by inactivation, if it is transformed so that a plant can not use it. The lack of iron in grape vine is resulted in leaf vein, first in younger leaves where the venation remains green, and ...

  5. Citrus Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter, Fred G.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  6. THE ROLE OF BRAZIL IN THE WORLD ORANGE JUICE MARKET: A THREAT POSED BY CVC

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Waldir B.; Thomas H. Spreen

    2002-01-01

    The role of the processed citrus industry of Brazil, the largest world orange juice producer, is discussed with reference to CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis), a bacterial disease that affects one-third of the Brazilian tree inventory. Scenarios are analyzed via a spatial equilibrium model on the impact of increased/decreased CVC incidence.

  7. GRAPEVINE Fe-CHLOROSIS ON PODUNAVLJE VINEGROWING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Drenjančević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of Podunavlje vinegrowing area in the far east of the Republic of Croatia is carbonate soil with loess as a parent substrate. Chlorosis is common on this soil and it is often caused by excess concentrations of calcium and magnesium and deficiency of iron and zinc. It can also be resulted by inactivation, if it is transformed so that a plant can not use it. The lack of iron in grape vine is resulted in leaf vein, first in younger leaves where the venation remains green, and then marginal necrosis and defoliation are developed. The results of the study include the data based on the field researches of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion and exact research of fertilization field trial. Field research of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion, vineyards of Srijem, Erdut and Baranya were conducted in July 2007. The field research consisted of locating plantations, measuring plantations chlorosis, determining their general condition and measuring total concentration of chloroplast pigments by an indirect method (chlorophyll meter on the chlorotic and nonchlorotic plants of a grapevine. The intensity of a relative chlorosis was calculated from data measured by a chlorophyll meter. Field research was located on the production area of a company Agro-Ilok ltd. in Ilok, locality Radoš, and carried out during the period 2008 and 2009. It included cultivar Welsh Riesling, grapevine stock Kober 5BB, the most important white cultivar and grapevine stock in the vinegrowing region Continental Croatia. The experiment was set up according to a split plot method at 5x3 levels. The main factor A consisted of different chemical treatments in a basic fertilization: : A1 = 0 control without fertilization; A2 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl; A3 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4; A4 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O; A5 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4 + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O. Factor B had got three levels

  8. GRAPEVINE FE-CHLOROSIS ON PODUNAVLJE VINEGROWING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Drenjančević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of Podunavlje vinegrowing area in the far east of the Republic of Croatia is carbonate soil with loess as a parent substrate. Chlorosis is common on this soil and it is often caused by excess concentrations of calcium and magnesium and deficiency of iron and zinc. It can also be resulted by inactivation, if it is transformed so that a plant can not use it. The lack of iron in grape vine is resulted in leaf vein, first in younger leaves where the venation remains green, and then marginal necrosis and defoliation are developed. The results of the study include the data based on the field researches of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion and exact research of fertilization field trial. Field research of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion, vineyards of Srijem, Erdut and Baranya were conducted in July 2007. The field research consisted of locating plantations, measuring plantations chlorosis, determining their general condition and measuring total concentration of chloroplast pigments by an indirect method (chlorophyll meter on the chlorotic and nonchlorotic plants of a grapevine. The intensity of a relative chlorosis was calculated from data measured by a chlorophyll meter. Field research was located on the production area of a company Agro-Ilok ltd. in Ilok, locality Radoš, and carried out during the period 2008 and 2009. It included cultivar Welsh Riesling, grapevine stock Kober 5BB, the most important white cultivar and grapevine stock in the vinegrowing region Continental Croatia. The experiment was set up according to a split plot method at 5x3 levels. The main factor A consisted of different chemical treatments in a basic fertilization: : A1 = 0 control without fertilization; A2 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl; A3 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4; A4 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O; A5 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4 + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O. Factor B had got three levels

  9. Citrus sinensis leaf petiole and blade colonization by Xylella fastidiosa: details of xylem vessel occlusion Colonização de pecíolo e folha de Citrus sinensis por Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of citrus in Brazil. X. fastidiosa is restricted to xylem vessels of plants and knowledge regarding xylem colonization is still limited. Our goal was to verify how this bacterium colonizes and spreads within xylem vessels of sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pêra. Petioles and pieces of leaf blades from naturally infected plant exhibiting characteristic symptoms were prepared for light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold labeling (IGL. Petioles from healthy plants were used as control. IGL results, using an antibody against wall hemicelluloses, revealed that the pit membrane of vessels was altered. Bacterial cells were observed in the pit between adjacent vessels. Results support the contention that X. fastidiosa produces cellulases to reach adjacent vessels. SEM revealed that colonization of sweet orange started with X. fastidiosa cells attaching to the xylem wall, followed by an increase in the number of bacterial cells, the production of fibrous material, and finally vessel occlusion by biofilm composed of copious amounts of amorphous material, strands and cells. Phenolic materials, hyperplasia and hypertrophy were noticed in leaves with gummy material. Xylem vessels frequently contained an unknown needle-like, crystallized matter blocking the vessel.A clorose variegada dos citrus (CVC, causada por uma bactéria restrita ao xilema (Xylella fastidiosa, é uma importante doença de citros no Brasil, entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a colonização dos vasos do xilema pela bactéria. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar como X. fastidiosa invade os vasos adjacentes do xilema e algumas das alterações expressas por plantas de laranja Pêra. Foram coletadas 15 amostras de pecíolos e áreas das folhas de plantas com sintomas característicos da doença, as quais foram preparadas para

  10. Effect of Enhanced Zinc Nutrition on Mitigation of Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S L; Li, Z. G.; He, Z. L.

    2014-01-01

    The growth decline of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus trees is considered to be associated with nutritional disorder, as typical symptoms of HLB such as stunted tree growth, chlorosis or blotchy mottle of leaves, resembles zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies, while lower Zn concentration has been consistently reported in the HLB affected compared to healthy plants. Hydroponic culture studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of enhanced Zn nutrition on the mitigation...

  11. Host colonization differences between citrus and coffee isolates of Xylella fastidiosa in reciprocal inoculation Diferenças em colonização do hospedeiro por isolados de Xylella fastidiosa de citros e cafeeiro em inoculações recíprocas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Prado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC and coffee stem atrophy (CSA are important diseases in Brazil associated with closely-related strains of Xylella fastidiosa, but little is know about host aoverlappingnd importance of citrus and coffee as inoculum sources of these strains. In this study, reciprocal-inoculation experiments were performed to determine if CVC and CSA isolates are biologically similar within citrus and coffee plants. These two hosts were mechanically inoculated with a CVC and a CSA isolate of X. fastidiosa at four concentrations ranging between10³ and 10(9 colony forming units CFU mL-1. At two, four and eight months after inoculation, the infection efficiency and bacterial populations of the isolates in each host were determined by culturing. The CVC isolate infected both citrus and coffee plants, but developed lower populations in coffee. The CSA isolate did not colonize citrus. Inoculation of coffee plants with the CVC isolate resulted in low rates of infection and required an inoculum concentration ten-fold higher than that necessary to obtain a similar (25% rate of infection in citrus. The relatively low infection rates and bacterial numbers of the CVC isolate in coffee plants compared with those observed in citrus suggest that coffee is not a suitable host to serve as a source of inoculum of the CVC strain for primary spread to citrus or within coffee plantations.Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC e atrofia dos ramos do cafeeiro (ARC são doenças importantes no Brasil, associadas a estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que são geneticamente próximas. Entretanto, pouco se sabe a respeito de plantas hospedeiras em comum e da importância de citros e cafeeiro como fontes de inóculo dessas estirpes. Neste estudo, realizaram-se experimentos de inoculação recíproca para determinar se isolados de X. fastidiosa de CVC e de ARC são biologicamente semelhantes em plantas de citros e café. Estes dois hospedeiros foram mecanicamente

  12. 7 CFR 29.2534 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2534 Section 29.2534 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2282 - Mixed color or variegated (M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color or variegated (M). 29.2282 Section 29.2282 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  14. 'Ramata': a new dwarf and variegated Hedychium J. Koenig cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new dwarf (~71 cm) variegated Hedychium cultivar, ‘Ramata’, was developed at the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL), Poplarville. A potted ‘Ramata’ plant produces multiple pseudostems, originating from the rhizome, giving it a compact appearance. ‘Ramata’ originated fr...

  15. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

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    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  16. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions. PMID:25806790

  17. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  18. Genetic linkage maps of 'Pêra' sweet orange and 'Cravo' mandarin with RAPD markers Mapas genéticos de ligação de laranja 'Pêra' e tangerina 'Cravo' utilizando marcadores RAPD

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira; Mariângela Cristofani; Marcos Antônio Machado

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to construct linkage maps of 'Pêra' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) using RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross strategy. The parents were chosen according to the resistance/susceptibility to citrus variegate chlorosis (CVC). The segregation of 176 markers was analyzed in 94 progeny of F1 hybrids, which were obtained from controlled crossings. The linkage map of 'Pêra' sweet orange had 117 markers define...

  19. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  20. RECOVERING FROM IRON DEFICIENCY CHLOROSIS IN NEAR ISOGENIC SOYBEANS: A MICROARRAY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybeans has proven to be a perennial problem in the calcareous soils of the U.S. upper Midwest. A historically difficult trait to study in fields, the use of hydroponics in a controlled greenhouse environment has provided a mechanism to study genetic variation wh...

  1. Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization†

    OpenAIRE

    Harakava, Ricardo; Gabriel, Dean W.

    2003-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to rapidly identify 18 gene differences between a citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) strain and a Pierce's disease of grape (PD) strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The results were validated as being highly representative of actual differences by comparison of the completely sequenced genome of a CVC strain with that of a PD strain.

  2. Lack of evidence for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa from infected sweet orange seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis is among the principle diseases that affect sweet orange in Brazil and Argentina, and is viewed as an emerging threat by the U.S. sweet orange industry. The disease is caused by the fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, and can be transmitted by both leafhopper insect...

  3. Two whole genome sequences of Xylella fastidiosa (strains M12 and M23) causing almond leaf scorch disease in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative, nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacterium that causes many economically important diseases including almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) and Pierce’s disease of grape in California, as well as citrus variegated chlorosis in South America. Genome inform...

  4. Genetic variegation of clonal architecture and propagating cells in leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristina; Lutz, Christoph; van Delft, Frederik W; Bateman, Caroline M; Guo, Yanping; Colman, Susan M; Kempski, Helena; Moorman, Anthony V; Titley, Ian; Swansbury, John; Kearney, Lyndal; Enver, Tariq; Greaves, Mel

    2011-01-20

    Little is known of the genetic architecture of cancer at the subclonal and single-cell level or in the cells responsible for cancer clone maintenance and propagation. Here we have examined this issue in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in which the ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion is an early or initiating genetic lesion followed by a modest number of recurrent or 'driver' copy number alterations. By multiplexing fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for these mutations, up to eight genetic abnormalities can be detected in single cells, a genetic signature of subclones identified and a composite picture of subclonal architecture and putative ancestral trees assembled. Subclones in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have variegated genetics and complex, nonlinear or branching evolutionary histories. Copy number alterations are independently and reiteratively acquired in subclones of individual patients, and in no preferential order. Clonal architecture is dynamic and is subject to change in the lead-up to a diagnosis and in relapse. Leukaemia propagating cells, assayed by serial transplantation in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice, are also genetically variegated, mirroring subclonal patterns, and vary in competitive regenerative capacity in vivo. These data have implications for cancer genomics and for the targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:21160474

  5. Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

  6. A weakened transcriptional enhancer yields variegated gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Collins

    Full Text Available Identical genes in the same cellular environment are sometimes expressed differently. In some cases, including the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH locus, this type of differential gene expression has been related to the absence of a transcriptional enhancer. To gain additional information on the role of the IgH enhancer, we examined expression driven by enhancers that were merely weakened, rather than fully deleted, using both mutations and insulators to impair enhancer activity. For this purpose we used a LoxP/Cre system to place a reporter gene at the same genomic site of a stable cell line. Whereas expression of the reporter gene was uniformly high in the presence of the normal, uninsulated enhancer and undetectable in its absence, weakened enhancers yielded variegated expression of the reporter gene; i.e., the average level of expression of the same gene differed in different clones, and expression varied significantly among cells within individual clones. These results indicate that the weakened enhancer allows the reporter gene to exist in at least two states. Subtle aspects of the variegation suggest that the IgH enhancer decreases the average duration (half-life of the silent state. This analysis has also tested the conventional wisdom that enhancer activity is independent of distance and orientation. Thus, our analysis of mutant (truncated forms of the IgH enhancer revealed that the 250 bp core enhancer was active in its normal position, approximately 1.4 kb 3' of the promoter, but inactive approximately 6 kb 3', indicating that the activity of the core enhancer was distance-dependent. A longer segment--the core enhancer plus approximately 1 kb of 3' flanking material, including the 3' matrix attachment region--was active, and the activity of this longer segment was orientation-dependent. Our data suggest that this 3' flank includes binding sites for at least two activators.

  7. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Nakano; Nobuyuki Mizuno; Yukio Tosa; Kentaro Yoshida; Pyoyun Park; Shigeo Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlyin...

  8. Measuring leaf necrosis and chlorosis of bamboo induced by typhoon 0613 with RGB image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; Haruhiko Yamamoto; Yasuomi Ibaraki

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of leaf necrosis or chlorosis of bamboo induced by Typhoon 0613 (T0613) were analyzed using RGB image analysis in Yamaguchi city, Japan. Results showed a closely positive relationship between Green/Red (G/R) value for indoor taking images of bamboo individual leaves and chlorophyll meter value (SPAD) with regression coefficient of 0.961. The relation between G/R value of room taking images and Necrotic Area Percentage (NAP) for bamboo individual leaves showed an inverse logistic function relationship, with the correlated coefficient equaling to 0.958. Both leaf chlorosis and necrosis can be quantitatively estimated by RGB image analysis. Moreover, the variance of Green/Luminance (G/L) value for the same leaf was less than that of G/R for images taken in the conditions with large light difference, especially for green leaves. G/L value also exhibited a closer relationship with SPAD value of leaves with chlorosis than that of G/R values at the same condition. The relationship between G/L value for bamboo canopies and the Distance from Coastline (DC) was also closer than that of the G/R value for the images taken at field sites with big light difference.

  9. The high frequency of variegated forms after in vitro mutagenesis in Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaf-explants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. var.'miniature' were treated by different doses of MNH and cultured on shoot regeneration medium. A strong toxic effect of some MNH doses on explant survival during the first two subcultures was noticed. The explants surviving treatment regenerated shoots with the efficiency comparable to the control. The high number of shoots regenerated from mutagenised leaves showed chlorophyll chimerism (so-called variegated forms. The use of 5 mM MNH for 1.5 or 2 h was found very effective, as 100% of survived explants regenerated variegated shoots. Besides hundreds of variegated forms also leaf-shape and flower-colour variants were observed in MNH-treated culture. Somaclonal variation was not observed in the control culture. The results indicate the great efficiency of in vitro applied MNH for in-duction of morphological variants of Saintpaulia, and especially variegated forms.

  10. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  11. Detecting Genetic Introgression: High Levels of Intersubspecific Recombination Found in Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nunney, Leonard; Yuan, Xiaoli; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Documenting the role of novel mutation versus homologous recombination in bacterial evolution, and especially in the invasion of new hosts, is central to understanding the long-term dynamics of pathogenic bacteria. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study this issue in Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca from Brazil, a bacterium causing citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). All 55 citrus isolates typed (plus one coffee isolate) defined three similar sequence ty...

  12. N-Acetylcysteine in Agriculture, a Novel Use for an Old Molecule: Focus on Controlling the Plant–Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Muranaka, Lígia S.; Giorgiano, Thais E.; Marco A. Takita; Forim, Moacir R.; Luis F C Silva; Helvécio D. Coletta-Filho; Machado, Marcos A; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue use...

  13. Spatial-temporal distribution of sharpshooters (Hemyptera: Cicadellidae insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in citrus orchards = Distribuição espaço-temporal de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae vetores da Xylella fastidiosa em pomares cítricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Variegated chlorosis (CVC is a citrus disease, reported initially in the northwest of São Paulo state and in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Minas Gerais state in 1987. The CVC is caused by the xylematic bacteria Xylella fastidiosa. The bacteria is spread through contaminated bubbles or by insect vectors belonging to the Hemyptera order and Cicadellidae family. The aimed of this study was to identify the species of Xylella fastidiosa insect vector and to determine its spatial and temporal distribution in commercial orchards of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. The experiment was conducted in a commercial area of sweet orange, Pêra variety, grafted on Rangpur lime, located in northwest Paraná. For sampling, yellow sticky traps were used, distributed in the peripheral and central area of the orchard with four replicates per street sampled (5, 30, 55 and 80th plant, each plant was considered a sample unit. Were evaluated ten plots per street, totaling 40 traps for sampling. Every thirty days during the evaluation period, the traps were renewed in the orchard. The main species caught were Acrogonia citrine and Dilobopterus costalimai. The highest incidences occurred from winter to spring, and summer to autumn of the next year. According to the geostatistical analysis, the spatial distribution of these species concentrated in the peripheral zone of the portion where a higher incidence of these species was captured. The results show that it is necessary to adopt pest management practices for the Cicadellidae vector of X. fastidiosa differentiated in space and time. = A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença de plantas cítricas, constatada, em 1987, inicialmente nos municípios do noroeste paulista e da região do triângulo mineiro. Ela é causada por uma bactéria de xilema, denominada Xylella fastidiosa. Sua disseminação ocorre através de borbulhas contaminadas ou por meio de insetos vetores da ordem Hemiptera e fam

  14. Monitoramento populacional das cigarrinhas vetoras de Xylella fastidiosa, através de armadilhas adesivas amarelas em pomares comerciais de citros Population monitoring of leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, through yellow sticky traps in commercial citrus orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença causada pela bactéria de xilema Xylella fastidiosa Wells. A disseminação ocorre por meio de insetos vetores pertencente à ordem Hemiptera, família Cicadellidae (subfamília Cicadellinae, os quais transmitem a bactéria depois de se alimentarem em plantas contaminadas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se identificar e monitorar as espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras em um pomar comercial no município de Paranavaí, Paraná. O experimento foi realizado em um talhão comercial de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, variedade Pera, com 1.000 plantas de dez anos de idade. A amostragem foi realizada por meio de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, distribuídas na área periférica e central do pomar, com duas repetições por rua amostrada. As etiquetas foram distribuídas entre a 5ª e 30ª plantas em 10 ruas, totalizando 20 armadilhas que foram renovadas no pomar, a cada trinta dias, durante o período de avaliação que foi entre junho de 2005 e setembro de 2006. As principais espécies de Cicadellinae capturadas foram Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, Dilobopterus costalimai Young e Macugonalia cavifrons Stal. Essas espécies apresentaram ocorrência constante e frequência de 3,97%, 4,2%, 13,0% respectivamente, em relação ao total de cigarrinhas coletadas.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is the disease caused by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa Wells. Dissemination occurs through insect vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, family Cicadellidae (subfamily Cicadellinae, which transmit the bacteria after feeding on infected plants. The objective of this study was to identify the species of insect vectors in an orchard in the municipality of Paranavaí, in the State of Paraná. The experiment was conducted in a commercial stand of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Pêra variety with 1,000 10-year-old plants. Monitoring was performed using yellow sticky traps, distributed in the central

  15. Comparison of green and variegated foliage plant species based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under different light intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare green and variegated foliage plants namely; Hedera helix, Ardisia pusilla and Scindapsus aureus were treated under three different light intensities (2, 10 and 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1) using florescent lights for three months, and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content were measured. IMAGING-PAM chlorophyll fluorescence system was used to determine photosynthetic characteristics. The results showed that Fv/Fm (maximal PS-II quantum yield) and Y (II) (effective PS-II quantum yield) values were lower in variegated species compared to those in green species at 2 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity. Although, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values in variegated S. aureus was lower than variegated H. helix, but variegated S. aureus survived and Hedera helix plants died after low light treatment. In contrast, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values were increased in green and variegated species with increasing the light intensity, except Fv/Fm value for variegated S. aureus which was slightly decreased at 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity. The ETR (electron transport rate) value was also lower in both green and variegated species at 2 micro mol-m-2-s-1 intensity. ETR values saturated in green and variegated plants with increasing the light intensity. Higher level of chlorophyll was obtained in green species compared to variegated species for both low and high light intensity treatments. Chlorophyll content in green species decreased at 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity, whereas in variegated species, chlorophyll content increased with increasing the light intensities. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that especially low light intensity created stress condition in variegated foliage plants compared to green plants, and affected the normal growth and development. (author)

  16. Locais e período de alimentação da cigarrinha vetora de Xylella fastidiosa, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, em mudas cítricas Feeding sites and food intake of Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, a sharpshooter vector of Xylella fastidiosa, on citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pedreira de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae é um importante vetor da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da clorose variegada dos citros. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar o local preferido de alimentação e o período de maior atividade alimentar desta cigarrinha em citros, no sentido de elucidar o comportamento alimentar relacionado à transmissão da bactéria. O local de alimentação foi estudado em ensaio de escolha, no qual 30 insetos adultos foram liberados em gaiolas de observação (n = 10 contendo uma muda de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. Após 1; 15; 21; 25; 39; 45 e 49 h da liberação, contaram-se os insetos na parte superior (ramos com brotações e inferior (haste principal, até H"40 cm de altura da muda. Nos ramos da parte superior, avaliou-se a preferência entre a haste, o pecíolo e o limbo foliar. Em um segundo ensaio, 20 machos e 20 fêmeas de B. xanthophis foram confinados individualmente sobre a haste de 'seedlings' de laranja-doce para determinar os períodos de alimentação, quantificando-se a excreção de 'honeydew' (medida indireta da ingestão em períodos sucessivos de dia e noite, durante 48 h. A maioria dos indivíduos de B. xanthophis preferiu a haste dos ramos novos (62%, na parte superior da muda cítrica (91%. Nos 'seedlings', observou-se maior volume de excreção e proporção de indivíduos excretando durante a fotofase, independentemente do sexo. Portanto, em estudos de transmissão de X. fastidiosa, deve-se considerar a preferência de B. xanthophis pela haste de brotações cítricas e sua maior atividade alimentar durante a fotofase.The sharpshooter Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis. This study aimed to identify the preferred feeding sites and periods of this vector on citrus, in order to improve our understanding of the

  17. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes relevant to variegation in peach flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingnan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss. Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. RESULTS: A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. CONCLUSION: In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation.

  18. Crude extracts of asteraceous weeds : Growth inhibitors for variegated cutworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, G S; Isman, M B

    1989-04-01

    Petrol and ethanolic extracts of six asteraceous weeds were added to artificial diets to screen for growth inhibition and mortality of the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Hbn). Petrol and ethanolic extracts ofArtemisia tridentata andChamomilla suaveolens and ethanolic extracts ofChrysothamnus nauseosus andCentaurea diffusa severely inhibited larval growth at five times the natural concentrations. The twoC. suaveolens extracts and the ethanol extract ofA. tridentata were active at the natural concentration (100%) and were further examined at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of this level. Inhibition of larval growth was directly related to concentration for each of the three extracts tested. EC50s (effective concentration to inhibit growth by 50% relative to controls) for the three extracts were 36-42% of the naturally occurring level in the plants. Nutritional indices were calculated for secondinstarP. saucia feeding on the activeA. tridentata EtOH extract and the petrol extract fromC. suaveolens. Addition of the activeA. tridentata EtOH or theC. suaveolens petrol extract to the diet resulted in significant reduction in the relative growth rate of larvae, although theA. tridentata extract was much more inhibitory. Dietary utilization was significantly lower for larvae fed theA. tridentata EtOH extract. PMID:24272019

  19. Complete genome sequence of bellflower vein chlorosis virus, a novel putative member of the genus Waikavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Ye-ji; Kim, Jaedeok; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Chang-Seok; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    The complete genome sequence of a new virus isolated from a bellflower (Campanula takesimana) plant was determined. The genome of this virus is composed of monopartite single-stranded RNA of 11,649 nucleotides in length. BLAST searches of protein databases showed that the encoded polyprotein has a maximum amino acid sequence identity of 42% (with 99% coverage) to the polyprotein of the isolate Orissa of rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV; genus Waikavirus). Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports that the identified virus is a member of a new species of the genus Waikavirus. The name bellflower vein chlorosis virus (BVCV) is proposed for this new virus. PMID:26370789

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy: a tool for predicting soil properties related to the incidence of Fe chlorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canasveras, J. C.; Barron, V.; Campillo, M. C. del; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    Chlorosis due to iron (Fe) deficiency (internervial yellowing) is the most important nutritional problem a susceptible plant can have in calcareous soils. Fe chlorosis is related with calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), clay content and Fe extracted with oxalate (Fe{sub o}). Reflectance spectroscopy (RS) is a rapid, non-destructive, less expensive alternative tool that can be used to enhance or replace conventional methods of soil analysis. The aim of this work was to assess the usefulness of RS for the determination of some properties of Mediterranean soils including clay content, CCE, Feo, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter (OM) and pH in water (pH{sub w}), with emphasis on those with a specially marked influence on the risk of Fe chlorosis. To this end, we used partial least-squares regression (PLS) to construct calibration models, leave-one-out cross-validation and an independent validation set. Our results testify to the usefulness of qualitative soil interpretations based on the variable importance for projection (VIP) as derived by PLS decomposition. The accuracy of predictions in each of the Vis-NIR, MIR and combined spectral regions differed considerably between properties. The R{sup 2}{sub a}dj and root mean square error (RMSE) for the external validation predictions were as follows: 0.83 and 37 mg kg{sup -}1 for clay content in the Vis-NIR-MIR range; 0.99 and 25 mg kg{sup -}1 for CCE, 0.80 and 0.1 mg kg{sup -}1 for Feo in the MIR range; 0.93 and 3 cmolc kg{sup -}1 for CEC in the Vis-NIR range; 0.87 and 2 mg kg{sup -}1 for OM in the Vis-NIR-MIR range, 0.61 and 0.2 for pH{sub w} in the MIR range. These results testify to the potential of RS in the Vis, NIR and MIR ranges for efficient soil analysis, the acquisition of soil information and the assessment of the risk of Fe chlorosis in soils. (Author) 36 refs.

  1. A novel feature of structural variegation in leaves of the tropical plant Schismatoglottis calyptrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Maryati

    2004-12-01

    We report a novel feature of leaf variegation. As is often the case in tropical forest floor herbs, Schismatoglottis calyptrata leaves feature structural variegation. Examination of leaf anatomy in S. calyptrata revealed a novel feature of structural variegation, which was generated by variation in the spatial arrangement of the adaxial-most tip of the palisade cells. In fully green leaf parts, contact between the adaxial-most tip of the palisade cells and the cone-shaped base of the outer epidermis cells was tight, and palisade cells were arranged radially around each epidermal cell. In dull, grayish-green leaf parts, the contact was loose, and no particular spatial arrangement of palisade cells relative to epidermal cells was observed. This feature of structural variation could be disadvantageous for photosynthesis efficiency in view of the hypothesis that, for rainforest herbs, cone-shaped epidermal cells may function as lenses. However, the high frequency of leaf variegation of S. calyptrata in natural habits suggests that this structural variegation plays an unknown advantageous role. PMID:15538654

  2. Clinical and genetic features of variegate porphyria in a Chinese patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Acute porphyria is rare in orientals. We describe a Chinese woman with recurrent generalised tonic-clonic seizures and abdominal pain. Genomic DNA studies identified a heterozygous base substitution from guanine to adenine at nucleotide position 503, resulting in substitution of arginine by histidine at position 168 of the protein (R168H). This genetic abnormality is similar to the mutation reported in Caucasians with variegate porphyria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature a Chinese patient with variegate porphyria with an identifiable mutation. A brief review of porphyria is presented.

  3. Evaluation sous serre de la tolérance à la salinité de quelques porte-greffes d'agrumes : Citrus aurantium et deux hybrides de Poncirus trifoliata (Poncirus x Citrus sinensis et Poncirus x Mandarinier sunki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus rootstocks response to salinity. To determine the effects of salinity on the intensity of chlorosis, growth and uptake of Na+ and Cl-, we grew three Citrus rootstocks (sour orange Citrus aurantium (C.a and two new hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata [P.t. x Citrus sinensis (PXC and P.t. x Mandarinier sunki (PXM] in nutrient solutions containing 0, 35 or 70 mM NaCl during 30 or 60 days. Foliar damages increase with time for all treatments and rootstocks. The intensity and the frequency of the chlorosis caused after 30 days of saline stress reveal the sensitivity of PXC and the tolerance of PXM. Moreover, if apical growth of the C.a is not affected by 35 mM NaCl, it is stimulated on the other hand for PXM and is inhibited for PXC. The concentration 70 mM NaCl affects the vigour of rootstocks more severely and shows the tolerance of PXM and the sensitivity of PXC. The biomass decreases with time for all treatments and rootstocks. However, it appears that the concentration 35 mM NaCl is insufficient for the discrimination between rootstocks against salt stress. But, at 70 mM NaCl, the reduction of the biomass confirms the sensitivity of PXC and proves the tolerance of PXM. Furthermore, the content of leaves in Cl- and Na+ is affected meaningfully by salinity, time of stress and rootstocks (PXM appears to be efficient excluding of Cl-. Contents in Na+ and Cl- are correlated with foliar toxicity symptoms. This content is also correlated with biomass reduction of PXC. Therefore, in addition to inhibitory effects of high concentrations of Cl- and Na+, an imbalance of essential nutrients may also contribute to the reduction in growth of this rootstocks under saline conditions.

  4. Mosaic variegated aneuploidy with microcephaly: A rare cytogenetic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meck, J.M.; Kozma, C.; Stratakis, C. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The term {open_quotes}mosaic variegated aneuploidy with microcephaly{close_quotes} describes the finding of a variety of chromosomal aneuploidies within the same individual. This mutation affecting mitotic segregation has been reported previously in only 7 persons. We report here on male and female siblings with this condition. Proband 1 died at 57 days of age; proband 2 is 7 months old. Amniocentesis performed on the first sibling only revealed multiple aneuploidies (+2, +6, +X, tetrasomy 2, double trisomy X and 11, and deletion Xq); the majority of cells were normal and the abnormal cells did not constitute true mosaicism. Postnatally, blood on proband 1 had 20/50 cells (40%) with +18, single cells with +10 and +20, and 28/50 normal cells (56%). This was initially interpreted as trisomy 18 mosaicism not detected in amniocytes. Blood from proband 2 showed the following; after 48 hrs in culture, 4/50 trisomic cells (+3, +6, +18, XXY); after 72 hrs 3/50 trisomic cells (+5, +6, +18); after 96 hrs, 7/50 aneuploid cells (+2, +8, +9, +10, +18, double trisomy 11 and 18, tetrasomy 2 with +18). Skin biopsy on proband 2 revealed trisomy 2 in 5/140 cells (4%), one cell each +18 and +19, on cell tetrasomy 2, one cell XXY and +5; 131 cells (94%) were normal. Paternal skin fibroblasts had trisomy 6 in 2/100 cells and 1 cell trisomy 5; the remainder were normal. One trisomic cell (+18) in 100 was found in maternal skin fibroblasts. Trisomy 18 was the most common aneuploidy in the probands` blood. Aneuploidy for chromosomes 2 and X were more common in amniocytes and skin. No trisomies of chromosomes 1, 4, 12-17, 22 or Y were observed; acrocentrics rarely malsegregated. These findings are consistent with those of the other 7 reported patients, and constitute a distinct syndrome of multiple chromosomal aneuploidies associated with microcephaly. Although rare, cytogeneticists and clinical geneticists should be aware of this mitotic mutant.

  5. The Vacuolar Manganese Transporter MTP8 Determines Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Seckin; Meier, Bastian; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder on calcareous soils. To identify genes involved in the Fe deficiency response, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion lines were screened on a high-pH medium with low Fe availability. This approach identified METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN8 (MTP8), a member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator family, as a critical determinant for the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, also on soil substrate. Subcellular localization to the tonoplast, complementation of a manganese (Mn)-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, and Mn sensitivity of mtp8 knockout mutants characterized the protein as a vacuolar Mn transporter suitable to prevent plant cells from Mn toxicity. MTP8 expression was strongly induced on low-Fe as well as high-Mn medium, which were both strictly dependent on the transcription factor FIT, indicating that high-Mn stress induces Fe deficiency. mtp8 mutants were only hypersensitive to Fe deficiency when Mn was present in the medium, which further suggested an Mn-specific role of MTP8 during Fe limitation. Under those conditions, mtp8 mutants not only translocated more Mn to the shoot than did wild-type plants but suffered in particular from critically low Fe concentrations and, hence, Fe chlorosis, although the transcriptional Fe deficiency response was up-regulated more strongly in mtp8. The diminished uptake of Fe from Mn-containing low-Fe medium by mtp8 mutants was caused by an impaired ability to boost the ferric chelate reductase activity, which is an essential process in Fe acquisition. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-known interference of Mn in Fe nutrition and define the molecular processes by which plants alleviate this antagonism. PMID:26668333

  6. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  7. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD29 Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening... published an interim rule \\1\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048) that....usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml and on Regulations.gov (see footnote 1...

  8. Genetic and biochemical studies in Argentinean patients with variegate porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giudice Jimena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A partial deficiency in Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX produces the mixed disorder Variegate Porphyria (VP, the second acute porphyria more frequent in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt VP is absolutely important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. Methods We have studied at molecular level 18 new Argentinean patients biochemically diagnosed as VP. PPOX gene was amplified in one or in twelve PCR reactions. All coding exons, flanking intronic and promoter regions were manual or automatically sequenced. For RT-PCR studies RNA was retrotranscripted, amplified and sequenced. PPOX activity in those families carrying a new and uncharacterized mutation was performed. Results All affected individuals harboured mutations in heterozygous state. Nine novel mutations and 3 already reported mutations were identified. Six of the novel mutations were single nucleotide substitutions, 2 were small deletions and one a small insertion. Three single nucleotide substitutions and the insertion were at exon-intron boundaries. Two of the single nucleotide substitutions, c.471G>A and c.807G>A and the insertion (c.388+3insT were close to the splice donor sites in exons 5, 7 and intron 4 respectively. The other single nucleotide substitution was a transversion in the last base of intron 7, g.3912G>C (c.808-1G>C so altering the consensus acceptor splice site. However, only in the first case the abnormal band showing the skipping of exon 5 was detected. The other single nucleotide substitutions were transversions: c.101A>T, c.995G>C and c.670 T>G that result in p.E34V, p.G332A and W224G aminoacid substitutions in exons 3, 10 and 7 respectively. Activity measurements indicate that these mutations reduced about 50% PPOX activity and also that they co-segregate with this reduced activity value. Two

  9. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  10. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  11. VARIEGATED WILD MEDICINAL PLANT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS (ACANTHACEAE) RECORDED IN KONDAPALLI, KRISHNA DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; Dwarakan, P.; Ramachandran, V S

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary survey of medicinal plants conducted surrounding forest region of Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, among these abnormality of wild variegated Andrographis paniculata medicinal plant and its details are reported in this paper.

  12. Effectiveness of mixtures of vivianite and organic materials in preventing iron chlorosis in strawberry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, A. de; Carmona, E.; Quintero, J. M.; Delgado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Application of Fe salts with different organic matter sources has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis. The main objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of different Fe sources based on mixtures of humic substances or compost with vivianite in preventing this nutritional disorder in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv Camarosa). To this end, a randomised block experiment involving four replications (3 plants per replication) and one factor (Fe source) was performed in a greenhouse using a calcareous growing medium. Iron sources studied were: (i) control without Fe, (ii) control with an effective Fe source in calcareous media (EDDHA-Fe, 0.1 g kg{sup -}1), (iii) vivianite (1 g kg{sup -}1 medium, which is the recommended rate), (iv) vivianite (1 g kg{sup -}1) + humic substances (HS 0.06 g kg{sup -}1), (v) vivianite (0.5 g kg{sup -}1) + HS (0.06 g kg{sup -}1) and (vi) a mixture of composted cork residue and vivianite at a 6:1 mass ratio (CORVIV) applied at a dose of 6 g kg-1 medium. All Fe sources were effective in increasing SPAD readings when compared with control without Fe. Treatments based on vivianite provided non-significantly different SPAD readings from that obtained with EDDHA-Fe. However, only CORVIV showed non-significantly different dry matter (DM) production, leaf area index, and total Fe content in the aerial part than EDDHA-Fe. Humic substances and vivianite at 1 g kg{sup -}1 increased DM yield in plants when compared with vivianite without HS, results with this last treatment being similar to those obtained with vivianite at 0.5 g kg–1 with HS. It can be concluded that studied sources of organic matter increased the efficiency of vivianite in preventing Fe chlorosis in strawberry, especially vivianite enriched cork compost which was as effective as EDDHA-Fe. (Author) 50 refs.

  13. Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

  14. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tami Turner; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

  15. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  16. Variegatusides: New Non-Sulphated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Hua Wang; Zheng-Rong Zou; Yang-Hua Yi; Hua Han; Ling Li; Min-Xiang Pan

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, variegatusides C–F (1–4), together with three structurally known triterpene glycosides, variegatusides A and B (5, 6), and holothurin B (7), were isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper (Holothuriidae), collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS)) and chemical evidence. Variegatusides C–F...

  17. Functional Characterization of Five Protoporphyrinogen oxidase Missense Mutations Found in Argentinean Variegate Porphyria Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, Manuel; Granata, Barbara X.; Jiménez, María J. Morán; Parera, Victoria E.; Batlle, Alcira; De Salamanca, Rafael Enríquez; Rossetti, María V.

    2011-01-01

    A partial deficiency in protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) produces the acute/cutaneous (or mixed) variegate porphyria (VP), the third most frequent porphyria in Argentina. This autosomal dominant disorder is clinically characterized by skin lesions and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The precise diagnosis of patients with a symptomatic VP is essential to provide accurate treatment. It is also critical to identify asymptomatic relatives to avoid precipitating factors and prevent acute attacks.

  18. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Conceição Maciel; Ricardo Ferreira da Silva; Marcelo Silva Reis; Adriana Salomão Jadão; Daniel Dias Rosa; José Segundo Giampan; Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Luis Eduardo Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorot...

  19. Multilocus Simple Sequence Repeat Markers for Differentiating Strains and Evaluating Genetic Diversity of Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hong; Civerolo, Edwin L; Hu, Rong; Barros, Samuel; Francis, Marta; Walker, M Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A genome-wide search was performed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci among the available sequence databases from four strains of Xylella fastidiosa (strains causing Pierce's disease, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond leaf scorch, and oleander leaf scorch). Thirty-four SSR loci were selected for SSR primer design and were validated in PCR experiments. These multilocus SSR primers, distributed across the X. fastidiosa genome, clearly differentiated and clustered X. fastidiosa stra...

  20. Genética de Coffea. XVIII - Variegação no cafeeiro Leaf variegation in coffee plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available A variegação das fôlhas do cafeeiro tanto em plantas novas como em plantas adultas tem sido freqüentemente observada. Plantas variegadas podem ocorrer espontaneamente nas progénies das diversas variedades de Coffea arabica L., motivo porque não devem constituir variedade distinta dessa espécie, como foi proposto por Cramer. As plantas variegadas em estudo puderam ser agrupadas em duas categorias, isto é, aquelas em que a variegação não se acha associada com anomalias na forma e textura das folhas e aquelas nas quais a variegação é acompanhada dessas anomalias. No primeiro grupo o padrão de variegação não é uniforme para tôdas as fôlhas, enquanto no segundo grupo o padrão é semelhante para tôda a planta. Usualmente apenas alguns ramos das plantas do primeiro grupo são variegados. Observou-se algumas vezes que as duas fôlhas do mesmo verticilo têm padrões semelhantes de variegação. Encontraram-se também fôlhas variegadas nas quais a metade da lâmina é variegada ou mesmo albina, enquanto a outra metade apresenta a côr verde normal. Os dados genéticos obtidos, embora preliminares para a maioria das plantas variegadas em investigação, permitiram concluir que o padrão de variegação da planta 180, pertencente ao primeiro grupo, é herdado pelo citoplasma e não é transmitido pelo pólen. O padrão de variegação da planta 253-21, pertencente ao segundo grupo, no entanto, parece ser transmitido pelo polen.Leaf variegation in coffee plants is a relatively common abnormality, and variegated seedlings have been found to occur spontaneously in progenies of most varieties of Coffea arabica L. For this reason it is thought that variegated types should not be described as distinct varieties, as it was done before by Cramer. Variegated coffee plants can be grouped in two categories : first, those in which variegated leaves are normal in shape and texture, but do not show a uniform variegation pattern; and second, those

  1. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  2. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  3. Microarray analysis of iron deficiency chlorosis in near-isogenic soybean lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianzio Silvia R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is one of fourteen mineral elements required for proper plant growth and development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.. Soybeans grown on calcareous soils, which are prevalent in the upper Midwest of the United States, often exhibit symptoms indicative of iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC. Yield loss has a positive linear correlation with increasing severity of chlorotic symptoms. As soybean is an important agronomic crop, it is essential to understand the genetics and physiology of traits affecting plant yield. Soybean cultivars vary greatly in their ability to respond successfully to iron deficiency stress. Microarray analyses permit the identification of genes and physiological processes involved in soybean's response to iron stress. Results RNA isolated from the roots of two near isogenic lines, which differ in iron efficiency, PI 548533 (Clark; iron efficient and PI 547430 (IsoClark; iron inefficient, were compared on a spotted microarray slide containing 9,728 cDNAs from root specific EST libraries. A comparison of RNA transcripts isolated from plants grown under iron limiting hydroponic conditions for two weeks revealed 43 genes as differentially expressed. A single linkage clustering analysis of these 43 genes showed 57% of them possessed high sequence similarity to known stress induced genes. A control experiment comparing plants grown under adequate iron hydroponic conditions showed no differences in gene expression between the two near isogenic lines. Expression levels of a subset of the differentially expressed genes were also compared by real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. The RT-PCR experiments confirmed differential expression between the iron efficient and iron inefficient plants for 9 of 10 randomly chosen genes examined. To gain further insight into the iron physiological status of the plants, the root iron reductase activity was measured in both iron efficient and inefficient genotypes for plants

  4. Fine mapping of Hch1, the causal D-genome gene for hybrid chlorosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kana; Nishijima, Ryo; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-03-23

    Hybrid chlorosis, one of the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat and its D-genome progenitor, Aegilops tauschii, inhibits normal growth of synthetic wheat hexaploids. Hybrid chlorosis appears to be due to an epistatic interaction of two loci from the AB and D wheat genomes. Our previous study assigned the causal D-genome gene for hybrid chlorosis, Hch1, to the short arm of chromosome 7D. Here, we constructed a fine map of 7DS near Hch1 using 280 F2 individuals from a cross of two wheat synthetic lines, one showing normal growth and the other showing hybrid chlorosis. The hybrid chlorosis phenotype was controlled by a single dominant allele of the Hch1 locus in the synthetic hexaploids. Hch1 was closely linked to four new markers within 0.2 cM, and may be localized near or within the two Ae. tauschii scaffolds containing the linked markers on 7DS. Comparative analysis of the Hch1 chromosomal region for Ae. tauschii, barley and Brachypodium showed that a local inversion occurred in the region proximal to Hch1 during the divergence between barley and Ae. tauschii, and that the Hch1 region on wheat 7DS is syntenic to Brachypodium chromosome 1. These observations provide useful information for further studies toward map-based cloning of Hch1. PMID:26687862

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  6. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  7. Modifiers of terminal deficiency-associated position effect variegation in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Kathryn M.; Lui, Amy; Karpen, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    Terminal deletions of a Drosophila minichromosome (Dp(1;f)1187) dramatically increase the position effect variegation (PEV) of a yellow(+) body-color gene located in cis. Such terminal deficiency-associated PEV (TDA-PEV) can be suppressed by the presence of a second minichromosome, a phenomenon termed "trans-suppression." We performed a screen for mutations that modify TDA-PEV and trans-suppression. Seventy suppressors and enhancers of TDA-PEV were identified, but no modifiers of trans-suppre...

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mallick; Rafeeq Alam Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypo...

  9. Variegatusides: New Non-Sulphated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new triterpene glycosides, variegatusides C–F (1–4, together with three structurally known triterpene glycosides, variegatusides A and B (5, 6, and holothurin B (7, were isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper (Holothuriidae, collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS and chemical evidence. Variegatusides C–F exhibit the same structural feature consisting of the presence of a 23-hydroxyl group at the holostane-type triterpene aglycone side chain. Variegatuside C (1 has a double bond (24, 25 in this same chain, while variegatuside D (2 exhibits a 8(9-ene bond in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone, which has not been extracted from other sea cucumber species. Compound 4 is a native compound from the sea cucumber S. variegates Semper, which has been reported to be desacetylstichloroside B1. Except for holothurin B, these glycosides have no sulfate group in their sugar chain and show potent antifungal activities in vitro biotests.

  10. P-Element repression in Drosophila melanogaster by variegating clusters of P-lacZ-white transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsseray, S; Boivin, A; Anxolabéhère, D

    2001-12-01

    In Drosophila, clusters of P transgenes (P-lac-w) display a variegating phenotype for the w marker. In addition, X-ray-induced rearrangements of chromosomes bearing such clusters may lead to enhancement of the variegated phenotype. Since P-lacZ transgenes in subtelomeric heterochromatin have some P-element repression abilities, we tested whether P-lac-w clusters also have the capacity to repress P-element activity in the germline. One cluster (T-1), located on a rearranged chromosome (T2;3) and derived from a line bearing a variegating tandem array of seven P-lac-w elements, partially represses the dysgenic sterility (GD sterility) induced by P elements. This cluster also strongly represses in trans the expression of P-lacZ elements in the germline. This latter suppression shows a maternal effect. Finally, the combination of variegating P-lac-w clusters and a single P-lacZ reporter inserted in subtelomeric heterochromatic sequences at the X chromosome telomere (cytological site 1A) leads to strong repression of dysgenic sterility. These results show that repression of P-induced dysgenic sterility can be elicited in the absence of P elements encoding a polypeptide repressor and that a transgene cluster can repress the expression of a single homologous transgene at a nonallelic position. Implications for models of transposable element silencing are discussed. PMID:11779802

  11. Citrus Canker and Citrus Huanglongbing, Two Exotic Bacterial Diseases Threatening the Citrus Industries of the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic Asian bacterial diseases of citrus are currently plaguing citrus industries in the Western Hemisphere. The two largest citrus producing areas in the Americas, located in Florida and the state of São Paulo Brazil, are presently battling these devastating diseases. The presence of these d...

  12. CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

  13. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  14. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, William O.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Satyanarayana eTatineni; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Scott J Harper; S eGowda

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  15. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional br...

  16. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  17. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  18. Stomatal Responses to Light and Drought Stress in Variegated Leaves of Hedera helix1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphalo, Pedro J.; Sánchez, Rodolfo A.

    1986-01-01

    Direct and indirect mechanisms underlying the light response of stomata were studied in variegated leaves of the juvenile phase of Hedera helix L. Dose response curves of leaf conductance were measured with blue and red light in leaves kept in normal or in an inverted position. In the green portions of the leaves, the sensitivity to blue light was nearly 100 times higher than that to red light. No response to red light was observed in the white portions of the leaves up to 90 micromoles per square meter per second. Red light indirectly affected leaf conductance while blue light had a direct effect. Leaf conductance was found to be more sensitive to drought stress and showed a more persistent aftereffect in the white portions of the leaves. A differential effect of drought stress on the responses to blue and red light was also observed. PMID:16664900

  19. Position-effect variegation revisited: HUSHing up heterochromatin in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Richard T; Tchasovnikarova, Iva A; Lehner, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Much of what we understand about heterochromatin formation in mammals has been extrapolated from forward genetic screens for modifiers of position-effect variegation (PEV) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The recent identification of the HUSH (Human Silencing Hub) complex suggests that more recent evolutionary developments contribute to the mechanisms underlying PEV in human cells. Although HUSH-mediated repression also involves heterochromatin spreading through the reading and writing of the repressive H3K9me3 histone modification, clear orthologues of HUSH subunits are not found in Drosophila but are conserved in vertebrates. Here we compare the insights into the mechanisms of PEV derived from genetic screens in the fly, the mouse and in human cells, review what is currently known about the HUSH complex and discuss the implications of HUSH-mediated silencing for viral latency. Future studies will provide mechanistic insight into HUSH complex function and reveal the relationship between HUSH and other epigenetic silencing complexes. PMID:26853531

  20. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  1. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior and during its 1982–1983 surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gagliardini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-year dataset, consisting in surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wave length changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodical changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. It confirms that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to infer realistic scenarios for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  2. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I.; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E.; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial an...

  3. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  4. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplasttargeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Holm, A.; Jenkins, T.; Nielsen, H.B.; Harris, C.A.; Beale, M.H.; Andersen, M.; Mant, A.; Scheller, H.; Camara, B.; Mattsson, O.; Mundy, J.

    2004-01-01

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3 pro...... pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development....... protein containing novel repeats and zinc fingers described as protein interaction domains. VAR3 interacts specifically in yeast and in vitro with NCED4, a putative polyene chain or carotenoid dioxygenase, and both VAR3 and NCED4 accumulate in the chloroplast stroma. Metabolic profiling demonstrates that...

  5. Induction of mutations in dendrathema grandiflora using gamma rays and ethyl methanesulfonate. 1. Characterization of a variegated (EV1) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and chemical compounds have been utilized to induce mutations. In the case of chrysanthemum, the incorporation of genes or the conventional induction of mutations are practical strategies to obtain new varieties. Leaf segments of D. grandiflora were exposed to gamma rays (1 to 3 kr) and to a 0.2 % v/v solution of EMS (30 to 120 min). A variegated mutant (EV1) was selected for further study. Its ability to induce shoots from leaf explants dropped from 100 % (wild type) to 26 % and the mean number of shoots per explant from 3 (wild type) to 1.25. The variegated phenotype was observed in 100 %, 50 % and 0 % of the regenerated plantlets from axillary shoots, stem segments and leaf segments of the mutant respectively. It is important indicate that using wild type stem tissue we were able to obtain up to 15 plantlets per explant compared to 4 obtained with leaf tissue

  6. Analysis of biochemical compounds and differentially expressed genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in variegated peach flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, D; Liu, H L; Chen, Y N; Wan, Z B; Zhuge, Q; Li, S X

    2015-01-01

    Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market, yet the genetic mechanism underlying this attractive phenomenon has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we identified and measured different compounds in pink and white flower petals of peach (Prunus persica) by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. No cyanidin-based or pelargonidin-based compounds were detected in white petals, but high levels of these compounds were found in pink petals. Additionally, we sequenced and analyzed the expression of six key structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (CHI, CHS, DFR, F3'H, ANS, and UFGT) in both white and pink petals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed all six genes to be expressed at greatly reduced levels in white flower petals, relative to pink. No allelic variations were found in the transcribed sequences. However, alignment of transcribed and genomic sequences of the ANS gene detected alternative splicing, resulting in transcripts of 1.071 and 942 bp. Only the longer transcript was observed in white flower petals. Since ANS is the key intermediate enzyme catalyzing the colorless leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin to substrates required for completion of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the ANS gene is implicated in flower color variegation and should be explored in future studies. This article, together with a previous transcriptome study, elucidates the mechanism underlying peach flower color variegation in terms of the key structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:26535657

  7. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella spp., Into the Continental United States AGENCY.... australis. \\2\\...

  8. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... 22, 2007 and effective on March 16, 2007 (72 FR 13423-13428, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0032) that....aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml . We believe that the procedures set... effective on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34322-34336, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0015).\\4\\ Several commenters on...

  9. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 305 RIN 0579-AC85 Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... African citrus psyllid is not present in the United States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  10. Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

  11. Genome-wide association studies identifies seven major regions responsible for iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Mamidi

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC is a yield limiting problem in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr production regions with calcareous soils. Genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed using a high density SNP map to discover significant markers, QTL and candidate genes associated with IDC trait variation. A stepwise regression model included eight markers after considering LD between markers, and identified seven major effect QTL on seven chromosomes. Twelve candidate genes known to be associated with iron metabolism mapped near these QTL supporting the polygenic nature of IDC. A non-synonymous substitution with the highest significance in a major QTL region suggests soybean orthologs of FRE1 on Gm03 is a major gene responsible for trait variation. NAS3, a gene that encodes the enzyme nicotianamine synthase which synthesizes the iron chelator nicotianamine also maps to the same QTL region. Disease resistant genes also map to the major QTL, supporting the hypothesis that pathogens compete with the plant for Fe and increase iron deficiency. The markers and the allelic combinations identified here can be further used for marker assisted selection.

  12. Peach latent mosaic viroid variants inducing peach calico (extreme chlorosis) contain a characteristic insertion that is responsible for this symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) in an extensive chlorosis of peach known as calico (PC) has been advanced but ultimate proof is lacking. Sequencing of 16 full-length PLMVd cDNA clones of a PC isolate revealed two groups of variants. Nine had a size (336-338 nt) similar to that of typical PLMVd variants of nonsymptomatic and mosaic-inducing isolates, whereas the other 7 were longer (348-351 nt) due to an insertion of 12-13 nt. This insertion was always found in the hairpin loop capping the hammerhead arm, had a limited sequence variability, and folded itself into a hairpin. When three PLMVd dimeric transcripts, two with and the other without the insertion, were slash-inoculated on GF-305 peach seedlings, PC symptoms were produced exclusively by the RNAs containing the insertion, which was conserved in the progeny. These data demonstrate that the agent of PC is PLMVd. Direct support that the 12- to 13-nt insertion contains the PC pathogenicity determinant was obtained by its removal through site-directed mutagenesis from one of the PC-inducing variants. Inoculations with dimeric transcripts of the resulting variant showed that it could replicate but without eliciting symptoms. Our results also suggest that the insertion emerges sporadically de novo

  13. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  14. Recent advances in Citrus psorosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Achachi, Asmae; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Ibriz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Psorosis is a globally devastating disease of citrus caused by an infectious filamentous ophiovirus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which causes annual losses of about 5 % and a progressive decline of trees by affecting the conductive tissues. The disease can be harboured asymptomatically in many citrus species. In the field, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease in adult trees are bark scaling in the trunk and main branches and also internal staining in the underlying wood. The viru...

  15. Antimicrobial Compounds to Combat Citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with the fastidious bacterium,Candidatus Liberibacter, (Las) that is transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect (Citrus Psyllid). An ideal solution to combat citrus HLB is to completely eliminate the bacteria after a single course of the chemotherapy, either active directly on the bacteria or indirectly through induction of host defense compounds. Twenty-seven antimicrobial compounds were screened to test for in vivo activities against HLB bacterium while ...

  16. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Cercos Manuel; Talon Manuel; Soler Guillermo; Terol Javier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrat...

  17. Herbicide-induced experimental variegate porphyria in mice: tissue porphyrinogen accumulation and response to porphyrogenic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijt, J; Stranska, P; Maruna, P; Vokurka, M; Sanitrak, J

    1997-01-01

    Administration of oxadiazon or oxyfluorfen (1000 ppm in the diet) to male BALB/c mice for 9 days resulted in experimental porphyria, resembling the acute phase of human variegate porphyria. Urinary concentrations of 5-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen reached 1500 and 3000 mumol/L, respectively. Both herbicides caused a decrease of protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity in liver and kidney. Brain protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity was not altered. Liver and kidney porphyrin content increased to 11 and 17 nmol/g, respectively (control mice, 2 nmol/g). Over 50% of liver and kidney porphyrins were in the reduced (porphyrinogen) form. Bile of oxadiazon-treated mice contained 700 nmol/mL of protoporphyrinogen (control mice, 15 nmol/mL). Porphyrin content of the trigeminal nerve increased from 1 nmol/g in control animals to 11 nmol/g in oxadiazon-treated animals, suggesting a possible contribution of peripheral nerve porphyrins to porphyric neuropathy. Mice treated with 125 ppm of oxadiazon in the diet for 9 days excreted moderately elevated levels of porphobilinogen in urine (control mice, less than 50 mumol/L; treated mice, 330 mumol/L). Administration of phenobarbital or phenytoin (single injections on days 7, 8, and 9) increased the urinary porphobilinogen concentration to 3500 mumol/L. This response to porphyrogenic drugs resembles the response observed in human acute porphyrias. PMID:9431441

  18. Biparental inheritance of plastidial and mitochondrial DNA and hybrid variegation in Pelargonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihe, Andreas; Apitz, Janina; Pohlheim, Frank; Salinas-Hartwig, Annabel; Börner, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Plastidial (pt) and mitochondrial (mt) genes usually show maternal inheritance. Non-Mendelian, biparental inheritance of plastids was first described by Baur (Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 1:330-351, 1909) for crosses between Pelargonium cultivars. We have analyzed the inheritance of pt and mtDNA by examining the progeny from reciprocal crosses of Pelargonium zonale and P. inquinans using nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of selected pt and mt genes. Sequence analysis of the progeny revealed biparental inheritance of both pt and mtDNA. Hybrid plants exhibited variegation: our data demonstrate that the inquinans chloroplasts, but not the zonale chloroplasts bleach out, presumably due to incompatibility of the former with the hybrid nuclear genome. Different distribution of maternal and paternal sequences could be observed in different sectors of the same leaf, in different leaves of the same plant, and in different plants indicating random segregation and sorting-out of maternal and paternal plastids and mitochondria in the hybrids. The substantial transmission of both maternal and paternal mitochondria to the progeny turns Pelargonium into a particular interesting subject for studies on the inheritance, segregation and recombination of mt genes. PMID:19787375

  19. Comparison of Photoacoustic Signals in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Leaf Tissues of Variegated Pelargonium zonale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljović-Jovanović, S.; Vidović, M.; Morina, F.; Prokić, Lj.; Todorović, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    Green-white variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale were studied using the photoacoustic method. Our aim was to characterize photosynthetically active green tissue and nonphotosynthetically active white tissue by the photoacoustic amplitude signals. We observed lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature in white tissue than in green tissue. Besides these thermal differences, significantly higher absorbance in green tissue was based on chlorophyll and carotenoids which were absent in white tissue. However, optical properties of epidermal layers of both tissues were equal. The photoacoustic amplitude of white tissue was over four times higher compared to green tissue, which was correlated with lower stomatal conductance. In addition, at frequencies >700 Hz, the significant differences between the photoacoustic signals of green and white tissue were obtained. We identified the photoacoustic signal deriving from photosynthetic oxygen evolution in green tissue, using high intensity of red light modulated at 10 Hz. Moreover, the photoacoustic amplitude of green tissue increased progressively with time which corresponded to the period of induction of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. For the first time, very high frequencies (1 kHz to 5 kHz) were applied on leaf material.

  20. [Solarium-induced pseudoporphyria and variegate porphyria as rare differential diagnoses of porphyria cutanea tarda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochs, C; Mühlenstädt, E; Neumann, N J; Hanneken, S

    2009-10-01

    Three patients presented with typical porphyria cutanea tarda-like vesicles, erosions and scars as well as increased fragility, primarily on the back of the hands. In two of the three, porphyrin workup was normal. Skin biopsy was compatible with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or pseudoporphyria. The common aspect in the patients' history was the frequent use of solaria for many years, so that UV-induced pseudoporphyria was diagnosed. Treatment was strict abstention from UV radiation and regular dermatologic controls for signs of skin damage. Porphyrin analysis in the third patient showed normal excretion of total urine porphyrins and precursors; however, fecal porphyrins were elevated with dominating coproporphyrins in HPLC and the plasma fluorescence scan yielded a peak at 625 nm. Subsequent mutation analysis showed a mutation in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene, thereby confirming the diagnosis of variegate porphyria. Five months after the initial diagnosis the patient presented with the first acute attack. Further investigations revealed a metastasized carcinoma of the colon, which probably triggered the acute attack. Our cases show rare differential diagnoses in patients presenting with typical PCT-like skin lesions. The discrimination between porphyria cutanea tarda and its differential diagnoses is very important since it has an important impact not only on the treatment modality but also on the course and the prognosis of the disease. PMID:19756434

  1. Mosaic variegated aneuploidy associated with a dysmorphic syndrome and mental handicap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, L.; Babu, A.; Willner, J. [Sount Sinai Sachool of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 41-year-old woman was evaluated for dysmorphic features and mental handicap. Prior karyotyping had revealed 7% mosaicism for trisomy 18 in skin fibroblasts with normal blood chromosomes. Clinical features consisted of short stature, mild mental retardation, sensorineural deafness and the following dysmorphic features: short, broad neck, low posterior hairline, small palpebral fissures with iris coloboma on the right, epicanthic folds, small mouth, high palate and prominent mandible, short metacarpals and digits, particularly the fifth, with bilateral simian creases. Medical problems included non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, oligomenorrhea and recent onset of diabetic neuropathy and retinal exudates. Head size and brain MRI were within normal limits. Peripheral blood chromosomes revealed: 46,XX (45 cells), 46,XX,t(7;16)(q21;q21) in 1 cell, 45,X (1 cell), 48,XXXX (1 cell), 47,XX,+mar (1 cell), 48,XX,+mar,+mar (1 cell). Skin fibroblasts revealed the following karyotypes: 46,XX (25 cells), 45,X (14 cells), 47,XX,+2 (10 cells) and 47,X,+2,+7 (1 cell). Previously reported cases of mosaic variegated aneuploidy include microcephaly as a prominent feature. Chromosomes involved in the abnormality are variable. Clinical presentations in such patients are not consistent and do not appear to correlate with specific chromosome defects. This patient represents an interesting example of probable mitotic instability disrupting normal developmental processes.

  2. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  4. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  5. Delineation of 134Cs uptake pathways (seawater and food) in the variegated scallop Mimachlamys varia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among bivalves, scallops have been shown to be good bioindicator species for radionuclide monitoring. The present paper looked at the Cs bioaccumulation capacities of the variegated scallop Mimachlamys varia exposed separately via seawater and food under laboratory conditions. Results were compared with data previously obtained for the king scallop Pecten maximus, the only Pectinid species for which Cs accumulation has been studied in laboratory. Results indicated that M. varia has higher uptake capacity (CF: 1.86 ± 0.08) but lower absorption efficiency (A0l: 33 ± 5%) than P. maximus when exposed to waterborne Cs (CF of P. maximus: 0.94 ± 0.05 and A0l: 45 ± 3%). When scallops were fed radiolabeled phytoplankton, the assimilation efficiency of Cs was similar for the two species (AE: 24 ± 3% for M. varia and 28 ± 4% for P. maximus). Interspecific differences in terms of accumulation and retention, can be explained by physiological factors (including size of individuals) and/or difference in storage mechanisms. Indeed, organotropism differed between the two scallop species, suggesting the occurrence of specific redistribution mechanisms towards the tissues involved in Cs storage, excretion and detoxification. Finally, the present study examined the relative contribution of the different exposure pathways (seawater and food) to global 134Cs bioaccumulation for M. varia. Results showed that food constitutes the main accumulation pathway, contributing for 77% of the global 134Cs bioaccumulation. - Highlights: • Mimachlamys varia is highly concentrating 134Cs and efficiently retain it. • Food is the major uptake pathway of Cs in M. varia. • Within the pectinid family, interspecific differences exist for Cs bioaccumulation capacities

  6. Comparative Studies of Various Phytonutrients in Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current piece of research was undertaken to investigate the phytochemicals constituents such as carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, anthraquinone, glycosides, Saponin, glycosides, steroid, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phlobotannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, etc in the species of citrus genus (Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulate Blanco, Citrus aurantium L. All these plants were collected locally. Qualitative analysis of these phytochemicals was performed. All three types of citrus are rich with phytochemicals. Quantitative screenings is in progress in our lab.

  7. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  8. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless

  9. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  10. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  11. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

  12. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg...

  13. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the p...

  14. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  15. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa), and Pomelo (Citrus maxima) Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert Adrianto; Subagyo Yotopranoto; Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, ...

  16. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  17. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  18. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  20. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insectici...

  1. Mutations in CG8878, a novel putative protein kinase, enhance P element dependent silencing (PDS and position effect variegation (PEV in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen McCracken

    Full Text Available Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white+ transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w+ silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var205 and Su(var3-7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1 that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white+ in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1, phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV at w(m4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two.

  2. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  3. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  4. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  5. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  6. California Dreaming: The New Dynamism in Immigration Federalism and Opportunities for Inclusion on a Variegated Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Suro

    2015-01-01

    assume powers on immigration matters. In some cases they have mitigated the punitive effects of being unauthorized under federal rules and have created pathways of civic inclusion for immigrants who otherwise suffer isolation from the body politic. Taking the opposite approach, other jurisdictions have adopted enforcement regimes meant to heighten the impact of federal exclusion. In effect, Washington still exercises exclusive power to determine an individual’s immigration status, but many state and local governments have enacted policies that define the practical consequences of that status. The paper concludes by positing the likelihood of heightened differentiation on immigration policy on a state and local basis, particularly if Washington remains unable to enact a new policy regime in this area. Instead of a single, dominant federal policy, many state and local jurisdictions will create policies that condition the immigrant experience sufficiently to influence the size and content of migration flows. Across a highly variegated landscape of immigration policies, some places will be welcoming while others will be inhospitable, even hostile, to newcomers. This new dynamism in immigration federalism and the resulting variety of outcomes are products of large, deeply rooted trends in American society that are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future. 

  7. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior to and during its 1982–1983 surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jay-Allemand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-yr dataset, consisting of surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior to and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundsson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wavelength changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodic changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. Our results support that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to propose a scenario for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  8. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A.; Rodermel, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27050746

  9. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, L.; Priolo, A.; L. Biondi; Lanza, M.; Bognanno, M.; Gravador, R.; Luciano, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrateswith high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates inwhich 24% and 35% dried citrus pulpwere included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and satu...

  10. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  11. Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

  12. Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

  13. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  14. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  15. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  16. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  17. Thirty years of citrus tristeza virus observations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian citrus industry was devastated by epidemics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) decline (CTV-D) on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965 and CTV stem pitting (SP) between 1965 and 1985. CTV-SP debilitates citrus and fruit production regardless of rootstock. Control of CTV-SP by mild st...

  18. Does citrus leaf miner impair hydraulics and fitness of citrus host plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo

    2013-12-01

    Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus  ×  paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here. PMID:24319027

  19. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  20. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms. PMID:26835778

  1. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplast-targeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Holm, Agnethe; Jenkins, Tom; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Harris, Cassandra A.; Beale, Michael H.; Andersen, Mathias; Mant, Alexandra; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Camara, Bilal; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2004-01-01

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3 pro...... pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development....... protein containing novel repeats and zinc fingers described as protein interaction domains. VAR3 interacts specifically in yeast and in vitro with NCED4, a putative polyene chain or carotenoid dioxygenase, and both VAR3 and NCED4 accumulate in the chloroplast stroma. Metabolic profiling demonstrates that...

  2. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  3. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity....

  4. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following: (1) Citrus I—Early and mid-season oranges; (2) Citrus II—Late oranges juice; (3) Citrus III—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on a juice basis; (4) Citrus IV—Tangelos...; or (2) The following juice content, if acceptable records are not furnished: (i) Citrus I—52...

  5. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  6. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) a...

  7. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  8. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  9. Huanglongbing resistance and tolerance in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-i...

  10. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  11. Asian citrus psyllid - biology and seasonal ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal ecology of Diaphorina citri was investigated in a non-irrigated citrus grove of mature orange trees beginning January 2005 in east central Florida. No insecticides were applied during the study. Predators including lady beetles, lacewings and syrphid flies were observed during the stud...

  12. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  13. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  14. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  15. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations. PMID:25566928

  16. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. PMID:25412525

  17. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  18. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  19. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON CITRUS: A REVIEW PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN Al-Yassin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, effi cient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative infl uence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees’ growth and causes physiological disorders. Primarily salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and water potential of citrus tree leaves, in addition to accumulation of excessive concentration of Chloride or Sodium in leaves. A great deal of research indicates that citrus have the genetic potential to be salt-sensitive; however inheritance studies in citrus are scarce. In this paper the adverse of effects of salinity on physiological aspects of citrus are reviewed. The review summarizes the prevailing state of knowledge about the responses and tolerance of citrus trees to salinity.

  1. Progress on Dissecting and Controlling the Citrus Huanglongbing Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Zhang, Muqing; Benyon, Lesley; Armstrong-Vahling, Cheryl; Hoffman, Michele; Hao, Guixia; Zou, Huasong; Doud, Melissa; Ding, Fang; Morgan, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a century-old and emerging disease that impedes citrus production worldwide. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the globally prevalent species of HLB bacteria. Here we describe our molecular characterizations of Las, and our newly-developed control methods for citrus HLB. From a genomics standpoint, we revealed Las has a significantly reduced genome (1.26Mb) and unique features adapted to its intracellular life style.  Although the genome is small, Las ...

  2. Citrus Genetic Resources Grown on the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; ヤマモト, マサシ; 山本, 雅史

    2014-01-01

    The Ryukyu Islands are located southwest part of Japan. Various local citrus are grown in this subtropical region. Since there are large geographical and climatic differences between the Ryukyu Islands and the main islands (Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku) of Japan, there are unique local citrus genetic resources on the Ryukyu Islands. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa) is an indigenous mandarin species in this region. This species is clearly distinguished from the mandarin grown in China and India ba...

  3. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Benito F. García; Ascensión Torres; Francisco A. Macías

    2015-01-01

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compoun...

  4. Mechanisms of sexual polyploidization and inheritance in triploid citrus populations

    OpenAIRE

    CUENCA IBÁÑEZ, JOSÉ

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the main fruit crop in the world and Spain is the 6th producer and the major exporter for the fresh fruit market. Seedlessness is one of the most important fruit quality traits for this market since consumers do not accept seedy fruits. Recovery of triploid hybrids has become an important breeding strategy to develop new seedless citrus varieties and several of them have been already released from citrus breeding programs worldwide. Despite the undisputable importance of polyploidy ...

  5. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  6. Citrus blackfly in Florida: Eradication or bio-control?

    OpenAIRE

    Tefertiller, Kenneth R.; McKee, Vernon C.; Perry, Vernon G.

    1991-01-01

    The citrus blackfly (CBF) invaded south Florida in January 1976. It was considered by scientists to be a major threat to the Florida citrus industry located in the central part of the state. The CBF was successfully contained in a 1000 square mile tri-county quarantined area surrounding Ft. Lauderdale for several months before breaking out to an area near the commercial citrus production area. During this time federal and state research agencies were evaluating a bio-control approach involvin...

  7. Search of Xylella fastidiosa in plants with symptoms of chlorosis and leaf scorch present in ornamental areas in the university district and nearness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Xylella fastidiosa is detected in plants considered as hosts of urban ornament with characteristic symptoms, present in gardens in the area of the university district and around in the area. Urban ornamental plants are identified with suggestive symptomatology of infection by X. fastidiosa in gardens of urban areas. Plants are classified according to the presence or absence of symptoms. In the study were gathered 97 samples, belonging to 29 vegetable species with symptoms of chlorosis on leaves, leaf scorch, delay in the development and loss of foliage. The identified plants are screened by techniques of ELISA, and immunofluorescence for the detection of X. fastidiosa. Xylella fastidiosa is isolated from urban ornamental plants. The isolates of Xylella obtained, are characterized phenotypic and molecularly. The performance of two standardized immunological techniques are compared for the serological detection of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of X. fastidiosa is detected, using the DAS-ELISA technique on 48 of the 97 processed samples, corresponding to 46,1% of the samples. Parallely, the samples processed using the IFA technique, have detected the presence of X. fastidiosa in the same proportions

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence of capsicum chlorosis virus isolated from Phalaenopsis orchid and the prediction of the unexplored genetic information of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Xiu; Chen, Ching-Chung; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2011-03-01

    Phalaenopsis orchids are popular ornamentals all over the world. A tospovirus, capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV-Ph) had been identified as the cause of chlorotic ringspots on leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids in Taiwan. The tripartite genome of CaCV-Ph was found to contain 3608, 4848 and 8916 nt of S, M and L RNAs, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein confirmed that CaCV-Ph is a member of the watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) serogroup in the genus Tospovirus. Based on the relations among the nonstructural protein (NSs), glycoprotein (GnGc), thrips genera, host and geographical distribution, tospoviruses and thrips could be classified into two major types: WSMoV-Thrips-Asian and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-Frankliniella-EuroAmerican. The proline (P(459)) of all tospoviral Gn proteins was indispensable for thrips transmission, but the RGD motif, which is maintained by only six tospoviruses, may not be required for thrips transmission. An RdRp catalytic domain found in the conserved region of the L protein may recognize the typically conserved sequences on the 5' and 3' terminal regions (5' AGAGCAAU 3'). PMID:21161553

  9. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515

  10. Study of Thermotherapy against Citrus Huanglongbing in Fujian Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guocheng; Liu, Bo; Lie, Xiongjie; Cai, Zijian; Hu, Hanqing; Wang, Xianda; Ruan, Chuanqing; Lu, Lianming; Sequeira, Ronald; Xia, Yulu

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a major threat to world citrus production. In this study, we investigated using a heat treatment technique for managing HLB-affected citrus trees in the field. A total of 72 5-to-8-year old mandarin citrus, Citrus reticulata Blanco, trees were used for the study. Nine trees were regarded as a replicate or a block with four replicates per treatment. A randomized complete block design was used for field experimental design. The treated trees were covered by using plastic ...

  11. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents. PMID:27146015

  12. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reazai; Issa Mohammadpourfard; Shahrokh Nazmara; Mahdi Jahanbakhsh; Leila Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also o...

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates of Wild Type Citrus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Long; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from Chinese wild type citrus were analyzed by comparing the sequences of nine genomic regions (p23, p20, p13, p18, p25, p27, POL, HEL and k17) with the CTV isolates of cultivated citrus from different countries. The results showed that the divergence pattern of genomic RNA of the CTV isolates from wild type citrus was similar to that of other isolates from cultivated citrus, the 3´ proximal region was relatively conserved, and the 5´ proximal region had greater variability. The nine genomic regions of CTV isolates analyzed were found to have been under purifying selection in the evolution process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven Chinese wild CTV isolates were located at different clades and did not relfect their geographical origins, suggesting genetic diversity among the Chinese wild CTV populations. These results will aid in the understanding of molecular evolution of the Chinese CTV populations.

  14. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The res...

  15. Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Yesuf

    2013-01-01

    Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of c...

  16. Targeting Suppressor of Variegation 3-9 Homologue 2 (SUV39H2 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mutonga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although recent progress in understanding the biology and optimizing the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has improved cure rates of childhood ALL to nearly 90%, the cure rate in adult ALL remains less than 50%. The poor prognosis in adult ALL has in part been attributed to larger proportion of high-risk leukemia showing drug resistance. Thus, identifying novel therapeutic targets in ALL is needed for further improvements in treatment outcomes of adult ALL. Genetic aberration of chromatin-modifying molecules has been recently reported in subtypes of ALL, and targeting components of chromatin complexes has shown promising efficacy in preclinical studies. Suppressor of variegation 3-9 homologue 2 (SUV39H2, also known as KMT1B, is a SET-domain–containing histone methyltransferase that is upregulated in solid cancers, but its expression is hardly detectable in normal tissues. Here, we show that SUV39H2 is highly expressed in ALL cells but not in blood cells from healthy donors and also that SUV39H2 mRNA is expressed at significantly higher levels in bone marrow or blood cells from patients with ALL obtained at diagnosis compared with those obtained at remission (P = .007. In four ALL cell lines (Jurkat and CEM derived from T-ALL and RS4;11 and REH derived from B-ALL, SUV39H2 knockdown resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability (~77%, P < .001, likely through induction of apoptosis. On the other hand, SUV39H2 overexpression made cells more resistant to chemotherapy. We conclude that SUV39H2 is a promising therapeutic target and further investigation of this therapeutic approach in ALL is warranted.

  17. Consequences of iron deficiency on fruit quality in citrus and stawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, M.; de Varennes, Amarilis; Miguel, Maria Graça; Correia, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (iron chlorosis) is an important nutritional disorder in several plants, including fruit trees and strawberry. Iron chlorosis does not result from a small level of iron in soils but rather from impaired acquisition and use of this metal by plants. Calcium carbonate, present in great amounts in calcareous soils, and the resulting large levels of bicarbonate ions, are the main causes of iron deficiency. Countries in southern Europe, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy and...

  18. Citrus phytophthora diseases: Management challenges and successes

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J; Feichtenberger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora spp. are present in nearly all citrus groves in Florida and Brazil and phytophthora-induced diseases, especially foot and root rot, have the potential to cause economically important crop losses. Disease-related losses due to root rot are difficult to estimate because fibrous root damage and yield loss are not always directly proportional. Challenges from phytophthora diseases have been addressed in both countries by enacting phytosanitary requirements for production of pathogen-...

  19. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  20. Huanglongbing Resistance and Tolerance in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stover, E; McCollum, G.; Driggers, R.; Duan, Y.; Shatters, Jr., R. G.; Ritenour, M.; Hall, D.G.; J. Chaparro

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-incidence. ‘Temple’ had the lowest HLB symptoms and Liberibacter (Las) titer, while ‘Murcott’ and ‘Minneola’ had the highest. The USDA Ft. Pierce, FL farm is managed to reveal genotype responses to ...

  1. Comparison of evapotranspiration rates for flatwoods and ridge citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.

  2. Molybdenite Re-Os dating of Mo-Th-Nb-REE rich marbles: pre-Variscan processes in Moldanubian Variegated Group (Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Drábek Milan; Stein Holly

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to contribute to the discussion concerning the age of rocks of the Moldanubian Variegated Group, we have undertaken Re-Os dating of molybdenite of banded carbonatite-like marbles (CLM) from the graphite mine Václav at Bližná (Southern Bohemia), which belong to the metamorphic sequence of this group. The Re-Os model ages for the molybdenites range between 493 and 497 Ma and apparently correspond to the early stages of metamorphism connected with pre-Variscan rift-related tectono-m...

  3. Essential oils of flowers of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina cultivated in Algarve, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Dandlen, S.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Duarte, Amílcar; Faísca, J

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation, from the flowers of different cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Cs) and Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. (Cc) collected at different harvesting times, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. All the samples studied afforded yellowish oil which yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 % (v/w). The monoterpene fraction dominated both oils (66-91%), being the monoterpene hydrocarbons the main components of this fraction (45-69%). Sabinene (31-48%), linaloo...

  4. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  5. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  6. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may...

  7. First steps towards rescuing Las-infected citrus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is having significant impact on the USDA citrus breeding program as it has shown up in a number of trees which exist only in a virtually irreplaceable collection of diverse citrus types. It is critical that we rescue HLB-free budwood from elite germplasm that is HLB-patho...

  8. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  9. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued...

  11. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  12. Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

  13. Microwave extraction of citrus peel to release pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...

  14. Coccinellid predators do not track populations of the Asian citrus phyllid (Diaphorina citri) in citrus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow sticky cards were used to survey populations of Diaphorina citri, the vector of Huanglongbing, the most devastating bacterial disease of citrus worldwide. The numbers of coccinellids, potential predators of Diaphorina citri, were also surveyed. Citrus surveyed included a variety of species (V...

  15. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  16. A comparison of traps and stem tap sampling for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted at two different field sites to compare yellow sticky card traps, blue sticky card traps, Multi-Lure traps, and CC traps (red, blue, black, white, yellow, and green) for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama,in citrus. The Multi-Lure trap is useful f...

  17. Incidence of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease “huanglongbing” or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston, was imported fro...

  18. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers. PMID:26470097

  19. Comparison of FTIR spectra between huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease Huanglongbing(HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant ...

  20. Screening of citrus and its close relatives for tolerance to huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadugu, C.; Keremane, M.; Stover, E; Halbert, S.; Duan, Y. P.; Lee, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus, has become a serious problem for the citrus industries in Brazil and Florida, and both the disease and its psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri continue to spread to other citrus growing regions. Host resistance or tolerance to the pathogen would be extremely valuable to the citrus industry. A field trial was established in Fort Pierce, Florida where HLB has become endemic to assess the HLB tolerance level of different cultivars of citrus and ...

  1. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; João C. M. Barreira; Sousa, Maria João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

  2. Detection of a new medium for budwood culture in vitro of citrus

    OpenAIRE

    SERTKAYA, Gülşen ŞAŞ; ÇINAR, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of new and quality citrus species and cultivars from one country or growing area to another may lead to the introduction of new pests and diseases. Therefore the import and direct production of citrus budwood without adequate control measures has a high risk. The citrus virus and virus-like disease agents can be successfully eliminated using the shoot-tip grafting (STG) technique which is routinely used to obtain virus-free plants in citrus improvement programs in major citrus...

  3. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. PMID:25491482

  4. Differential gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c during co-cultivation with the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Santos, Daiene Souza; Nunes, Luiz Roberto; Costa de Oliveira, Regina Lúcia Batista da; de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), colonizes plant xylem, reducing sap flow, and inducing internerval chlorosis, leaf size reduction, necrosis, and harder and smaller fruits. This bacterium may be transmitted from plant to plant by sharpshooter insects, including Bucephalogonia xanthopis. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes citrus xylem and previous studies showed that this strain is also transferred from plant to plant by B. xanthopis (Insecta), suggesting that this endophytic bacterium may interact with X. fastidiosa in planta and inside the insect vector during co-transmission by the same insect vector. To better understand the X. fastidiosa behavior in the presence of M. mesophilicum, we evaluated the X. fastidiosa transcriptional profile during in vitro interaction with M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6. The results showed that during co-cultivation, X. fastidiosa down-regulated genes related to growth and up-regulated genes related to energy production, stress, transport, and motility, suggesting the existence of a specific adaptive response to the presence of M. mesophilicum in the culture medium. PMID:26218710

  5. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  6. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  7. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  8. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Barrero, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with...

  9. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals possible common ancestors of nucleotide-binding sites domain containing genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementina genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified and re-annotated candidate disease resistance (R) genes with nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) domain from a Citrus clementina genome and two complete Citrus sinensis genome sequences (one from the USA and one from China). We found similar numbers of NBS genes from three citrus genomes, r...

  10. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

  11. Effect of beneficial bacterial isolates from citrus roots in Florida on citrus Huanglongbing disease development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Trivedi, P.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus in Florida. HLB is caused by the phloem-inhabiting bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), which is transmitted by psyllid vector Diaphorina citri. The current management strategies of HLB are to control psyllids and eradicate infected plants. However, these management practices have not been able to stop the spreading of HLB (Duan et al. 2009). Alternative approaches are needed to control HLB. In previous studies we i...

  12. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides for Control of Asian citrus psyllid in Newly Planted Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Stansly, Phil; Kostyk, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Orchard renewal is a special challenge where HLB is endemic.  Young trees are especially susceptible to the disease and continuously attractive to the psyllid vector due to frequent flushing.  Heavy reliance is placed on systemic insecticides to protect young trees.  However, all presently labeled for citrus are neonicotinoids (IRAC Group 4a) making resistance likely and the long term viability of this strategy questionable.  Rotation partners are needed to forestall selection for resistance....

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status. PMID:27166529

  14. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah Almeida Coelho; Zambrana, Jéssica Rabelo Mina; Iorio, Fernanda Bispo Reis Di; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on multispecies biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL) and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10): C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride NaCl)]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. , the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7%) was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases. PMID:25000605

  15. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Almeida Coelho Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10: C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05. C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7% was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

  16. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Papiya Bigoniya; Kailash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic res...

  17. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2002-01-01

    fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with......Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  18. Effect of NaCl on citrus cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cámara-Zapata, José; García-Sánchez, F.; Martinez, V.; Nieves, M. (Marcos); Cerdá, A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity stress-relief on the growth and mineral composition (leaf and root) of one-year-old seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium [L]). Salinization reduced plant dry weight more in Sour orange than in Cleopatra mandarin plants, although there was no correlation between Cl and Na concentration in leaves and shoot fresh weight reduction. We observed that regulation of Na+ and Cl- uptake and transport from ro...

  19. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Marcos A; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Marinês Bastianel

    2011-01-01

    Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possi...

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hazrat Bilal; Waseem Akram; Soaib Ali-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars test...

  1. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  2. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  3. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...

  4. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-01-01

    Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

  5. Evaluation of Thermotherapy against Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) under Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guocheng; Xia, Yulu; Lin, Xiongjie; Cai, Zijian; Hu, Hanqing; Wang, Xianda; Ruan, Chuanqing; Lu, Lianming; Sequeira, Ronald; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening) is the most destructive disease of citrus. The disease is associated with “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”. Few management options are available, besides preventive measures such as the removal of affected plants, planting disease-free stock and maintaining vector-free production in quarantine areas. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of thermotherapy against the disease under controled laboratory conditions. A total of sixty, 2-year old graft-infe...

  6. Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Sedigheh; keshvari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the firs...

  7. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman; Muhammad Aizam Hassan; Lutfun Nahar; Norazah Basar; Shajarahtunnur Jamil; Satyajit D. Sarker

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citru...

  8. Characterization of Citrus Rootstock Responses to Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, David T.

    1981-01-01

    Citrus rootstocks which significantly limited the reproduction of Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb) "Citrus" and "Poncirus" biotypes responded to infection by producing a hypersensitive-type response in the root hypodermis, wound periderm and/or cavities in the root cortex, and/or abnormal vacuoles in nurse cell cytoplasm. Rootstocks which limited nematode reproduction also had significantly fewer nematodes in the rhizoplane within 8 d of inoculation than did rootstocks which did not limit rep...

  9. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Maruti J. Dhanavade; Chidamber B. Jalkute; Jai S. Ghosh; Kailash D. Sonawane

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich s...

  10. The Lebanese Citrus Aurantium: A Promising Future in Medicinal Phytochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Makhoul; Youssef Bakkour; Hanna El-Nakat; Fawaz El Omar

    2012-01-01

    The West Bekaa region of Lebanon is mostly an agricultural land where traditional herbal medicine is a common practice. Many medicinal applications are especially attributed to the Citrus aurantium plant mainly used in the food and drink industry. In this work, the essential oil of Citrus aurantium is studied in an attempt to find an explanation for the different medical applications of this plant extract which is widely known among locals. Using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometr...

  11. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  12. Can Florida’s citrus industry be saved while preserving the environment? An economic analysis for the bio-control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Sergio; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the insect vector of a fatal disease for citrus known as Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. HLB has been responsible for significant economic losses in Asia and Africa with crop losses between 30 to 100% in many production areas. In 1998, HLB was first detected in Florida and by 2005 this pest had spread to most commercial citrus groves in the State, threatening the sustainability of Florida’s Citrus industry. Since no cure for this disease is ye...

  13. SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION4,a New var2 Suppressor Locus,Encodes a Pioneer Protein that Is Required for Chloroplast Biogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yu; Gordon R.Gray; Steven R.Rodermel; Sung-Soon Park; Xiayan Liu; Andrew Foudree; Aigen Fu; Marta Powikrowska; Anastassia Khrouchtchova; Poul Erik Jensen; Jillian N.Kriger

    2011-01-01

    VAR2 is an integral thylakoid membrane protein and a member of the versatile FtsH class of metalloproteases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recessive mutations in the VAR2 locus give rise to variegated plants (var2) that contain white sectors with abnormal plastids and green sectors with normal-appearing chloroplasts. In a continuing effort to isolate second-site suppressors of var2 variegation,we characterize in this report ems2505,a suppressor strain that has a vi-rescent phenotype due to a missense mutation in At4g28590,the gene for a pioneer protein. We designated this gene SVR4 (for SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATI0N4) and the mutant allele in ems2505 as svr4-1. We demonstrate that SVR4 is located in chloroplasts and that svr4-1 single mutants are normal with respect to chloroplast anatomy and thylakoid membrane protein accumulation. However,they are modestly impaired in several aspects of photochemistry and have enhanced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) capacity. A T-DNA insertion allele of SVR4,svr4-2,is seedling-lethal due to an early blockage of chloroplast development. We conclude that SVR4 is essential for chloroplast biogenesis,and hypothesize that SVR4 mediates some aspect of thylakoid structure or function that controls NPQ. We propose that in the suppressor strain,photoinhibitory pressure caused by a lack of VAR2 is ameliorated early in chloroplast development by enhanced NPQ capacity caused by reduced SVR4 activity. This would result in an increase in the number of chloroplasts that are able to surmount a threshold necessary to avoid photo-damage and thereby develop into functional chloroplasts.

  14. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  15. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  17. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of citrus seed oils from kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reazai, Mohammad; Mohammadpourfard, Issa; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Jahanbakhsh, Mahdi; Shiri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. PMID:25136460

  19. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes-da-Glória Fernanda Januzzi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.

  20. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. PMID:26261026

  1. Cigarrinhas dos Citros, Vetoras da Bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al.: Pragas Potenciais para a Citricultura Sergipana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruberval Azevedo

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The citrus industry in Brazil plays a role of great economic, social, generating jobs, income and development. Brazil is the largest producer of citrus, the State of Sergipe stands out in 5th place in national production. Among the many pest problems faced by Brazilian citrus is Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, known as the yellowing caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. The CVC was officially identified in Brazil in 1987, in orchards of “Triângulo Mineiro” and North and northwest of the state of São Paulo. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, was found in 1996 in the municipality of Boquim Sergipe, and Bahia in 1997, the municipalities of Rio Real and Itapicuru. The aim was to review the literature on the species of leafhoppers vectors of CVC, and verify that occur in the state of Sergipe. The first symptoms are seen in the leaves, then go for the fruits and end up affecting the entire plant, and to be perceived can take between five months and two years. The main vectors of X. fastidiosa in citrus are the sharpshooters of the family Cicadellidae. In Brazil 12 sharpshooters species have already been confirmed. For the state of Sergipe, is scarce information about the Cicadellidae vectors, the data are limited to the northern coast of Bahia, except for vague quote about four genus (Oncometropia, Acrogonia, Dilobopterus and Homolodisca and three species (Homolodisca ignorata Melichar, Acrogonia sp. and Homolodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey.

  2. Generating Asian citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with twisting wings to prevent the spread of citrus greening disease

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shesheny, I.; Harjeri, S.; Gowda, S.; Killiny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is seriously threatening and causing considerable economic losses to the citrus groves. Its Management depends critically on the control of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the cause of HLB, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus bacteria (CLas). Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising technique to control pests. In this study, the abnormal disk wing (awd) has been selected from the available psyllid annotated genome. It has been known that awd ge...

  3. Molecular Interactions between the Citrus Bacterial Pathogen Candidatus Liberbacter asiaticus and Its Insect Vector the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Linling; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), the most serious disease of citrus, is attributed in the United States to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a gram-negative, phloem-restricted α-proteobacterium transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Despite the fact that the psyllid is well recognized as the vector of CLas, to the best of our knowledge, little research has so far been conducted on molecular interactions between CLas and the psyllid. Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens have...

  4. Morphological, molecular and virulence characterization of three Lencanicillium species infecting Asian citrus psyllids in Huangyan citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lianming; Cheng, Baoping; Du, Danchao; Hu, Xiurong; Peng, Aitian; Pu, Zhanxu; Zhang, Xiaoya; Huang, Zhendong; Chen, Guoqing

    2015-02-01

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the infection of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. Since Asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of HLB can be mitigated by suppressing Asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. To expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting Asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. Strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08, and ZJLP09 infected the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Huangyan citrus groves. Based on molecular and morphological analyses, two were identified as Lecanicillium attenuatum and Lecanicillium psalliotae, and the third was recognized as an unidentified species of the genus, Lecanicillium. The corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 were 100% at 7days post-inoculation, while by ZJLP09 complete mortality occurred at 6days after inoculation, with 1.0×10(8)conidia/ml at 25°C and a relative humidity of 90% in the laboratory. Under the same condition, the corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 and ZJLP09 were 100%, 92.55% and 100%, respectively at 9days post-inoculation in the greenhouse. Our findings also revealed that these fungal strains infected D. citri using hyphae that penetrated deep into the insect tissues. Further, all three strains secreted the enzymes proteinases, chitinases and lipases with a potential to destroy insect tissues. Interestingly, strain ZJLP09 had an earlier invasion time and the highest levels of enzyme activities when compared to the other two strains. These findings have expanded the existing pool of entomopathogenic fungi that infect D. citri and can be potentially used for the management of D. citri populations. PMID:25593036

  5. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  6. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the “grapefruit juice effect”. Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in

  7. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves

    OpenAIRE

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Bartels, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009–2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a str...

  8. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles’ Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, John S; Johnson, Richard S.; Hoki, Jason S.; Kruse, Angela; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Hilf, Mark E.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Hall, David G.; Schroeder, Frank C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+) and CLas(-) populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the ...

  9. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the "grapefruit juice effect". Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constit...

  10. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm and Amp solution (2.83 mm alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  11. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  12. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  13. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  14. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p citrus extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora. PMID:26604414

  15. Young citrus leaves decrease dispersal distance of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To manage citrus Huanglongbing, understanding factors that affect dispersal behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is required to answer questions related to disease epidemiology and to improve management tactics. Currently, little is known about cues medi...

  16. Characterization of an ATP/ADP translocase in the citrus huanglongbing bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a disease currently threatening the citrus industry worldwide, has been associated with three different species of Alphaproteobacteria known as Candidatus Liberibacter. A complete genome sequence was recently obtained via metagenomics for Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), the prom...

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  18. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Caruso Machado; Ricardo Ferraz de Oliveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Camilo Lázaro Medina; Eduardo Sanches Stuchi; Luiz Carlos Pavani

    2007-01-01

    A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC) é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em lara...

  19. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurelio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes-a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes- and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins ...

  20. Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, D. T.; Opperman, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results ...

  1. Odorants for Surveillance and Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Forster, Lisa; Guda, Tom; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-01-01

    Background The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. Results In this stud...

  2. Effect of limonene on anaerobic digestion of citrus waste and pretreatments for its improvement

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ FUERTES, BEGOÑA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and technically sound way to valorise citrus waste if the inhibitory effect of the citrus essential oil (CEO) is controlled. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these difficulties: keeping the organic loading rate (OLR) in low values to avoid excess dosage of inhibitor, supplementing the citrus waste with nutrient and buffering solutions or pre-treating the citrus waste in order to reduce the CEO concentration, either by recovery or by d...

  3. Integrated pest management in citrus orchards in Antalya (1995-1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, A.; Akteke, Ş.A.; Kaplan, M.; Gürol, M.; Eray, N.; Dalka, Y.; UYSAL, H.; Aytekin, H.; Akyel, E.; Çelik, G.; ARSLAN, M.; Tuncel, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study relating to integrated pest management citrus orchards consisting Central, Kumluca, Finike and Alanya counties of Antalya has been carried out in 8 orchards in 2124 trees during 1995-1999. The citrus mealybug has been found as the main pest and controlled biologically by releasing Leptomastix dactylopii as parasitoid and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri as predator. Citrus whitefly, Citrus red mite and Carob moth have been found as the secondary pests. Mineral oils and specific aca...

  4. The use of kaolin to control Ceratitis capitata in organic citrus groves.

    OpenAIRE

    LO VERDE, G; Caleca, V; LO VERDE, 
V

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the key pest in some organically managed citrus orchards in Sicily. The effectiveness of processed kaolin (Surround WP) for control of C. capitata damage was tested in field trials carried out in 2003-2004 on two early ripening citrus species: satsuma (Citrus unshiu Markow.) and clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). Although the number of males captured in trimedlure baited traps was high in both yea...

  5. Temperature Studies with the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri: Cold Hardiness and Temperature Thresholds for Oviposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, David G.; Wenninger, Erik J.; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri was first found in Florida during 1998, and the disease was d...

  6. Characterization of the RNA Interference Response in the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Lindsay; Shatters, Jr., R. G.; Powell, C.; Cave, R.; Borovsky, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus since it is the only known vector of ‘Candidatus Liberibactor’ species, the bacterium associated with citrus greening disease.  Since control of the psyllid is the only effective defense so far against citrus greening, and heavy reliance upon pesticides is not sustainable, an RNA interference (RNAi) strategy for ACP control was investigated. RNA interference is an innate immune response triggered by the cellular uptak...

  7. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  8. Appropriate tools of Marketing Information System for Citrus Crop in the Lattakia Region, R. A. SYRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, H.; K. Malec; M. Maitah

    2014-01-01

    Citrus production represents the only livelihood source for many families in Lattakia region. Citrus farmers are not informed about expected prices. This information is crucial to make business decisions. For the farmers is necessary to take into account the spatial and temporal arbitrage of citrus harvest and storage, which may improve citrus farmer’s position in marketing chain and reduce the influence of intermediaries. The aim of the paper is to verify using of SARIMA models as a tool of ...

  9. HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

  10. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified citrus... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus...

  11. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus...

  12. Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing by Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening disease) was discovered in Florida in 2005 and is spreading rapidly amongst the citrus growing regions of the state. Detection via visual symptoms of the disease is not a long term viable option. New techniques are being developed to test fo...

  13. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  14. HLB resistance and tolerance in citrus scion development at the US Horticultural Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus and threatening industries in the rest of the US. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected trees. Fruit size and quality often diminish as the disease advances. The USDA citrus scion breeding program is charged with producing improved citrus...

  15. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

  16. Investigations of the feasibility for managing the Asian citrus pysllid using Isaria fumosorosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri, transmits one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, the plant pathogenic bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is strongly associated with the occurrence of huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. In Florida, g...

  17. An evaluation of different plant genotypes for rearing Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psylloidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the vector of bacteria responsible for a serious citrus disease known as huanglongbing (also known as citrus greening disease). Many research endeavors on ACP are dependent on a steady supply of ACP, which can be facilitated using a laboratory or greenhouse colony m...

  18. Complete Genome sequence of citrus huanglongbing bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ obtained through metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by the citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae), and is associated with low-titer, phloem-limited infections by any of the three uncultured species of a-Proteobacteria: 'Candidatus Liberibact...

  19. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  20. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  1. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  2. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  3. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries were queried and all bona fide and putative photoreceptor gene families were found in citrus species. We have identified 53 orthologs for several families of transcriptional regulators and cytoplasmic proteins mediating photoreceptor-induced responses although some important Arabidopsis phytochrome- and cryptochrome-signaling components are absent from citrus sequence databases. The main gene families responsible for phototropin-mediated signal transduction were present in citrus transcriptome, including general regulatory factors (14-3-3 proteins, scaffolding elements and auxin-responsive transcription factors and transporters. A working model of light perception, signal transduction and response-eliciting in citrus is proposed based on the identified key components. These results demonstrate the power of comparative genomics between model systems and economically important crop species to elucidate several aspects of plant physiology and metabolism.

  4. Cryopreservation of citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Gayle M; Bonnart, Remi; Krueger, Robert; Lee, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and citrus wild species within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have identified a cryopreservation method by which Citrus genetic resources that are not maintained in vitro can be successfully conserved. Shoot tips were excised from actively growing vegetative flushes of protected trees. Surface-disinfected shoot tips were precultured overnight in 0.3 M sucrose, loaded with a loading solution for 20 min and treated with PVS2 for 30 or 60 min at 0 degree C, prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Rewarmed shoot tips post-cultured overnight on survival medium were then micrografted on 'Carrizo' seedling rootstocks to produce whole plants. Micrografted shoot tips recovered quickly and rooted plants could be transferred to the greenhouse within months. Regrowth of whole plants after micrografting averaged 53 percent for cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivars representing eight Citrus and Fortunella species. This method has several advantages: it uses screenhouse or greenhouse plants as source materials, it is not dependent upon cultivar-specific recovery media, and it avoids seedling juvenility. PMID:23250401

  5. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Soumaya Bourgou; Fatma Zohra Rahali; Iness Ourghemmi; Moufida Saïdani Tounsi

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-1...

  6. Relationships between mycorrhizas and antioxidant enzymes in citrus (citrus tangerina) seedlings inoculated with glomus mosseae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5-40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10-40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants. (author)

  7. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  8. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  9. Long-chain acyl-homoserine lactones from Methylobacterium mesophilicum: synthesis and absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, Armando M; Cruz, Pedro L R; Gai, Cláudia; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2009-12-01

    The acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) produced by Methylobacterium mesophilicum isolated from orange trees infected with the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease have been studied, revealing the occurrence of six long-chain acyl-HSLs, i.e., the saturated homologues (S)-N-dodecanoyl (1) and (S)-N-tetradecanoyl-HSL (5), the uncommon odd-chain N-tridecanoyl-HSL (3), the new natural product (S)-N-(2E)-dodecenoyl-HSL (2), and the rare unsaturated homologues (S)-N-(7Z)-tetradecenoyl (4) and (S)-N-(2E,7Z)-tetradecadienyl-HSL (6). The absolute configurations of all HSLs were determined as 3S. Compounds 2 and 6 were synthesized for the first time. Antimicrobial assays with synthetic acyl-HSLs against Gram-positive bacterial endophytes co-isolated with M. mesophilicum from CVC-infected trees revealed low or no antibacterial activity. PMID:19919062

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of stationary phase survival protein E (SurE) from Xylella fastidiosa in two crystal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and preliminary analysis of two crystal forms of survival protein E from X. fastidiosa are reported. The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a phytopathogenic organism that causes citrus variegated chlorosis, a disease which attacks economically important crops, mainly oranges. In this communication, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of XfSurE, a survival protein E from X. fastidiosa, are reported. Data were collected for two crystal forms, I and II, to 1.93 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. Crystal form I belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 172.36, b = 84.18, c = 87.24 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 96.59°, whereas crystal form II belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.05, b = 81.26, c = 72.84 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 94.76°

  11. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sac...

  12. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. PMID:25256398

  13. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. PMID:25977000

  14. Insecticidal activity of some citrus oils against culex quinquefasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the larvicidal potency of peel oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on 4''th instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Orange oil was the most effective followed by grapefruit oil and then lime oil. The toxicity of the oils applied to the 4''th instar larval stage was extended to pupal and adult stages. All oils produced deleterious effects on fecundity of survivors of sublethal doses. By the aid of chemical analysis of oils, the active compound was found to be limonene, a monoterpene compound. The percentages limonene were 97.15%, 92.46% and 32.29% for orange, grapefruit and lime respectively.(Author)

  15. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  16. Analysis of SSR in Citrus Sequences from EMBL Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hai-jun; CAO Qing-qin; HU Zhi-yong; LIU Gao-ping; CHENG Yun-jiang; DENG Xiu-xin

    2005-01-01

    Abundance of simple sequence repeat (SSR) in Citrus sequences from EMBL database was investigated by using computer program MISA (MIcroSAtellite), which aimed to provide useful information for the development of SSR markers.Among 32 896 sequences of Citrus, 4987 SSRs were found in 4167 sequences and the average distance between SSRs was approximately 3.5 kb. Mononucleotide repeats (50.6%) were the most abundant repeats. And di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats were 22.8, 25.2, 1, 0.08, and 0.36%, respectively. The most abundant motif was A/T followed in descending order by AG/CT, AC/GT, AT/TA. AAT/ATT, AAG/CTT, AGC/CGT, ACG/CTG and C/G. They comprised about90% of all microsatellites. Ten primer pairs were designed, and three of them produced clear visible bands among Citrus and its related genera.

  17. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  18. Radiation preservation of Citrus Unshiu, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of energy and current of electron-beams and synergistic effect of heat and radiation on a growth of fungi and a browning of peel were investigated to extend shelf-life of Citrus Unshiu (''Satsuma'' orange). The fruits were irradiated with a surface dose of 200krad by various energies of electrons (0.2-1.5MeV), and then stored at 30C for 3 months. Percent of browned fruit in the fruits irradiated by 0.2MeV electrons was almost the same as that in the unirradiated ones. However, if the fruits were irradiated by energies of more than 0.5MeV, the browning of peel increased with increasing energy of electrons. The browning seems to depend on a dose absorbed only in peel, but not to depend on a total dose absorbed in fruit. When the fruits were stored at 30C for 3 months followed by storage at room temperature (16-250C) for one week, the effective growth inhibition of fungi was observed on the fruits irradiated by 0.5MeV electrons. On the fruits irradiated with 0.1-1.0mA of beam current by 0.5MeV electrons, increasing current tended to inhibit the growth of fungi. But the browning of peel was unaffected by beam current. Heat and radiation combination increased the browning of peel and the growth of fungi during storage. (auth.)

  19. In Vitro Propagation of Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was conducted to standardize a protocol for in-vitro propagation of citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Pectinifera and Troyer citrange. The shoot tip explant was found better for callus induction of these rootstocks than the nodal segment. Maximum callus formation (40.0% and 23.3% of shoot tip explants was obtained in Cleopatra mandarin, Pectinifera, and Rough lemon and Troyer citrange, respectively in treatment MS basal media + 0.5mg/l Kin, 2.0mg/l NAA, and 2.0mg/l 2, 4-D. Furthermore, the maximum number of shoots per explant was obtained through the callus in Pectinifera, Rough lemon and Cleopatra mandarin in MS basal media + BAP 1mg/l. Maximum rooting of shoots (1.11% was noted in rootstock Rough lemon followed by Cleopatra mandarin for the � MS media supplemented with 10mg/l IBA. Although the callus development and bud proliferation was recorded in rootstock Troyer citrange however, shoot and root formation did not occur. The potting media consisting of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume was better with maximum survival rate of hardened plants six weeks after transferring to the pots under greenhouse for Rough lemon followed by Pectinifera and Cleopatra mandarin rootstock.

  20. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Luis; Ollitrault Patrick; Pina José A; Hernández María; Juárez José; Aleza Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a h...

  1. Targeting juvenile hormone metabolic genes in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) as a strategy to reduce the spread of citrus greening disease

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Borovsky, D.; Powell, C A; Cave, R. D.; Alessandro, R. T.; Shatters, Jr., R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), is a devastating citrus pest due to its transmission of a phloem-limited bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, that causes citrus greening. Psyllid control is a major part of effective greening disease management, and our research targets perturbation of insect juvenile hormone metabolism as a new psyllid control strategy.  Previous studies have shown that application of a juvenile hormone (JH) analogue, pyriproxyfen,...

  2. Stylet Morphometrics and Ultrastructure in Relation to Feeding Behavior and Pathogen Transmission by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri, Vector of Citrus Huanglongbing Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, E. D.; Shatters, R G; Hall, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The feeding behavior and stylet morphometrics were studied in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The stylet length of first instar nymphs averaged 266 µm (83% of body length) whereas that of 5th instar nymphs was 615 µm (34% of body length). Younger ACP nymphs feed only on young citrus leaves on smaller veins or on the sides of the mi...

  3. RNAi-Based Strategy for Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Control: A Method to Reduce the Spread of Citrus Greening Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkings, Chloe; Morgan, K.; Shaffer, L.; Powell, C.; Borovsky, D.; Cave, R.; Dawson, B.; Gowda, S.; Shatters, Jr., R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Citrus greening disease is a serious bacterial disease of citrus worldwide and is vectored by the Asian citrus pysllid (Diaphorina Citri).  The only effective control strategy includes vigorous control of the psyllid, primarily through heavy reliance on pesticides. As a more sustainable and environmentally friendly method of psyllid control, we evaluated a RNA interference (RNAi) approach based on psyllid oral uptake of dsRNA molecules that target specific psyllid genes.  This approach is bas...

  4. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products. PMID:20857432

  5. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Schoubroeck, van, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doubling of t...

  6. Induced mutations in citrus shoot tip culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of using induced mutation of the callus of citrus clones as a method in citrus breeding. It was observed that the nuclear clones had a higher ratio of callus cell differentiation than the old clones. The callus cells were exposed to gamma irradiation of 7,000 roentgen at 127 R/min. Callus cells derived from the shoot tip proved to be more appropriate for cytological examination by the smearing technique than the root tip cells. Gamma irradiation of callus cells is quite effective for inducing chromosome aberration and micronucleus inspection

  7. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  8. Molybdenite Re-Os dating of Mo-Th-Nb-REE rich marbles: pre-Variscan processes in Moldanubian Variegated Group (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drábek Milan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to contribute to the discussion concerning the age of rocks of the Moldanubian Variegated Group, we have undertaken Re-Os dating of molybdenite of banded carbonatite-like marbles (CLM from the graphite mine Václav at Bližná (Southern Bohemia, which belong to the metamorphic sequence of this group. The Re-Os model ages for the molybdenites range between 493 and 497 Ma and apparently correspond to the early stages of metamorphism connected with pre-Variscan rift-related tectono-metamorphic events, which affected and recrystallized sedimentary CLM material rich in Mo-Th-Nb-REE. The molybdenite bearing carbonatite like marbles situated in the footwall of Bližná graphite mine have been interpreted as carbonates with a large share of volcano-detritic material derived from contemporaneous primitive alkaline (carbonatite-like volcanism deposited in a shallow marine lagoonal environment. There is no geological evidence for the participation of fluids mobilized from host rocks in the formation of the CLM. Because the Re-Os chronometer in molybdenite is demonstrably stable through later Variscan facies metamorphism, the molybdenite chronometer has not been affected by subsequent thermal overprints associated with the Variscan orogeny.

  9. Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaro Michela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Variegate porphyria (VP is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting. In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed. We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099 and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609 and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats. Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP.

  10. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  11. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNA-interference (RNAi) vector and its potential in combating citrus Huanglongbing (HLB)

    OpenAIRE

    Hajeri, Shubash; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O.; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a plus-sense ssRNA virus, is member of the genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae. RNA viruses are inducers as-well-as targets of gene silencing defense mechanism of host plants and this has been exploited as a tool in functional genomics. CTV was developed into virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) or RNA-interference (RNAi) vector, which interferes with expression of endogenous genes in citrus or GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana (16c) in a sequence spec...

  12. Determination of elements in citrus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many agricultural stations and farms most of the problems encountered generally reduce to questions of diminished yield. This may be due to a number of factors, including soil exhaustion and the application of fertilizers of unsuitable formula. The chemical impoverishment of the soil is due to the leaching-out phenomenon, i- e. the washing out of bases, and to the ''exportation'' of fertilizer elements in the form of crops in years when nothing has been returned to the soil. These losses have a particularly adverse effect if the parent rock does not contain sufficient mineral reserves to compensate for them by a slow alteration process. Such impoverishment is revealed by soil and foliar analyses. The authors have attempted to determine the content in citrus plants of the following elements: Mn, P, Cu, Cl and K (the latter on three samples only). After collection, the samples are treated by Bransolten's method (Rapport de Recherche TRICO № 15/1968), dried for at least 12 hours at 105°C, followed by pulverization of the leaves, after which the determination is carried out. The determination of Mn and Cl is very simple, as is that of Cu. The latter is determined by activation with slow neutrons in order to avoid Zn formation. The phosphorus content is determined by measuring the beta-radiation emitted by the radioactive elements. In this case particular precautions must be taken to ensure that the same layer is used for the samples and the standards, since beta-radiation is absorbed by these layers. For the K and Na determinations thermal neutrons are used for activation and a Ge(Li) detector for measurement of the gamma-spectra. Because of the high resolution of the detector, the two elements can be determined without separation. (author)

  13. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 270C. (M.A.C.)

  14. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    OpenAIRE

    GERMANA, MARIA ANTONIETTA; Aleza, Pablo; Carrera, Esther; Chen, Chunxian; Chiancone, Benedetta; Costantino, Gilles; Dambier, Dominique; Deng, Xiuxin; Federici, Claire T.; Froelicher, Yann; Guo, Wenwu; Ibanez, Victoria; Juarez, Jose; Kwok, Kevin; Luro, François

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow c...

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  16. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  17. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin

  18. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  19. Comparative analysis of Asian citrus psyllid and Potato psyllid antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in two psyllid species, Diaphorina citri (the Asian citrus psyllid), and Bacterocera cockerelli (the potato/tomato psyllid) (both species Hemiptera:Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidat...

  20. Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgus, E; Lohr, C; Raquet, N; Guth, S; Schrenk, D

    2010-01-01

    Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2-1.45 mg for the average daily exposure for adults via the diet in several countries. In these estimates, the major contribution to overall daily exposure has been attributed to citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages, in spite of a lack of analytical data for those products. Therefore, we analyzed a number of furocoumarins in a variety of citrus-containing beverages and included limettin in the pattern of analyzed constituents. Our findings provide strong evidence that grapefruit juice and not citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages is the major source of furocoumarin exposure in a Western diet. Based on these findings it can be assumed that the average dietary exposure to furocoumarins is about 3-fold lower than previously estimated, i.e. in the range of 548 and 2237 microg/day for the average and high consumer, respectively. The coumarin derivative limettin was mainly found in lime products. PMID:19770019

  1. Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

  2. Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peels could be used to produce higher value produ...

  3. Characterization of Pectin from Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-(1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority o...

  4. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  5. Efficiency of chemotherapy coupled with thermotherapy against citrus HLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six independent experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemotherapy coupled with the thermotherapy on pot-contained HLB-affected plants based on our previous results from graft-based methods. Three-year old potted HLB-affected citrus plants were exposed to 4 thermotherapy ...

  6. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  7. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL. PMID:11858553

  8. Reproductive biology and behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of research conducted during 2006-2008 on the reproductive biology and behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) will be presented. Information to be discussed will include daily patterns of mating; frequency of mating; pre-mating and pre-oviposition intervals; daily and seaso...

  9. Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

  10. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of

  11. Citrus greening detection using airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. This paper proposes a method to detect the citrus greening...

  12. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  13. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  14. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening, considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90% of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition. However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  15. Role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of California citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M

    2008-04-01

    Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411

  16. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

  17. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles' Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Ramsey

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas, the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'Candidatus Profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+ and CLas(- populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+ insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+ insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+ and CLas(- D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide.

  18. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, in Citrus Groves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  19. First report of citrus exocortis viroid and two citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid on lemon in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  20. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens Larsen;

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90. days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial...... concentrate with 60% barley (Control, n=8), (2) concentrate with 35% barley and 24% citrus pulp (Cp24, n=9), or (3) concentrate with 23% barley and 35% citrus pulp (Cp35, n=9). Slices from the longissimus thoracis et lomborum muscle were packed aerobically and stored for up to 6. days at 4°C in the dark. The...... citrus pulp groups, Cp24 and Cp35, significantly decreased protein radicals and carbonyls, and preserved more thiols within six days of storage compared to the Control group. The citrus pulp groups significantly slowed down the rate of protein oxidation, indicating that dietary citrus pulp reduced...

  1. The effect of pre spring spray to reduce of citrus important pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, B; Damavandian, M R; Shoushtaril, R Vafaei; Tafaghodynia, B

    2008-10-01

    The importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell and Panonychus citri McGregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. In this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (Thomson navel on Citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. The experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. According to the results, the pre spring spray do not effect on population density of citrus aphids and P. aurantii during March, April, May and June. However, the P. citri population decreased. Therefore, it seems the pre spring spray in citrus orchards is not necessary, but if P. citri is observed, the pre spring spray should be recommended. PMID:19137868

  2. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  3. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

  4. Construction and Evaluation of the Theoretical Model of Citrus Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the general overview of cooperative economic organizations of citrus industry at home and abroad,theoretical model of the modernization,industrialization and marketization of Citrus Cooperative Organization is established.After selecting the indices,such as the scale of production,the scale of management,the rate of encouraged farmers,and the market competitiveness,quantitative evaluation index system for modernization,industrialization and marketization is established.Then,Citrus Cooperative Organization is divided into three stages,such as primary stage,intermediate stage and senior stage.After evaluating the modernization,industrialization and marketization of citrus industry in the United States,Spain and South Africa,it is pointed out that the Citrus Cooperative Organization in China at present is at the primary stage.Finally,policy direction of the development of Citrus Cooperative Organization in China is pointed out.

  5. Comparison of different diagnostic methods for detection of Hop stunt viroid and Citrus exocortis viroid in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Escobar Ponce de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroids such as Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd are important pathogens in citrus plants. A comparative assay was performed to evaluate the viroid diagnostic techniques currently available at the Citrus Sanitation Center of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres. We compared the results obtained in the diagnosis of HSVd and CEVd in citrus using two molecular techniques: s-PAGE and RT-PCR and biological indexing. Biological indexing was performed in a greenhouse under controlled temperature, using Etrog citron Arizona 861-S1 grafted on rough lemon rootstock as the indicator plant. Tissue samples for s-PAGE were obtained from inoculated citrons used in the biological indexing tests, and DNA extraction was performed following published procedures. HSVd and CEVd specific primers were used for RT-PCR, and samples were taken directly from field plants and inoculated citrons. Two nucleic acid extraction methods were compared. A total of 12 viroid isolates collected from orange, citron, grapefruit, citrumelo and lime trees, mostly from North Western Argentina, were used in these assays. The three diagnostic methods compared gave similar results in 11 of 12 samples assayed. Several viroids were detected by s-PAGE and most of them were found as mixtures. HSVd and CEVd were identified by RT-PCR and no differences were found between the two extraction methods assayed. Sample R-407 was positive for exocortis with biological diagnosis and s-PAGE, but it was negative with RT-PCR. This was probably due to inefficient cDNA synthesis or to the presence of inhibitors that could interfere with the reaction. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the three techniques assayed are complementary and useful tools for diagnosis and identification of HSVd and CEVd in citrus.

  6. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chunxian; Gmitter Jr, Fred G

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. Results In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for...

  7. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  8. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita D Apraj; Nancy S Pandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  9. Characterization and biological properties of Citrus industrial derivatives and waste products for the formulation of nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Polyphenols are natural chemical compounds, common in higher plants as and particularly known and appreciated for their health properties. We focused attention on Citrus bergamia, Citrus sinensis, Mela annurca and Vitis Vinifera. Citrus is one of larges species among plant; it consists of 40 species which are distributed in all continents and its fruits. We have developed a fast HPLC with ion-trap TOF-MS method for the analysis of flavonoids in these juices. With respect to the...

  10. Metalized Polyethylene Mulch to Reduce Incidence of Huanglongbing and Improve Growth of New Citrus Plantings

    OpenAIRE

    Croxton, S.; Stansly, P.

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene mulch was evaluated for deterring colonization by Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, reducing incidence of huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease and accelerating growth of young citrus.  UV reflective low density polyethylene mulch metalized with aluminum, low density whitefaced polyethylene mulch and bare ground all using drip irrigation in a randomized complete block design were tested and compared to the current grower standard using micro-sprinkler irrigati...

  11. Evaluation of antibiotics against the bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter for control of citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide. The present study was undertaken to screen antibiotics against Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) while simultaneously assessing phytotoxicity to citrus. Twenty-eight antibiotics from ten classes of medical-antibiotics and three agricultural-antibiotics were tested for in vivo activities against HLB bacterium using the previously optimized graft-based chemotherapy method (Zhang et al., 2012). First, sampl...

  12. Relations between behavior of HLB and Iron application to Citrus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuyama, T.; Muraki, S.; Subandiyah, S.; Joko, T.; Ono, H.; Masaoka, Y

    2014-01-01

    Citrus Greening Disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. There are no effective methods to cure this disease, and major countermeasures include detection of initial detection and cutting down  infected trees. Thus, HLB delivers serious impact to the agricultural economy. It is well known that an HLB infected tree shows specific symptoms like micronutrient deficiency. We revealed that iron (Fe) content of citrus leaves showing symptoms f...

  13. Analyses of proteomic expression profiles and nutrient status of citrus plants in response to Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lin; Nwugo, C. C.; Duan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly devastating citrus disease and represents a major threat to the citrus industries in US. The etiology of HLB worldwide is associated with three insect-transmissible phloem-limited members of the bacterial group ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp.’, prevalently ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). All citrus cultivars are susceptible to HLB. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to Las, proteomic analyses via 2...

  14. Construction of citrus gene coexpression networks from microarray data using random matrix theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dongliang Du; Nidhi Rawat; Zhanao Deng; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    After the sequencing of citrus genomes, gene function annotation is becoming a new challenge. Gene coexpression analysis can be employed for function annotation using publicly available microarray data sets. In this study, 230 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) microarrays were used to construct seven coexpression networks, including one condition-independent and six condition-dependent (Citrus canker, Huanglongbing, leaves, flavedo, albedo, and flesh) networks. In total, these networks contain 3...

  15. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, DiJun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

  16. Citrus pectin as a hydrocolloid emulsifier: Emulsifying and emulsion stabilizing properties

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Citrus pectin is commonly used as a gelling agent and viscosity enhancer in food products. However, it is considered to be less effective in terms of emulsifier. This thesis explores ways to enhance the emulsifying properties of citrus pectin by molecular modification and by a proper choice of recipe parameters. It is shown how stable emulsions can be produced with citrus pectin when the viscosity enhancing effects are properly accounted for.

  17. Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh; S.J. Hosseinimehr; M Mahmodi; M.R. Gayekhloo; M. Hoseiani

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected...

  18. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ FUERTES, BEGOÑA; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. P...

  19. Spatial Externalities of Pest Control Decisions in the California Citrus Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    Predaceous and parasitic insects provide control of important citrus pests. However, many pesticides are toxic to these beneficials. Using California citrus grower survey data, this article tests whether landscape-level use of pesticides affects the presence of and reliance on Aphytis melinus, an important beneficial insect. Results show that landscape-level pesticide use decreases the presence of A. melinus and increases reliance on insecticides. Pesticide use on non-citrus crops has a signi...

  20. Collaborating to compete: the imperative for the South Australian citrus industry

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Bruno; Chapman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper arises from a series of economic reports into the South Australian citrus industry undertaken by the Department of Primary Industries and Resources South Australia (PIRSA). The citrus industry faces a number of significant challenges. Future prosperity depends on the response. Principles of Transaction Cost Economics are drawn upon to understand the nature of the investments involved in citrus growing, permitting the identified problems to be viewed in light of inefficiencies and o...

  1. Quality assessment of citrus-processing industry waste compost for organic and conventional farming

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaccia, Dr Corrado; Di Bartolomeo, Dr Emanuela; Calabretta, Dr M.L.; Intrigliolo, Dr Francesco; Tittarelli, Dr. Fabio; Canali, Dr. Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was to verify the potential of citrus by-products for the production of a quality compost to be used in both conventional and organic farming. Two different composts were produced utilizing Pastazzo (mixture of citrus pulp and skins). One of them, to be used in conventional farming, was prepared adding sludges obtained from citrus industry waste water treatment to pastazzo. The other one, whose final destination was organic farming, was produced without the addition of slu...

  2. Observation of Climacteric-Like Behavior of Citrus Leaves Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio B. Wetterich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves depends on the detection of ethylene. However, such detection requires a gas chromatographer and complex sample preparation procedures. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a diagnostic technique for climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves. Our results indicate that the chlorophyll fluorescence presents a time evolution consistent with the ethylene evolution. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy may be used to observe the climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves.

  3. Recommended pesticides persistence for integrated citrus production on ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Beloti, Vitor H.; Zanardi, Odimar Z.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Rugno, Gabriel R.; José R. P. Parra; Pedro T. Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) is the main biological control agent of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of bacteria associated with Huanglongbing in citrus. However, indiscriminate use of chemicals affects its control rate. Thus, this study assessed the biological persistence of 22 insecticides, two oils and 16 acaricides recommended for the control of citrus pests, on the parasitoid T. radiata. For this, the parasitoid adults were exposed to waste products sprayed on citrus...

  4. Genomics meets induced mutations in citrus: identification of deleted genes through comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world while Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the Citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development

  5. Genomics Meets Induced Mutations in Citrus: Identification of Deleted Genes Through Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world and Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development

  6. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Fan; Qingli Wu; Simon, James E.; Shyi-Neng Lou; Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was...

  7. Differential Reaction of Citrus Species in Malaysia to Huanglongbing (HLB Disease using Grafting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB is a phloem limited disease in citrus caused by a fastidious bacterium called Candidatus Liberibacter found in Africa, Asia and United States of America (USA. HLB can severely reduce vigor and yield or kill all citrus trees within 5 years. There is a need to screen and identify suitable rootstock for propagation of clean plan materials for citrus in the tropics. This study was conducted to detect the presence of HLB on 18 selected citrus species and to categorize the level of infection and susceptibility of citrus species to HLB. Approach: Eighteen citrus species were assessed for susceptibility to HLB by graft transmission from source infection (Citrus reticulata. Results: HLB was detected in 15 species 6 months after grafting using PCR test. Conclusion: The species could be categorized in five groups: Severe group (72-58% severity which includes C. reticulata, C. sinensis, C. reshni cv. cleopatra, moderate group (50- 41% severity includes Fortunella sp. cv. Kasturi Chinai, C. macrophylla, C. microcarpa, mild group (25-17% severity which included C. medica, C. aurantifolia, Citrus sp. (natural biotype, C. jambhiri. The tolerant group which did not show any HLB symptoms but tested positive by PCR test includes C. aurantium and C. aurantifolia. The resistant groups which include C. grandis cv. Limau Bali, C. hysterix and Citrus sp. cv. Limau Tembikai showed no symptoms and were tested negative for HLB.

  8. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  9. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  10. Analysis of Major Carotenoid Composition and Its Content of Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jun; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; XU Jian-guo; LIU Chun-rong

    2003-01-01

    a-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein content of fruits in53 citrus cultivars were determined using HPLC. In both peel and pulp of citrus fruit, the major carotenoidswere lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. β-carotene content was relatively low and extremely low was theamount of or-carotene. Among the 53 cultivars tested, lycopene was detected only in pulp of Cara Cara navelorange. Carotenoid content in both peel and pulp of citrus fruit was the highest in Citrus reticulata Blanco andlowest in Citrus grandis Osbeck. Consequently, as far as the health protection value is considered, fruit ofCitrus reticulata Blanco ranks probably higher than other citrus fruits. In fruit of most Citrus retieulatavarities, β-cryptoxanthin was the main carotenoid component in pulp and its amount approximated that of lu-tein in peel. Content of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin in peel was about 2.5 - 15 times that in pulp onthe basis of fresh weight. Thus peel was inferred to be the principal location for the carotenoid stock in citrus fruit.

  11. Effects of Olfactory Stimulation from the Fragrance of the Japanese Citrus Fruit Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) on Mood States and Salivary Chromogranin A as an Endocrinologic Stress Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the soothing effects of fragrance from yuzu, a Japanese citrus fruit (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), with salivary chromogranin A (CgA) used as an endocrinologic stress marker reflecting sympathetic nervous system activity.

  12. Advances made in in vitro mutation breeding in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced calli of citrus cultured in vitro were exposed to gamma rays and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS). An increased frequency of mutation (300 times higher than that in nature) was observed. Two computerized models were established. A high frequency somatic embryogenesis system was developed using glycerol (1-5%), lactose (3-8%) or glactose (7%) as the sole carbon source in MT medium. The habituated embryogenic calli of four citrus cultivars were selected from nucellar calli. Protoplasts with a viability of 91.2% were isolated from the habituated calli after being treated with 0.3% callulase and 0.3% pectinase for 16 hours. The protoplasts began to regenerate into plantlets after 2-3 months. No chromosome variation was found. Two salt resistant mutants were obtained after exposing the calli to gamma rays (5-8 krad) and EMS (0.3-0.5%) and screening with sodium chloride in vitro. Protoplast fusion is also discussed. (author). 4 figs

  13. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p33......) region using quantitative RT-PCR, revealed consistent differences in abundance for each of these RNAs among flowers, stems, young fruits and leaves of infected orange trees. CTV p23 RNAs accumulated at highest levels, reaching a maximum in the flowers and the lowest levels in the leaves, while POL RNAs...... consistently accumulated at low levels in all tissues tested. A PCR-amplified dig-labelled CTV p23 DNA probe was applied to stem and leaf prints, and to crude and total RNA leaf extracts, using non isotopic hybridization. This technique, when applied to stem or leaf prints, and particularly to total RNA...

  14. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  15. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  16. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described. PMID:23179693

  17. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  18. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  19. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model wa...

  20. PR gene families of citrus: their organ specific-biotic and abiotic inducible expression profiles based on ESTs approach

    OpenAIRE

    Magnólia A. Campos; Daniel D. Rosa; Juliana Érika C. Teixeira; Maria Luisa P.N. Targon; De Souza, Alessandra A.; Paiva, Luciano V.; Dagmar R. Stach-Machado; Machado, Marcos A

    2007-01-01

    In silico expression profiles, of the discovered 3,103 citrus ESTs putatively encoding for PR protein families (PR-1 to PR-17), were evaluated using the Brazil citrus genome EST CitEST/database. Hierarchical clustering was displayed to identify similarities in expression patterns among citrus PR-like gene families (PRlgf) in 33 selected cDNA libraries. In this way, PRlgf preferentially expressed by organ and citrus species, and library conditions were highlighted. Changes in expression profil...

  1. Transcriptome analysis of root response to citrus blight based on the newly assembled Swingle citrumelo draft genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Barthe, Gary; Grosser, Jude W.; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Background Citrus blight is a citrus tree overall decline disease and causes serious losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Although it was described more than one hundred years ago, its causal agent remains unknown and its pathophysiology is not well determined, which hampers our understanding of the disease and design of suitable disease management. Results In this study, we sequenced and assembled the draft genome for Swingle citrumelo, one important citrus rootstock. The draft genome is...

  2. RNA Interference Screening Reveals Redox Processes to be Most Responsive to Low dsRNA Doses in Asian Citrus Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, John E.; Shatters, Robert G; Powell, Charles A.; Borovsky, Dov; Jain, Ritesh; Shaffer, Lindsay; Ben-Mahmoud, Sulley K.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an invasive Homopteran that has crippled citrus production in Florida with the spread of the Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) disease, which yields small discolored and bitter fruit. The disease is associated with the bacterium ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter and is rapidly spreading to other citrus producing states. Gene targets were competitively deposited by experts from diverse fields for RNAi screening through an Innocentive challenge fund...

  3. Behavioral, Ultrastructural, and Chemical Studies on the 'Honeydew' Excretions in Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, E. D.; Alessandro, R.; Shatters, R G; Hall, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera:  Psyllidae) is the main vector of bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Behavioral and ultrastructural studies on ‘honeydew’ excretions by ACP indicated interesting differences between nymphs, males and females. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adults. Video recordings showed ...

  4. Non-enzymatic browning in citrus juice: chemical markers, their detection and ways to improve product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bharate, Sonali S.; Bharate, Sandip B.

    2012-01-01

    Citrus juices are widely consumed due to their nutritional benefits and variety of pharmacological properties. Non-enzymatic browning (NEB) is one of the most important chemical reactions responsible for quality and color changes during the heating or prolonged storage of citrus products. The present review covers various aspects of NEB in citrus juice viz. chemistry of NEB, identifiable markers of NEB, analytical methods to identify NEB markers and ways to improve the quality of citrus juice...

  5. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST) were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries...

  6. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzani, Simona M.; Leonardo Schena; Antonio Ippolito

    2014-01-01

    Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated w...

  7. Evaluation of Citrus Fibers as a Tablet Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers ...

  8. Discrimination of Five Citrus Diseased Leaves by FTIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xingxiang; Liu, Gang; Li, Weixing; Wang, Xiaohua; Hao, Jianming; Zhou, Xiangping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, citrus brown spot, huanglongbing, canker, fuliginous, cercospora sp. and healthy leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with statistical analysis. The results showed that the spectra of the samples were similar, whereas there were obvious differences in the second derivatives of infrared spectra in the range of 1500-700 cm-1. The correlative analysis were evaluated, results showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0.91...

  9. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jirong Cao; Chunzhen Cheng; Junjie Yang; Qibing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ infection on nit...

  10. Influence of Metalaxyl on Three Nematodes of Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, David T.

    1983-01-01

    Metalaxyl significantly reduced population of Pratylenchus coffeae, Radopholus similis, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in roots of Citrus limon (rough lemon) under greenhouse conditions. Postinoculation treatment of rough lemon seedlings was not as effective i n reducing nematode populations as was treatment before inoculation. Fewer nematodes infected metalaxyl-treated roots than nontreated roots. However, incubation of nematodes in metalaxyl did not inhibit nematode motility or their ability...

  11. Asian Citrus Psyllid Management Strategies for California, 2012 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Morse, J. G.; Taylor, B J

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was first detected in southern California in September 2008 in the urban landscape.  Since that time, the California Department of Food and Agriculture has conducted an eradication program utilizing systemic imidacloprid and foliar cyfluthrin wherever psyllids are detected.  This program was halted in Los Angeles County in 2011 because of the size of the ACP infestation. Psyllids have continued to spread to the east and the south into San Bernardino, Riverside, and ...

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.

    OpenAIRE

    In Young Bae; Hyun Jae Rha; Suyong Lee; Hyeon Gyu Lee

    2011-01-01

    Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu) peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%). The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%), galactose (35%), glucose (5%), rhamnose (5%), and fructo...

  13. Enantiomeric distribution of key volatile components in Citrus essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Bonaccorsi; Danilo Sciarrone; Antonella Cotroneo; Luigi Mondello; Paola Dugo; Giovanni Dugo

    2011-01-01

    Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation...

  14. Isolation and Characterisation of Flavonoids From Citrus Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Makovšek, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Citrus flavonoids are very interesting for food and pharmaceutical industry since they possess many antioxidant properties and biological activities. Mandarin peels represent an important source of hesperidin and polymethoxy flavones nobiletin and tangeretin. Pommelo peels represent an important source of naringin that can be used as precursor for naringin dihdydro-2,3-chalcone artificial sweetener. Since pommelo peels possess good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, their extracts are ...

  15. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Majd Ahmad; Falahian Fathollah; Mehrabian Sedigheh; Hashemi Mehrdad; Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza; Entezari Maliheh

    2009-01-01

    Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured i...

  16. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lluís Palou; Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A.; Pérez-Gago, María B.

    2015-01-01

    According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes ...

  17. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  18. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L. Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti J. Dhanavade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L. peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

  19. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  20. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito F. García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  1. Influence of mitochondria on gene expression in a citrus cybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Froelicher, Yann; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick; Ancillo, Gema

    2011-06-01

    The production of cybrids, combining nucleus of a species with alien cytoplasmic organelles, is a valuable method used for improvement of various crops. Several citrus cybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting models to analyze the impact of cytoplasmic genome change on nuclear genome expression. Herein, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in leaves of a citrus cybrid between C. reticulata cv 'Willowleaf mandarin' and C. limon cv 'Eureka lemon' compared with its lemon parent, using a Citrus 20K cDNA microarray. Molecular analysis showed that this cybrid possesses nuclear and chloroplast genomes of Eureka lemon plus mitochondria from Willowleaf mandarin and, therefore, can be considered as a lemon bearing foreign mitochondria. Mandarin mitochondria influenced the expression of a large set of lemon nuclear genes causing an over-expression of 480 of them and repression of 39 genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR further confirmed the credibility of microarray data. Genes over-expressed in cybrid leaves are predominantly attributed to the functional category "cellular protein metabolism" whereas in the down-regulated none functional category was enriched. Overall, mitochondria replacement affected different nuclear genes including particularly genes predicted to be involved in mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Mitochondria regulate all cell structures even chloroplast status. These results suggest that nuclear gene expression is modulated with respect to new information received from the foreign organelle, with the final objective to suit specific needs to ensure better cell physiological balance. PMID:21308470

  2. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  3. Study of VOC distribution in citrus fruits by chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2003-07-01

    The contamination of various parts of citrus fruits by toluene (a representative of volatile organic compounds-VOCs) was analyzed. The model of contamination distribution, based on investigations of the sorption and accumulation of toluene in particular parts of citrus fruits was considered. Solvent extraction of components from fruit parts (waxy layer, cuticle, and pulp) was applied. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. The sorption time profiles for such citrus fruits as kumquats and mandarins were determined by plotting the extracted mass, or the relationship C/C(0), versus the sorption time of toluene. After the sorption process the highest concentration of toluene was observed in the flavedo, where the oil glands of kumquats and mandarins are located. The data obtained prove that the high dissolution of aromatic hydrocarbons results from the presence of essential oils in the oil glands. The diffusion coefficients of toluene for the cuticle and pulp of kumquats were also calculated. The results of model investigations were compared with the actual concentration of toluene in kumquats, citrons, mandarins and oranges from outdoor stands and orchards. PMID:12768263

  4. The genetics of tolerance to tristeza disease in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled pollinations between four elite citrus rootstocks, Citrus limonia - 'Limeira' rangpur lime (Cravo, C. sunki - 'Sunki' mandarin (Sunki, C. aurantium - 'São Paulo' sour orange (Azeda and Poncirus trifoliata - 'Davis A' trifoliate orange (Trifoliata, resulted in 1614 nucelar and 1938 hybrid plants identified by the isozyme loci Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Aps-1, Me-1, Prxa-1 and or by the morphological markers broadness of leaf petiole wing or trifoliolate leaves. Tolerance to the citrus tristeza virus (CTV was evaluated under nursery and field conditions for several years by the reaction of Valencia orange infected with a severe strain of CTV and grafted onto the hybrids and nucellar clones. Genetic analyses indicated that tolerance was controlled by at least two loci designated here as Az and t interacting in dominant-recessive epistasis. Genotypes Az__ __ __ and __ __ tt were tolerant while azaz T__ was intolerant. The intolerant Azeda was azaz TT, the tolerant rootstocks Sunki and Cravo were Azaz tt and the Trifoliata was Azaz TT. The different degrees of intolerance seen in some hybrids may reflect the inability of segregating modifiers from parental clones to overcome the epistatic interaction that controls the major tolerance reaction.

  5. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  6. The Lebanese Citrus Aurantium: A Promising Future in Medicinal Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Makhoul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The West Bekaa region of Lebanon is mostly an agricultural land where traditional herbal medicine is a common practice. Many medicinal applications are especially attributed to the Citrus aurantium plant mainly used in the food and drink industry. In this work, the essential oil of Citrus aurantium is studied in an attempt to find an explanation for the different medical applications of this plant extract which is widely known among locals. Using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry, twenty-six different chemicals were identified and quantified. These include the major constituent, Linalool, (29.99%, Bergamol (14.94%, Farnesol (9.86% and D-Limonene (8.42%. The latter as well as Linalool are known to have anticancer effects, thus representing major components in anticancer treatments. Their proportions in the studied essential oil and the presence of the other components (a-thujene, apinene, Camphene, Sabinene, b-pinene, b-Myrcene, p-Cymene, Ocimene (E, Linalool oxide (Trans, Linalool oxide (Cis, Terpinen-4-ol, Terpineol, Nerol (Or Cis-Geraniol, Neral, Geranial, Neryl acetate, Geranyl acetate, Nerolidol, Farnesal, Eicosane, Tetracosane, Pentacosane have amplified the importance of Citrus aurantium as a scientifically-proven medicinal plant thus justify its diverse medical applications

  7. Inactivation of citrus tristeza virus by gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total exposure of gamma ray and the intensity of gamma ray per hour for the inactivation of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and also the effect on citrus tissues are described. The budwoods of Morita navel orange infected with a severe seedling-yellow strain of CTV were irradiated with gamma ray from a 60Co source for 20 -- 52 hours. The buds or small tissue pieces of the irradiated budwoods were subsequently grafted onto Mexcan lime. CTV was easily inactivated by the irradiation from 10 to 18 kR for from 20 to 52 hours. The higher the total exposure, the higher the rate of inactivation. The CTV in the budwoods was almost inactivated after the irradiation with 20 kR. When the total exposure to gamma ray on budwoods was the same, CTV was more efficiently inactivated by the irradiation for long period with low intensity of gamma ray per hour than that for short period with high intensity per hour. Gamma ray irradiation was effective to eliminate CTV from citrus tissues. (Mori, K.)

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of citrus peel extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of three different locally grown citrus varieties; grape fruit, lemon and mussambi, was assessed using some antioxidant assays like estimation of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity. The yield of extracts was found in the range of 17.92-30.8%. TPC, TFC, percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH radical scavenging capacity of different citrus peel extracts were found in range of 2.72 - 3.77 g/100g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), 2.20-2.98 g/100g as Catechine Equivalent (CE), 68.20 - 91.78% and 19.53 - 41.88 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) variations in the yield and antioxidant potentials of the extracts with respect to different species and solvent systems. From the results it is reasonable to say that methanolic extracts of citrus peels have exhibited varying degree of antioxidant potentials. (author)

  9. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  10. Localized autoinoculation and dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea for control of the Asian citrus psyllid in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the causal organism of citrus greening disease. Integrated strategies are needed to control D. citri in south Texas. Control approaches involving entomopathogenic fungi may be useful on ornamental and abandoned citrus and other rutaceous...

  11. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cytolytic Toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  12. Determination of genomic diversity within mutant lemon (Citrus limon L.) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata) using molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding is considered to be successful in order to obtain new cultivars and expanding the genetic source of new varieties of lemon and mandarin in Citrus. In this study, different doses of gamma radiation (60Co) have been used to generate novel mutants of the common variety Yerli Yuvarlak lemon and Yerli mandarin. The differences within the mutants were examined using simple sequence repeats (SSR) and sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A total of 26 SSR primers and 28 SRAP primer combinations were screened for linkage to the different traits. Six SSR primers were showed polymorphism and closely linked to shoot tip color in lemon. Whereas, all of SRAP primer combinations were not produce any scorable polymorphic bands in both Yerli Yuvarlak lemon and Yerli mandarin. In this study, SSR and SRAP molecular markers were used together for first time to determination the genetic differences in citrus mutation breeding in the world. (author)

  13. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus causes damage to citrus fibrous roots before visual decline of Huanglongbing-infected citrus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J. H.; Johnson, E. G.; Gottwald, T. R.; Irey, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), was first detected in Florida in late 2005 and is now widely distributed throughout the commercial citrus-growing regions. In recent seasons, concurrent with freeze and drought episodes, symptomatic HLB-infected trees were much more affected by the extremes of temperature and moisture than trees without HLB. Symptoms exhibited by the stressed trees were excessive leaf loss and premature fruit drop even when HLB-infe...

  14. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco) From Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke A. Kasali; Oladipupo. A. Lawal; Olatunji T. F. Abanikannda; Abayomi A. Olaniyan; William N. Setzer

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin) cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E)- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include li...

  15. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  16. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  17. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  18. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi using digital gene expression (DGE profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  19. A reference genetic map of C. clementina hort. ex Tan.; citrus evolution inferences from comparative mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ollitrault Patrick; Terol Javier; Chen Chunxian; Federici Claire T; Lotfy Samia; Hippolyte Isabelle; Ollitrault Frédérique; Bérard Aurélie; Chauveau Aurélie; Cuenca Jose; Costantino Gilles; Kacar Yildiz; Mu Lisa; Garcia-Lor Andres; Froelicher Yann

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most modern citrus cultivars have an interspecific origin. As a foundational step towards deciphering the interspecific genome structures, a reference whole genome sequence was produced by the International Citrus Genome Consortium from a haploid derived from Clementine mandarin. The availability of a saturated genetic map of Clementine was identified as an essential prerequisite to assist the whole genome sequence assembl...

  20. Disease stress detection on citrus using a leaf optical model and field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badnakhe, Mrunalini R.; Durbha, Surya; Adinarayana, J.

    2015-10-01

    As citrus is progressively contributing to horticultural production, wealth and economy of a country, it is necessary to understand the factors impacting citrus production. Gummosis is one of the most serious diseases causing considerable loss of overall citrus production and yield quality. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of citrus leaf biochemical properties are necessary to monitor the crop health, disease /pest stress and production. Total leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) represents one of the key biochemical factors which contributes in water, carbon, and energy exchange processes. Photosynthesis process in citrus will be disturbed as gummosis disease life cycle progresses. It is important to study Cab to evaluate the photosynthesis rate and disease stress. In this study the potential of Radiative Transfer (RT) PROSPECT model to retrieve Cab in citrus orchards was undertaken at different sites. The main goal is to evaluate the relationship between Cab and gummosis disease stress for citrus at various phenological stages. Inversion of PROSPECT model on measured hyperspectral data is carried out to extract the leaf level parameters influencing the disease. This model was inverted with the ground truth hyperspectral reading. The testing was separately initiated for healthy and infected plant leaves. This can lead to understand the disease stress on citrus leaves. For accuracy, raw spectra are filtered and processed which is an input parameter for Inversion PROSPECT model. Here, retrieved Cab content was correlated with gummosis disease stress in terms of oozing with R2 = 0.6021 and RMSE= 0.481272.

  1. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... cherries and citrus fruit. We considered those comments and, in a notice dated August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46901...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit..., 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 53424-53430, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0140) a...

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section 301.75-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of...

  3. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests. PMID:24830653

  4. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-04-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties. PMID:27057814

  5. Evaluation of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Citrus Greening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, is a serious and industry-limiting disease. Preliminary diagnoses can be made through visual symptoms, and greater certainty can be achieved through quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Several qPCR procedures are available including those by designed by...

  6. The scion/rootstock genotypes and habitats affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colon

  7. Systemic translocation and metabolism of 14C-metalaxyl in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic uptake and translocation of 14C-metalaxyl to citrus seedlings from soils (Humic Gley and Yellow Red Latosol) with different physical - chemical properties are studied. Seedlings of Citrus limonia are treated with 14C-metalaxyl. (M.A.C.)

  8. Acoustic signals in the courtship of male and female Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was discovered in Broward County, Florida in 1998, and has since spread through most of the state. It is an important vector of Huanglongbing, an economically devastating disease of citrus; consequently, researchers and regulators are trying to d...

  9. A comparison of sticky traps for monitoring Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six types of sticky card traps differing in color and trapping adhesive were evaluated for monitoring Asian citrus psyllid in citrus in the United States (Florida and Texas). Spectral reflectance measurements were taken to categorize the color (wavelength) spectrum of each trap. Three of the traps (...

  10. Viability of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS). Infection with LAS, vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding LAS biology and pathogenesis is...

  11. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Friday, December 21, 2012 (74 FR 75509-75521). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus..., 2012, (74 FR 75509-75521). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained errors that... in the final rule because all citrus fruit insured as fresh will have a default juice...

  12. Transmission and Propagation of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Grafting with Individual Citrus Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a chronic, progressive decline disease in citrus associated with systemic infection by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Transmission in the field is by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama. Experimental propagation of CLas is done c...

  13. Accelerated extraction of pectin from orange citrus albedo using focused microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful p...

  14. The community structure of endophytic bacteria in different parts of Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analyses methods of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), hierarchical cluster analysis and diversity index were used to study the relevance between citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the endophytic bacteria in different branches and leaves as well as roots of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus tr...

  15. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties. PMID:26593526

  16. Citrus (Rutaceae): a review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mabberley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The naming, introduction and classification of citrus crops and their allies is outlined. Traditional medicinal use and ‘Western’ applications in the treatment of scurvy and obesity, the prevention of AIDS, and in contraception is reviewed. Names for the commercially significant citrangequat (Citrus × georgiana) and the ‘sunrise lime’ or ‘faustrimedin’ (C. × oliveri) are provided.

  17. Cryopreservation of Citrus seeds via dehydration and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm is conventionally conserved in clonal orchards and greenhouses, where it is subjected to potential losses due to pests, diseases and climatic hazards. In recent years, many studies reported preservation of germplasm in the genus Citrus. As a result, effective freezing protocols have...

  18. Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

  19. HLB/ACP Resistance or Tolerance in Non-transgenic Citrus Scion Varieties: Potential Commercial Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncirus trifoliata hybrids grown in the USHRL variety block on Sun Chu Sha (a unifoliate mandarin rootstock similar to Cleopatra) were tested for CLas 16S rDNA and Citrus dehydrin (as an internal standard to permit expression of data in CLas genomes/citrus genomes) by qPCR, assessing random quadran...

  20. Genome Assembly of Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear Type Reveals a Close Association with Orchid Fleck Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Shao, Jonathan; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K.; Hollingsworth, Charla R.; Hartung, John S.; Schneider, William L.; Brlansky, Ronald H.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) was identified by small RNA sequencing utilizing leprosis-affected citrus samples collected from the state of Querétaro, Mexico. The nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that CiLV-N is very closely related to orchid fleck virus, which typically infects Cymbidium species.

  1. Huanglongbing: An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world's citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, John V; Douhan, Greg W; Halbert, Susan E; Keremane, Manjunath L; Lee, Richard F; Vidalakis, Georgios; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) has become a major disease and limiting factor of production in citrus areas that have become infected. The destruction to the affected citrus industries has resulted in a tremendous increase to support research that in return has resulted in significant information on both applied and basic knowledge concerning this important disease to the global citrus industry. Recent research indicates the relationship between citrus and the causal agent of HLB is shaped by multiple elements, in which host defense responses may also play an important role. This review is intended to provide an overview of the importance of HLB to a wider audience of plant biologists. Recent advances on host-pathogen interactions, population genetics and vectoring of the causal agent are discussed. PMID:26466921

  2. Construction of citrus gene coexpression networks from microarray data using random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongliang; Rawat, Nidhi; Deng, Zhanao; Gmitter, Fred G

    2015-01-01

    After the sequencing of citrus genomes, gene function annotation is becoming a new challenge. Gene coexpression analysis can be employed for function annotation using publicly available microarray data sets. In this study, 230 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) microarrays were used to construct seven coexpression networks, including one condition-independent and six condition-dependent (Citrus canker, Huanglongbing, leaves, flavedo, albedo, and flesh) networks. In total, these networks contain 37 633 edges among 6256 nodes (genes), which accounts for 52.11% measurable genes of the citrus microarray. Then, these networks were partitioned into functional modules using the Markov Cluster Algorithm. Significantly enriched Gene Ontology biological process terms and KEGG pathway terms were detected for 343 and 60 modules, respectively. Finally, independent verification of these networks was performed using another expression data of 371 genes. This study provides new targets for further functional analyses in citrus. PMID:26504573

  3. Characterisation of free and bound volatile compounds from six different varieties of citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing-Nan; Tai, Ya-Nan; Dong, Man; Shao, Jin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Free volatile compounds in six varieties of citrus juices were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bound fractions were isolated and extracted with methanol and Amberlite XAD-2 resin and then hydrolyzed by almond β-glucosidase. A total of 43 free and 17 bound volatile compounds were identified in citrus. Free volatile contents in sweet orange were the most abundant, followed by those in grapefruits and mandarins. Among free volatiles, terpenes were the most abundant in citrus juice. Sensory analysis results showed that the flavor of the same citrus cultivars was similar, but the flavor of different cultivars varied. Among bound volatiles, benzenic compounds were the most abundant in these citrus juices. Bound volatiles also significantly differed among cultivars. In addition, only p-vinylguaiacol were detected in all of the samples. PMID:25952837

  4. Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomona; Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2003-01-01

    Limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (EOs) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. Little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus EOs. In this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by Citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) EO, Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) EO and Citrus limon (lemon) EO. These EOs induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the EOs. Moreover, sweet orange EO and grapefruit EO may contain components besides limonene that have apoptotic activity. To identify the components with apoptotic activity, grapefruit EO was fractionated using silica gel columns, and the components were analyzed by GC-MS. The n-hexane fraction contained limonene, and the dichloromethane fraction (DF) contained aldehyde compounds and nootkatone. Decanal, octanal and citral in the DF showed strong apoptotic activity, suggesting that the aldehyde compounds induced apoptosis strongly in HL-60 cells. PMID:14758720

  5. Huanglongbing:An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world’s citrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John V da Graa; Greg W Douhan; Susan E Halbert; Manjunath L Keremane; Richard F Lee; Georgios Vidalakis; Hongwei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) has become a major disease and limiting factor of production in citrus areas that have become infected. The destruction to the affected citrus industries has resulted in a tremendous increase to support research that in return has resulted in significant information on both applied and basic knowledge concerning this important disease to the global citrus industry. Recent research indicates the relationship between citrus and the causal agent of HLB is shaped by multiple elements, in which host defense responses may also play an important role. This review is intended to provide an overview of the importance of HLB to a wider audience of plant biologists. Recent advances on host-pathogen interactions, population genetics and vectoring of the causal agent are discussed.

  6. Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar I. Khaskheli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study As (V was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO and hydroxyl (OH groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradisi peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples.

  7. Citrus paradisi: an effective bio-adsorbent for arsenic (v) remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study As(V) was removed by citrus paradise (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradise peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradise was 37.76 mg.g/sup -1/ at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO) and hydroxyl (OH) groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradis peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples. (author)

  8. Detection of Liberibacter asiaticus in a single infected Asian citrus psyllid adult or nymph: Impact of dilution with clean Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) during extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LeVesque, Cynthia; Kumagai, Lucita; Bloomquist, Cheryl; Keremane, Manjunath; Lee, Richard; Kunta, Madhurababu; da Graça, John V.; Vidalakis, Georgious; Lin, Hong; Morgan, John; Hall, David G.; Polek, MaryLou

    2014-01-01

    Now that the presence of Huanglongbing (HLB) has been confirmed in California, protecting the state’s citrus industry through early detection of disease is essential in curtailing its spread. Because ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), the putative causal agent of HLB, accumulates in its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama, accurate testing of the insect is vital. Due to the fact that insect secondary metabolites interfere with downstream applications (1,...

  9. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Tenório Costa; William Mário de Carvalho Nunes; Carlos Alexandre Zanutto; Gerd Walter Müller

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG) analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational po...

  10. Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ollitrault Patrick; Talon Manuel; Wincker Patrick; Allario Thierry; Argout Xavier; Terol Javier; Costantino Gilles; Luro François L; Morillon Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide) or...

  11. Virus-viroid interactions: Citrus Tristeza Virus enhances the accumulation of Citrus Dwarfing Viroid in Mexican lime via virus-encoded silencing suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Pedro; Bani Hashemian, Seyed M; Fagoaga, Carmen; Romero, Juan; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Gorris, Maria T; Bertolini, Edson; Duran-Vila, Núria

    2014-01-01

    An assay to identify interactions between Citrus Dwarfing Viroid (CDVd) and Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) showed that viroid titer was enhanced by the coinfecting CTV in Mexican lime but not in etrog citron. Since CTV encodes three RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), p23, p20 and p25, an assay using transgenic Mexican limes expressing each RSS revealed that p23 and, to a lesser extent, p25 recapitulated the effect observed with coinfections of CTV and CDVd. PMID:24227850

  12. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  13. Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Daş, Gürbüz

    2012-08-13

    The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by β-Pinene (1.5%), α-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (Pgalli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

  14. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  15. Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

  16. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  17. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  18. Nonvascular transfer of assimilates in citrus juice tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of labeled assimilates through phloem-free areas and into sink tissues was examined in intact grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and in rows of juice vesicles isolated with an attached vascular bundle. Entry of 14C-photosynthates into phloem-free juice tissues was completed with 30 h in intact and isolated structures. Subsequent redistribution from hair-like vesicle stalks into juice vesicles, however, continued throughout the experiments. Localization of radioactivity suggests possible similarities in nonvascular transfer rates of both systems

  19. Affordable Essential Oils for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Tribuiani, Yolani; Hoyte, Angel; Lukasz L Stelinski

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils are commonly used to manage insects; they are widely available and some are inexpensive.  In this research we have selected five botanical oils costing less than $100 US per kilogram, to evaluate for repellency to Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), the insect vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing.  In olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent; clove and camphor oils were attractive; and litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from ACP females.  In no-choice se...

  20. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. PMID:27247354