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Sample records for citrus rootstock poncirus

  1. Effect of Agrobacterium culture and inoculation density on transformation efficiency of a citrange (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Agrobacterium growth phase and density on transformation of citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. In the first experiment, Agrobacterium EHA105 containing pBINGUSint was grown in YEP medium to an OD600 of 1 and glycerol sto...

  2. The effects of benzyladenine and meta-topolin on in vitro shoot regeneration of a citrus citrandarin rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of 6-benzyladeninepurine (BA) and meta-topolin (mT) on the three responses shoot quality, numbers of epicotyl explants producing shoots, and the number of shoots greater than 2 mm from citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. Th...

  3. Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata based on SSU rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10), all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus) accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices) accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards. PMID:25162057

  4. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

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    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  5. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  6. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  7. Comportamento da laranjeira Piralima sobre Poncirus trifoliata com variações na altura de enxertia Behaviour of Piralima orange on Poncirus trifoliata rootstock as a function of budding height

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    V.R. Sampaio

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se a combinação de laranjeira Piralima, Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. sobre Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. fazendo-se variações nas alturas das enxertias, com operações efetuadas a zero, dez, vinte e quarenta centímetros de altura. Avaliações realizadas após seis anos e meio de implantação do experimento permitiram as seguintes conclusões: 1 as alturas das enxertias afetaram o desenvolvimento global das plantas, com as enxertias mais altas reforçando o efeito ananicante do Poncirus trifoliata; 2 as diferentes alturas de enxertia não afetaram as produções de frutos das três primeiras produções comerciais. Na quarta colheita surgiu diferença entre os tratamentos extremos, com maiores produções acontecendo para plantas enxertadas próximas ao solo; 3 o Poncirus trifoliata induziu características ananicantes às copas e as constantes boas produções de frutos de bom tamanho. Mostrou-se ser porta-enxerto interessante para o cultivar Piralima.The combination Poncirus trifoliata x Piralima acidless orange was studied as a function of the budding height, from zero to forty centimeters. After six and half years of evaluations the results led to the following conclusions: 1 variation in the budding height affected the plant global development: the higher was the budding height, the more intense was the Poncirus trifoliata dwarf effect. 2 variation in budding height did not affect orange yield during the first three commercial harvests. Difference occurred in the fourth harvest, between the extreme treatments, with larger yields for plants budded near to the soil. 3 Poncirus trifoliata induced dwarf characteristics to 'Piralima' stock as well as regular and good yield along the years, and the fruits were classified as high grade. Poncirus trifoliata showed to be an interesting rootstock for the cultivar Piralima.

  8. In Vitro Propagation of Citrus Rootstocks

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    Suneel SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was conducted to standardize a protocol for in-vitro propagation of citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Pectinifera and Troyer citrange. The shoot tip explant was found better for callus induction of these rootstocks than the nodal segment. Maximum callus formation (40.0% and 23.3% of shoot tip explants was obtained in Cleopatra mandarin, Pectinifera, and Rough lemon and Troyer citrange, respectively in treatment MS basal media + 0.5mg/l Kin, 2.0mg/l NAA, and 2.0mg/l 2, 4-D. Furthermore, the maximum number of shoots per explant was obtained through the callus in Pectinifera, Rough lemon and Cleopatra mandarin in MS basal media + BAP 1mg/l. Maximum rooting of shoots (1.11% was noted in rootstock Rough lemon followed by Cleopatra mandarin for the � MS media supplemented with 10mg/l IBA. Although the callus development and bud proliferation was recorded in rootstock Troyer citrange however, shoot and root formation did not occur. The potting media consisting of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume was better with maximum survival rate of hardened plants six weeks after transferring to the pots under greenhouse for Rough lemon followed by Pectinifera and Cleopatra mandarin rootstock.

  9. Mapeamento de QTLs associados à produção de frutos e sementes em híbridos de Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata QTL mapping linked to fruit set and seeds in Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

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    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O grupo dos citros apresenta acentuada juvenilidade manifestada pela incapacidade de florescimento, vigor e formação de espinhos. No caso da laranja 'valência', os híbridos de trifoliata, utilizados como porta-enxertos, induzem maior precocidade e produtividade. O número de sementes do fruto (NSF constitui importante característica da variedade candidata a porta-enxerto de citros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar QTLs associados às características número de frutos por planta (NF e número de sementes por fruto em uma progênie F1 derivada de um cruzamento entre Citrus sunki e Poncirus trifoliata 'Rubidoux'. Os grupos de ligação (GL dos parentais foram obtidos usando a estratégia 'pseudotestcross' e marcadores do tipo RAPD. A contagem do número de frutos por planta e o número médio de sementes por fruto foi realizada usando 80 indivíduos da progênie. A detecção dos QTLs foi realizada pelo método de mapeamento por intervalo composto utilizando o programa QTLCartographer. Foram detectados um QTL associado à frutificação e um QTL ligado ao número de sementes situados no GL 4 e GL 5 no mapa de P. trifoliata, respectivamente.Citrus group shows juvenility strong due incapacity to flowering, vigor and thorn formation. Trifoliata hybrids used as rootstocks to induce early production and better field for 'Valencia' orange scion. Seeds number per fruit is very important characteristic to citrus rootstocks candidate. The present study has as objective to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL associated to fruiting and seeds production in F1 progeny obtained of Citrus sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata cross. Linkage groups (LG of parents were built by pseudotestcross strategy using RAPD markers. Fruits/plant and seeds/fruit numbers were counting using 80 individuals of progeny. QTL detection was made with composite interval mapping using the QTL Cartographer. QTL linked to fruiting and seed production in LG 4 and LG 5 of the P

  10. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

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    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  11. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

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    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  12. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. (Rutaceae

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    Novelli Valdenice Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzymatic polymorphism analysis was used to determine genetic variability among species and hybrids of Citrus spp. and one accession of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Ten enzymatic systems aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, acid phosphatase (ACP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, diaphorase (DIA, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKD and peroxidase (PRX were analyzed. Twenty loci and 48 alleles were identified. Sweet orange cultivars (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck showed the highest polymorphism with the largest number of heterozygous loci, although the alleles of those loci were the same in all cultivars, with the exception of Westin and Lima graúda. Mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco exhibited diverse patterns, whereas Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. showed high variability with all Citrus species and hybrids. Exclusive phenotypes were observed in some enzymatic systems, and similar patterns were found among interspecific hybrids and their putative parents.

  13. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

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    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  14. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

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    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  15. Metabolic variations in different citrus rootstock cultivars associated with different responses to Huanglongbing.

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    Albrecht, Ute; Fiehn, Oliver; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-10-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of citrus. No resistant cultivars have been identified, although tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids with Citrus that are commonly used as rootstocks. In this study we exploited this tolerance by comparing five different tolerant hybrids with a cultivar that shows pronounced HLB sensitivity to discern potential contributing metabolic factors. Whole leaves of infected and non-infected greenhouse-grown seedlings were extracted and subjected to untargeted GC-TOF MS based metabolomics. After BinBase data filtering, 342 (experiment 1) and 650 (experiment 2) unique metabolites were quantified, of which 122 and 195, respectively, were assigned by chemical structures. The number of metabolites found to be differently regulated in the infected state compared with the non-infected state varied between the cultivars and was largest (166) in the susceptible cultivar Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lowest (3) in the tolerant cultivars US-897 (C. reticulata 'Cleopatra' × Poncirus trifoliata) and US-942 (C. reticulata 'Sunki' × P. trifoliata) from experiment 2. Tolerance to HLB did not appear to be associated with accumulation of higher amounts of protective metabolites in response to infection. Many metabolites were found in higher concentrations in the tolerant cultivars compared with susceptible Cleopatra mandarin and may play important roles in conferring tolerance to HLB. Lower availability of specific sugars necessary for survival of the pathogen may also be a contributing factor in the decreased disease severity observed for these cultivars. PMID:27236226

  16. Growth of citrus rootstocks under aluminium stress in hydroponics

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    Pereira Walter Esfrain

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants present different degrees of adaptation to aluminium (Al concentrations in the soil, and the understanding of this characteristic can lead to a viable option for the utilization of acid soils. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of five Al concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mumol L-1 on the growth of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., and tangerine rootstocks 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan and 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., in hydroponic culture. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications. For all rootstocks, the relative growth rate in terms of plant total fresh matter increased under low and, decreased under large Al concentrations. Growth of the shoot, leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio decreased for all rootstocks in the presence of Al. The 'Rangpur' lime had a decrease of the root system growth, starting from 23 mumol L-1 of Al. For the remaining rootstocks, this growth reached maximum values at 91 to 117 mumol L-1 of Al, respectively. Considering all the evaluated characteristics of plant growth, the 'Rangpur' lime was the most susceptible to Al.

  17. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation

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    Divanilde Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid citrus rootstocks may present different morphological characteristics and growth when compared to diploid ones. This worked aimed at comparing morphological characteristics and height growth of diploid and tetraploid plants from the rootstocks 'Swingle' citrumelo [C. paradise Macf. x Poncirus trifoliate (L. Raf], citrange 'Troyer' (C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata and citranges 'Fepagro C 13' and 'Fepagro C 37' [C. sinensis cv. Pêra x P. trifoliata] during twelve months. Diploid (2n=18 and tetraploid (2n=36 plants originated from the same seed were identified, cultivated and evaluated every 45 days regarding color, height, petiole length, leaf length and central leaflet width. Significant differences were observed for the evaluated characteristics: the average of petiole length was 1.78 cm in the diploid and 0.99 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of leaf length was 2.32 cm in the diploid and 2.95 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of central leaflet width was 1.33 cm in the diploid and 1.69 cm in the tetraploid plants. Moreover, tetraploid plants had darker and thicker leaves than the diploid ones. Variation regarding height was observed and the diploid plants presented higher growth than the tetraploid ones. As tetraploid plants are smaller, have a slow height growth and wider and longer leaves.

  18. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  19. Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.

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    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-04-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid. PMID:23315666

  20. Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-04-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid.

  1. Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica

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    Takita Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R, and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible hybrids in comparison with their parents 48 hours after P. parasitica inoculation. We proposed that genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible parents and between their resistant and susceptible hybrids provide promising candidates for identifying transcripts involved in disease resistance. A microarray containing 62,876 UniGene transcripts selected from the CitEST database and prepared by NimbleGen Systems was used for analyzing global gene expression 48 hours after infection with P. parasitica. Results Three pairs of data comparisons (P. trifoliata/C. sunki, Pool R/C. sunki and Pool R/Pool S were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 3.0, 21 UniGene transcripts common to the three pairwise comparative were found to be up-regulated, and 3 UniGene transcripts were down-regulated. Among them, our results indicated that the selected transcripts were probably involved in the whole process of plant defense responses to pathogen attack, including transcriptional regulation, signaling, activation of defense genes participating in HR, single dominant genes (R gene such as TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4 and switch of defense-related metabolism pathway. Differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant plants and between inoculated and uninoculated control plants Conclusions Twenty four UniGene transcripts were identified as candidate genes for Citrus response to P. parasitica. UniGene transcripts were likely to be involved in disease resistance, such

  2. 柑桔砧木育种研究进展%Advances in Citrus Rootstock Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世平; 江东; 洪棋斌; 龚桂芝; 刘小丰; 赵晓春

    2013-01-01

    柑桔主要通过嫁接进行繁殖.柑桔砧木对接穗生长势、产量、果实大小、品质和抗性等都有直接的影响.砧木遗传改良是保持柑桔产业具有较强竞争力和较高生产力的重要步骤,世界各国都在致力于柑桔优良砧木的培育.本文就近几十年来柑桔砧木育种进展进行简要综述.%Citrus is mainly propagated by grafting. The rootstock directly affects the growth vigor, production, fruit size and quality, and stress-responsiveness of the scion. The health and productivity of citrus industry is greatly dependent on the performance of the rootstocks. The genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks has become a vital step towards the industry being more productive and competitive. In most of citrus growing countries, selecting and creating superior rootstock is one of the most important practices in citrus breeding. In this paper, the progresses in citrus root-stock breeding in the past decades will be briefly reviewed.

  3. The root ferric-chelate reductase of Ceratonia siliqua (L.) and Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. responds differently to a low level of iron

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, M; Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; de Varennes, Amarilis; P.J. Correia

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a common nutritional disorder in several crops grown in calcareous soils, but some species are well adapted to these conditions. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to compare the response of a calcicole species Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) and of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., a citrus rootstock very sensitive to Fe deficiency. Rootstocks from both species were grown in nutrient solutions without Fe (0 M Fe), with 1 M Fe, and with 10 M Fe (carob) or 4...

  4. HLB/ACP Resistance or Tolerance in Non-transgenic Citrus Scion Varieties: Potential Commercial Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncirus trifoliata hybrids grown in the USHRL variety block on Sun Chu Sha (a unifoliate mandarin rootstock similar to Cleopatra) were tested for CLas 16S rDNA and Citrus dehydrin (as an internal standard to permit expression of data in CLas genomes/citrus genomes) by qPCR, assessing random quadran...

  5. Rootstock-scion interaction affecting citrus response to CTV infection: a proteomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Paolo; Russo, Maria P; Guardo, Maria; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi; Moliterni, Vita M C

    2016-04-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of various diseases with dramatic effects on citrus crops worldwide. Most Citrus species, grown on their own roots, are symptomless hosts for many CTV isolates. However, depending on different scion-rootstock combination, CTV infection should result in distinct syndromes, being 'tristeza' the more severe one, leading to a complete decline of the susceptible plants in a few weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed several genes involved either in defense response, or systemic acquired resistance, as well as transcription factors and components of the phosphorylation cascades, to be differentially regulated during CTV infection in Citrus aurantifolia species. To date little is known about the molecular mechanism of this host-pathogen interaction, and about the rootstock effect on citrus response to CTV infection. In this work, the response to CTV infection has been investigated in tolerant and susceptible scion-rootstock combinations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 125 protein spots have been found to be differently accumulated and/or phosphorylated between the two rootstock combinations. Downregulation in tolerant plants upon CTV infection was detected for proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and defense response, suggesting a probable acclimation response able to minimize the systemic effects of virus infection. Some of these proteins resulted to be modulated also in absence of virus infection, revealing a rootstock effect on scion proteome modulation. Moreover, the phospho-modulation of proteins involved in ROS scavenging and defense response, further supports their involvement either in scion-rootstock crosstalk or in the establishment of tolerance/susceptibility to CTV infection. PMID:26459956

  6. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  7. Refinement of the Citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) positional map in Poncirus trifoliata and generation of transgenic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plant lines with candidate resistance genes in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mamta

    2006-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen of Citrus. A single dominant gene Ctv present in the trifoliate relative of Citrus, Poncirus trifoliata confers broad spectrum resistance against CTV. Refinement of genetic maps has delimited this gene to a 121 kb region, comprising of ten candidate Ctv resistance genes. The ten candidate genes were individually cloned in Agrobacterium based binary vector and transformed into three CTV susceptible grapefruit varieties. Two of the candidate R-genes, R-2 and R-3 are exclusively expressed in transgenic plants and in Poncirus trifoliata, while five other genes are also expressed in non-transformed Citrus controls. Northern blotting with a CTV derived probe for assessment of infection in virus inoculated plants over a span of three growth periods, each comprising of six to eight weeks, indicates either an absence of initiation of infection or it's slow spread in R-2 plant lines or an initial appearance of infection and it's subsequent obliteration in some R-1 and R-4 plant lines. Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. PMID:16830176

  8. Fertile fruit trees obtained by somatic hybridization: navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgawara, T; Kobayashi, S; Ishii, S; Yoshinaga, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-02-01

    Nucellar cell suspension protoplasts of navel orange (Citrus sinsensis Osb.) were chemically fused with mesophyll protoplasts of Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata) and cultured in hormone-free Murashige and Tucker medium containing 0.6 M sucrose. Two types of plant were regenerated through embryogenesis. One type showed intermediate mono-and difoliate leaves and the other types was identical to Troyer citrange. The regenerated plants with intermediate morphology were demonstrated by chromosome counts and rDNA analysis to be amphidiploid somatic hybrids. Five clones of these somatic hybrids were grafted in the field. After 4 years, they set flowers having a morphology intermediate between those of the two parents. The pollen grains showed high stainability and sufficient germinability, and were larger than those of Troyer citrange. The fruits of the somatic hybrids were large and spherical with thick rinds. Most of them contained seeds with normal germinability. These results indicate that somatic hybridization is a useful tool for Citrus breeding.

  9. Cold acclimation induced genes of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can-kui; Lang, Ping; Dane, Fenny; Ebel, Robert C; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D; Dozier, William A

    2005-03-01

    Commercial citrus varieties are sensitive to low temperature. Poncirus trifoliata is a close relative of Citrus species and has been widely used as a cold-hardy rootstock for citrus production in low-temperature environments. mRNA differential display-reverse transcription (DDRT)-PCR and quantitative relative-RT-PCR were used to study gene expression of P. trifoliata under a gradual cold-acclimation temperature regime. Eight up-regulated cDNA fragments were isolated and sequenced. These fragments showed high similarities at the amino acid level to the following genes with known functions: betaine/proline transporter, water channel protein, aldo-keto reductase, early light-induced protein, nitrate transporter, tetratricopeptide-repeat protein, F-box protein, and ribosomal protein L15. These cold-acclimation up-regulated genes in P. trifoliata are also regulated by osmotic and photo-oxidative signals in other plants.

  10. Differential expression of genes identified from Poncirus trifoliata tissue inoculated with CTV through EST analysis and in silico hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the most important fruit crop in Brazil and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is considered one of the most important pathogens of citrus. Most citrus species and varieties are susceptible to CTV infection. However, Poncirus trifoliata, a close relative of citrus, is resistant to the virus. In order to better understand the responses of citrus plants to the infection of CTV, we constructed expressed sequence tag (EST libraries with tissues collected from Poncirus trifoliata plants, inoculated or not with Citrus tristeza virus at 90 days after inoculation, grafted on Rangpur lime rootstocks. We generated 17,867 sequence tags from Poncirus trifoliata inoculated (8,926 reads and not (8,941 reads with a severe CTV isolate. A total of 2,782 TCs (Tentative Consensi sequences were obtained using both cDNA libraries in a single clusterization procedure. By the in silico hybridization approach, 289 TCs were identified as differentially expressed in the two libraries. A total of 121 TCs were found to be overexpressed in plants infected with CTV and were grouped in 12 primary functional categories. The majority of them were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some others were related to lignin, ethylene biosynthesis and PR proteins. In general, the differentially expressed transcripts seem to be somehow involved in secondary plant response to CTV infection.

  11. GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF CITRUS ROOTSTOCK VARIETIES UNDER SALT STRESS

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    MARCOS ERIC BARBOSA BRITO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High salt concentration in water are common in Brazilian semirad region, being important to research alternatives for use this waters on crop, like use of tolerant genotypes to salinity. Thus, in order to evaluate the saline stress perception of citrus rootstocks varieties crop from gas exchange and fluorescence analysis, an experiment was realized in greenhouse at the Center for Science and Technology Agrifood, CCTA, of Federal University of Campina Grande, UFCG, Pombal, PB, Brazil. It was studied in a randomized block design with factorial scheme (2x4, two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dSm-1 and four varieties of citrus rootstocks [1 -common Sunki mandarin (TSKC, 2 - Florida Rough lemon (LRF, 3 -Santa Cruz Rangpur lime (LCRSTC and 4-Volkamer lemon (LVK], with three replications. The citrus rootstocks varieties grown on hydroponic system and at 90 days after sowing the plants were evaluated by gas exchange and PSII fluorescence at 0, 24 and 48 hours after application of treatments to determine the times for the physiological establishment of salt stress. The first 48h under saline conditions promoted changes in gas exchange and PSII fluorescence in varieties TSKC, LRF and LCRSTC indicating the begin of physiological stress; the common ‘Sunki’ mandarin and the ‘Florida Rough’ lemon are the more sensitive genotypes to saline stress, in order hand the ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime and ‘Volkamer’ lemon are the genotypes more tolerant.

  12. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

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    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  13. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Is Dependent on Rootstock

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    Geisa Lima Mesquita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive. Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  14. Desiccation sensitivity and cryopreservation of excised embryonic axes of Citrus suhuiensis cv. limau madu, Citrumelo [Citrus paradisi macf. × Poncirus trifoliata (l.) raf.] and Fortunella polyandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zoubi, O M; Normah, M N

    2012-01-01

    Excised embryonic axes from seeds of three taxa, namely, Citrus suhuiensis cv. limau madu, Citrumelo (Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliate) and Fortunella polyandra, were desiccated in a laminar airflow, over silica gel, and ultra-rapidly. Desiccation sensitivity (WC50) was estimated for each taxon using the quantal response model. High desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.11 g water per g dry mass. g/gdw) was observed for limau madu embryonic axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and ultra-rapidly (WC50 =0.10 g/gdw). Desiccation tolerance was substantially lower (WC50 = 0.19 g/gdw) for silica gel dehydration. Similarly, high desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.15 g/gdw) was associated with F. polyandra embryonic axes when desiccated in a laminar airflow, while a lower desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.17 g/gdw) was observed with silica gel dehydration. Ultra-rapid desiccation led to the highest desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.14 g/gdw). The dehydration rate, however, had no influence on desiccation tolerance (WC50 ~ 0.14 g/gdw) for Citrumelo embryonic axes. After each desiccation period, embryonic axes were directly immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN) followed by rapid rewarming. Normal seedling recovery of 80 to 83% for excised embryonic axes of limau madu was observed for laminar airflow and ultra-rapid dehydration, but for silica gel dehydration, 57% recovery was obtained. Similarly, for Citrumelo, high recoveries of 100% and 97% were obtained from axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and using ultra-rapid dehydration, respectively, whereas a lower value was associated with silica gel dehydration (80%). For F. polyandra, 50% recovery was obtained both for laminar airflow and ultra-rapid dehydration, while much lower recovery (43%) was associated with silica gel dehydration. Regardless of the drying method employed, axis survival percentages following exposure to LN were commensurate with the desiccation sensitivity pattern.

  15. Subirrigation equipment for the production of citrus rootstocks: Design and hydraulic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan Ayade Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and characterize hydraulic subirrigation equipment for the citrus rootstocks production of to allow the water capillary rise for the seedling stage. This equipment was designed since the citrus seedling phase occurs in plastic containers with substrate, and because there is a need to increase the irrigation efficiency in this sector. The methodology consisted of: (i identification and characterization of the irrigation methods used in the citrus rootstocks production; (ii the design of subirrigation equipment prototype; and, (iii the construction and hydraulic evaluation of the prototype equipment. After a model was designed, 10 prototypes were built with two different dimensions (44 × 29 × 15 cm and 62 × 41 × 15 cm, and the theoretical and experimental relationships of flow and operating pressure were determined. The proposed equipment was designed according to engineering criteria that allows its evaluation for commercial use, although additional field trials are required for its final adjustment. Moreover, the theoretical equation of flow rate was validated for small-immersed orifices in thin walls, as an operational condition of the developed subirrigation equipment.

  16. Analysis on Acid Tolerance of Several Citrus Rootstock Seedlings%几种柑桔砧木幼苗的耐酸性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方治军; 杨义伶; 黄春辉; 辜青青; 徐小彪

    2011-01-01

    以不同酸性(pH值1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、5.0和6.0)营养液处理的枳、酸柚、酸橙、卡里佐枳橙、三湖红桔、新干化红、崇义野桔等7种柑桔砧木幼苗为试材,通过酸害症状观测以及酸害指数为指标的聚类分析,对其耐酸性强弱进行鉴定与分析.结果表明,供试柑桔砧木幼苗的耐酸性可分为3类,耐酸性最强的为枳,平均酸害指数为13.33;耐酸性中等的为酸柚、三湖红桔、新干化红、崇义野桔、卡里佐枳橙,平均酸害指数分别为17.33、17.80、17.58、15.11、17.79,这一类的总平均值为17.88;耐酸性最弱的为酸橙,平均酸害指数达26.22.本研究可为柑桔砧木种质改良提供理论依据,同时为柑桔砧木种质资源的合理开发利用提供参考.%Seven citrus rootstock seedlings. Zhi{Poncirus trifoliate (L. ) Raf), Suanyou(Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill), SuanchengCC. Aurantium L,), ZhichengCRuta 'Citrange'), San-huhongju(Citrus reticulate Blanco), Xinganhuahong(C. reticulataXC. Aurantium), and Chongy-iyejuCC. Reticulate Blanco), were treated with nutrient solutions of different pH values to test their tolerance to acid. The results showed that these seedlings could be classified into three groups by their tolerance to acid. P. Trifoliate ( L. ) Raf had the strongest acid tolerance by showing a lowest average acid injury index of 13. 33%. C. Maxima (J. Burman) Merrill, C. Reticulate Blanco, C. reticulataXC. Aurantium, C. Reticulata Blanco, Ruta 'Citrange' showed an median tolerance with an injury index of 17. 33%, 17. 80%, 17. 58%, 15.11 %, 17. 79%, respectively, and the mean acid injury index for this group was 17. 88%. C. Aurantium L. Was the least in acid tolerance for having a high average acid injury index of 26. 22%. The results could be valuable references for citrus root-stock improvement and selecting suitable citrus rootstocks in citrus cultivation.

  17. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  18. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  19. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

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    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  20. Sequence Analysis of a 282-Kilobase Region Surrounding the Citrus Tristeza Virus Resistance Gene (Ctv) Locus in Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Nan; Ye, Xin-Rong; Molina, Joe; Roose, Mikeal L.; Mirkov, T. Erik

    2003-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the major virus pathogen causing significant economic damage to citrus worldwide, and a single dominant gene, Ctv, provides broad spectrum resistance to CTV in Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. Ctv was physically mapped to a 282-kb region using a P. trifoliata bacterial artificial chromosome library. This region was completely sequenced to about 8× coverage using a shotgun sequencing strategy and primer walking for gap closure. Sequence analysis predicts 22 putative genes, two mutator-like transposons and eight retrotransposons. This sequence analysis also revealed some interesting features of this region of the P. trifoliata genome: a disease resistance gene cluster with seven members and eight retrotransposons clustered in a 125-kb gene-poor region. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that six genes in the Ctv region have significant sequence similarity with their orthologs in bacterial artificial chromosome clones F7H2 and F21T11 from Arabidopsis chromosome I. However, the analysis of gene colinearity between P. trifoliata and Arabidopsis indicates that Arabidopsis genome sequence information may be of limited use for positional gene cloning in P. trifoliata and citrus. Analysis of candidate genes for Ctv is also discussed. PMID:12586873

  1. Sequence analysis of a 282-kilobase region surrounding the citrus Tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) locus in Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Nan; Ye, Xin-Rong; Molina, Joe; Roose, Mikeal L; Mirkov, T Erik

    2003-02-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the major virus pathogen causing significant economic damage to citrus worldwide, and a single dominant gene, Ctv, provides broad spectrum resistance to CTV in Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. Ctv was physically mapped to a 282-kb region using a P. trifoliata bacterial artificial chromosome library. This region was completely sequenced to about 8x coverage using a shotgun sequencing strategy and primer walking for gap closure. Sequence analysis predicts 22 putative genes, two mutator-like transposons and eight retrotransposons. This sequence analysis also revealed some interesting features of this region of the P. trifoliata genome: a disease resistance gene cluster with seven members and eight retrotransposons clustered in a 125-kb gene-poor region. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that six genes in the Ctv region have significant sequence similarity with their orthologs in bacterial artificial chromosome clones F7H2 and F21T11 from Arabidopsis chromosome I. However, the analysis of gene colinearity between P. trifoliata and Arabidopsis indicates that Arabidopsis genome sequence information may be of limited use for positional gene cloning in P. trifoliata and citrus. Analysis of candidate genes for Ctv is also discussed. PMID:12586873

  2. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  3. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  4. The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavorat, S.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

  5. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  6. Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podazza, Griselda [Instituto de Ecologia, Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 251, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Arias, Marta [Catedra de Anatomia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Prado, Fernando E., E-mail: prad@arnet.com.ar [Catedra de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd induces oxidative stress, increasing the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SOD, G-POD, CAT activities are enhanced by Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-POD activity participates in Cd-induced lignin synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd mainly accumulates in exodermis and vascular cylinder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd is mostly immobilized in roots, limiting its transport to aerial parts. - Abstract: In order to assess implications of Cd-induced oxidative stress in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo, seedlings were hydroponically exposed to two relatively realistic Cd concentrations during 7 days. Our results showed that increasing Cd concentrations in external solution were associated with higher Cd accumulations in roots. At 5 {mu}M Cd the accumulation of Cd in roots was over 70-f higher than in aerial part (stem + leaves). Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and lipoxygenase activity (LOX) increased in Cd-exposed roots, suggesting a metal-induced oxidative stress. The Cd treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-type peroxidase (G-POD), as well as the content of secondary metabolites i.e. soluble phenolics (SPs) and lignin. Histochemical analyses of roots showed that Cd, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), lignin and G-POD displayed a similar location pattern. Almost all analyzed parameters showed a similar dynamic tendency with increases under 5 {mu}M Cd followed by decreases under 10 {mu}M Cd, suggesting that a complex coordinated Cd-defensive mechanism is operating in Citrumelo roots exposed to environmental realistic Cd concentrations.

  7. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  8. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  9. Comportamento da laranjera 'Folha Murcha' em sete porta-enxertos no noroeste do Paraná Performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange on seven rootstocks in northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou por um período de 14 anos, em Paranavaí-PR, o comportamento de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertadas nos porta-enxertos: limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, 'Rugoso da África' (Citrus jambhiri e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana, citrangeiro 'C-13' (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata, tangerineiras 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki e 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (porta-enxertos e quatro repetições, com três plantas por parcela. Os volumes das copas de plantas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' foram significativamente maiores. Plantas em limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentaram a menor diferença entre os diâmetros dos troncos do porta-enxerto e da copa. A produção acumulada foi superior nas plantas em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e menor em plantas sobre o trifoliata. A alternância da produção não foi acentuada nas plantas sobre os porta-enxertos avaliados. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi significativamente superior nos frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas em trifoliata e menor em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África'. A qualidade do suco apresentou-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para variedades-copa de laranjeiras. A tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e o limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' são porta-enxertos promissores para a laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' nas condições avaliadas.This work evaluated for 14 years, in Paranavaí, PR, Brazil, the performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on the following rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri, 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana, 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni. The experimental design was in blocks, with seven treatments

  10. The scion/rootstock genotypes and habitats affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colon

  11. Effects of different rootstocks on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of young Guiqi 1 navel orange trees%不同砧木嫁接对桂脐1号脐橙幼树生长及光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅正敏; 罗世杏; 伊华林; 甘海峰; 唐燕玲; 雷新南; 傅翠娜

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Effects of different rootstocks on grafting affinity, growth vigor, and photosynthetic characteristics of young Guiqi 1 navel orange trees were observed to provide references for determining its matching rootstock. [Method]Guiqi 1 navel orange was grafted on six rootstocks (Shandong Poncirus trifoliate, Huapi Fortunalla margarita, Guizhi 1 Poncirus trifoliate, Daxin Citrus reticulata, Longzhou Citrus limonia, and Jinbao Citrus reticulata) to observe its grafting affinity, growth situation and diurnal changes of photosynthesis. [Result]Guiqi 1 navel orange and Jinbao Citrus reticulata exhibited poor affinity. The affinity between Daxin Citrus reticulata and Guiqi 1 navel orange was the best. The grafting compatibility between Guiqi 1 and Longzhou Citrus limonia or Huapi Fortunalla margarita was good. There was medium grafting compatibility between Shandong Poncirus trifoliata or Guizhi 1 Poncirus trifoliata and Guiqi 1. However, big foot phenomenon occurred when Guiqi 1 navel orange was grafted on Shandong Poncirus trifoliata or Guizhi 1 Poncirus trifoliate and their grafting affinity was moderate. Different rootstocks and ages played different roles in the growth of Guiqi 1. There were unimodal, bimodal or mul-timodal curves of Pn diurnal variation of rootstock-scion combinations. The photosynthetic capacity of rootstock-scion combi-nation from high to low was Guiqi 1/Guizhi 1 Poncirus trifoliate, Guiqi 1/Jinbao Citrus reticulata, Guiqi 1/Shandong Poncirus trifoliate, Guiqi 1/Daxin Citrus reticulata, Guiqi 1/Huapi Fortunalla margarita, and Guiqi 1/Longzhoutu lemon. The water use efficiency of rootstock-scion combination from high to low was Guiqi 1/Jinbao Citrus reticulata, Guiqi 1/Huapi Fortunalla mar-garita, Guiqi 1/Guizhi 1 Poncirus trifoliata, Guiqi 1/Daxin Citrus reticulata, Guiqi 1/Shandong Poncirus trifoliata, and Guiqi 1/Longzhoutu lemon. The Pn variation of Jinbao Citrus reticulata,Daxinlayuegan,Huapi Fortunalla margarita and Shandong Poncirus

  12. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  13. Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Riquelme, María T; Porras, Ignacio; Ferreres, Federico

    2004-01-28

    The grafting of the rootstock with the lemon tree is an agronomical technique used to improve production and/or quality of the fruit. The interstock has been used with different fruit trees to modulate the tree size, fruit production and quality, and the aging of the tree. The lemon trees grafted with interstocks increase their longevity, lemon production and quality; interstocks are also used to decrease the thickness of the trunk at the grafting point. This enlarging of the trunk provokes a decrease of the sap flow. In our study, "Verna" lemon trees were grafted with interstock between the rootstock and the lemon tree to follow the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. The lemon juice was obtained from the lemons collected of the grafted lemon trees. Two types of rootstocks were used: Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus macrophylla L. Seven interstocks from five cultivars of orange tree, one cultivar of lime tree, and one cultivar of tangerine tree were used. "Verna" lemon trees were also grafted directly to the rootstock. The rootstock was more important agronomic factor than the interstock on the total flavonoid content of lemon juice. The interstock grafting had only a small influence on the flavonoid content of the lemon juice, and it modulated the individual flavonoid content. Citrus aurantium L. rootstock and "Berna" and "Washington Navel" interstocks were the most appropriate to graft in the lemon tree. This interstock grafting technique does not increase the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. Regarding the individual flavonoids, the 6,8-di-C-glucosyl diosmetin was the most affected flavonoid by the type of rootstock used. The interstock used is able to alter the individual quantitative flavonoid order of eriocitrin, diosmin, and hesperidin. In addition, the HPLC-ESI/MS(n) analyses provided the identification of two new flavonoids in the lemon juice: Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and chrysoeriol 6,8-di-C-glucoside (stellarin-2). The occurrence of

  14. Graft Compatibility Evaluation of Different Rootstock-scion Combinations of Honey Pomelo at Seedling Stage%蜜柚不同砧穗组合苗期嫁接亲和性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚艳箐; 祁有恒; 伏晓科; 杨芮; 陈涛; 汤浩茹; 王小蓉

    2016-01-01

    为评价蜜柚砧穗的嫁接亲和性,以红绵蜜柚(Citrus grandis ‘Hongmianmiyou’)、三红蜜柚(‘Sanhongmiyou’)、红肉蜜柚(‘Hongroumiyou’)、黄金蜜柚(‘Huangjinmiyou’)和琯溪蜜柚(‘Guanximiyou’)作接穗,枳(Poncirus trifoliata)、香橙(Citrus junos)、酸柚(Citrus grandis)作砧木,田间调查15个砧穗组合苗期生长指标,测定嫁接愈合期叶片多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性、可溶性蛋白和可溶性糖含量,采用主成分分析和聚类分析方法对蜜柚砧穗组合嫁接亲和性进行评价。结果表明,以柚作砧木的砧穗组合保存率高、生长势旺盛、抽梢能力强,以枳和香橙作砧木的砧穗组合部分指标存在差异,其中红绵蜜柚和黄金蜜柚以枳作砧木时表现出不亲和现象。不同砧穗组合嫁接愈合时期 PPO、POD、可溶性蛋白和可溶性糖变化趋势基本一致。主成分分析结果表明,4个主成分基本反映了15个指标91.33%的数据信息。聚类分析将15个砧穗组合分为4类,与主成分分析结果基本一致。因此,琯溪蜜柚、红肉蜜柚和三红蜜柚嫁接可采用枳和柚作砧木,红绵蜜柚和黄金蜜柚嫁接可采用柚作砧木,红绵蜜柚和黄金蜜柚嫁接不可采用枳作砧木。%In order to evaluate graft compatibility of different honey pomelo (Citrus grandis) rootstock-scion combinations at seedling stage, five cultivars of honey pomelo, such as ‘Hongmianmiyou’, ‘Sanhongmiyou’,‘Hongroumiyou’, ‘Huangjinmiyou’ and ‘Guanximiyou’ were used as scions, and Citrus grandis, C. junos, Poncirus trifoliate as rootstocks, some physiological and biochemical indexes of 15 rootstock-scion combinations at seedling stage were determined. Their graft compatibility was evaluated by using principal component and cluster analysis. The results showed that there were significant differences in seedling growth among different rootstock

  15. 缺镁、铁、硼胁迫对4个柑橘砧木生长及养分吸收的影响%Effects of Magnesium, Iron, Boron Deficiency on the Growth and Nutrition Absorption of Four Major Citrus Rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩佳; 周高峰; 李峤虹; 刘永忠; 彭抒昂

    2012-01-01

    通过水培方式分别研究了缺镁、铁、硼处理对枳、香橙、红橘、崇义野橘4种柑橘砧木植株和根系生长及养分吸收的影响。结果表明:缺镁处理下,红橘在株高、叶片数、叶绿素含量、总根长、总根表面积及镁吸收速率等变化中表现出较强的抗缺镁特性,崇义野橘次之,枳、香橙较差;缺铁处理下,香橙在株高、叶片数、植株干样质量、总根体积、总根表面积和铁吸收速率等变化中表现出较强的抗缺铁特性,红橘次之,枳、崇义野橘较差;缺硼处理下,红橘在总根数、总根表面积、总根体积及硼吸收速率的变化中表现出较强的抗缺硼能力,而崇义野橘的地上部较耐缺硼,香橙、枳则表现出不耐缺硼。%The effects of magnesium(Mg),iron(Fe)and boron(B)deficiency on growth and physiological characteristics in shoots and roots of four citrus rootstocks{Trifoliate orange[Poncirus trifoliate(L.)Raf.],Fragrant citrus(Citrus junos Sieb.ex Tanaka),Red tangerine(Citrus reticulate Blanco)and Congyi wild mandarin(Citrus reticulata)} were investigated by using hydroponic culture. Results indicated that the plant height,total leaves,chlorophyll content,total roots length,total roots surface and Mg specific absorption rate were better in red tangerine than those in other rootstocks under the treatment of Mg deficiency. In the treatment of Fe deficiency,the plant high,total leaves,dry weight of plant,total roots volume,total roots surface and Fe specific absorption rate were better in fragrant citrus than those in other rootstocks. In B deficiency treatment,the roots number of tips,total roots surface,total roots volume and B specific absorption rate in Red tangerine and the plant high,total leaves and dry weight of shoot in Congyi wild mandarin were better than those in other rootstocks,respectively.

  16. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  17. Effects of Different Rootstocks on Key Photosynthetic Enzyme in Leaves and Fruit Quality of Citrus cv.‘Huangguogan’%不同砧木对‘黄果柑’叶片光合作用关键酶和果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖玲; 汪志辉; 曾海琼; 曹淑燕; 古咸杰; 李清南; 高婧斐; 张婷婷; 石冬冬; 熊博

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the variation patterns in the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf concentra-tions of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and Rubisco activase (RCA), and quality dynamics of fruits in Citrus cv.‘Huangguogan’ trees grafted using Poncirus trifoliate, Citrus reticulata and C. junos rootstocks. The results showed that diurnal variations of leaf Pn in ‘Huangguogan’ exhibited bimodal curves. Peak Pn values were obtained at different times with different magnitudes in the three types of grafted trees. Trees grafted on C. junos and P. trifoliate rootstocks showed higher leaf Pn values. Leaf concentrations of the two photosynthetic enzymes in grafted trees were signiifcantly higher than those in the control trees. Com-pared with control trees, in grafted trees, the peak values of total soluble solids (TSS) were postponed to differ-ent degrees, thereby prolonging the preservation time of the fruits of the trees. Therefore, out of the three root-stocks, C. junos has the most profound effect on the fruit quality of‘Huangguogan’.%本文研究了以枳壳、红橘、香橙为砧木的‘黄果柑’嫁接树叶片净光合速率(Pn)、核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化酶/加氧酶(Rubisco)和活化酶(RCA)浓度及果实动态品质的变化规律。结果表明:‘黄果柑’ Pn日变化呈双峰曲线,3种嫁接树峰值的出现时间及大小不同,以香橙和枳壳为砧木的‘黄果柑’叶片Pn较高;嫁接树叶片中2种酶浓度均显著高于对照;与对照相比,3种嫁接树的总可溶性固形物(TSS)峰值出现时间有不同程度推迟,果实留树保鲜时间延长。由此可见,3种砧木中香橙对‘黄果柑’果实品质的影响最大。

  18. Organic Acid Content, Microbial Quantity and Enzyme Activity in Rhizosphere Soil of Four Citrus Rootstocks Under Different Phosphorus Levels%不同施磷水平下4种柑橘砧木的根际土壤有机酸、微生物及酶活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗燕; 樊卫国

    2014-01-01

    酸含量显著增多,土壤生物活性增强;在酸性黄壤上,宜昌橙能较好地适应低磷土壤环境。%[Objective] The effects of different phosphorus (P) levels on the composition and content of organic acids, the population and quantity of microbe and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of different citrus rootstocks were explored for providing a scientific basis of enriching the theory about phosphorus nutrition and ecology of citrus and discovering the citrus rootstock with specific nutrient characteristics.[Method]A pot experiment was adopted to study the ability to phosphorus stress, the composition and content of organic acids, the population and quantity of microbe and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of Citrus ichangensis Swing., C.aurantium L., C.limonia Osbeck and Poncirus trifoliata Raf. under different P levels, and their correlation was analyzed.[Result]The dry matter accumulation of C.aurantium L., C.limonia Osbeck and P. trifoliata Raf. significantly increased with the rised P levels. There was no obvious effect of different P levels on the biomass of C. ichangensis Swing.. The tolerance to low-P stress was in the order of C. ichangensis Swing.>C.limonia Osbeck>C.aurantium L.>P. trifoliata Raf. The composition and content of organic acids in rhizosphere soil of different citrus rootstocks were significantly different, and the oxalic acid, succinic acid and acetic acid were the main organic acids.The total content of organic acids and the content of oxalic acid, malonic acid in rhizosphere soil of different citrus rootstocks and the content of succinic acid in rhizosphere soil of C.ichangensis Swing. and C.aurantium L. significantly increased with the reduced P levels. Under phosphate starvation, the amount of organic acid in rhizosphere soil of C.ichangensis Swing. was significantly higher than other citrus rootstocks. Bacteria were dominant, followed by actinomycetes, and fungi were the least. The quantity of bacteria

  19. Reproductive characteristics of citrus rootstocks grown under greenhouse and field environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of environmental factors on meiosis, meiotic index, pollenviability and in vitro germination of pollen from stock plants of the rootstocks Trifoliate, ‘Swingle’, ‘Troyer’, ‘Fepagro C13’, ‘FepagroC37’ and ‘Fepagro C41’ grown in a protected environment in comparison with stock plants grown in the field. The results showed thatvalues for the characteristics analyzed in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were always higher in the field than in the greenhouse conditions. Inthe field, the average of normal meiotic cells was 60.05%, 44.44% and 60.12%, respectively, and in the greenhouse, 52.75%, 30.95%and 52.82%, respectively. Mean pollen viability in the field was 90.28%, 56.23% and 74.74%, and, in the greenhouse, 64.25%, 41.41%and 66.71%, respectively. As temperature oscillations were higher in the greenhouse than in the field, we suggest that this negativelyaffects the reproductive characteristics analyzed.

  20. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis. [Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Translocation of {sup 14}C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. {times} Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the {sup 14}C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems.

  1. Transcriptomic Responses of Poncirus trifoliata to Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Infection%枳感染柑橘衰退病病毒后的应答基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春振; 钟云; 吴波; 阳佳位; 贝学军; 姜波; 朱世平; 闫树堂; 张永艳

    2013-01-01

    枳(Poncirus trifoliataL.)高抗柑橘衰退病病毒(Citrus tristeza virus,CTV),但相关抗性机理仍不为人所知.以嫁接健康枝条的无毒枳作为对照,用Affymetrix柑橘基因芯片分析了感染CTV后枳叶片中基因的表达变化情况.结果共检测到表达量差异倍数≥2的基因295个,其中216个表达上调,79个表达下调.BLAST2GO分析发现,差异表达的基因中与抗逆反应相关的基因最多,乙烯、茉莉酸、赤霉素、脱落酸、生长素、水杨酸等植物激素代谢和调节相关基因为数不少,一些编码细胞壁形成或组分相关蛋白的基因差异表达明显.本研究可为揭示枳抗CTV的机理提供了转录组学线索.

  2. Desenvolvimento vegetativo de porta-enxertos de citros produzidos em diferentes recipientes Vegetative development of citric rootstocks produced in different containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Lima Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de diferentes porta-enxertos cítricos semeados em bandejas de isopor, em comparação com a semeadura em tubetes cônicos irrigados por capilaridade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, e os tratamentos foram dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, testando os dois tipos de recipientes na parcela principal (tubetes e bandejas de isopor, com volume de substrato de 120cm³, e nas subparcelas três variedades de porta-enxertos cítricos ('Trifoliata' - Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf., citrangeiro 'FEPAGRO C37' - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. e tangerineira 'Sunki' - C. sunki hort. ex Tan.. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas por subparcela e três repetições. O desenvolvimento vegetativo, 150 dias após a semeadura, foi superior, de modo geral, nas plantas cultivadas em bandejas. Ao longo do tempo, os porta-enxertos 'FEPAGRO C37' e 'Trifoliata' apresentaram crescimento em altura semelhante entre si e ambos foram superiores à tangerineira 'Sunki'. O citrangeiro 'FEPAGRO C37' foi superior aos demais porta-enxertos em relação ao diâmetro e acúmulo de massa seca.This work aimed to compare the vegetative development of citric rootstocks sowed in isoprene trays on in stiff plastic tubes irrigated by capillarity. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with split plot scheme, testing both containers at the plot (tubes and isoprene trays with 120cm³ of substrate volume, and, in the subplot, three citric rootstock varieties (trifoliate orange - Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf., citrange FEPAGRO 'C37' - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck.] and tangerine 'Sunki' - C. sunki hort. ex Tan.. Twenty plant per subplot were used and three replications. After 150 days of sowing, plants cultivated in trays showed higher vegetative development. Rootstocks FEPAGRO 'C37' and trifoliate orange presented similar height growth and both

  3. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka) and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort...

  4. Poliembrionia e atributos morfológicos de sementes de porta-enxertos de citros Polyembryony and morphological seed traits in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Emilia Vital de Oliveira Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A poliembrionia é um caráter fundamental no melhoramento genético e na multiplicação comercial de porta-enxertos de citros. Este trabalho avaliou as relações entre poliembrionia e diferentes atributos morfológicos de sementes de 12 genótipos de citros selecionados como porta-enxertos. Foram analisadas 50 sementes por genótipo, quanto a massa, altura, largura, número de embriões, taxa de poliembrionia, grau de dificuldade de extração da testa, coloração da semente, estimada por um matiz das duas notas de cores predominantes, e razão de cor, calculada pela divisão entre a menor e a maior nota do matiz. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparando-se as médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott e determinando-se os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre as variáveis (P Seed polyembryony is an important trait for breeding and commercial multiplication of citrus rootstocks. This study evaluated relationships of polyembryony with different morphological seed traits of 12 citrus genotypes selected as rootstocks. The following traits were evaluated individually on 50 seeds per genotype: seed mass, height, width and embryo number, polyembryony level, difficulty for seed coat extraction, and seed color, which was estimated by a two-grade scale representing predominant colors on the endosperm. Data was submitted to variance analyses and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott Test (P < 0.05. Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were determined among all variables for all genotypes and individually. Citrus rootstocks had significantly distinct seed traits and could be classified in three polyembryony groups, with three Rangpur lime selections presenting polyembryony lower than 50% and the citrandarins as totally polyembryonic. Other trifoliate hybrids showed low to intermediate polyembryony. Seed coat extraction was more difficult in smaller seeds. For majority of genotypes, the number of embryos in the seed had

  5. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Khoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck, seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. and Duong mandarin  (C. reticulata, budded on Kaffir lime and Carrizo citrange, in the 3rd and 4th  year after planting under the trial fields at Mekong Delta Vietnam, the trees of Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. budded on Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix were supperior with precocity, producing high number of fruits (16.67 fruits per tree , and very good fruit quality of larger fruit size (334.6 g and 11.16 cm, fruit weight and diameter, respectively, higher total soluble solids (12.5 brix, better orange-yellow juice color development, and excellent flavor and aroma of juice, as compared to the typical characteristics; meanwhile these were followed by trees of seedless Mat orange budded on Kaffir lime, which produced the highest number of fruits (47.33 fruits per tree, with little inferior quality of seedy fruit (1-3 seeds per fruit, lower total soluble solids (7.33%, and no good flavor and aroma, as somewhat differed from the typical fruit traits.

  6. Isolamento e cultivo de protoplastos de porta-enxertos de citros Isolation and growth of citrus rootstock protoplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. de Oliveira

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o isolamento e cultivo de protolastos de porta-enxertos de citros das variedades limoeiro Cravo e tangerina Cleópatra. Utilizou-se solução enzimática para a digestão da parede celular de células em suspensão (7 a 10 subcultivos em meio de cultura MT e procedeu-se a purificação criteriosa. O plaqueamento dos protoplastos foi realizado em meio de cultivo KM8p e na molaridade de 0.6 M, sob condições de escuro a 28 ± 1°C, após ajuste para a densidade de 2 x 10s ppts/mL A redução da pressão osmótica do meio de cultivo foi realizada a cada 10 dias na seguinte proporção de meio de cultura KM8p 0.6 M e KM8 (2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:3. Com relação aos resultados, obteve-se em média o isolamento de 0.7 x 10(6 ppts / ml de suspensões celulares de tangerina Cleópatra e 0.5 x 1O6 ppts / ml de suspensões de limoeiro Cravo, com uma porcentagem de viabilidade de 86 a 92% para a variedade Cleópatra e de 73 a 80% para o limoeiro Cravo. As divisões celulares começaram a ocorrer por volta do 8° dia após o plaqueamento, sendo obtida uma eficiência inicial de plaqueamento de 9% para a variedade Cleópatra e de 5% para o limoeiro Cravo. Aos 50 dias de cultivo, as colônias foram transferidas para meio semi-sólido MT, onde apresentaram ritmo acelerado de crescimento formando calos.Protoplast isolation and growth of Citrus rootstock v. Cravo lime and Cleópatra mandarin were carried out Enzyme mixture was used to digest cell suspensions 7-10 times, following criterious purification. Protoplast culture was carried out in doplets of semi-solid (agarose 0.6% p/v KM8p medium, in the dark, at 28 ± 1°C following density adjustment to 2 x 10(5 ppts/ml. Osmotic pressure reduction was acomplished for each growth every 10 days with a mixture in equal volumes of KM8p and KM8 medium in ratios of 2:1; 1:1; 1:2 e 0:3. Isolation produced 0.7 x 10(6 ppts/ml for Cleópatra mandarin and 0.5 x 10(6 ppts/ml for Cravo lime, with a viability between 86

  7. Early Performance of Duong Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco on Three Rootstock under Acid Sulfate Soil Fields at Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoe Thi Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 1.6 billion hectare area of acid sulfate soils is at Mekong Delta of Vietnam, and Duong mandarin fruits are valued for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties; thereby, the investigation on early performance of Duong mandarin on three rootstock under acid sulfate soil fields (pH below 4 at Mekong Delta of Vietnam was undertaken from 2009 to 2012 for determination of the most promising scion stock combination of Duong mandarin, which introduced to growers for expanding citrus production to increase in income of farmers, and helping to use the sustainable and efficient land resource at acid sulfate soil region of Mekong Delta. Primary results showed that Duong mandarin grafted on Mat orange, Tau lemon and Carrizo citrange were significant differenence in vegetative parameters, fruit yield and quality. It proved that Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were better growth and development on acid sulfate soil fields with below 4 pH in soil and water suspension of 1:2.5 ratio as compared to those grafted on Mat orange and Carrizo citrange rootstocks; whereby, that induced trees with 171.48 cm height, 6.65 m3 canopy volume and 51.84 mm trunk diameter, 1.08 scion/ stock ratio in third year after growing. Moreover, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were with spreading growth performance. In regarding to fruit yield and quality, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon produced highest fruit yield of 9.21 kg per tree per year in third year after planting, and fruit with 115.30g weight, 8.85 brix juice, thinner and somewhat easy peel rind. 

  8. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended

  9. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

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    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  10. Efeito da tristeza em caracteres vegetativos, produtivos e industriais da laranjeira 'Valência' enxertada em híbridos segregando para tolerância Effect of the citrus tristeza disease on vegetative, productive and industrial characters of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted onto hybrid rootstocks segregating for tolerance

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    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ólidos solúveis aumentou significativamente, 14% em média, nos híbridos intolerantes.The effect of the citrus tristeza disease caused by CTV on vegetative, productive, and industrial characters of the sweet orange 'Valencia' grafted onto seven hybrid progenies of full sibs segregating for tolerance was studied. The hybrids were originated from controlled crosses between the commercial rootstocks 'Davis A' Poncirus trifoliata (T, Sunki mandarin (S, 'São Paulo' sour orange (A and 'Limeira' Rangpur lime (C. Two sets of hybrids were studied. The first was formed by 298 individuals, from which 20 were T x S, 67 S x T, 98 S x A, 48 C x A, and 65 T x A. The second set had 1.243 hybrids, being 845 S x A, 240 A x S, 139 C x A, and 19 A x C. In the nursery, tristeza disease was responsible for 21% of death among the intolerant individuals, while among survivors transplanted to the field, an additional 13% died in a four-years period. Among the intolerant survivors in the field, tristeza reduced in four years rootstock diameter to 41%, scion diameter in 45%, and general vigor in 42%. Fruit weight was reduced in 22% in average. Yield was the most drastically affected character, being reduced to 41% in the first harvest, and up to 90% in the fifth harvest. Accumulated yields of five years were reduced 85% in the intolerant segregants among the different groups of hybrids. Productivity (yield/area of canopy was also intensely affected (46% indicating that the reduction in yield was proportionally more intense than the correspondent reduction in the vegetative growth. The relation between scion/rootstock diameters decreased 7% in the intolerant plants. Although small, it indicated that the vegetative growth of the tolerant canopies was more affected than the rootstocks, despite their intolerance. Little or no effect was detected on external peel color, juice outturn, and soluble solids/acids ratio. Acidity and soluble solids significantly increased at an average of 12 and 14

  11. Crescimento de híbridos e variedades porta-enxerto de citros sob salinidade = Growth of hybrids and rootstock varieties of citrus under salinity.

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    Pedro Dantas Fernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade da água e do solo afeta o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção de espécies frutíferas, dentre as quais os citros. O uso de porta-enxertos tolerantes pode garantir a sustentabilidade do agronegócio citrícola em tais condições. Assim, estudou-se a sensibilidade à salinidade durante a fase de formação de portaenxertoscompreendendo variedades e híbridos selecionados. O experimento foirealizado em casa-de-vegetação, considerando cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação [testemunha, irrigação com água de abastecimento local, condutividade elétrica da água (CEa de 0,41 dS m-1 e água com CEa de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1] e sete genótipos, utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetiçõesem esquema fatorial e quatro plantas úteis por parcela, durante o período de 150 dias. Avaliaram-se variáveis de crescimento e fisiológicas. A redução mais expressiva foi observada na fitomassa seca total da parte aérea com aumento unitário da CEa. Observou-se redução linear no crescimento com aumento da salinidade nos híbridosLVK x LVA-009 e TSK x TRENG-256. Dentre os genótipos avaliados, o limoeiro ‘Volkameriano’ foi o menos sensível ao estresse salino.Water and soil salinity affects the growth, development and production of fructiferous species, such as citrus. The use of tolerant rootstocks can guarantee the agribusiness of citrus under such conditions. Thus, the sensibility to salinity during the phase of rootstock formation of varieties and selected hybrids was studied. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with five levels of irrigation water salinity [control, tap water with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.41 dS m-1, and water with ECw of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1] and seven genotypes, in a randomized block designand five replications each consisting of four plants, during 150 day period. Growth and physiologic variables were evaluated. Significant effects

  12. Desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en condiciones de invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego Vegetative development of citrus seedlings cultivated at greenhouse conditions and submitted to two irrigations systems

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    Gilmar Schäfer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego. El experimento se realizó en la Estação Experimental Agronômica de la Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ubicada en Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre los meses de septiembre de 2003 y abril de 2004, totalizando 225 días de experimentación. El diseño experimental fue de parcelas subdivididas, en factorial 2 x 3, con 4 repeticiones de 22 contenedores cada. En las parcelas principales se evaluaron los sistemas de riego (microaspersión y capilaridad y en las subparcelas los patrones cítricos Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., citrangero 'C37' [P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra] y lima 'Rangpur' (C. limonia Osb.. En condiciones de invernadero los patrones cítricos presentan un desarrollo vegetativo más rápido bajo riego por capilaridad respecto a la microaspersión. Los patrones cítricos evaluados presentan desarrollos vegetativos distintos, donde el citrangero 'C37' supera a los demás.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the vegetative development of citrus rootstock seedlings cultivated under greenhouse conditions with two irrigation systems. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Agronômica , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from September 2003 to April 2004, totalizing 225 days of experimentation. The experimental design was a split-plot, in a 2x3 factorial, with 4 replications of 22 pots each. In the main plot the irrigation systems was evaluated (micro sprinkler and capillarity and in the split-plot the citrus rootstocks [Trifoliate orange - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C37' citrange - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra and 'Rangpur' lime - C. limonia Osb.] were evaluated. The main result showed in conditions of greenhouse citrus rootstock seedlings

  13. Resposta de porta-enxertos de citros ao déficit hídrico Response of citrus rootstocks to water deficit

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    Elaine Costa Cerqueira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas - BA, e objetivou-se à identificação de porta-enxertos de citros melhor adaptados ao ecossistema de Tabuleiros Costeiros, quanto a tolerância à seca. Foram estudados os limoeiros 'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', laranjeira 'Azeda' e os híbridos trifoliados HTR - 051, TSK x CTTR - 002 e TSK x CTTR - 017. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 õ 9, com seis genótipos e nove tempos de avaliação. As avaliações foram realizadas na sequência: irrigação, déficit hídrico e irrigação, quando plantas possuíam de 3 a 4 pares de folhas. Foram analisadas as variáveis massas secas da raiz e da parte aérea, o potencial hídrico da planta e a transpiração da folha. Quanto à massa seca da parte aérea, os genótipos limoeiro Volkameriano e laranjeira 'Azeda' apresentaram decréscimos no período de déficit hídrico, sendo que os demais não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Na ausência de irrigação, todos os genótipos apresentaram decréscimos nos seus potenciais hídricos, enquanto apenas os híbridos apresentaram recuperação, mantendo a transpiração. Os híbridos HTR - 051 e TSK x CTTR - 017 apresentaram os melhores desempenhos para todas as variáveis estudadas, mostrando-se mais promissores como porta-enxertos de citros em condições de déficit hídrico.This work was carried out under green house condition at the Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops, Cruz das Almas - Bahia- Brazil, aiming to identify citrus rootstocks better adapted to Coastal Table Land ecosystem as for their drought tolerance. It was studied the Rangpur lime, Volkamer lemon, Sour orange and the trifoliated hybrids HTR - 051, TSK x CTTR - 002, and TSK x CTTR - 017, the last three from the breeding program of the Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits Crops. The experimental design was completely randomized under

  14. Study on the Relationship between Rootstock Varieties and the Survival Rate of Shoot-tip Grafting%砧木品种与茎尖嫁接成活率关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科宏

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the relationship between rootslock varieties and the survival rate of shool-tip grafting. [ Method] Poncirus trifoliata, Ruta "Citrange" and Citrus sinensis (L. ) Osbeck were prepared for rootstock in vitro. The citrus tristeza virus (CTV) of Huangguo, Changtai, Yuhuan Gaorheng and Yuhuan pomelo was eliminated by shoot-tip grafting using "T"method. [ Result] The highest shoot-tip grafting survival rale of Huangguo and Yuhuan Gaocheng grafted on Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck was 75.0% and 60.0% respectively. And the highest shoot-tip grafting survival rate of Changtai and Yuhuan pomelo grafted on Ruta "CUrange" was 46. 7% and 18. 2% respectively. [Conclusion] The shoot-lip grafting survival rate was related to the compatibility of rootstock varieties and cultivate. The survival rale of the same cultivars grafted on different rootstock varieties was different.%[目的]明确砧木品种与茎尖嫁接成活率的关系.[方法]分别以枳(Poncirus trifoliota)、枳橙(Ruta“Citrange”)和甜橙[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck]作为茎尖嫁接砧木,采用倒“T”字法对黄果柑、长泰芦柑、玉环高橙以及玉环柚进行茎尖嫁接脱毒.[结果]黄果柑和玉环高橙用甜橙作砧木成活率最高分别为75.0%和60.0%,长泰芦柑和玉环柚用枳橙作砧木成活率最高分别为46.7%和18.2%.[结论]茎尖嫁接成活率的高低与砧木和脱毒品种的亲和性有关,同一品种选用不同的砧木其茎尖嫁接成活率有差异.

  15. Thirty years of citrus tristeza virus observations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian citrus industry was devastated by epidemics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) decline (CTV-D) on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965 and CTV stem pitting (SP) between 1965 and 1985. CTV-SP debilitates citrus and fruit production regardless of rootstock. Control of CTV-SP by mild st...

  16. A escarificação química e o desenvolvimento inicial de porta-enxertos cítricos Chemical scarification and initial development of citric rootstocks

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    Paulo de Tarso Lima Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o desenvolvimento vegetativo de diferentes porta-enxertos cítricos provenientes de sementes escarificadas quimicamente. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (escarificação x porta-enxertos, com três blocos, e cada parcela constituída por 20 tubetes. O tratamento químico realizado nas sementes constituiu-se de uma solução composta por 0,5 L de hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO a 12%, 3 mL de ácido clorídrico (HCl e 20 g de hidróxido de sódio comercial (NaOH, dissolvidos em 1L de água. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram o 'Trifoliata' (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf., o citrangeiro 'C37' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck.], o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [P. trifoliata x (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.] e a tangerineira 'Sunki' (C. sunki hort. ex Tan.. Os porta-enxertos 'C37' e 'Trifoliata' beneficiaram-se da escarificação química do tegumento, apresentando maior velocidade e taxa de emergência das plântulas e maior taxa de emergência, aos 45 dias após a semeadura (DAS. Por outro lado, os porta-enxertos 'Swingle' e 'Sunki' apresentaram uma redução da emergência das plântulas, quando suas sementes foram submetidas à escarificação química do tegumento. As plantas de 'C37' e 'Trifoliata', oriundas de sementes escarificadas, apresentaram diâmetro ao nível do colo e acúmulo de massa seca significativamente superiores aos 150 DAS, em relação às plantas oriundas de sementes com o tegumento intacto.The aim of this study was to evaluate emergence and vegetative development of different citric rootstocks derived from chemically scarified seeds. A randomized block design was used in a 2x4 factorial (scarification x rootstocks with three blocks. Each plot had 20 plastic tubes. The seed chemical treatment was a solution composed by 0.5 L of 12 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, 3 mL of chloridric acid (HCl and 20g of

  17. Produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' clone IAC em 16 porta-enxertos na região de Bebedouro-SP Yield and fruit quality of 'Pêra' sweet orange clone IAC on 16 rootstocks in Bebedouro region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de 16 porta-enxertos na produtividade, nas características físicas e químicas (sólidos solúveis totais-°Brix; acidez; ratio; porcentagem de suco; índice tecnológico e tamanho dos frutos dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] e na incidência e severidade da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC. O plantio do experimento foi realizado em julho de 1993, com espaçamento de 6,0 m entre linhas e 3,5 m entre plantas (476 plantas/ha. O experimento foi conduzido sem irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, duas plantas por parcela, três repetições e 16 tratamentos, constituídos pelas seguintes cultivares porta-enxertos: tangerineira 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, tangerineira 'Pectinífera' (C. reticulata, 'Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, tangerineira 'Pectinífera/Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, tangerineira 'Batangas' (C. reticulata, tangerineira 'Oneco' (C. reticulata, citrangor [citrange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x C. sinensis x C. sinensis], citrandarin [C.sunki hort. Ex Tanaka x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. English, tangerineira 'Sunki' (C. sunki, tangerineira 'Suen-Kat' (C. sunki, tangerineira 'Nasnaran' (C. amblycarpa Ochse, tangerineira 'Venezuela' (C. reticulata, tangerineira Heen Naran (C. lycopersicaeformis hort. ex Tan. , limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck x tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort ex Tanaka, limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia, tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni. A intensidade da clorose variegada dos citros variou em função dos porta-enxertos e não se relacionou com a produção de frutos até a quarta safra. Os porta-enxertos estudados, com exceção da tangerineira Nasnaran, proporcionaram qualidade e produções iniciais de frutos similares aos do limoeiro 'Cravo'.An experiment was set up in July 1993, at Bebedouro city, São Paulo state, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the rootstock influence on the yield and several physical

  18. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including droughty or calcareous soils and root-knot nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant reductions in pruning and th...

  19. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks for apricot and plums offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soil borne diseases, waterlogging, calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling and cl...

  20. Mudas de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos e sob diferentes manejos de adubação 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees on two rootstocks under different fertilizer managements

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação é uma das principais práticas culturais para a produção de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido. Avaliou-se o efeito de seis tipos de manejo das adubações comercialmente recomendadas na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertada sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. As avaliações foram conduzidas a partir da transplantação dos porta-enxertos até 180 dias após a enxertia, em viveiro empresarial, em Conchal-SP. Os manejos corresponderam a duas soluções de fertilizantes solúveis aplicadas isoladamente, soluções de fertilizante solúveis associadas a fertilizante de liberação controlada e aplicação exclusiva de fertilizante de liberação controlada. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o fatorial 2 x 6 (porta-enxerto x manejo da adubação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 12 mudas na parcela. O limoeiro 'Cravo' induziu maior crescimento ao enxerto. O crescimento vegetativo das mudas foi similar após o uso de fertilizantes solúveis ou de liberação controlada, apesar da grande variação de quantidades totais de nutrientes fornecidas às plantas. Desta forma, o viveirista poderá optar pelo manejo mais econômico ou prático, conforme as condições locais.The fertilizer program is a major practice for screened citrus nursery tree production. The effect of six fertilizer programs commercially recommended was evaluated on the production of 'Valência' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] nursery trees budded on rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. Experimental work was carried out from rootstock transplant until 180 days after budding, in a citrus nursery in Conchal, SP, Brazil. Fertilizer managements consisted of two soluble fertilizers

  1. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

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    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  2. Efecto de cinco porta-injertos sobre la floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja "frost valencia" Citrus sinensis (L. Obs. en condiciones del CNI-Palmira, Valle del Cauca Effect of five rootstocks in flowering, fructification and maturity in orange "frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L. obs. in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

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    Holguín E. Carmen Lucía

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trabajo, realizado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se consideraron 20 árboles cítricos injertados sobre Citrumelo 4475, Citrus amblycarpa, Citrange yuma, Trifoliado por Ruby Or y Mandarina Cleopatra. Se evaluaron los parámetros desarrollo floral, época e intensidad de la floración, porcentaje de cuajamiento, desarrollo del fruto, proceso de maduración y número y peso de frutos cosechados. La floración de la naranja ocurrió 15-30 días después de una lluvia; la máxima producción de frutos se presentó entre cinco y seis meses después de la máxima precipitación. Los porta-injertos mostraron diferenciase significativas en período de maduración y producción de frutos; no obstante, su potencial productivo fue relativamente similar (17-20%.

    The work was made at Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira in the Cauca Valley. It was considered under observation twenty citric trees over five rootstocks: Citrumelo 4475, Citrus amblycarpa, Citrange yuma, Trifoliado por Ruby Or and Mandarina Cleopatra. Flower development, intensity of flower and fruit production, thicken percentage, fruit's development, fruits falled percentage, maduration process and number and weight at harvested fruits was evaluated. Flowering is induced between 15-30 days after any rain. The maximum fruit production was between five and six months after maximum precipitation. The rootstocks are different in maturity epoch, fruit's production; however there were not great differences in potential production (17-20%.

  3. Inheritance of Organelle Genomes of the Somatic Hybrid Between Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata)%印度酸桔与飞龙枳属间体细胞杂种的胞质遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江; 郭文武; 邓秀新

    2002-01-01

    对印度酸桔(Citrus reticulata)+飞龙枳(Poncirus trifoliata)属间体细胞杂种的3棵8年生植株及其融合亲本的胞质基因组进行了CAPS(Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences)和RFLP分析.用5对叶绿体和5对线粒体通用引物对(universal primer pairs)对杂种及亲本的总DNA进行PCR扩增,都没有检测到多态性,但扩增产物分别用11种限制性内切酶酶切后,发现3个有多态性的叶绿体CAPS标记和1个线粒体CAPS标记.结果表明杂种的叶绿体都来源于飞龙枳,而线粒体都来源于印度酸桔.为了证实CAPS分析结果的可靠性,用5种限制性内切酶对总DNA进行单酶切,分别与1个叶绿体探针和5个线粒体探针杂交,结果与CAPS分析一致.初步证实该组合体细胞杂种的胞质遗传组成为:"印度酸桔的线粒体+飞龙枳的叶绿体".结果表明细胞融合确实能导致细胞核、线粒体和叶绿体的重新组合,为柑桔体细胞杂种中线粒体偏向来源于悬浮亲本而叶绿体偏向来源于叶肉亲本的胞质分配现象提供了新的证据,并为通过体细胞融合技术定向转移柑桔胞质基因的品种改良思路提供了重要理论依据.

  4. 不同pH值下接种AM真菌对枳橙苗生长及光合作用的影响%Effects of AM Fungi on Growth and Photosynthesis of Citrus Rootstock Seedlings in Soils with Different pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛琳琳; 高崇; 曾明; 李伟; 雷世梅; 伍加勇

    2012-01-01

    以枳橙Citrus sinensis×Poncirus tri foliata为试材,研究不同pH值(5.5~6.5,6.5~7.5,7.5~8.5)条件下接种丛枝菌根(AM)真菌摩西球囊霉Glomus mosseae对枳橙苗生长及光合能力的影响.结果表明,不同pH值水平下接种摩西球囊霉均能有效地侵染枳橙植株,菌根侵染率在65%以上;接种处理植株的菌根侵染率、株高、生物量干重、叶片叶绿素含量、光合作用速率和蒸腾速率等指标均显著高于不接种植株;接种AM真菌增强了宿主植物对碱性土的适应性.%Citrange seedlings (Citrus sinensis (L. ) Osbeck×Poncirus trifoliata (L. )) were used to study the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mossease) on growth and photo-. synthesis of the trees under different pH conditions (pH 5. 5~6. 5, 6. 5~7. 5, 7. 5~8. 5). Results indicated that the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mossease was equally effective in infecting plants under all tested pH conditions and the infection rates were higher than 65%. Mycorrhiza infection rate, plant height, dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity and transpiration rate of inoculated plants were significantly higher than those of control plants. Inoculation with AM fungi enhanced the adaptability of the host plants to alkaline soils.

  5. Fruit quality properties of some virus-free grapefruit varieties grafted on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay KURT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation studies against virus and virus like diseases causing large economic losses in citrus plantations in Turkey were begun at Antalya Citrus Research Institute in 1988. As a result of the study, some virus-free grapefruit varieties (Redblush, Rio Red, Ray Ruby, Henderson, Star Ruby and Marsh Seedless budded on Local sour orange and Troyer citrange rootstocks were planted at breeding parcel in 1995. Effects of rootstocks on fruit quality properties were investigated in these grapefruit varieties. Local sour orange and Troyer citrange affected similarly on the fruit quality of grapefruit cultivars. It could be suggested that these rootstocks could be recommended for grapefruit growing.

  6. Parentais femininos monoembriônicos na obtenção de porta-enxertos híbridos de citros The use of female monoembryonic parents to obtain citrus rootstocks hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter dos Santos Soares Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a evitar os efeitos da poliembrionia, os quais dificultam a distinção entre indivíduos híbridos e aqueles de origem materna (nucelares. O Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical selecionou híbridos monoembriônicos, com potencial de geração de novos porta-enxertos, e utilizou-os como parentais femininos em polinizações abertas. Esses parentais foram: trifoliados HTR-001; HTR-002; HTR-005; HTR-037; HTR-073 e HTR-135, além de LCR (limoeiro 'Cravo' Citrus limonia x LRF (limoeiro 'Rugoso da Flórida' C. jambhiri - 005. As progênies de meios-irmãos obtidas compreenderam, respectivamente, 364; 55; 12; 58; 51; 551 e 59 seedlings (plantas oriundas de sementes zigóticos. Os híbridos dentro de progênies foram extremamente variáveis quanto à altura da planta e diâmetro do caule, também apresentando diferenças na presença de ramificações, formato, cor e textura do limbo foliar e tamanho de espinhos. A progênie mais vigorosa relacionou-se ao parental HTR-073, dando-se o contrário com aquela relativa ao híbrido LCR x LRF-005. Este trabalho indica que, em citros, a utilização de parentais femininos monoembrônicos em cruzamentos abertos constitui método simples e fácil de obtenção de híbridos.Seeking to avoid the effects of polyembryony, that difficult the identification of hybrids and individuals of maternal origin (nucellar, the Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits selected monoembryonic hybrids with potential of generating new rootstocks. Thus, the trifoliate hybrids HTR-001, HTR-002, HTR-005, HTR-037, HTR-073 and HTR-135, besides LCR ('Rangpur' lime Citrus limonia x LRF ('Florida' rough lemon C. jambhiri - 005 were used as female parents in open pollinations design. The half-sibling progenies obtained were, respectively, 364; 55; 12; 58; 51; 551 and 59 zygotic seedlings. The hybrids inside progenies were extremely variable as regards the height

  7. Influência de fitorreguladores e nitrato de potássio na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de porta-enxerto de Citrus amblycarpa Influence of growth regulators and potassium nitrate on Citrus amblycarpa seed germination and growth of rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de fitorreguladores (giberelinas e citocininas e nitrato de potássio (KNO3, na germinação de sementes e na promoção do crescimento de "seedlings" do porta-enxerto 'Nasnaran' (Citrus amblycarpa Ochese. Realizou-se primeiramente o experimento em germinador, contendo papel de filtro umedecido com água destilada e gerbox, como meio para a germinação das sementes. Os tratamentos foram realizados mediante imersão das sementes, em soluções preparadas com os fítorreguladores e KNO3, durante 24 horas. Através dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que o tratamento com 100 mg/1 de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina, apresentou a maior porcentagem de germinação (88%, num tempo médio de 21 dias. Tomando como base o resultado do germinador, sementes de Citrus amblycarpa foram semeadas em canteiros e quando as plantas atingiram a altura de 6,0 cm receberam 2 pulverizações com 0; 50; 100 e 150 mg/1 de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilami-nopurina, com intervalo de 21 dias. Avaliou-se a matéria seca total, caule e folhas, área foliar e altura das plantas, sendo que a análise desses parâmetros mostrou que o GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetUaminopurina na concentração de 50 mg/1 foi o tratamento que apresentou os melhores resultados.The effects of growth regulators (gibberellins and cytokmins and potassium nitrate were evaluated for Citrus amblycarpa seed germination and rootstock growth. First an experiment was performed in a germinator, using as a medium for seed germination filter paper wetted with distiled water. Seeds were treated with growth regulators and potassium nitrate during 24 hours. The results obtained indicate that the treatment of 100 mg/1 of GA4 + GA7 + phenylmethylaminepurine was the best, with a percentage of germination of 88% at 21 days. Based on the results obtained in the germinator, seeds of Citrus amblycarpa were seeded in soil and when the seedlings were 6 cm high they were sprayed with 50 mg/1 of GA4 + GA7

  8. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  9. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  10. Rootstocks: diversity, domestication and impacts on shoot phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot system (scion) of another individual. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops such as Apples, Grapes, and Citrus species to shorten scion juvenile stage length, facilitate clo...

  11. Tetraploidization events by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent in apomictic citrus and are dependent on genotype and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Froelicher, Yann; Schwarz, Sergio; Agustí, Manuel; Hernández, María; Juárez, José; Luro, François; Morillon, Raphael; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a major component of plant evolution. The citrus gene pool is essentially diploid but tetraploid plants are frequently encountered in seedlings of diploid apomictic genotypes. The main objectives of the present study were to establish the origin of these tetraploid plants and to ascertain the importance of genotypic and environmental factors on tetraploid formation. Methods Tetraploid seedlings from 30 diploid apomictic genotypes were selected by flow cytometry and genotyped with 24 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse their genetic origin. Embryo rescue was used to grow all embryos contained in polyembryonic seeds of ‘Tardivo di Ciaculli’ mandarin, followed by characterization of the plantlets obtained by flow cytometry and SSR markers to accurately establish the rate of tetraploidization events and their potential tissue location. Inter-annual variations in tetraploid seedling rates were analysed for seven genotypes. Variation in tetraploid plantlet rates was analysed between different seedlings of the same genotype (‘Carrizo’ citrange; Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) from seeds collected in different tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean countries. Key Results Tetraploid plants were obtained for all the studied diploid genotypes, except for four mandarins. All tetraploid plants were identical to their diploid maternal line for SSR markers and were not cytochimeric. Significant genotypic and environmental effects were observed, as well as negative correlation between mean temperature during the flowering period and tetraploidy seedling rates. The higher frequencies (20 %) of tetraploids were observed for citranges cultivated in the Mediterranean area. Conclusions Tetraploidization by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent events in apomictic citrus, and are affected by both genotypic and environmental factors. Colder conditions in marginal climatic areas appear to favour the expression of

  12. Produção de fitomassa em genótipos de citros submetidos a estresse hídrico na formação do porta-enxerto Dry matter production of citrus genotypes under water stress during the rootstock formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janivan F. Suassuna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à importância dos porta-enxertos no sucesso da citricultura e sua influência na tolerância a fatores de estresse, desenvolveu-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de porta-enxertos de citros ao estresse hídrico. Estudaram-se dois fatores: manejo hídrico ('sem estresse' e 'com estresse', neste último caso, com irrigação baseada em 50 e 25% da capacidade de campo e porta-enxerto (10 genótipos de citros fornecidos pelo Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela; avaliaram-se as fitomassas da parte aérea, das folhas, do caule, da raiz e total, além da relação raiz/parte aérea, razão de peso foliar e rendimento relativo. O déficit hídrico reduziu a fitomassa total e incrementou, em alguns porta-enxertos, a relação raiz/parte aérea. A fitomassa foliar é a variável mais afetada, negativamente, nos porta-enxertos de citros sob deficiência hídrica. O genótipo 'TSKFL x CTTR-017' possui capacidade de adaptação ao déficit hídrico, com potencial promissor para uso em áreas sujeitas às condições de seca.Knowing the importance of the rootstocks for the success of the citrus crop and its influence on tolerance to stress factors, this study was conducted in order to evaluate tolerance of citrus rootstocks to water stress studying two factors: water management ('without stress' and 'under stress' and in this latter case, the irrigation was based on 50 and 25% moisture of field capacity and rootstocks factor (10 citrus genotypes provided by Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. A randomized block design was adopted with three replications and 15 plants per plot. Shoot, leaves, stem, root and total dry mass, root/shoot ratio, leaf weight ratio and relative yield were evaluated. Water deficit reduced the total dry mass and increased the root

  13. Efeito do ácido giberélico sobre a germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos Effect of the giberellic acid on germination of citrus rootstock seeds

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    HUMBERTO UMBELINO DE SOUSA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito do ácido giberélico sobre a germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos, um experimento foi instalado no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos a partir do fatorial 5 x 4 (porta-enxertos: Limoeiro-'Cravo', Tangerineira-'Sunki', Tangerineira-'Cleópatra', 'UFLAD-4' e 'UFLAD-5'; ácido giberélico: 0; 60; 120 e 180 mg L-1 . A parcela experimental foi constituída por 25 tubos de ensaio com uma semente/tubo, empregando-se a água + ágar a 7 mg L-1 como meio de cultura, sendo usadas sementes intactas. Após a inoculação, os tubos foram armazenados em sala sob temperatura de 25 ºC e 80 % de umidade relativa, com fotoperíodo de 16 horas. O experimento foi avaliado a partir da determinação da percentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e número de plântulas por semente (NPS. O limoeiro-'Cravo' apresentou maior taxa de germinação e IVG, enquanto o híbrido 'UFLAD-5' apresentou maior NPS, não havendo efeito da aplicação do ácido giberélico sobre as características avaliadas.With the aim to evaluate the effect of the giberellic acid on germination of seeds of citrus rootstocks an experiment was carried out at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Universidade Federal de Lavras. A randomized block design was used with factorial scheme 5 x 4, with four replications adopting: lemon tree 'Cravo', mandarin tree 'Sunki', mandarin tree 'Cleópatra', hybrids 'UFLAD- 4' and 'UFLAD-5' as rootstocks; 0, 60, 120 and 180 mg L-1 as the giberellic acid concentrations. The experimental plot was made up of 25 test tubes with one intact seed per tube inoculated at culture medium employing water + agar at 7 mg L-1. After inoculation, the tubes were stored in growth room at 25ºC and 80% of relative humidity, with a photoperiod of 16 hours. The following variables were evaluated

  14. Níveis de alumínio e acúmulo de macronutrientes em porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico Aluminum levels and macronutrient accumulation in citrus rootstocks in hydroponic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio no acúmulo de macronutrientes pelos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle, sob cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos utilizados em condições de casa de vegetação seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0, 7,5, 15, 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3.6 H2O. Determinaram-se o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e do Al da matéria seca vegetal, relacionando-os com os pesos da matéria seca da parte aérea (folhas e caule e raízes durante o período de 84 dias, com coletas de plantas a cada 14 dias. Conclui-se que, com adição a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 de alumínio em solução nutritiva ocorreram alterações fisiológicas e reduções significativas no acúmulo de macronutrientes associado à redução nos pesos da matéria seca das folhas, caule e raízes das plantas de citrumelo Swingle.The aim of this research was to study the influence of different levels of aluminum on macronutrient contents of citrus rootstocks of the `Rangpur' lime and the `Swingle' citrumelo, in hydroponic solution. The treatments, established under greenhouse conditions, followed a completely randomized experimental design, with 3 replications, distributed in split-plots. The levels of aluminum were: 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30 mg L-1, applied as AlCl3.6 H2O. The evaluated chemical plant parameters were the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al and dry weight of leaves, stem and root system. The results showed that with adition of 7.5 mg L-1 of Al to the nutrient solution there was a significant decrese of nutrient contents and a decrese in leave, stem and root system dry weight of `Swingle' citrumelo.

  15. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  16. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  17. Efeito de sistemas de produção e doses de adubo de liberação lenta no estado nutricional de porta-enxerto cítrico The effect of production systems and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the nutritional status of citrus rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de produção do porta-enxerto, antes da repicagem, pode modificar o sistema radicular das plântulas e a resposta destas à adubação. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de três sistemas de produção do limoeiro 'Cravo' e de cinco doses de um adubo de liberação lenta, aplicados após a repicagem, sobre o estado nutricional do limoeiro 'Cravo' no ponto de enxertia. O experimento foi conduzido, sob viveiro telado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5, com sete repetições e uma planta por parcela. Os sistemas de produção do porta-enxerto foram: 1- produção em tubetes e citrovasos preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; 2- produção em tubetes e citrovasos preenchidos com substrato composto por bagaço de cana-de-açúcar + torta de filtro (3:2; v:v, e 3- produção em blocos prensados e citrovasos constituídos pela prensagem do substrato utilizado no sistema 2. As doses de adubo de liberação lenta, fórmula NPK 14-14-14, foram: 5; 10; 15; 20 e 25 g/planta. O sistema de produção do porta-enxerto, antes da repicagem, influenciou na resposta do limoeiro 'Cravo' à adubação após a repicagem. No ponto de enxertia, as plantas cultivadas no sistema de blocos prensados apresentaram menores teores foliares de P, K e Fe em relação às plantas provenientes de tubetes, mas apresentaram maiores médias de crescimento (peso seco do sistema radicular, peso seco de folhas, peso seco de caules e diâmetro do caule. Plantas cultivadas no sistema 1 apresentaram sintomas foliares de deficiência de Fe, enquanto as plantas dos outros dois sistemas apresentaram sintomas foliares de deficiência de Mg.The production system of citrus rootstock before the transplanting can modify the seedlings root system and the response of these to fertilization. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of three production systems of 'Rangpur' lime tree and five doses of a controlled

  18. 缺硼条件下两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙矿质元素含量变化的比较%Changes in mineral element contents of 'Newhall' navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb.)grafted on two different rootstocks under boron deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂东; 姜存仓; 王运华; 彭抒昂; 钟八莲; 曾庆銮; 袁水秀

    2011-01-01

    采用溶液培养试验,研究了缺硼对两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙硼、锌、钙、镁和钾元素含量变化.结果表明,缺硼显著降低了枳壳砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙体内硼含量而对锌含量影响不大;相反,缺硼对枳橙砧木脐橙体内硼含量的影响不是很大,而显著降低了其叶片中锌的含量.这可能足缺硼条件下枳壳砧木脐橙容易出现缺硼症状,而枳橙砧木脐橙容易出现缺锌症状的原因之一.与对照相比,缺硼处理的枳壳砧木脐橙叶的钙含量明显增加;而根的钾含量明显高于枳橙砧木橙根.这些结果与枳壳砧木脐橙对硼更敏感有一定的关系.缺硼对镁含量的影响两种砧木间基本没有差异.%The hydroponic method was used to study the changes in boron (B), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) concentrations of ‘ Newhall’ navel orange ( Citrus sinensis Osb. ) grafted on citrange [ C. sinensis ( L. ) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliate ( L. ) Raf. ] or trifoliate orange [ Poncirus trifoliata ( L. )Raf. ] under B deficiency. The results show that under the B deficiency, B concentrations of trifoliate orange-grafted plants and Zn concentrations of citrange-grafted plants are significantly decreased, which may be one of the reasons why trifoliate orange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of B deficiency and citrange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of Zn deficiency under the B deficiency. Compared to the normal B treatment, Ca concentration in leaves of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is increased obviously under the B deficiency, and K concentration in root of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is much higher than that of citrange-grafted plants. These results indicate trifoliate orange-grafted plants are more sensitive to the B deficiency. There are not significantly differences in Mg concentrations between trifoliate orange-grafted and citrange-grafted plants under the B deficiency.

  19. Evaluation of three rootstocks root system for acid lime ‘tahiti’ at Piauí state/ Sistema radicular de três porta-enxertos para lima ácida ‘tahiti’ no estado do Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeodato Ari Cavalcante Salviano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of the root system of three rootstocks for ‘Tahiti’acid lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu.Tanaka Tanaka]: Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck; Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.]; Flying Dragon trifoliate (P. trifoliata (L. Raf.var. (FD – in the soil and environment conditions of the county of José de Freitas, Piauí, located on 04º 52' latitude S and 42º 42' longitude W and 110 m of altitude, in Aw climate. It was used the trench method. A wooden frame divided into 0.1 x 0.2 m parts was fixed in the soil profile and a digital photograph was taken from each part. These photographs were analyzed by software SIARCS 3.0 for sizing of the root system and the data gotten, submitted to the analysis of variance with Tukey test at the level of 5% of probability. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments (rootstocks and four replications (trenches. The root systems of the rootstocks had 90% of concentration until the depth of 0,4 m, and it was observed that 60% of the roots were concentrated in the first 0,2 m. The root system of the Rangpur lime demonstrated to be superior, in lenght (cm.200 cm-² to the Flying Dragon trifoliate and Swingle citrumelo root systems.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento radicular de três porta-enxertos para lima ácida ‘Tahiti’ [Citrus latifolia (Yu.Tanaka Tanaka]: limão Cravo (C. limonia Osbeck; citrumelo Swingle [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.]; trifoliata Flying Dragon (P. trifoliata (L. Raf.var. (FD, no município de José de Freitas, Piauí, localizado a 04º 52’ latitude S e 42º 42’ longitude W, e altitude de 110m, onde predomina clima Aw. Foram abertas trincheiras com quatro repetições, para colocação de quadro-gabarito de madeira, com divisórias de 0,1 m na profundidade por 0,2 m na largura, perfazendo cinco camadas na profundidade e seis posi

  20. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  1. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; A. Gentile; LA MALFA, S

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus was isolated consistently from symptomatic tissues on 2% potato-dextrose agar (PDA). The mycelium was composed of branched, septate, brown hyphae which disarticulated into 0-1-septate phragmospores....

  2. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus was isolated consistently from symptomatic tissues on 2% potato-dextrose agar (PDA). The mycelium was composed of branched, septate, brown hyphae which disarticulated into 0-1-septate phragmospores....

  3. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cytolytic Toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  4. Germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos de citros após o armazenamento em ambiente refrigerado Seed germination of citrus rootstocks after cooling conditions storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o período de viabilidade das sementes dos porta-enxertos limoeiros-'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', tangerineira-'Cleópatra' e citrumeleiro-'Swingle' armazenadas em embalagem permeável sob temperatura controlada de 5-7ºC por 150 dias. A cada 30 dias, foram avaliadas a germinação em laboratório e a emergência das plântulas em casa de vegetação. Determinou-se o grau de umidade das sementes em cada época de testes. O armazenamento nas condições citadas induziu menor velocidade de germinação nas sementes de 'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', as quais não tiveram a germinação prejudicada quando apresentavam umidade próxima a 5%. Houve correlação altamente significativa entre teor de água e germinação nas sementes de 'Cleópatra' e 'Swingle'. Para a manutenção da viabilidade das sementes destes porta-enxertos, deve-se procurar manter o seu grau de umidade em torno de 20%. As sementes dos limoeiros-'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano' apresentaram maior velocidade de germinação e emergência que os demais porta-enxertos, enquanto as da tangerineira-'Cleópatra' apresentaram menor velocidade de emergência. Sementes de citrumeleiro- 'Swingle' e tangerineira-'Cleópatra' não germinaram após armazenamento por 60 e 90 dias, respectivamente.The present work was carried out in order to verify the viability period of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkameriano' lemon, 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Swingle' citrumelo seeds stored in permeable package at 5-7ºC for 150 days. The Germination in laboratory, seedling emergence in greenhouse and seed moisture content were performed each 30 days. Seed storage in that conditions reduced the speed of emergence index in the 'Rangpur' and 'Volkameriano' seeds. The germination of these rootstocks seeds weren't reduced when the seed moisture content was near 5%. There was highly significative correlation between seed water content and germination porcentage of 'Cleópatra' and

  5. Sodium Chloride Stress Induced Changes in Leaf Osmotic Adjustment of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata Seedlings Inoculated with Mycorrhizal Fungi

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    Ying-Ning ZOU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are sensitive to salinity, and thus employing new approaches to alleviate salt damage are necessary. The present study evaluated the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomus mosseae and G. versiforme, on leaf osmotic adjustment of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata seedings exposed to 100 mM NaCl. Salinity significantly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass and leaf relative water content, whereas the reduce of plant biomass was notably alleviated by the mycorrhizal colonization. Mycorrhizal seedlings exhibited significantly lower Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations, whilst also recorded higher K+ concentration and K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios at both salinity levels. Under salinity stress, mycorrhizal symbiosis markedly decreased sucrose concentrations of leaves and also increased glucose, fructose and proline concentrations of leaves. The results suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizas improved leaf osmotic adjustment responses of the seedlings to salt stress, thus enhancing salt tolerance of mycorrhizal plants.

  6. Availability of soil water under tillage systems, mulch management and citrus rootstocks Disponibilidade de água no solo em sistemas de preparo, manejo da cobertura morta e porta-enxertos de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of soil water is important for the management of non-irrigated orange orchards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of soil water in a Haplorthox (Rhodic Ferralsol under different tillage systems used for orchard plantation, mulch management and rootstocks in a "Pêra" orange orchard in northwest Paraná, Brazil. An experiment in a split-split-plot design was established in 2002, in an area cultivated with Brachiaria brizantha grass in which three tillage systems (no tillage, conventional tillage and strip-tillage were used for orchard plantation. This grass was mowed twice a year between the rows, representing two mulch managements in the split plots (no mulching and mulching in the plant rows. The split-split-plots were represented by two rootstocks ("Rangpur" lime and "Cleopatra" mandarin. The soil water content in the plant rows was evaluated in the 0-20 cm layer in 2007 and at 0-20 and 20-40 cm in 2008-2009. The effect of soil tillage systems prior to implantation of orange orchards on soil water availability was less pronounced than mulching and the rootstocks. The soil water availability was lower when "Pêra" orange trees were grafted on "Cleopatra" mandarin than on "Rangpur" lime rootstocks. Mulching had a positive influence on soil water availability in the sandy surface layer (0-20 cm and sandy clay loam subsurface (20-40 cm of the soil in the spring. The production of B. brizantha between the rows and residue disposal in the plant rows as mulch increased water availability to the "Pêra" orange trees.O aumento da disponibilidade de água no solo é importante para o manejo de pomares de laranja não irrigados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a água em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico em sistemas de preparo utilizados para implantação do pomar, manejo da cobertura morta e porta-enxertos em pomar de laranjeira 'Pêra', no noroeste do Paraná. Um experimento no esquema de

  7. Transcriptome analysis of root response to citrus blight based on the newly assembled Swingle citrumelo draft genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Barthe, Gary; Grosser, Jude W.; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Background Citrus blight is a citrus tree overall decline disease and causes serious losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Although it was described more than one hundred years ago, its causal agent remains unknown and its pathophysiology is not well determined, which hampers our understanding of the disease and design of suitable disease management. Results In this study, we sequenced and assembled the draft genome for Swingle citrumelo, one important citrus rootstock. The draft genome is...

  8. NaCl胁迫对不同柑橘砧木品种抗氧化系统的影响%Antioxidative responses to NaCl stress in the leaves of different cultivar of citrus rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘海峰; 刘可慧; 傅翠娜; 雷新南; 梅正敏; 肖远辉; 区善汉

    2010-01-01

    采用土培的方式,研究了不同浓度的NaCl(0,50,100,150,250,350 mmol·L~(-1))对岑溪酸橘Citrus reticulata Blanco、龙州土柠檬Citrus limonia Osbeck和临桂砧板柚Citrus grandis Osbeck叶片抗氧化酶(SOD、POD、CAT、APX)活性以及谷胱甘肽(GSH)、丙二醛(MDA)、超氧自由基(O_2~(·-))含量的影响.结果表明,随着NaCl处理浓度的增加,岑溪酸橘、龙州土柠檬和临桂砧板柚3种柑橘叶片中O_2~(·-)均有不同程度的增加,表明在NaCl处理下3种柑橘均受到了不同程度的O_2~(·-)胁迫.NaCl处理对岑溪酸橘和龙州土柠檬SOD、POD活性,临桂砧板柚MDA含量的影响不显著(P>0.05),但引起临桂砧板柚SOD活性、岑溪酸橘和龙州土柠檬APX活性显著增加(P<0.05).在不同浓度的NaCl处理下,3种柑橘叶片的CAT活性均有不同程度的下降,但GSH的含量随着NaCl浓度的增加而增加,在NaCl处理浓度为350 mmol·L~(-1)时,岑溪酸橘、龙州土柠檬、临桂砧板柚GSH含量分别比对照提高了137%、59.1%、90.8%,表明GSH在解毒NaCl胁迫时起重要作用.

  9. Efeitos de reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito Effect of plant growth regulators on rooting of Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teruel Felzener

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos de reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de Flying Dragon [Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito]. Na metade de cada estação do ano, ramos de citros foram coletados (4 experimentos, a partir dos quais foram retiradas estacas com 10 cm de comprimento com uma folha cortada ao meio. As bases das estacas foram tratadas com os seguintes reguladores vegetais na forma de talco: Testemunha (H2O; IBA 0,5%; NAA a 0,5%; IBA + ácido caféico a 0,5%, e NAA + ácido caféico 0,5%. As estacas foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor contendo fibra de coco e mantidas por três meses em câmara de nebulização. Os resultados mostraram que para a propagação desta espécie por estaquia, a coleta dos ramos deve ser no outono e que as mesmas sejam tratadas com a mistura de NAA + ácido caféico, ambos a 0,5%.The work aimed study the effects of plant growth regulators on the rooting of 'Flying Dragon' stem cuttings [Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa (T. Ito]. Citrus branches were collected of each season of the year (4 experiments. Cuttings (10-cm-long containing one half leaf were obtained from these branches. The base of the cuttings was treated with plant growth regulators in the talc formulation: Control (H2O; IBA 0.5%; NAA 0.5%; IBA + caffeic acid 0.5%; and NAA + caffeic acid 0.5%. The cuttings were planted in trays containing coconut fiber and maintained for three months in the misting chamber. The cuttings collected in the fall and treated with a mixture of NAA 0.5% and caffeic acid at 0.5% showed higher rooting percentage.

  10. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov A. I.; Mikhaylovskiy S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't ...

  11. Escarificação química da semente para favorecer a emergência e o crescimento do porta-enxerto Trifoliata Seedcoat chemist scarification to optimize the emergency and growth of Trifoliata rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o crescimento de plantas do porta-enxerto de citros Trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], provenientes de sementes escarificadas quimicamente. A semeadura foi realizada em tubetes de plástico, contendo substrato comercial, em viveiro-telado. Foram utilizados: tratamento químico de referência - TQR (imersão por 45 minutos em solução 0,5 L NaClO 12%, 3 mL HCl e 20 g NaOH diluídos para 2 L de água; metade, o dobro e quatro vezes a concentração do TQR; metade e o dobro do tempo de imersão do TQR; omissão de NaClO; omissão de HCl; omissão de NaOH; tratamentos- controle utilizando sementes com tegumento e sem tegumento. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e unidades experimentais constituídas por 42 tubetes contendo uma semente cada. A emergência das plantas de Trifoliata ocorre do 6º ao 45º dia depois da semeadura. A porcentagem final de emergência varia de 92,4 a 99,7%. Aos 65 dias da semeadura, as sementes submetidas à escarificação no tratamento com o dobro da concentração do TQR resultam em porta-enxertos com maior produção de matéria seca total (0,52 g por planta e bom desempenho quanto à média de altura (15,2 cm e diâmetro do caule (2,41 mm.The aim of this work was to evaluate the emergency and growth of the Trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] citrus rootstock, derived from chemically scarified seeds. The sowing was carried through in plastic dibble tubes, containing commercial substrate, in a greenhouse. The treatments consisted of chemical reference treatment of the seeds - TQR (45-minute immersion in solution composed of 0.5 L NaClO 12%, 3 mL HCl and 20 g NaOH diluted in 2 L of water; half, double and four times TQR concentration; half and double immersion time of TQR; omission of NaClO; omission of HCl; omission of NaOH; control treatments comprising seeds with tegument and without tegument. The experiment was a

  12. Exploiting BAC-end sequences for the mining, characterization and utility of new short sequences repeat (SSR) markers in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Chai, Lijun; Mayer, Christoph; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a large set of microsatellite markers based on publicly available BAC-end sequences (BESs), and to evaluate their transferability, discriminating capacity of genotypes and mapping ability in Citrus. A set of 1,281 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the 46,339 Citrus clementina BAC-end sequences (BES), of them 20.67% contained SSR longer than 20 bp, corresponding to roughly one perfect SSR per 2.04 kb. The most abundant motifs were di-nucleotide (16.82%) repeats. Among all repeat motifs (TA/AT)n is the most abundant (8.38%), followed by (AG/CT)n (4.51%). Most of the BES-SSR are located in the non-coding region, but 1.3% of BES-SSRs were found to be associated with transposable element (TE). A total of 400 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and their transferability and polymorphism tested on a set of 16 Citrus and Citrus relative's species. Among these 333 (83.25%) were successfully amplified and 260 (65.00%) showed cross-species transferability with Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella sp. These cross-species transferable markers could be useful for cultivar identification, for genomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella sp. Utility of the developed SSR marker was demonstrated by identifying a set of 118 markers each for construction of linkage map of Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among 40 Citrus and its related species were conducted with the aid of 25 randomly selected SSR primer pairs and results revealed that citrus genomic SSRs are superior to genic SSR for genetic diversity and germplasm characterization of Citrus spp.

  13. Análisis de la distribución de raíces de 12 patrones injertados con naranja "frost valencia" Citrus sinensis L. oesbeck de 14 años de edad, en condiciones climáticas de Palmira, Valle del Cauca Analysis of root distribution in 12 citrus rootstocks grown in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar T. William

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones del ICA, Palmira, se estudió el sistema de raíces de 12 patrones injertados con naranja Frost Valencia, de 14 años de edad, sembrados en un suelo Franco-Arcilloso. Se tomaron muestras a 1.0, 1,5, 2.0 y 3.0 m de distancia de la base del árbol y a profundidades de 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 Y 80-100 cm, considerando cada distancia. Los patrones que mostraron la mayor densidad de raíces fueron: Amblycarpa, Citrange Carrizo y Mandarina Cleopatra. Se encontró correlación directa y altamente significativa entre el sistema de raíces menores de 2 mm de diámetro con la altura y diámetro del árbol, lo mismo que con el volumen de la copa. Estos aspectos son de especial importancia para evaluar el grado de adaptación a diferentes condiciones de suelo, al momento de plantar un huerto.

    At the ICA National Research Center in Palmira a study of the root system of 12 rootstocks grafted with "Frost Valencia" orange 14 years old grown on clay-loam soil was conducted. Root samples were taken at distances of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 m from stem and a depth of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm in each distances. The rootstocks Amblycarpa, Citrange Carrizo and Cleopatra Mandarin presented the greater root densities. The height, diameter and the foliage tree volume showed positive correlation whit a diameter lesser than two millimeter. That's special importance for the adaptation several soil's conditions.

  14. Características da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos tolerantes à tristeza Characteristics of 'Valencia' sweet orange onto clones and hybrid rootstocks tolerant to the tristeza disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ção precoce e elevadosºBrix e ratio desse genitor, tratando-se de determinantes genéticos independentes. Trifoliata induziu altos valores de ratio do suco e, todos os seus grupos de híbridos foram superiores à Sunki e ao Cravo. Quanto à produção, verificou-se a superioridade do Cravo em relação à Sunki e esta em relação ao Trifoliata, enquanto nos híbridos constatou-se ampla variabilidade genética, sendo 228 significativamente mais produtivos que o Trifoliata, 100 superiores à Sunki e 47 ao Cravo. Os resultados evidenciaram alto potencial de seleção desses híbridos.Variability and selection potential of 396 hybrids of Rangpur lime 'Limeira', (Citrus limonia (C, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki (S, Sour orange 'São Paulo'(C. aurantium (A and Trifoliate orange 'Davis A'(Poncirus trifoliata (T tolerant to the tristeza disease were studied, comparatively to the genitors Rangpur lime, Sunki and Trifoliate orange. Hybrids TxA, TxS, SxT, CxS, SxC, CxA and SxA were investigated as to yield of first three crops, productivity and several vegetative and industrial characteristics of Valencia sweet orange onto them. Rangpur lime, Trifoliate orange and T x S, S x T, T x A, C x A hybrids initiated yielding before Sunki and S x C, C x S, S x A hybrids. This result indicates a dominance of the precocious yield of Trifoliate even in the hybrids with Sunki and conversely, the opposite trend of Sunki and its hybrids, except in the combination with Trifoliate orange. Yield per canopy area induced by Trifoliate orange was low, contrasting with Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin and T x S, S x T hybrids. It was observed a close relationship between the diameter of scions, the diameter of rootstocks right after transplant to the field and the same parameters in the subsequent years. Height, canopy, rootstock and scion trunk diameters were highly correlated and useful for composing an index vigor. Trifoliate orange and Sunki mandarin are the most divergent genitors regarding vigor, and the

  15. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    genótipos Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 3810 (1648, Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 5320 (1644, Limão- Cravo x Citrange- Carrizo (1524, Citrus pennivesiculata (880, Limão- Cravo x Trifoliata- Swingle A (1707, Rangpur- Rose- Lemon 124684 (864, Rangpur- Red -Lime D33.47 (867 e Limão- Cravo -Ipanema (1522. Dentre os 10 melhores genótipos para produção de frutos e para eficiência produtiva, apenas três são coincidentes: Rangpur- Rose -Lime (868, Citrus pennivesiculata (880 e Limão- Cravo-Ipanema (1522.This study aimed to perform the genetic evaluation of fruit production, productive efficiency and growth of Valência orange (Citrus sinensis trees scions grafted on selections and hybrids of Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Volkamer (C. volkameriana and Rough (C. jambhiri lemons rootstocks grown in the presence of the Citrus Sudden Death (CSD. In an affected endemic area for CSD 36 genotypes of these rootstocks were evaluated, represented by five plants each one, measured in five harvests from the third to seventh years after planting. Seven of them showed symptoms of CSD: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Rough lemon 58329 (1655 and Limão Cravo x Swingle B (1695. For selection and breeding purposes, genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated and individual genotypic values were predicted for all traits by the REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure. The analysis of fruit production in five harvests showed selective accuracy of 84.59% revealing that a greater number of harvests is unnecessary. Selection of the best seven genotypes led to a genetic gain of 11.5% for fruit production while the selection of the very best genotype provided an estimated genetic gain of 16.3%. The higher predicted genetic means (>70.0 kg.pl-1 for fruit production were obtained for the genotypes Ipanema Rangpur Lime (1522, Santa Bárbara Red Lime (884

  16. Parentage Analysis of Freedom Rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rootstock Freedom has been widely deployed for nematode resistance in California vineyards. As the offspring of two open-pollinated parents, its risk of V. vinifera-derived phylloxera susceptibility is unknown. In order to determine the progenitors of Freedom, genetic profiles of candidate paren...

  17. Investigações sôbre a tristeza dos Citrus: II - Conceitos e dados sôbre a reação das plantas cítricas à tristeza

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    A. S. Costa

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The writers review previous concepts concerning the reaction of citrus plants to the tristeza disease. It is recognized that environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light can influence plant reaction, but these are considered of relatively minor importance. Characteristics of the plant itself govern its reaction to the disease and among those, resistance to infection, ability to permit virus increase and tolerance or non-tolerance of tissues are considered most important. Tests using viruliferous oriental citrus aphids for inoculation of various citrus types budded over sour orange rootstocks (table 1 and 2 showed a correlation between susceptibility to infection and severity of symptoms. The sweet oranges proved to be the most susceptible to infection and showed severe disease symptoms. The Barão sweet orange appeared to be more susceptible than Valencia. The mandarins tended to show some resistance to infection, but when infected, severe symptoms developed. The tolerant tangelos (7 behaved similarly to sweet oranges : They were very susceptible to infection and showed severe symptoms. The non-tolerant tangelos, susceptible citranges (7 and grapefruits behaved more or less alike, and showed medium susceptibility to infection and moderately severe disease symptoms. Among the grapefruits, Leonardy was. observed to be relatively more susceptible and showed more severe symptoms than Duncan. The pummelos, shaddocks and sour oranges were comparatively very resistant to infection and showed only moderate symptoms when infected. It has been found that the sour oranges can be more easily infected by tissue union than by the aphid vector. Poncirus trifoliata, citrumelos and resistant citranges showed no symptoms and no virus could be recovered from the inoculated plants even after three inoculations. The nature of injury caused by tristeza in the non-tolerant graft and intergraft combinations is discussed. The observation of symptoms

  18. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail.

  19. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. PMID:26261026

  20. Biological control of Phytophthora nicotianae and organic media standardization in citrus nurseries.

    OpenAIRE

    SALEM, Assem

    2005-01-01

    Investigations were carried out for the biological control of Phytophthora nicotianae (citrus root rot) on two citrus rootstocks (Sour orange and Troyer citrange) transplanted in organic and conventional substrates, treated with the semi-commercial product Clonotri (Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea) and Metalaxyl-M as a chemical control. Clonotri was more efficient than the chemical treatment increasing plant high and weight. Organic products (Chitosan, Quillaia, Equiseto and Clon...

  1. Resistance of Citrus and Related Genera to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, P C; Vendramim, J D; Lourencão, A L; Machado, M A

    2014-10-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of Citrus and related genera to this pest: 'Pera,' 'Natal', and 'Washington Navel' oranges (Citrus sinensis), 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'Rubidoux' (Poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle), citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata), and citrange 'Troyer' (P. trifoliata x C. sinensis). The experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia) and placed individually in voile cages. The preference for oviposition in a no-choice test, and the effect of genotype were evaluated. The egg-adult cycle was monitored to determine the effect of genotype on the biology of the insect. Poncirus 'Rubidoux' was the least preferred genotype for oviposition; reduced number of eggs was also found to occur on citrange 'Troyer', and 'Marsh Seedless' was the genotype with the most eggs. No significant variation in the duration of the embryonic period was observed; however, a difference in the viability of eggs was found, with the lowest egg viabilities on 'Swingle.' Kumquat and 'Marsh Seedless' genotypes were correlated with increased durations of the nymphal phase, however, there was no difference in the survival of this phase. Fecundity of females on 'Troyer', 'Swingle', and kumquat was reduced. Considering all of the evaluated parameters, it was concluded that cultivars of sweet orange are the most susceptible genotypes to Diaphorina citri. Regarding oviposition, P. trifoliata 'Rubidoux' showed resistance of the antixenosis type. PMID:27193957

  2. Resistance of Citrus and Related Genera to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, P C; Vendramim, J D; Lourencão, A L; Machado, M A

    2014-10-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of Citrus and related genera to this pest: 'Pera,' 'Natal', and 'Washington Navel' oranges (Citrus sinensis), 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'Rubidoux' (Poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle), citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata), and citrange 'Troyer' (P. trifoliata x C. sinensis). The experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia) and placed individually in voile cages. The preference for oviposition in a no-choice test, and the effect of genotype were evaluated. The egg-adult cycle was monitored to determine the effect of genotype on the biology of the insect. Poncirus 'Rubidoux' was the least preferred genotype for oviposition; reduced number of eggs was also found to occur on citrange 'Troyer', and 'Marsh Seedless' was the genotype with the most eggs. No significant variation in the duration of the embryonic period was observed; however, a difference in the viability of eggs was found, with the lowest egg viabilities on 'Swingle.' Kumquat and 'Marsh Seedless' genotypes were correlated with increased durations of the nymphal phase, however, there was no difference in the survival of this phase. Fecundity of females on 'Troyer', 'Swingle', and kumquat was reduced. Considering all of the evaluated parameters, it was concluded that cultivars of sweet orange are the most susceptible genotypes to Diaphorina citri. Regarding oviposition, P. trifoliata 'Rubidoux' showed resistance of the antixenosis type.

  3. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  4. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  5. 两类柑桔杂种砧木对脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)幼树生长和叶片糖营养含量年变化的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Rootstocks on the Growth of Navel Orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)Young Tree and the Annual Changes in the Contents of Carbohydrates in Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开兵; 郭文武; 夏仁学; 王贵元; 沈婷

    2004-01-01

    以体细胞杂种红桔+枳和红桔+粗柠檬、有性杂种Troyer枳橙和Swingle枳柚作砧木的耐湿脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)2年生嫁接苗为试材,通过盆栽试验研究了砧木对苗木生长和叶片糖营养含量年变化动态的影响.结果表明:红桔+枳的生长势和花量明显地强于和大于其它砧木,红桔+粗柠檬的生长和花量表现介于2种有性杂种之间.叶绿素a/b和类胡萝卜素含量在不同砧木间无显著差异,而不同砧木显著或极显著地影响叶绿素含量各指标.砧木影响叶片可溶性糖和淀粉含量年变化动态的基本特征.在休眠期,红桔+枳的可溶性糖和淀粉含量都高于2种有性杂种砧木,而红桔+粗柠檬则反之;在生长期,红桔+粗柠檬的可溶性糖和淀粉含量表现出高于有性杂种砧木的趋势,而红桔+枳则介于2种有性杂种砧木之间.同时还重点讨论了2种体细胞杂种砧木的利用价值.

  6. Brooks and Olmo List 45, Prunus Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  7. Brooks and olmo list 46, Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  8. Comportamiento de crecimiento y rendimiento de naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. injertado en varios portainjertos en suelos calcisol vértico y pétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 16 portainjertos para naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. en suelos Calcisol vértico y pétrico de textura migajón arcilloso y migajón arenosos, respectivamente. El objetivo fue comparar el potencial de sitio y los portainjertos en el crecimiento y rendimiento de naranja a 10 años de plantada. Los tratamientos (portainjertos incluyeron limones, citranges, mandarinos, lima ácida y trifoliados; como testigo, se utilizó Naranjo agrio (Citrus aurantium L.. En los suelos utili-zados, resultaron sobresalientes, con respecto a naranjo agrio: Volkameriana (Citrus volkameriana, Pasq., Carrizo (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf. x Citrus sinensis L., Macrofila (Citrus macrophylla Wester, Amblicarpa (Citrus amblycarpa Ochse y Sunki x Trifoliado (Sunki x Poncirus trifoliata. La altura, el diámetro de tronco y de copa, así como el volumen de copa fue 14%, 17%, 3% y 18.7% mayor en el suelo Calcisol vértico que en el Calcisol pétrico. El rendimiento en 2001 y el acumulado (de 5 años fue 35% y 23% superior, respectivamente, en el suelo de textura migajón arcilloso que en el suelo de textura migajón arenoso.

  9. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't have the merits of existing rootstocks. The short description of the grapes rootstocks which were created in the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking such as AZOS-1, AZOS-2, AZOS-3, AZOS-4, AZOS-5 and AZOS-6 is given in the article. It is indicated that these rootstocks have a high resistance to a leaf form of phylloxera, to chlorosis and to some other diseases of a grapes bush. They have the short period of vegetation, high quantity of standard cutting from hectare and other useful properties. In the article the description of a new formation of rootstocks grapes bushes of "AOS- 1" and "AOS-2" with a free trail shoots is given. This construction of grapes bush is developed by the Anapa's Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking. We have also given all the advantages of this forming in comparison with other designs of grapes bushes. It is especially noted that use of this forming of bushes increases the productivity per men in the process of bushes scrap and preparation of cutting; the expenditures on the struggle against diseases and wreckers on the vineyards are reduced; the quantity standard of grapes cutting increases by 27-33%

  10. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Y Folimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  11. Citrus Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter, Fred G.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  12. Evaluating paradox walnut rootstocks for resistance to Armillaria root disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common Juglans regia (English walnut) rootstock in California is Paradox, a hybrid between J. hindsii (Northern California black walnut) and J. regia. Unfortuntely, Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to Armillaria root disease. The relative resistance of new clonal, Paradox rootstock...

  13. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts Híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros produzidos pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados e tratados com iodoacetamida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma-irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis. Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L-1 iodoacetamide (IOA, and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol-butyric acid (IBA solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis of plantlet DNAsamples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy-irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA-treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L-1 IBA solution for 10 min.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados com raios gama e protoplastos tratados com iodoacetamida. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares embriogênicas de pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad., cultivares Ruby Red e Flame, de laranja doce (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia' e 'Succari', de tangerinas 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. e 'Changsha' (C. reticulata Blanco e de tangor 'Murcott' (C. reticulata x C. sinensis

  14. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr) con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle) y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle) como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo C. Orlando; Salazar C. Raúl; Torres M. Rodrigo

    1987-01-01

    At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmi...

  15. THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS DERIVED FROM SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS PLANTLET AND SCION STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Friyanti Devy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE of callus culture in vitro is one of citrus propagation ways for producing free virus and genetically true-to-type plantlets. To induce growing of plantlets derived from this technology, they should be grafted ex vitro onto a citrus rootstock. The research aimed to evaluate the growth performance of citrus plants cv. Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis L. that used both plantlets and scions as their stocks. The research was conducted at Tlekung Research Station, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from June 2011 to December 2012. The treatments were done at nursery house by grafting a plantlet and budding a scion onto an eight-month-old Japanese Citroon (JC rootstock plant. The grafted and budded plants of one-year old were maintained at nursery house then transplanted into the field. In the field, the research was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and used 15 plants as unit samples. The results showed that the vegetative growth of Siam Kintamani seedling derived from SE or grafted plant was faster than that of budded plant started from 10 to 12 months after treatment in the nersery house. In the field, the growth of SE grafted plant was only significantly different up to 6 months after transplanting. Plantlets produced from SE in vitro propagation can be used as a good alternative stock material for producing healthy citrus plants. Therefore, a further research is required especially on varieties used, reproductive growth and massive planlets production.

  16. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  17. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blocos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v; e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v. Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada.Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Rangpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Penjor

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions

  19. Deep sequencing of viral small-RNAs of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reveals genomic differences between two Italian isolates of CTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) epidemic of quick decline (QD) killed many sweet orange trees grafted on sour orange rootstock in Sicily but left some asymptomatic trees in the same field. Recent reports indicated cross-protection involves exclusion of a severe CTV strain by a mild strain of th...

  20. Genetic relationships of some Citrus genotypes based on the candidate iron chlorosis genes

    OpenAIRE

    KAÇAR, Yıldız AKA; Özhan ŞİMŞEK; DÖNMEZ, Dicle; BONCUK, Melda; YEŞİLOĞLU, Turgut; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Iron is one of the most important elements in plant mineral nutrition. Fe deficiency is a critical abiotic stress factor for Mediterranean citriculture; the development of marker-assisted selection for this trait would greatly enhance rootstock breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were performed to determine the allelic diversity of genes associated with tolerance to iron chlorosis in citrus. Two candidate iron chlorosis toleran...

  1. Phenotypic plasticity and water flux rates of Citrus root orders under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Rewald, Boris; Raveh, Eran; Gendler, Tanya; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the root system structure and the uptake efficiency of root orders is critical to understand the adaptive plasticity of plants towards salt stress. Thus, this study describes the phenological and physiological plasticity of Citrus volkameriana rootstocks under severe NaCl stress on the level of root orders. Phenotypic root traits known to influence uptake processes, for example frequency of root orders, specific root area, cortical thickness, and xylem traits, did not change h...

  2. Transient gene expression of b-glucuronidase in citrus thin epicotyl transversal sections using particle bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalhok Filho João C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to optimize the conditions for transient gene expression through particle bombardment on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata thin epicotyl sections. The best conditions for transient GUS expression were: M-25 tungsten particles, 1550 psi helium pressure, 9 cm distance between specimen and DNA/particle holder and culture of explants in a high osmolarity medium (0.2 M mannitol + 0.2 M sorbitol 4 h prior and 20 h after bombardment. Under these conditions, an average of 102 blue spots per bombardment (20 explants/plate were achieved. This protocol is currently being used for transformation of Carrizo citrange and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

  3. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG ...

  4. Citrus leprosis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  5. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  6. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadete Reis; Otto Carlos Koller; Sergio Francisco Schwarz; Sergiomar Theisen; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Fernanda Severo Nichele; Rafael Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2008-01-01

    Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2...

  7. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  8. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present. PMID:26884596

  9. Effects and Safety of Aqueous Extract of Poncirus fructus in Spinal Cord Injury with Neurogenic Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., known as Poncirus fructus (PF, in spinal cord injury (SCI patients with neurogenic bowel. Methods. Thirty-one SCI patients with neurogenic bowel were recruited. Patients were evaluated based on clinical information, constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale, stool retention score using plain abdominal radiograph, and colon transit time. PF was administered in dosages of 800 mg each prior to breakfast and lunch for 14 days. Results. The morphological feature of the stool before and after administration indicated a statistically significant difference from 3.52 ± 1.33 to 4.32 ± 1.44 points (p<0.05. Stool retention score before and after administration of PF was represented with low significance (7.25 ± 1.60 to 6.46 ± 1.53 points in the whole colon (p<0.05, and the colon transit time was significantly shortened (57.41 ± 20.7 to 41.2 ± 25.5 hours in terms of the whole transit time (p<0.05. Side effects were observed in 7 people (28.0% consisting of 2 people with soft stools and 5 people with diarrhea. Conclusion. For SCI patients, PF administration significantly improved defecation patterns, defecation retention, and colon transit time. PF could be an effective aid to improve colonic motility and constipation.

  10. Effect of rootstock diameter on apple saplings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAHID AVDIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of a field trial with managed nursery trees including two apple cultivars Golden Reinders and Gala Galaxy on the rootstocks M9 and MM 106. In April 2011, the saplings (bench grafted in March 2011 were planted in the distance 100 cm x 35 cm in randomized block design in threecombinations of rootstock diameters (5-7 mm, 7-9 mm, 9-11 mm with threereplications (in total 60 saplings for each apple cultivar-rootstock and combinations in Mirovica, Kosovo. The following parameters were examined: growth, rootstock diameter, scion diameter, and stocks growth dynamic. The experimental design was a ANOVAs one-way analysing two different factors cultivars, rootstocks types and treatments (three combinations of rootstocks diameter. Significant differences were found in scion thickness and sapling growth among the three different combinations of rootstock diameter, dimensions and cultivars. Insignificant were differences were found within factors as cultivar, rootstock and their combinations Key words: Amino acids, Moringa oleifera, poultry manure.

  11. Scion-rootstocks relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  12. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... to movement. Citrus canker is a plant disease that is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp... quarantined for citrus canker are found in Sec. 301.75-6. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus...

  13. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... citrus canker are found in Sec. 301.75-6. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a... areas of the world where the disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and die within a few years and...

  14. [Relationship between drought resistance and endogenous hormone content in different citrus species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Tao; Fan, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Eight plant seedlings of citrus species, Citrus tangerina, C. erythrosa, C. chuana, Poncirus trifoliate, C. sinensis x P. trifoliate, C. grandis, C. sinensis and C. vessucosa were used to investigate the effects of drought stress on plant biomass, drought resistance coefficient and leaf hormone (ABA, GA1+3 , ZR, IAA) changes. The results showed that, on the condition of precipitation less than 1200 mm, the biomass of different citrus species reduced obviously, and drought-resistance index and drought resistance showed in order of C. erythrosa > C. tangerina > P. trifoliate > C. chuana > C. sinensis x P. trifoliate > C. grandis > C. sinensis > C. vessucosa. The leaf ABA contents of the eight species increased whereas GA1+3 , ZR and IAA decreased, under the condition of drought stress. The ratios of ABA/GA1+3 and ABA/ZR in the species of C. erythrosa and C. tangerina increased drastically, yet there was no significant correlation between the ratio of ABA/IAA and the drought tolerance. The drought-resistance index was significantly positively related to the relative content of ABA (P drought resistance by those endogenous hormones in the citrus species showed in order of ABA > GA1+3, ZR > IAA. PMID:24765854

  15. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Legua; Jorge Pinochet; María Ángeles Moreno; Juan José Martínez; Francisca Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01) on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found...

  16. 枳NLP转录因子克隆及其在不同水分条件下的表达%Cloning and Expression ofPoncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf. NIN- Like Transcription Factors under Different Water Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雄军; 卢晓鹏; 熊江; 李静; 吴倩; 周芳芳; 谢深喜

    2016-01-01

    【目的】分析柑橘砧木枳(Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.)参与氮素吸收与同化的重要转录因子NLP在干旱胁迫下的表达模式,为柑橘在干旱胁迫条件下对氮素吸收与同化的调控机理提供研究参考。【方法】以柑橘砧木枳为试验材料,在甜橙(Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.)基因组数据库的基础上,利用生物信息学筛选获得甜橙NLP,并以此设计引物扩增枳NLP的CDS全长并测序。利用ClustalX和MEGA程序进行序列比对和系统发育分析,利用实时荧光定量PCR技术分析不同水分条件下的枳NLP的表达模式。【结果】筛选并克隆获得了4条枳NLP序列,为PtNLP2、PtNLP4、PtNLP7和PtNLP8。序列比对分析表明枳NLP之间的蛋白质序列一致性为45.13%,均具有明显的RWP-RK和PB1结构域。枳与甜橙的NLP蛋白质序列的一致性极高,分别为97.57%、96.47%、99.0%及97.33%。系统发育分析表明枳NLP可分为4个进化类型,与拟南芥的NLP分类一致,即PtNLP2与AtNLP1/2一类, PtNLP4与AtNLP4/5一类,PtNLP7与AtNLP6/7一类,PtNLP8与AtNLP8/9一类。在不同水分条件下,枳NLP的表达模式在叶与根中存在差异。随着基质水分含量的减少,枳叶NLP呈现先上升再下降的趋势。与对照(相对持水量为61.0%)相比,叶PtNLP2、PtNLP4、PtNLP7及PtNLP8的表达量在相对持水量为15.4%时上调至最高水平,分别上调了2.9、3.5、5.9及2.8倍,之后持续下调;到相对持水量为9.4%时,其表达水平低于对照但无显著差异。而枳根 NLP的表达量在对照中最高,后随着水分的散失呈总体下降趋势且差异显著,与对照相比,根 PtNLP2、PtNLP4、PtNLP7及PtNLP8的最大下调倍数分别为6.7、2.8、4.8及2.3。复水后,枳叶与根NLP的表达量低于复水前,且与对照差异显著。【结论】枳NLP的表达与土壤的水分条件密切相关。枳叶片NLP的表达水平在干旱胁迫前

  17. 枳NLP转录因子克隆及其在不同水分条件下的表达%Cloning and Expression ofPoncirus Trifoliata (L.) Raf. NIN- Like Transcription Factors under Different Water Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雄军; 卢晓鹏; 熊江; 李静; 吴倩; 周芳芳; 谢深喜

    2016-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this study was to analyze the expression ofPoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. NIN-like transcription factors to discuss the regulation mechanism of nitrogen assimilation under different water conditions in citrus.[Method] Primers were designed to amplify the sequences of theNLPgenes CDS ofPoncirus trifoliate(L.) Raf.based on orange genome databases and molecular biology. Alignment of the sequences was performed using ClustalX and phylogenetic analysis of this alignment was conducted using MEGA. Analysis of the RelativeNLP genes expression data under different water conditions using Real-Time Quantitative PCR.[Result]FourPoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.NLP genes:PtNLP2,PtNLP4,PtNLP7andPtNLP8were obtained. The sequence alignment analysis showed that the identity of all NIN-like proteins was 45.13%, and possessed both the RWP-RK and PB1 domain, and all NIN-like proteins were high identity to sweet orange, respectively 97.57%, 96.47%, 99% and 97.33%. Phylogenic analysis has indicated that the 4Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.NLP genes can be classified into four groups with Arabidopsis (PtNLP2andAtNLP1/2,PtNLP4andAtNLP4/5,PtNLP7andAtNLP6/7,PtNLP8andAtNLP8/9). There were differences in the expression pattern ofNLP genes inPoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. leaves and roots. The results indicated that with the decrease of soil water, the expression level ofNLP genes inPoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. leaves were up-regulated. ThePtNLP2, PtNLP4,PtNLP7 andPtNLP8 expression level were the highest when the relative water capacity was 15.4%, they were 2.9, 3.5, 5.9 and 2.8 folds higher respectively compared to the control (the relative water holding capacity was 61.0%). After that, the gene expression level began to down-regulate and had no statistically significant difference between the control and the relative water holding capacity of 9.4%. While the expression level ofNLP genes inPoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. roots of control were the highest, and the gene

  18. DRIS norms for 'Valencia' sweet orange on three rootstocks Normas DRIS para laranjeira 'Valência' sobre três porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS applies nutrient ratios instead of the isolated concentration values of each nutrient in interpretation of tissue analysis. The objectives of this research were to establish adequate DRIS norms for 'Valencia' sweet orange irrigated commercial groves budded on three rootstocks and correlate indexes of nutrition balance with yield. Experiments were conducted in São Paulo State, Brazil. Rootstocks Rangpur lime, Caipira sweet orange, and Poncirus trifoliata, with more than six years old and yield above 40 ton ha-1 were utilized. Data referred to yield, tree spacing, rootstock and foliar concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B in non fruiting terminals for each grove were processed for the years 1994 through 1998. DRIS indexes were calculated by Nick criterion for choosing the ratio order of the nutrients and Jones calculation method of the ratio functions. Indexes of nutritional balance calculated from DRIS norms presented high correlation with yield for the three scion/rootstock combinations. DRIS norms defined in this research are valid, since leaf sampling is done on non fruiting terminals and the grove is irrigated.O sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS - Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System utiliza relações entre nutrientes em vez da concentração absoluta e isolada de cada um deles na interpretação da análise de tecidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer normas para o método DRIS em pomares comerciais irrigados de laranjeira 'Valência' sobre três porta-enxertos e correlacionar os índices de balanço nutricional com a produtividade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Estado de São Paulo, com os porta-enxertos limão 'Cravo', laranja 'Caipira' e Poncirus trifoliata, com mais de seis anos, e produtividade acima de 40 t ha-1. Dados de produtividade, espaçamento, porta-enxerto e teores foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu

  19. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible. PMID:19295825

  20. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible.

  1. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  2. 一个新的枳NAC基因cDNA全长的克隆及其亚细胞定位分析%Cloning and Subcellular Localization Analysis of A New Gene NAC cDNA in Poncirus trifoliata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩键; 王化坤; 宋长年; 上官林飞; 冷翔朋

    2012-01-01

    Taking the NACl cDNA sequence in Arabidopsis thaliana as the template, the homologous gene in the EST database of citrus was searched and screened, and the cDNA sequence of NACl gene in citrus was cloned by bioinformatics method. Taking the cDNA sequence in the flower of Poncirus trifoliata ( L. ) Raf. As the template, the specific primers were designed according to the a-bove cDNA sequence, and the 5' - end and 3' - end sequences of NAC1 gene were obtained by using 5'RACE and 3' RACE techniques, respectively. Based on these, the corresponding full length cDNA of NACl in Poncirus trifoliata was acquired through sequence splicing. This complete cDNA, designated as Pt - NACl, was 1351 bp in length, it contained a 1047 bp whole open reading frame (ORF) , its 5' - end included a putative translation start codon ( ATG) at the position of 25 bp, and the length of its 3' - end untranslated region was 280 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pt - NACl was 348 residues, which showed 64. 8% , 57. 0% , 61.3% identical levels with that of Malus x domestica, Arabidopsis thaliana, Petunia xhybrida, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the cDNA of Pt - NACl had the recognition site of microRNA164, and it also had highly conserved NAC domains. Recom-binant plasmid 35S - GW - GFP - FJ619349 was transferred into onion' s epidermal cells by using the particle bombardment method, and the subcellular localization analysis results indicated that Pt - NACl was all localized at the cell membrane.%以拟南芥的NAC1 cDNA序列作为模板,对柑橘EST数据库进行同源检索筛选,利用生物信息学方法克隆了柑橘NAC1基因的cDNA序列.以枳(Poncirus trifoliata)花的cDNA为模板,根据以上cDNA序列设计特异性引物,利用5′RACE和3′RACE技术,分别获得了NAC1基因的5′和3′末端,序列拼接后获得枳的NAC1 cDNA全长,命名为Pt-NAC1.Pt-NAC1全长为1351 bp,含有1个1047 bp完整的开放读码框(ORF),5′

  3. A fertilidade do polen e sua correlação com o número de sementes, em espécies e formas do gênero citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Moreira

    1941-12-01

    Full Text Available 1 - The present paper deals with the results of studies on pollen fertility, number of seeds per fruit and frequency of polyembryony in Citrus. 2 - The pollen may be divided into four groups of which the first consists of the living and functional grains, colouring deeply with carmín acetic, germinating in sugar solutions fairly well. The remainny three types : half filled grains, empty grains, and small deformed grains are all inviable. 3 - The grains are generally spherical, 15 to 40ix in diameter. The smallest grains were found in Citrus hystrix and Citrus mitis (fig. 3 and 4, while citron and the grape-fruits have the largest grains (fig. 1, 2 and 5. 4 - Size and form are reasonably constant, except the hybrid "Citran-gequat", "limão galego" without spines, orange "Ruby" (fig. 6 to 8. 5 - Percentages of viable pollen grains are given in quadros IV to X. Tahiti Lime, probably a triploid, is completely sterile. "Baía" orange (Washington Navel orange is completely male sterile, while the fruits of it may have some seeds. The two seedless varieties of "lima" and "pera" have 37,1 and 9,3% of viable pollen respectively. Regarding pollen viability oranges are the most variable. They show from 0 to 90% of good pollen (quadros IV and V. In lemons and limes the percentages vary from 50% and 80% (quadros VI to VIII. Tangerines, with exception of Satsuma owari, have generally more than 60% of good pollen. The grape-fruits, except the case of "Marsh-seedless", are characterized by a relative high pollen fertility. 6 - There is a certain variation of pollen fertility due to the external conditions. It seems to exist also a certain effect of the rootstock, on viability of pollen grains, as shown for the rootstock of "sour orange" and "rough lemon". 7 - The number of seeds per fruit was also determined and is given in the respective quadros (IV-X. 8 - There does not exist any consistent difference between open pollinated and selfed flowers in regard to

  4. Effect of Boron on Leaf Boron Forms of Newhall Navel Orange Grafted on Two Rootstocks%硼对两种不同砧木'纽荷尔'脐橙叶片硼形态影响的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂东; 姜存仓; 王运华; 彭抒昂; 曾庆銮

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To clarify the influence of boron (B) treatments on utilization ability of B in Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall') grafted on citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] or trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] at cellular level. [ Method ] Nutrient solution culture method was used in this study. The difference of leaf B forms between the two rootstocks was analyzed according to the concentration of B forms and their relative relationship.[Result] The results showed that the free B concentration of citrange was relatively lower and the sime-bound B concentration was relatively higher in the treatments of B deficiency (B0, B 0 mg.L-1), normal B (B05, B 0.5 mg·L-1) and high B (B50, B 5.0 mg.L-1),on the contrary, in trifoliate orange. R value of citrange was 2.31, 1.23, and 1.06 in the treatments of B0, B05, B50,respectively,which was much higher than that (1.80, 0.57, 0.82) of trifoliate orange in the same treatment. The free B and semi-bound B concentrations of citrange (16.39,17.38 mg.kg-1) were more higher than that of trifoliate orange (8.60 and 7.02 mg.kg-1) in the treatment of B50. Under the conditions of normal or high B, the bound B concentration of citrange was 7.34 and 7.43 mg.kg-1,respectively, there was no significant difference, while the bound B concentration of trifoliate orange was the highest (9.20 mg.kg-1) under the condition of high boron. [ Conclusion ] B transmembrane transport was easier in citrange-grafted plants compared to that in trifoliate orange, so B utilization ability of Newhall navel orange grafted on citrange was higher. Furthermore, B could fully bind the cell wall in citrange-grafted plants at relatively low B supply.%[目的]阐明不同硼处理下积橙砧木与积壳砧木'纽荷尔'脐橙细胞水平上的硼利用能力差异.[方法]采用水培试验,通过测定叶片中不同形态硼(自由态硼、半束缚态硼、束缚态硼)含量并分析其相互

  5. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... disease of citrus and referred to below as HLB) is considered to be one of the most serious citrus... world where the disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and die within a few years and may never.... Manjunath. Asian Citrus Psyllids (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) and Greening Disease of Citrus: A...

  6. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dušica DORIĆ; Vladislav OGNJANOV; Mirjana LJUBOJEVIĆ; Barać, Goran; Jovana DULIĆ; Pranjić, Ankica; Dugalić, Krunoslav

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant ...

  7. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year s...

  8. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  9. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  10. Chemical defoliation of apple rootstocks and the influence of rootstocks type on the defoliation of 'Jonathan' scion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Basak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The following substances were used to defoliate apple rootstock instead of hand defoliation before digging out: KI, CuSO4 · 5H2O, Mg(ClO32< · H2O, ethephon (Ethrel 68-250 and CKB 1131, preparation N252, and the mixtures: ethephon (Ethrel with copper sulphate, or with gibberellic acid, morphactin (EMD with ethephon, and morphactin with ethephon and copper sulphate. Among the inorganic defoliants tested, only Mg(ClO32 · H2O gave satisfactory results in defoliating apple rootstocks. When applied at the end of September this chemical did not decrease winter hardiness of the rootstocks. Ethrel and the preparation CKB 1131,caused satisfactory defoliation, but when used in optimal concentrations for defoliation they decreased the winter hardiness of plants. The mixture of ethephon with copper sulphate in which both components were used in low concentrations also appeared highly effective. Ethephon in low concentration mixed with EMD caused only partial defoliation of the rootstocks. Addition of gibberellic acid did not improve the effectiveness of ethephon. Preparation N252 in a concentration of 0.15% effectively defoliated the rootstocks and did not cause a subsequent decrease of frost hardiness in the conditions of this experiment. The response of 'Jonathan' scions to defoliants was modified by the rootstock.

  11. Effect of dwarfing rootstock on carbohydrate transportation and distribution of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14CO2 was used to trace carbon assimilate transportation and distribution in different organs of different apple rootstocks and grafted trees. The results showed that dry matter in above ground for dwarfing rootstock and its grafted tree were 14% and 9.4% higher than those of normal rootstock and its grafted tree, respectively, and 14C-assimilate were 19.2% and 15.7% higher, respectively. 14C specific activity in shoots of dwarfing rootstock and inter rootstock were 1.78 and 3 times stronger than those in normal rootstock, respectively. However, there is no accumulation of carbon assimilate in grafted area of inter rootstock and top truck above that. Therefore, the effect of dwarfing inter rootstock on carbon distribution was not because it simply blocked carbon transportation

  12. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  13. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  14. A New America Grape Rootstock 9365-43 Resisting to Nematodes%美国抗线虫葡萄砧木新品种9365-43

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海山; 蔡海燕; 谭鑫; 韩斌

    2014-01-01

    Rootstock 9365-43 is a cross of L514-10 [ Vitis rufotomentosa × ( V.champinii Dog Ridge ×V.riparia Riparia Gloire)] ×V.champinii c9038.It is a new and distinct variety of grape rootstock with resistance to a broad array of soil-borne nematodes including root-knot, dagger, lesion and citrus nematodes.The rootstock is susceptible to ring nematode, but has strong resistance to grape phylloxera.9365-43 was excellent rootstock with high abilities of rooting and grafting of cuttings and with flowers which were illate with small clusters and small black berries.9365-43 was acquired the patent of Unit States in 2009, the number was US PP20051 P2, which has a broad application prospect.%葡萄砧木新品种9365-43是由L514-10与V.champinii c9038杂交获得,对根结线虫、剑线虫、柑桔根线虫和根腐线虫具有良好的抗性,同时具有抗葡萄根瘤蚜的特性,生根能力强,嫁接亲和力高,雌能花,是一个非常优良的砧木新品种,2009年获得美国专利(专利编号: US PP20051 P2),具有广阔的应用前景。

  15. Nitrogen assimilation in Citrus based on CitEST data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Wickert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Assimilation of nitrate and ammonium are vital procedures for plant development and growth. From these primary paths of inorganic nitrogen assimilation, this metabolism integrates diverse paths for biosynthesis of macromolecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides, and the central intermediate metabolism, like carbon metabolism and photorespiration. This paper reports research performed in the CitEST (Citrus Expressed Sequence Tag database for the main genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and those previously described in other organisms. The results show that a complete cluster of genes involved in the assimilation of nitrogen and the metabolisms of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate and asparagine can be found in the CitEST data. The main enzymes found were nitrate reductase (NR, nitrite reductase (NiR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthetase (GOGAT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT and asparagine synthetase (AS. The different enzymes involved in this metabolism have been shown to be highly conserved among the Citrus and Poncirus species. This work serves as a guide for future functional analysis of these enzymes in citrus.

  16. Crescimento vegetativo de plantas cítricas no norte e noroeste do Paraná Vegetative growth of citrus trees in north an northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em Paranavaí e Londrina-PR, os fluxos de crescimento vegetativo dos ramos de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertada sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb., limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Ten. e Pasq., tangerineira 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e laranjeira 'Pêra' sobre o porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo'. Ocorreram seis fluxos de crescimento em Paranavaí e sete em Londrina, no inverno, primavera, verão e outono, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. O comprimento final dos ramos (121,2 mm a 151,6 mm não foi influenciado pelas combinações copa/porta-enxerto em Londrina, mas em Paranavaí a combinação 'Pêra'/limoeiro 'Cravo' produziu ramos mais longos que as demais. O período de crescimento dos ramos variou de 25,5 a 37,8 dias e foi menor em Paranavaí do que em Londrina, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. Os resultados são discutidos em relação às características edafoclimáticas dos dois locais.This work evaluated in Paranavaí and Londrina, PR, Brazil, the vegetative growth fluxes of branches of 'Folha Murcha' orange on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq., 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and 'Pêra' orange on 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. Six growth flushes were observed in Paranavaí, and seven were observed in Londrina, in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The final length of the branches (121.2 mm to 151.6 mm was not influenced by the scion/rootstock combinations in Londrina; in Paranavaí, however, the 'Pêra'/'Rangpur' lime combination produced longer branches than the others. The growth period of branches ranged from 25.5 to 37.8 days and was shorter in Paranavaí than in Londrina, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The results are discussed

  17. SELECTION OF VARIETY-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATIONS OF PLUM FOR THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushkov D. N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of integrated assessment of variety-rootstock combinations of plum on clonal rootstocks and different schemes of landing. We have defined the basic biometric parameters of trees, and specific indicators of productivity, allowing to identify the most optimal variety-stable rootstock combination for the conditions of the Krasnodar region

  18. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  19. In vitro control of plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. using Poncirus trifoliata Rafin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiqur; Islam, Rafiquel; Al-Reza, Sharif M; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The secondary metabolites such as essential oil and pure compounds (limonin and imperatorin) from Poncirus trifoliata Rafin were tested for in vitro control of phytopathogenic bacteria of Xanthomonas spp. In vitro studies showed that the oil had inhibitory effect on Xanthomonas campestris pv. compestris KC94-17-XCC, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria YK93-4-XCV, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae KX019-XCO and Xanthomonas sp. SK12 with their inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 13.1~22.1 mm and 62.5~125 μg/ml, respectively. Limonin and imperatorin also had in vitro antibacterial potential (MIC: 15.62~62.5 μg/ml) against all the tested Xanthomonas spp. Furthermore, the SEM studies demonstrated that limonin and imperatorin caused morphological changes of Xanthomonas sp. SK12 at the minimum inhibitory concentration (15.62 μg/ml). These results of this study support the possible use of essential oil and natural compounds from P. Trifoliata in agriculture and agro-industries to control plant pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26417325

  20. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on the Drought Tolerance of Poncirus trifoliata Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qiangsheng; Xia Renxue; Hu Zhengjia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Glomus mosseae colonization on the plant growth and drought tolerance of 1-year-old trifoliate Poncirus trifoliata seedlings in potted culture were studied in natural water stress and rewatering conditions.Results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)inoculation significantly improved the height,stem diameter,and fresh weight of P.trifoliata seedlings before natural water stress.By the end of the experiment,the survival percentage of AM-transplanted seedlings was 8%higher than those of non-AM ones.During water stress and rewatering,AM significantly increased the contents of soluble sugars and proteins in leaves,and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD),and catalase (CAT) in either seedling leaves or roots,which indicated that AM colonization could improve the osmotic adjustment response of P.trifoliata,enhance its defense system,and alleviate oxidative damages to membrane lipids and proteins.These results demonstrated that the drought tolerance of P.trifoliata seedlings was increased by inoculation with AM fungi.The functional mechanism underlying the observation that mycorrhizas increased the host's drought tolerance was closely related to enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems such as SOD,GPOD,CAT,and soluble protein.

  1. Contributions of roots and rootstocks to sustainable, intensified crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter J; Atkinson, Christopher J; Bengough, A Glyn; Else, Mark A; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Harrison, Richard J; Schmidt, Sonja

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is seen as the main route for meeting the world's increasing demands for food and fibre. As demands mount for greater efficiency in the use of resources to achieve this goal, so the focus on roots and rootstocks and their role in acquiring water and nutrients, and overcoming pests and pathogens, is increasing. The purpose of this review is to explore some of the ways in which understanding root systems and their interactions with soils could contribute to the development of more sustainable systems of intensive production. Physical interactions with soil particles limit root growth if soils are dense, but root-soil contact is essential for optimal growth and uptake of water and nutrients. X-ray microtomography demonstrated that maize roots elongated more rapidly with increasing root-soil contact, as long as mechanical impedance was not limiting root elongation, while lupin was less sensitive to changes in root-soil contact. In addition to selecting for root architecture and rhizosphere properties, the growth of many plants in cultivated systems is profoundly affected by selection of an appropriate rootstock. Several mechanisms for scion control by rootstocks have been suggested, but the causal signals are still uncertain and may differ between crop species. Linkage map locations for quantitative trait loci for disease resistance and other traits of interest in rootstock breeding are becoming available. Designing root systems and rootstocks for specific environments is becoming a feasible target.

  2. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  3. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  4. Quantificação e método para seleção de plantas nucelares de Poncirus trifoliata Quantification and method to select nucellar plants of Poncirus trifoliata

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira; Walkyria Bueno Scivittaro; Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a porcentagem de plantas zigóticas e nucelares de Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. em uma população resultante de polinização aberta e avaliar a eficiência de seleção de plantas nucelares com base na morfologia e no vigor. Sementes de frutos maduros foram semeadas em tubetes de 50 cm³, e após 150 dias as plantas foram transplantadas para sacos de plástico. A morfologia foliar e a altura das plantas foram avaliadas 300 dias após a semeadura, e a caracteri...

  5. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of CCCH-type zinc finger gene family in citrus (Clementine mandarin) by genome-wide characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengrui; Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Jinzhi; Hu, Chungen

    2014-10-01

    The CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family of regulatory proteins and are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The CCCH proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes and environmental responses in plants. Little information is available, however, about CCCH genes in plants, especially in woody plants such as citrus. The release of the whole-genome sequence of citrus allowed us to perform a genome-wide analysis of CCCH genes and to compare the identified proteins with their orthologs in model plants. In this study, 62 CCCH genes and a total of 132 CCCH motifs were identified, and a comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, functional annotations, gene structures and conserved motifs was performed. Distribution mapping revealed that 54 of the 62 CCCH genes are unevenly dispersed on the nine citrus chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structural features, we constructed 5 subfamilies of 62 CCCH members and integrative subfamilies from citrus, Arabidopsis, and rice, respectively. Importantly, large numbers of SNPs and InDels in 26 CCCH genes were identified from Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella japonica using whole-genome deep re-sequencing. Furthermore, citrus CCCH genes showed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different developmental processes and in response to various stress conditions. Our comprehensive analysis of CleC3Hs is a valuable resource that further elucidates the roles of CCCH family members in plant growth and development. In addition, variants and comparative genomics analyses deepen our understanding of the evolution of the CCCH gene family and will contribute to further genetics and genomics studies of citrus and other plant species.

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Citrus and Its Relatives as Revealed by SSR Markers%用SSR标记研究柑橘属及其近缘属植物的亲缘关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晓明; 胡春根; 邓秀新

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 29 accessions belonging to Citrus,Poncirus,Fortunella,Microcitrus,Eremocitrus,Atlantia and Severinia were investigated using SSR markers.Seven SSR primers generated 114 polymorphic alleles,with an average of 16.3 alleles per primer.Cluster analysis via neighbour-joining method showed that Microcitrus was close to Citrus;Poncirus was distant from Citrus,which suggested that Poncirus could not be derived from Citrus.High frequency of the homozygous SSR locus supported the species status of Fumin trifoliate orange.Seperation of neither Papeda and Citrus nor Archicitrus and Metacitrus was well resolved.The present work confirmed citron,pummelo and mandarin as basic species of cultivated citrus since they could be placed into three distinct clusters.%用SSR标记分析了29份柑橘属及近缘属植物的亲缘关系.7对SSR引物在29个样品中扩增得到114个等位基因,平均每个位点有16.3个等位基因.计算匹配系数后用邻接法进行聚类,结果表明,澳洲指橘与柑橘属的亲缘关系很近;SSR位点的高纯合频率支持富民枳种的地位;枳与柑橘属的关系较远,枳不大可能是从柑橘属衍生而来;Swingle的亚属的划分以及田中的原生柑橘类和后生柑橘类的划分界线都不清晰;现代栽培柑橘的起源与大翼橙关系密切;柑橘属的枸橼、柚和宽皮橘都能很好地分离,支持其为现代栽培柑橘的3个基本种的观点.

  8. Effects of Different Sweet Cherry Rootstocks and Drought Stress on

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜKYUMUK, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Relation between drought stress, genotypic differences and nutrients are important in plant growth. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different sweet cherry rootstocks grown in 50-liter pots and drought stress on nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Cu) concentrations of leaves. In this study 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on five different rootstocks (P. mahaleb, Mazzard, Gisela-6, MaxMa 14, CAB 6) were used. Four irrigation treatments (control or 100%, 75%, 50...

  9. Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus in lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was monitored in different lemon varieties derived from shoot tip grafted (STG selections proven to be free of CTV before planting. The trial was planted in November, 2007, with a randomized four-block design with four replications. This experiment was originally established to compare selected clones with their duplicates recovered by STG. The selected clones were originally nucellar clones kept in the germplasm bank in the field for 30 to 40 years, so the plants were naturally infected with CTV. The lemon varieties tested were two lines of both Frost Eureka and Limoneira 8A Lisbon and one line of Feminello Santa Teresa and Genoa EEAT. Plants were grafted on Poncirus trifoliata Flying Dragon, except for Eureka lemon, which was grafted on 79 AC [Citrus reshni x (C. paradisi x P. Trifoliata]. Direct immunoprinting-ELISA with 3DF1+3CA5 monoclonal antibodies (Plant Print Diagnostics, Valencia was used to determine the presence of CTV in field samples. Each sample was composed of four young shoots collected from the four sides of each tree. Two diagnoses were performed, one in September 2009 and another in September 2010. STG trees showed significant differences in CTV infection among them. The variety most infected with CTV was Limoneria 8 A and the least infected was Feminello Santa Teresa. Infected plants were found in a random distribution in the plot. All selected lemon trees were CTV positive. CTV spread will be monitored until 100% of all varieties show positive.

  10. Fuel from citrus waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    University of Florida researchers are looking for methods of using citrus peel to produce fuel for the citrus industry by using the methane gas given off in a special continuous digestion vessel. They are trying to discover ways to reduce the peel oil content of oranges as this oil inhibits the growth of organisms which produce the methane. The citrus industry currently utilizes orange peel and pulp to make cattle feed, but since the peel has to be dried this step consumes a lot of energy.

  11. Development of a full-genome cDNA clone of Citrus leaf blotch virus and infection of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, María Carmen; Martín, Susana; Ambrós, Silvia; Renovell, Agueda; Navarro, Luis; Pina, Jose Antonio; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2008-11-01

    Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV), a member of the family Flexiviridae, has a ~9-kb single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA encapsidated by a 41-kDa coat protein. CLBV isolates are associated with symptom production in citrus including leaf blotching of Dweet tangor and stem pitting in Etrog citron (Dweet mottle disease), and some isolates are associated with bud union crease on trifoliate rootstocks, but Koch's postulates for this virus were not fulfilled. A full-genome cDNA of CLBV isolate SRA-153, which induces bud union crease, was placed under the T7 promoter (clone T7-CLBV), or between the 35S promoter and the Nos-t terminator, with or without a ribozyme sequence downstream of the CLBV sequence (clones 35SRbz-CLBV and 35S-CLBV). RNA transcripts from T7-CLBV failed to infect Etrog citron and Nicotiana occidentalis and N. benthamiana plants, whereas agro-inoculation with binary vectors carrying 35SRbz-CLBV or 35S-CLBV, and the p19 silencing suppressor, caused systemic infection and production of normal CLBV virions. Virus accumulation was similar in citron plants directly agro-infiltrated, or mechanically inoculated with wild-type or 35SRbz-CLBV-derived virions from Nicotiana, and the three sources incited the symptoms characteristic of Dweet mottle disease, but not bud union crease. Our results show that (1) virions derived from an infectious clone show the same replication, movement and pathogenicity characteristics as the wild-type CLBV; (2) CLBV is the causal agent of Dweet mottle disease but not of the bud union crease syndrome; and (3) for the first time an RNA virus could be successfully agro-inoculated on citrus plants. This infectious clone may become a useful viral vector for citrus genomic studies.

  12. Rootstock effects on almond leaf scorch disease incidence and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study was conducted to evaluate effects of duration and exclusion of Xylella fastidiosa infections on young almond tree performance and their links to tree vigor. ‘Nemaguard’, ‘Okinawa’, ‘Nonpareil’, and Y119 were used as rootstocks for almond scion ‘Sonora’. Among X.fastidiosa-inf...

  13. PPV susceptibility of commonly used peach rootstock-scion combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ádám, J; Borsos, Á; Balla, I; Ittzés, A; Palkovics, L

    2015-12-01

    Sharka disease is one of the most devastating plant epidemics of Prunus species, caused by plum pox virus (PPV). The viral infection affects the fruits by weight-loss and degradation of quality properties. Breeding of resistant rootstocks and cultivars is one of the most effective disease control methods. PPV determines the peach production all over the world. On the world's fruit production list peach is in the sixth, in the Mediterranean region in the fourth place. In this study new data were shown about PPV susceptibility of commonly used rootstock-scion combinations from Hungary. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was conducted on the samples from a commercial orchard; the results were evaluated by chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Four rootstock ('GF677', 'PeMa', 'Cadaman' and almond seedlings) and three scion cultivars (Prunus persicae 'Michelini', 'Babygold 6' and 'Cresthaven') were included in this experiment. The rootstocks did not show any significant differences in regard to the resistance of the virus infection (40-50%), but in case of scions, strong significant relations were observed. In case of the combinations there were results in both directions; tolerant and susceptible combinations were observed as well. PMID:26666193

  14. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  15. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  16. RAPD analysis of genetic relationship among citrus germplasms in Fujian%福建柑桔种质的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆莲; 刘礼仕; 吴少华

    2006-01-01

    从100条随机引物中筛选出21条能扩增出清晰的具有多态性DNA谱带的引物,通过RAPD分析,在分子水平上对福建54份柑桔种质进行鉴定、分类和亲缘关系分析.结果表明:这些种质的相异系数为0. 01493-0. 48172,说明它们之间的亲缘关系较近;在遗传相似系数为0. 45的水平上,54份柑桔种质被分为三大类,其中,太田芦柑(Citrus reticulata Blanoo cv.Tiantianlugan)和晚熟芦柑(Citrus reticulata Blanoo cv.Wanshulugan)的亲缘关系最近,柠檬(Citrus limon Burm. F.)与枳(Poncirus trifoliate Raf.)的亲缘关系最远,与形态学观察及传统分类结果相吻合.此外,还对福建引进的一些杂柑品种的遗传多样性进行了探讨.

  17. Influence of ozone and HCl gas on citrus and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCool, P.M.; Menge, J.A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1977-01-01

    One half of Troyer citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x Citrus sinensis) seedlings were grown from seed and inoculated during transplanting with Glomus fasciculatus. Inoculum consisted of soil and roots from sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare) containing hyphae, vesicles, arbuscles, and chlamydospores of G. fasciculatus. At 5, 12, and 16 weeks after inoculation, both inoculated and noninoculated seedlings were exposed to 110-140 mg/m/sup 3/ (73-92 ppm) HCl gas for 20 minutes or to 2 mg/m/sup 3/ (1 ppm) ozone for 4 hours. HCl produced moderate marginal leaf necrosis while ozone produced no visible symptoms. Control and HCl-exposed mycorrhizal seedlings were 28% and 36% taller, respectively, than corresponding nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Exposure to HCl reduced mycorrhizal seedling height by 24% compared to mycorrhizal controls. Ozone exposed mycorrhizal citrus were not significantly taller than non-mycorrhizal citrus but were 37% shorter than mycorrhizal controls. Total biomass of control and HCl-exposed mycorrhizal seedlings were greater than their nonmycorrhizal counterparts but the biomass was not significantly different between ozone-exposed seedlings. Spore production by G. fasciculatus was reduced 50% in ozone-exposed seedlings while spore populations of HCl-exposed seedlings were not statistically different from the controls.

  18. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  20. Comportamento de cultivares comerciais de pessegueiro como porta-enxerto Peach rootstock study

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Ojima; Orlando Rigitano; Sebastião Alves; Fernando Antonio Campo Dall'Orto; Antonio Fernando Caetano Tombolato

    1982-01-01

    A peach rootstock study was initiated at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, in 1964, to evaluate the behavior of four peach cultivars: 'Talismã', 'Ouromel', 'Rei da Conserva' and 'Campinas-1', grafted on respectively 19, 9, 9 and 7 peach rootstocks. The rootstocks were seedlings of the main commercial peach cultivars planted in São Paulo and of several local peach selections. The results covering the period of 1967/71 did not show any significant difference of performance influenced by the rootstocks s...

  1. The effect of rootstock on growth and fruitage of sweet cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewska, Zofia; Nychnerewicz, Bartosz

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 2003-2005 aimed at examining the effect of rootstocks Prunus avium, Colt, PHL A and Gisela 5 on growth and fruitage of the following cultivars of cherry trees: ‘Burlat’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Van’. Dwarf rootstocks PHL A and Gisela 5 reduced tree growth by about 40–45% as compared with rootstocks Colt and Prunus avium. The yielding of sweet cherry trees on these rootstocks was much better. The best yielding was observed in case of cultivar ‘Van’. During the ex...

  2. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...) 851-2286. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening... citrus greening disease. In areas of the world where the disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and...

  3. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  4. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  5. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  6. Rizobactérias e promoção do crescimento de plantas cítricas Rhizobacteria and growth promotion of citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se três experimentos em casa de vegetação para verificar a possibilidade de as rizobactérias atuarem como promotoras do crescimento de plantas cítricas. Ao todo, testaram-se 10 isolados de Pseudomonas do grupo fluorescente, 13 de Bacillus e sete de outras bactérias rizosféricas em porta-enxertos utilizados na citricultura: tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni, limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia e limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana. Dependendo do porta-enxerto, sete isolados de Pseudomonas, um de Bacillus e um de outra bactéria rizosférica tiveram efeito benéfico sobre a matéria seca de raízes ou de parte aérea, indicando uma alta proporção de promotores de crescimento entre as bactérias do primeiro grupo. Procedeu-se também à contagem de bactérias fluorescentes do gênero Pseudomonas e de bactérias não-fluorescentes em raízes de tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e de limoeiro 'Cravo', procedentes de viveiro de mudas e do campo. Ambos os grupos bacterianos tiveram sua multiplicação favorecida na rizosfera de tangerineira 'Cleópatra', em condições de viveiro.Three greenhouse trials were carried out to verify if rhizobacteria can promote citrus plant growth. Ten isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonads, thirteen of Bacillus spp. and seven of other rhizospheric bacteria were tested in three rootstocks seedlings: 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni, rangpure lime (Citrus limonia and Volkamerian lemon (Citrus volkameriana. Depending on the rootstock, seven Pseudomonads, one isolate of Bacillus and one of other rhizospheric bacteria increased the root or shoot dry weight, indicating a high proportion of growth promoters among the fluorescent Pseudomonads. Also, fluorescent Pseudomonads and non fluorescent bacteria were counted in the roots of nursery seedlings and field plants of Citrus reshni and Citrus limonia. The growth of both bacterial groups was favored in the Citrus reshni rhizosphere under nursery

  7. Influencia del porta-injertos y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad de pomelo (Citrus paradisis Macfad variedad Rio Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés José Armadans Rojas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción San Lorenzo, Paraguay, se estudió la influencia del tipo de porta-injerto y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo rosado (Citrus paradisis. Macfad var. Rio Red. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, siendo la parcela principal las épocas (abril, mayo y junio de cosecha y la subparcela los porta-injertos [tangelo Orlando -Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tanaka x Citrus paradisi Macfad., limón rugoso -Citrus jambhiri Luch, lima Rangpur -Citrus limonia y Citrange C35 -Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Ruby en cuatro repeticiones. Se cosecharon 10 frutos por unidad experimental y se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos: diámetro y forma del fruto, y los porcentajes de jugo, bagazo, sólidos solubles totales,acidez titulable y relación o cociente entre sólidos solubles totales: acidez. Los resultados mostraron la influencia de los porta-injertos sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo Rio Red. El limón rugoso fue el porta-injerto que presentó el menor porcentaje de jugo (47.33% y el mayor en bagazo (48.72%, sólido soluble (10.54% y acidez (1.42%. Mientras que el mayor porcentaje de jugo (52.76 y 50.75% se presentó en los frutos cosechados en abril y mayo. El mayor porcentaje de acidez se presentó en abril (9.53%.

  8. Sweet cherry pomological and biochemical characteristics influenced by rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Fajt, Nikita; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2010-04-28

    Fruits of Lapins sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) from 12-year-old trees on different rootstocks (F 12/1, Maxma 14, Piku 1, Edabriz, Gisela 5, Gisela 195/20, Weiroot 13, Weiroot 158, and Weiroot 72) were analyzed for pomological (fruit weight, % flesh of fruit weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, and firmness) and biochemical parameters (individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds) considering yield. For the first time, two procyanidins have been identified in sweet cherries using HPLC/MS: procyanidin B2 and procyanidin dimer (gamma(max) = 275 nm; [M - H](-) at m/z 577 and MS(2) fragments at m/z 425, 407, and 289). There were no significant differences between rootstocks in average yield per tree, except for Piku 1 (19.7 kg) with significantly the highest and Gisela 5 with significantly the lowest average yields per tree (7.7 kg). Significant differences in the measured parameters were ascertained among fruits of Lapins derived from different rootstock. Growing Lapins on Weiroot 72 and Edabriz resulted in high soluble solids content and fruit firmness. The lowest fruit firmness was measured on fruits from Weiroot 13, F 12/1, Gisela 195/20, and Maxma 14 trees. Fruits from Gisela 5 contained the lowest concentrations of glucose, fructose, sorbitol, sucrose, and citric acid, while fruits from F 12/1 contained the highest values of glucose, fructose, and shikimic acid. The content of phenolic compounds was the highest in fruits from Weiroot 72 tree, but the highest concentrations of procyanidin B2 and procyanidin dimer were ascertained in fruits from the Edabriz tree. Fruits from Weiroot 72 contained significantly higher concentration of phenols, bioactive compounds, compared to that in fruits from F 12/1. The content of individual and total anthocyanins did not differ significantly among rootstocks. PMID:20337477

  9. Rootstock scion somatogenetic interactions in perennial composite plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The ancient plant production practice of grafting which instantly imparts new physiological properties to the desirable scion still remains shrouded in mystery. Yet, grafting remains a widely used technique in the production of several horticultural species. In a composite grafted plant, rootstocks control many aspects of scion growth and physiology including yield and quality attributes as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Broadly, physical, physiological, biochemical and molecula...

  10. Effects of size-controlling apple rootstocks on growth, ABA, and hydraulic conductivity of scion of different vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Size-controlling rootstocks are required to attain trees with reduced stature that are necessary for modern orchard management, such as high density plantings. Apple cultivars can be grafted on commercially-available size-controlling rootstocks but new rootstocks are needed for both size-controllin...

  11. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Curk

    Full Text Available Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105 were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species

  12. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  13. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  14. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  15. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  16. Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

  17. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J.Z.; Zhu, Li; Crous, P.W.; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isol

  18. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  19. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  20. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  1. First report of root rot caused by Phytopythium helicoides on pistachio rootstock in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pathogenicity of Phytopythium helicoides on UCB-1 rootstock to investigate its role in root disease and collapse observed on potted pistachio plants. Approximately 25 potted 2-year-old pistachio rootstock trees in a Kern County, CA, research plot maintained outdoors and irrigated to cont...

  2. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  3. Evaluation of pyrus and quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005). In the Netherlands, rootstock research is limited to and focuss

  4. The vigour of glasshouse roses. Scion rootstock relationships, effects of phenotypic & genotypic variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Glasshouse roses commonly are combination plants, consisting of a scion variety and a rootstock of different genotypes. In this study, various environmental and genotypic factors have been investigated that influence the vigour of rootstocks and scion varieties, separately and in graft combination.I

  5. Tree and root architecture of Malus sieversii seedlings for rootstock breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foundation of a successful apple orchard is in large part the rootstock used to establish the trees in that orchard. Apple rootstocks can impart several important architectural tree characters to the scion, among which are reduction in tree size and early production of flowers/fruit. It is pro...

  6. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tami Turner; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

  7. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  8. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  9. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  10. Organogênese in vitro a partir de diferentes regiões do epicótilo de Citrus sp Citrus sp. organogenesis in vitro from different epicotyl's regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro é essencial para o uso de técnicas de transformação genética no melhoramento de citros. Visando à obtenção de um protocolo eficiente de regeneração in vitro para laranja-azeda (Citrus aurantium, laranjas 'Natal' e 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, limão 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana e citrange 'Carrizo' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, avaliou-se a resposta morfogênica de diferentes regiões do epicótilo (basal, mediana e apical em relação a distância do nó cotiledonar, na presença (1,0 mg/L-1 ou ausência de 6-BAP, em meio de cultura MT. Após 60 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas adventícias por explante. A resposta morfogênica em função da região do epicótilo e da presença ou ausência da citocinina (6-BAP foi influenciada pelo genótipo. A presença de 6-BAP no meio de cultura promoveu aumento na porcentagem de explantes responsivos para citrange 'Carrizo'. A suplementação do meio de cultura com a citocinina 6-BAP proporcionou aumento no número de brotos por explante para citrange 'Carrizo', laranja 'Natal' e limão 'Volkameriano'.The establishment of an in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for the use of genetic transformation techniques in Citrus breeding programs. Aiming to obtain an efficient protocol of in vitro regeneration for sour orange (Citrus aurantium, sweet oranges 'Natal' and 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana and 'Carrizo' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, the morphogenetic response was evaluated for different epicotyl's regions (basal, medium and apical regarding the distance from the cotyledonary node, in presence (1,0 mg/L-1 or absence of 6-BAP in MT medium. After 60 days, the percentage of responsive explants and number of shoots per explants were evaluated. The morphogenetic response related to the epicotyl's region and the presence or absence

  11. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  12. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  13. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

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    Dušica DORIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant buds were the favored source, due to enabling rosette initiation in more than 58% cases. In P. cerasus L. selections, 100% contamination was noted when shoot tips were used as an explant source. Significant influence of the double-phase medium on the number and height of multiplied shoots was observed in the standard cherry rootstock, ‘Gisela 6’. For P. fruticosa Pall., selection ‘SV1’ and ‘SV2’, and P. cerasus ‘D6’ selection, the double-phase medium also had a significant effect on the height of multiplied shoots, when compared to solid DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium. Genetic variability of selections within the investigated species resulted in variable plant rooting success. Adding Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine di-2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate ferric in the 200 mg l-1 concentration to the rooting medium significantly enhanced the percentage of rooted plants. The highest rooting percentage was noted for ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘D6’ genotype at 1 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, while 0.8 mg l-1 was the optimum concentration for P. mahaleb L. ‘M1’ selection. P. fruticosa genotypes required significantly higher IBA concentration for rooting (2.5 and 3.5 mg l-1.

  14. The Stomata Density of Pistachio Cultivars on Different Pistacia Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAĞLAR, Semih

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the stomata density of some pistachio cultivars such as Uzun, Kırmızı, Halebi, Siirt and Ohadi on P. vera, P. atlantica and P. khinjuk rootstocks were determined. Stomata density of leaves from the north side were higher than those of the south sides of trees. The stomata numbers per unit area on the abaxial side of leaves ranged from 114 to 151, and on the adaxial side of leaves from 171 to 221. The stomata densities of both side of leaves were affected by cultivars and rootst...

  15. The performance of Adara as a cherry rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Sánchez, María Ángeles; Montañés Millán, Luis; Tabuenca Abadía, María de la Concepción; Cambra Ruiz de Velasco, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The field performance of Adara (Prunus cerasifera L.), SL 64 (Prunus mahaleb) and Colt (Prunus avium X Prunus pseudocerasus) rootstocks grafted with two sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L. cvs. ‘Van’ and ‘Tardif de Vignola’), were tested for 12 years on a calcareous clay-loam soil which was flood irrigated. No tree grafted on Adara died during the experiment. The percentage of dead trees of ‘Tardif de Vignola’ on SL 64 and Colt reached 63% and 19%, respectively. The percentage of dead tre...

  16. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' sobre quatro porta-enxertos Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Espinoza Núñez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco sobre os porta-enxertos limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumelo 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP, em 1997. Embora diferenças na produção tenham sido registradas em função dos porta-enxertos, nos anos de 2003 a 2005, a produção acumulada nas safras de 2000 a 2006 não revelou influência dos mesmos. Os valores do índice de alternância de produção e eficiência de produção não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos. O teor de sólidos solúveis, bem como acidez total foram superiores nos frutos das plantas enxertadas sobre citrumelo 'Swingle' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'. Os valores de volume da copa e diâmetro do tronco foram superiores nas árvores sobre tangelo 'Orlando' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'.An experiment was installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil in 1997, with the aim of evaluate the effect of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. and 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco. Despite that differences in yield have been registered related to the rootstocks between 2003 to 2005; cumulative yield from 2000 to 2006 seasons was not affected by the rootstock. Alternate bearing index and yield efficiency values were not influenced by the rootstocks. Fruits from trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Cleópatra' mandarin had higher values of total soluble solids concentration and total acids. Trunk diameter and canopy volume values were higher in

  17. Role of abscisic acid (aba) in modulating the responses of two apple rootstocks to drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100 mol/L and 50 mol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress. (author)

  18. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  19. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  20. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on root system morphology and sucrose and glucose contents of Poncirus trifoliata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Huang, Yong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The effects of inoculation with Glomus mosseae, G. versiforme, and their mixture on plant growth, root system morphology, and sucrose and glucose contents of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L.) were studied by pot culture. The results showed that all the inoculated treatments significantly increased the plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, and shoot and root biomass. In addition, the mycorrhizal treatments significantly increased the number of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd lateral roots. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root projected area, surface area, volume, and total root length (mainly 0-1 cm root length), but decreased the root average diameter. Meanwhile, G. versiforme showed the best effects. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased the leaf sucrose and root glucose contents, but decreased the leaf glucose and root sucrose contents. Owing to the 'mycorrhizal carbon pool' in roots, inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in high glucose content and low sucrose content of roots, which would facilitate the root growth and development, thereby the establishment of better root system morphology of host plants.

  1. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  2. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-06-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 (-), was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  3. Cloning and Subcellular Localization Analysis of Two GRAS Genes from Poncirus trifoliata%枳两个GRAS基因cDNA全长的克隆及其亚细胞定位分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阿英; 刘洪; 李晓颖; 郭磊; 宋长年

    2012-01-01

    A bioinformatics strategy was applied to clone full length cDNAs of SCL6 and GRAS genes of citrus which were identified by BLAST searching in EST database with homologous gene cDNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana and aspen. Two gene-specific primers were designed according to the above cDNAs using cDNA library of opening flower of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf, and the 5' end and 3' end sequences were obtained by 5' RACE and 3' RACE methods, respectively. The full length cDNAs of SCL6 and GRA S gene from Poncirus trifoliata was spliced based on 5'-end and 3'-end sequence. The complete cDNAs, designated as Pt-SCL6 and Pt-GRAS, were 2 668 bp and 1 911 bp, respectively. These sequences were deposited in GenBank database with accession numbers GQ505957 and GU072592, and open reading frames encoding 706 and 636 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the cDNA of Pt-SCL6 and Pt-GRAS have miR171 and miR1446 recognition sites. Pt-SCL6 and Pt-GRAS have the same highly conserved amino acid sequences namely the F-box domains as GRAS in other plants. Recombinant plasmid 35S-GW-GQ505957/GU072592-GFP were introduced into onion epidermal cells by the particle bombardment method with a PDSIOOO/He. Transformed cells were incubated for 24 h at 22℃ in the dark and green fluorescence was monitored under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Subcellular localization results showed that the Pt-SCL6 and Pt-GRAS were localized in the cell membrane. Transcription factors Pt-SCL6 and Pt-GRAS both demonstrated the phenomenon of regional positioning in the cell membrane.%利用生物信息学方法以拟南芥SCL6和杨树GRAS cDNA 序列作为模板,对柑橘EST数据库进行同源检索筛选出柑橘SCL6和GRAS基因的cDNA序列,并以枳[Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]花cDNA为模板,根据以上cDNA序列设计5'末端和3'末端扩增的特异引物,利用5' RACE和3' RACE技术,分别获得该基因的5'和3'末端,序列拼接后获得枳的SCL6和GRAS c

  4. Citrus peel waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, I.; Kuno, H.

    1977-07-30

    Citrus peel waste from canneries are treated with an acid and an additional base then fermented by anaerobic bacteria to produce CH/sub 4/. Then the solution is aerobically treated and discharged. The excess activated sludge is recycled for fermentation. Thus, a mixture of mandarin-orange cannery waste (80% water) and 0.5% HCl was heated at 120/sup 0/ to hydrolyze the organic matter to obtain a solution containing glucose and suspended solids. The solution is then enriched with N and P for fermentation to produce 50 L of CH/sub 4/ in 5 days vs 25 L without HCl.

  5. Alteração na atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis em microtangerinas (Citrus spp. infectadas por Phytophthora parasitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to characterize and evaluate species and varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka’s group (Citrus spp. with potential use as rootstocks, in relation to infection to the Phytophthora parasitica, by means of foliar determination of peroxidase activity and total phenolics content. It was used the following species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan., C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Ochese, C. aurantium L, C. reticulata Blanco and C. limonia Osb. The Center of Citrus Germoplasm of Botucatu and Cordeirópolis provide all plant material. Four resistant varieties to the stem rot and root rot infections: Pectinifera, Crenatifolia, Sun Chu Shu (clone Kat 1004 and Cleopatra (clone 1 were evaluated. Susceptible plants infected by P. parasitica presented higher activity of peroxidase, while phenolics contents were lower in susceptible group.

  6. Genome-scale mRNA and small RNA transcriptomic insights into initiation of citrus apomixis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jian-Mei; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Fang, Yan-Ni; Jia, Hui-Hui; Xie, Zong-Zhou; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Nucellar embryony (NE) is an adventitious form of apomixis common in citrus, wherein asexual embryos initiate directly from nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac. NE enables the fixation of desirable agronomic traits and the production of clonal offspring of virus-free rootstock, but impedes progress in hybrid breeding. In spite of the great importance of NE in citrus breeding and commercial production, little is understood about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the stages of nucellar embryo initiation (NEI) were determined for two polyembryonic citrus cultivars via histological observation. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in NEI, we performed mRNA-seq and sRNA-seq analyses of ovules immediately prior to and at stages during NEI in the two pairs of cultivars. A total of 305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the poly- and monoembryonic ovules. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that several processes are significantly enriched based on DEGs. In particular, response to stress, and especially response to oxidative stress, was over-represented in polyembryonic ovules. Nearly 150 miRNAs, comprising ~90 conserved and ~60 novel miRNAs, were identified in the ovules of either cultivar pair. Only two differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified, of which the novel miRN23-5p was repressed whereas the targets accumulated in the polyembryonic ovules. This integrated study on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory profiles between poly- and monoembryonic citrus ovules provides new insights into the mechanism of NE, which should contribute to revealing the regulatory mechanisms of plant apomixis. PMID:27619233

  7. Quantificação e método para seleção de plantas nucelares de Poncirus trifoliata Quantification and method to select nucellar plants of Poncirus trifoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a porcentagem de plantas zigóticas e nucelares de Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. em uma população resultante de polinização aberta e avaliar a eficiência de seleção de plantas nucelares com base na morfologia e no vigor. Sementes de frutos maduros foram semeadas em tubetes de 50 cm³, e após 150 dias as plantas foram transplantadas para sacos de plástico. A morfologia foliar e a altura das plantas foram avaliadas 300 dias após a semeadura, e a caracterização genética foi feita por sistemas isoenzimáticos. Em média, obteve-se 1,07 plantas por semente, e o número máximo observado foi de duas plantas por semente. Nesses casos, ambas as plantas foram caracterizadas como nucelares por análise isoenzimática, embora apresentassem tamanho diferenciado e menor do que a média de altura das demais. As plantas zigóticas identificadas, 5,9% da população, distribuíram-se nas classes de menor altura, manifestando depressão genética. Não foram observadas plantas com vigor híbrido. A diferenciação entre as plantas nucelares e zigóticas, por meio de caracteres morfológicos da folha, não foi possível. O descarte visual das plantas menores, cerca de 30% da população, é eficiente na seleção de porta-enxertos nucelares de trifoliata produzidos em tubetes em ambiente protegido.The aim of this work was to quantify the percentage of zygotic and nucellar plants of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. in an open pollinated population, and to evaluate the efficiency of the morphology and vigor-based selection method of nucellar plants. Seeds from mature fruits were sowed in plastic tubes of 50 cm³. After 150 days the plants were transferred to plastic bags of 4,8 dm³. Leaf morphology and height of plants were evaluated 300 days after sowing. Genetic characterization was carried out by isoenzymatic systems. In average, 1.07 plants were obtained per seed and the maximum value was two plants per seed

  8. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida de Paula Farias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of organically grown tomatoes in the Amazonian region of Brazil is difficult due to inherent phytosanitary issues. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the productivity of grafted tomato plants (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Santa Adélia grown organically in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, and to assess scion/rootstock compatibility under organic growth conditions. The Solanum species employed as rootstocks were S. gilo (jiló, S. lycocarpum (jurubebão, S. stramonifolium (jurubeba vermelha and S. viarum (joá, while the susceptible S.lycopersicum cultivar Santa Adélia was the scion. Ungrafted tomato plants and tomato grafted on tomato rootstock were employed as controls. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with six treatments and five repetitions of five plants each. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the significance of differences between treatments were determined using the Tukey test (P<0.05. All ungrafted tomato plants and those comprising tomato grafted on S.lycopersicum rootstock became infected by brown rot and perished. The total numbers of fruits, numbers of marketable fruits, mean masses of fruits, total productivities and productivities of marketable fruits associated with tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the equivalent values obtained with tomato grafted on S. viarum rootstock. S. gilo exhibited the best compatibility index (1.11 of all rootstock/scion combinations studied. It is concluded that tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks represent viable alternatives for the production of organic tomatoes in the Amazon region.

  9. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur; Giuliano Elias Pereira; Juliana Alvarenga Alves; Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quanti...

  10. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency.

  11. Responses of ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry Variety Grafted on Different Rootstocks to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the responses of ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar grafted on mazzard (Prunus avium L. and mahaleb (P. mahaleb L. rootstocks, to different irrigation water salinity levels. One year old sweet cherry trees were planted in 50-liter pots at Eğirdir Fruit Research Station (Isparta, Turkey. Four different irrigation water salinity levels (S1=0.3 dS m-1, S2=2.0 dS m-1, S3=4.0 dS m-1 and S4=6 dS m-1 were used for both variety/rootstock combinations. The results showed that sweet cherry trees grafted on mahaleb rootstocks extracted more water under saline conditions than the ones grafted on mazzard. Water salinity levels caused more damage on 0900/mazzard than on 0900/mahaleb. Towards the end of the growing period, plant deaths were detected in S3 and S4 treatments. While leaf water potential (LWP ranged from -1.54 to -3.33 MPa, stomatal conductance ranged from 26.8 to 199.5 mmol m-2 s-1. It was determined that both parameters decreased towards the end of the growing period for all treatments. Sodium (Na uptake was excluded by 0900/mahaleb rootstocks, but chloride (Cl− uptake was excluded only for higher saline conditions. As a result, mahaleb (P. mahaleb L. rootstock could be recommended to be used as rootstock for sweet cherry culture under saline conditions.

  12. Anatomical and histological researches on rootstock and scion compatibility in early period after grafting in avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BAYRAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seedling rootstocks are used entirely due to easier and cheaper production in conditions of our country. However, a study on compatibility of scion and rootstock of varieties used as seedling rootstock, have not been produced in our country yet. Thus, seedlings of the 'Bacon', 'Fuerte', 'Hass' and 'Zutano' varieties produced as commercial varieties along with 'Topa Topa' and 'Mexicola' varieties used as a source of seedling rootstocks were studied under greenhouse conditions between the years 2009-2011. Determination of the scion and rootstock compatibility was purposed in the graft sections during certain periods after grafting of 'Hass' variety with these seedlings. As a result; graft union formations in samples of all combinations successfully realized in the anatomical and histological studies after 30 and 90 days from grafting and a negative finding regarding to incompatibility were not met. However, more studies should be made for determination of incompatibility that may arise in between rootstocks and scions in the later years.

  13. Effect of Water Stress on The Some Evegatif Growth Parameters of Cultivar Grafted on Different Rootstocks 0900 Ziraat Sweet Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK; Sarısu, Hasan Cumhur; Halit YILDIZ; KAÇAL, Emel; KOÇAL, Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry production areas have been increasing in last years and rootstocks which have different growing characteristic are being used. Therefore, responses of new and present rootstocks to water stress must be determined. For this purpose, one year old 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on Mahaleb (Prunus mahalep L.), Mazzard (Prunus avium L.), Ma x Ma 14 (Prunus mahalep L. x Prunus avium L.), CAB 6 (Prunus cerasus L.) ve Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x P. canescens L.) rootstocks were ...

  14. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    OpenAIRE

    GAMBETTA, G. A.; Manuck, C. M.; Drucker, S. T.; Shaghasi, T.; Fort, K.; Matthews, M A; Walker, M. A.; McElrone, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), % aquaporin contribution to Lp r , scion tr...

  15. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mallick; Rafeeq Alam Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypo...

  16. Etiology of three recent diseases of citrus in São Paulo State: sudden death, variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bové, Joseph Marie; Ayres, Antonio Juliano

    2007-01-01

    The state of São Paulo (SSP) is the first sweet orange growing region in the world. Yet, the SSP citrus industry has been, and still is, under constant attack from various diseases. In the 1940s, tristeza-quick decline (T-QD) was responsible for the death of 9 million trees in SSP. The causal agent was a new virus, citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The virus was efficiently spread by aphid vectors, and killed most of the trees grafted on sour orange rootstock. Control of the disease resided in replacing sour orange by alternative rootstocks giving tolerant combinations with scions such as sweet orange. Because of its drought resistance, Rangpur lime became the favourite alternative rootstock, and, by 1995, 85% of the SSP sweet orange trees were grafted on this rootstock. Therefore, when in 1999, many trees grafted on Rangpur lime started to decline and suddenly died, the spectre of T-QD seemed to hang over SSP again. By 2003, the total number of dead or affected trees was estimated to be over one million. The new disease, citrus sudden death (CSD), resembles T-QD in several aspects. The two diseases have almost the same symptoms, they spread in time and space in a manner strikingly similar, and the pathological anatomy of the bark at the bud union is alike. Transmission of the CSD agent by graft-inoculation has been obtained with budwood inoculum taken not only on CSD-affected trees (grafted on Rangpur lime), but also on symptomless trees (grafted on Cleopatra mandarin) from the same citrus block. This result shows that symptomless trees on Cleopatra mandarin are tolerant to the CSD agent. Trees on rootstocks such as Sunki mandarin or Swingle citrumelo are also tolerant. Thus, in the CSD-affected region, control consists in replacing Rangpur lime with compatible rootstocks, or in approach-grafting compatible rootstock seedlings to the scions of trees on Rangpur lime (inarching). More than 5 million trees have been inarched in this way. A new disease of sweet orange

  17. 矮化砧飞龙枳对柠檬树体生长和果实品质的影响%Effect of a Rootstock on Plant Dwarfing and Fruit Quality of Lemon Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙春瑞; 高俊燕; 周东果; 王绍华; 刘红明; 沈正松; 董美超; 杨帆; 李进学; 岳建强

    2016-01-01

    以常规砧木枳为对照,研究矮化砧木飞龙枳对尤力克、费米耐劳和菲诺3个柠檬品种树体生长及果实品质性状的影响。结果表明:飞龙枳砧对柠檬树体生长具有显著的抑制作用,株高、冠幅、分枝级数均显著低于枳砧,其挂果期树体高度均在260 cm 以下;飞龙枳砧能够提升柠檬果实品质,果实可食率、可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量均显著高于枳砧,而果皮厚度显著低于枳砧;飞龙枳砧柠檬果实的单果重、横径和纵径、果形指数以及维生素 C 含量与枳砧并无显著差异。%Plant dwarfing and fruit quality of 3 lemon varieties (i.e.,Eureka,Femminello,and Fino)grafted on Flying Dragon orange (Poncirus trifoliate (L.)Raft var.monstruosa )were compared to those on the control rootstock of P .trifoliata (L.)Raft.The lemon trees grown on the Flying Dragon rootstock were significantly reduced on their size,height,crown width,and step branches as compared to control.All of the experimental mature trees with most scions were no taller than 260 cm.In addition,Flying Dragon appeared to improve the quality of lemons with increased edible portion,total soluble solids,and titratable acids,as well as thinner peels.At the same time,the single fruit weight,size,shape or vitamin C contents of the fruits were not affected by the grafting.

  18. Determinação de metodologia para oisolamento de protoplastos de tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. Methodology choice for protoplast isolation in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. de Oliveira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação somática via fusão de protoplastos vem sendo utilizada no melhoramento de porta-enxertos de citros em diversos países. Nos Estados Unidos, vários estudos demonstram a eficiência de procedimentos no isolamento e cultivo de protoplastos dessa frutífera. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do meio de cultivo de calos embriogênicos do porta-enxerto tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. sobre o isolamento de protoplastos, bem como sugerir alterações de procedimento. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade do isolamento de 1.4 x 10(6 a 4.7 x 10(6 protoplastos por grama de calos da espécie estudada. Verificou-se que, o subcultivo dos calos de tangerina Cleópatra em meio de cultura, sem reguladores 1 hora, sob condições de escuro a 120 rpm, proporcionou maior eficiência de isolamento de protoplastos (4.7 x 10(6 protoplastos/g de calo.Somatic hybridization has been used for citrus rootstock breeding in many countries. In USA, many reports had proved the efficiency of procedures for the isolation and culture of citrus protoplasts. This research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of procedures of protoplast isolation using embryogenic callus of the Cleópatra mandarin rootstock. Alterations were proposed to increase protoplast isolation and culture method. Results show the possibility of a protoplast yield of 1.4 to 4.7 x 10(6 pps/g.f.w. for Cleópatra tangerine rootstock callus. Protoplast yield can be raised to 4.7 x 10(6 pps/g.f.w. if the embryogenic callus are grown in a medium supplemented only with 4% sucrose and pre-treated with 1% w/v macerozyme for 1 hour, at 120 rpm, in dark, is applied before protoplast isolation.

  19. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease, caused by strains of the bacterial pathogen... a tree with citrus greening disease. In areas of the world where the disease is endemic,...

  20. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella spp., Into the Continental United States AGENCY... citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the... certificate issued by the national plant protection organization of Uruguay with an additional...

  1. Porta-enxertos para a tangerineira 'Michal' no Rio Grande do Sul Rootstocks for 'Michal' tangerine in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Brugnara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A tangerineira 'Michal' (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina poderá ser uma boa alternativa ao Rio Grande do Sul como cultivar copa para produção de frutos em época precoce. No entanto, há falta de informações sobre seu comportamento em cultivo nas condições ambientais desse Estado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção e a qualidade dos frutos da tangerineira 'Michal' enxertada sobre cinco porta-enxertos: citrangeiro 'Troyer', citrumeleiro 'Swingle', limoeiro 'Cravo', tangerineira 'Sunki' e trifoliata 'Flying Dragon', na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: a altura das plantas, a circunferência do tronco, a área de projeção da copa (APC, o número e a massa (MF de frutos produzidos, a relação MF/APC (IP, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT do suco, além do tamanho dos frutos e do rendimento de suco. O citrumeleiro 'Swingle' promoveu bom vigor, boa produção, bom IP, bons níveis de SST e de ATT da 'Michal', enquanto o limoeiro 'Cravo' conferiu bom vigor, boa produção, bom IP e bom tamanho dos frutos, ambos podendo ser indicados como porta-enxertos em pomares de tangerineira 'Michal'.'Michal' tangerine (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina can be a good choice as canopy for early maturing fruit production in Rio Grande do Sul. The limitation is the lack of information about its performance and management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the development, production and fruit quality of 'Michal' tangerine grafted on five rootstocks: 'Troyer' citrange, 'Swingle' citrumelo, 'Cravo' lemon, 'Sunki' tangerine and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliate orange, in the Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul. The following variables were evaluated: plant height; trunk circumference; canopy projection area (APC; produced fruit number and weight (MF; MF/APC relation (IP; juice total soluble solids

  2. Studies on the Annual Cycle of Endogenous Free Polyamines in Citrus%柑橘不同器官内源游离多胺的年周期变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋明; 郑玉生; 刘昆玉; 谢深喜; 李大志

    2003-01-01

    对32年生特洛伊(Troyer)枳橙砧(Citrus sinensis×Poncinus trifoliata)华盛顿脐橙[Citrus sinensis (L.)Osbeck]及8年生枳砧[Poncirus trifoliata(L.)Raf.]宫川温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu Marc.)进行了内源游离多胺年变化规律的研究.结果表明:柑橘不同器官在生长发育的重要时期均伴随着多胺含量的变化,春梢叶片内源多胺含量随叶龄增加而上升,在越冬期急剧增加达全年最高峰,尤以精胺含量增加显著;花期以腐胺含量变化最大,盛花期达高峰,谢花后迅速下降;果实多胺总量变化与横径增长呈平行关系.前期腐胺上升较快,后期主要以亚精胺和精胺增加为主.果皮内源多胺含量大于果肉部分,占果实含量2/3左右.

  3. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  4. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, William O.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Satyanarayana eTatineni; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Scott J Harper; S eGowda

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  5. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional br...

  6. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  7. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  8. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  9. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  10. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  11. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  12. Physiological characterization of grapevine rootstocks grown in soil with increasing zinc doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the performance of grapevine rootstocks under increasing levels of Zn in the soil and to identify physiological variables that can be used as indicators of excess of Zn in the soil. The rootstocks SO4, Paulsen1103, IAC572, IAC313 and 420A were grown in pots containing soil, which received Zn doses of 0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mg kg-1 of soil. Dry matter (DM, Zn content in shoots and roots, chlorophyll index, initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield of photosystem II (Y-II and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ were evaluated. The increase of Zn levels in the soil decreased DM in all rootstocks, and IAC572 was superior to the others. The variation in the indices of chlorophyll a and b had little expression in relation the soil Zn levels, but allowed identifying that the rootstocks Paulsen 1103, 420A and SO4 are sensitive to Zn toxicity and that IAC572 and IAC313 were not sensitive to the tested levels. Fluorescence analysis showed a negative effect of Zn contents on the variables Fo, Fm, Y-II and NPQ in all rootstocks, which proved to be good indicators of Zn phytotoxicity.

  13. BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC EFFECT FROM CULTIVATION OF DENSITY-TREES IN APPLE ORCHARD ON SEEDLING ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DOMOZETOV

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1998 - 2003 in a young apple orchard (1-6 year with trees of cultivars Florina and Freedom grafted on seedling rootstocks of Winter gold Pearmain and wild apple (standard, planted at 8 m x 7m were cultivated. Other trees called further density-trees from the same cultivars grafted on a clonal rootstock MM 106 (in the rows and M 9 (between the rows were grown. It was established that the trees from the two cultivars on seedling rootstocks during the third-fourth year entered almost at the same time into initial fruit bearing period with these trees on MM 106 and M 9. The combination Florina on MM 106 was with the biggest quantity of fruits. The quality of the fruits according to the Bulgarian quality standard was high at all the cultivar-rootstock combination. From the density-trees the yield was average 29250 kg/ha high quality fruits, total production of 17550 lv/ha (1 lv-1 Bulgaria Leva = 0.512 Euro, net income - 6529.5 lv/ha and rate of profitability - 59.29%. The amount of net income (margin of profit covered the loss of planting and growing of the main trees on seedling rootstocks and the value of the drip irrigation system.

  14. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira ‘Folha Murcha' sobre seis porta-enxertos no Norte do Paraná Vegetative growth, yield and quality fruits of the ‘Folha Murcha' orange on six rootstocks in North Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    variedades copa de laranja.This research evaluated, in Londrina, PR, Brazil, ‘Folha Murcha' orange trees on the rootstocks: ‘Caipira' orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., ‘Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., ‘Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., ‘Florida' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush., ‘Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and ‘Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.. The experimental design was used as randomized blocks with six rootstocks as treatments, five replications and three plants per plot. Height, diameter, and canopy volume were significantly higher in trees budded on ‘Caipira' orange, when compared with those budded on ‘Volkamer' lemon. The smallest difference between trunk diameters below/above the bud occurred in trees on ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Sunki' mandarin. Cumulative yield was superior for trees on ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Caipira' orange, without showing statistical difference between themselves, but were significantly different from those on ‘Cleopatra' mandarin and ‘Volkamer' lemon. Yield efficiency was not influenced by the studied rootstocks. Fruit weight was significantly higher for trees on ‘Sunki' mandarin, compared to those on ‘Rangpur' lime, ‘Florida' rough lemon, and ‘Volkamer' lemon. Total soluble solids (TSS showed high contents in fruits of ‘Folha Murcha' orange on ‘Volkamer' lemon and on ‘Rangpur' lime, without differences between themselves. Total titratable acidity (TTA, (TSS/TTA ratio, and juice color were not influenced by the rootstocks tested. ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Volkamer' lemon provided significantly higher technological index values in relation to the other rootstocks. The juice quality parameters evaluated were within the acceptable standards for orange canopy varieties.

  15. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  16. Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare. The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

  17. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  18. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value. PMID:27447755

  19. Evaluation of the protective capacity of new mild Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates selected for a preimmunization program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Zanutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of tolerant rootstocks and preimmunization has satisfactorily controlled losses associated with the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. Several researchers have shown that CTV mild isolates that are selected in the same region where they are used are superior to isolates obtained from other areas. Thus, budwoods of 20 outstanding citrus trees were collected in north and northwestern Paraná state (Brazil citrus-producing areas and established to be used in a preimmunization program. These budwoods were tested to evaluate the potential protection of the inherently present viral complex. Based on biological indexing and molecular characterization of the capsid protein gene by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism, which indicated that the plants were infected with mild isolates of CTV, some of the selected plants could be used in a preimmunization program. These potentially mild and protective isolates were challenged with severe 'Rolândia' isolate inoculations by grafting and by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy vector, which was faster in transmitting the virus. Some isolates had a better protective value than others, particularly when challenged with the severe CTV isolate. The SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism molecular analysis was an excellent complementary tool for monitoring the performance of the experiments and the stability of the viral complex present in the plants. Isolate number 1, collected in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul (CS-1, was the most promising for protecting commercial Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis L. orchards in northern and northwestern Paraná. The Rolândia severe CTV isolate was stable and had a high genetic divergence among the severe isolates used as a control (Capão Bonito and Barão B and all of the isolates tested.

  20. Crescimento inicial e estado nutricional da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre porta-enxertos múltiplos de limoeiro 'Cravo' e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' Growth and nutritional status of non-bearing 'Valencia' sweet orange on single and multiple rootstocks of 'Rangpur Lime' and 'Swingle' citrumelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daves Willian Setin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A subenxertia com porta-enxerto tolerante à morte súbita dos citros (MSC, como o citrumeleiro 'Swingle', é atualmente a única indicação para o controle da doença em pomares já instalados. Assim, o plantio de mudas subenxertadas para a formação de novos pomares pode ser uma estratégia interessante onde a doença ainda não se instalou, minimizando a obrigatoriedade de irrigação suplementar demandada com o uso do 'Swingle'. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e o estado nutricional da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre porta-enxertos múltiplos e simples de 'Cravo' e 'Swingle', em fase de formação. Um pomar experimental foi instalado em espaçamento 7,0 m x 4,0 m, em Cordeirópolis (SP, em outubro de 2005 em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se cinco tratamentos: (1 porta-enxertos simples de 'Cravo' e (2 de 'Swingle'; (3 porta-enxerto duplo com subenxertia no porta-enxerto principal ou (4 na copa, e (5 porta-enxerto quádruplo. Determinaram-se o diâmetro do caule dos porta-enxertos e da copa, número e comprimento dos ramos em diferentes quadrantes, diâmetro, altura e volume de copa aos 8 e 14 meses após o plantio. Ainda, foram avaliados os teores de nutrientes nas folhas nos quadrantes norte e sul da copa aos 14 meses. As plantas de 'Valência' sobre porta-enxertos duplos cresceram mais do que aquelas sobre porta-enxertos simples de 'Swingle', sendo essas diferenças mais marcantes no período de maior deficiência hídrica. O uso de mais de um porta-enxerto alterou também o estado nutricional da laranjeira 'Valência' que revelou teores foliares mais elevados de P, K, Cu e Zn, do que as sobre porta-enxertos simples de 'Cravo' e 'Swingle'.Control of citrus sudden death (CSD has been only achieved by inarching affected trees in the field with tolerant rootstocks such as the 'Swingle' citrumelo. Therefore, the use of nursery trees inarched before planting appears as an

  1. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock.

  2. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock. PMID:25579659

  3. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Wallingford, Anna K; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  4. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  5. Dikegulac-Sodium Effect on Micropropagation and Biochemical Parameters in the Cherry Rootstocks CAB-6P and Gisela 6

    OpenAIRE

    SARROPOULOU, VIRGINIA; DIMASSITHERIOU, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dikegulac-sodium (DS) alone and in combination with benzyladenine (BA) οn the morphogenetic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x Prunus canescens) were investigated. In the CAB-6P rootstock, DS did not promote shoot proliferation whereas its application at 40, 120 and 150 μΜ suppressed shoot length. In the Gisela 6 rootstock, the number of shoots per explant and shoot proliferation rate were greater with 80...

  6. Effects of Seedling and GF-31 Rootstocks on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Table Apricot Cultivars Grown in Mersin

    OpenAIRE

    SON, Levent

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in Mut-Mersin between 1997 and 2001 to determine the effects of seedling and GF-31 rootstocks on the yield and quality of fruits of Tokaloğlu, Precoce De Tyrinthe, Joubert Foulon, Canino, Sakıt 6, Beliana, Priana and Early Kishnevski table apricot cultivars. Fruit yields were highest on apricot seedling rootstocks for all cultivars. Yields (kg tree-1) ranged between 14.66 kg (Tokaloğlu) and 63.06 kg (Priana) on apricot seedling rootstocks and between 13.6 kg (Sak...

  7. Differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world's most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector. PMID:25343712

  8. Differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world's most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector.

  9. Differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma between xCitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae, is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB, the world's most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp., that are relatively resistant (UN-3881 or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459 to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881 than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459 accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector.

  10. Application of natural colorants on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  11. Analysis of Microsatellites in Citrus Unigenes%柑橘EST-SSR分子标记分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江东; 钟广炎; 洪棋斌

    2006-01-01

    对来源于甜橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)、枳壳(Poncirus trifoliata Raf.)和其他柑橘非冗余EST数据库的38 124条单一基因(Unigene)序列进行了简单重复序列SSRs(Simple Sequence Repeat)搜索,所分析的柑橘非冗余核酸序列总长23.29Mb,从中获得了8 218条SSR,其中包括单碱基重复4 913条(59.8%),2碱基重复1 419条(17.3%),3碱基重复1 709条(20.8%),4碱基重复114条(1.39%),5碱基重复23条(0.28%),6碱基重复40条(0.49%).大约每2.8kb长度的单一基因序列中即存在1个SSR,即平均4.6个单一基因中存在1个SSR.随碱基重复单元(motif)的不同,SSR的最大长度在40-105之间,全部重复序列的平均长度为20.9 bp.各种SSR(1-,2-,3-,4-,5-,6-核苷酸重复)的发生频率在甜橙和枳壳间非常接近.其中单碱基重复序列是最丰富的重复单元,其次为3碱基重复.在所得的SSR的重复单元中,富含A碱基的重复单元的分布占据优势地位,出现的频率与密度均较高,而富含CG碱基的重复单元出现频率和密度较低.用25对EST-SSR引物对6个柑橘品种的多样性进行了PCR检测,结果表明,所有25对引物在6个柑橘品种间均扩增到多样性条带,证实通过柑橘EST数据库的发掘能够高效地筛选到基因水平的SSR标记.%Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were investigated in the unigene sequences from expressed sequence tags (EST) of sweet orange (Citrussinensis osbeck), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf) and other citrus species and cultivars. A total of 37 802 citrus unigene sequences corresponding to 23.29 Mb were searched, resulting in the identification of 8 218 SSRs. Among them there were 4 913 (59.8%) mono-, 1 419 (17.3%) di-, 1 709 (20.8%) tri-, 114 (1.39%) tetra-, 23 (0.28%) penta- and 40(0.49%) hexa-nucleotide SSRs. The estimated frequency of SSRs was approximately 1/2.8 kb, which could be extrapolated to 1SSR-containing unigene in 4.6 unigenes. The maximum length of the SSR ranged from 40 to 105 bp

  12. Greenhouse Screening of Grape Rootstock Populations to Determine Inheritance of Resistance to Phylloxera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylloxera has been an important pest in California since their discovery in 1880 within Sonoma and Napa Counties. Phylloxera resistant rootstocks and germplasm were selected from American grape species native to the eastern United States. Breeding programs to develop improved phylloxera resistant...

  13. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  14. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  15. Effect of phytophthora capsici crown rot on watermelon rootstocks and grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera is also gaining acceptance in our l...

  16. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  17. Biosafety considerations of RNAi-mediated virus resistance in fruit-tree cultivars and in rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgo, Godwin Nana Yaw; Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    A major application of RNA interference (RNAi) is envisaged for the production of virus-resistant transgenic plants. For fruit trees, this remains the most, if not the only, viable option for the control of plant viral disease outbreaks in cultivated orchards, due to the difficulties associated with the use of traditional and conventional disease-control measures. The use of RNAi might provide an additional benefit for woody crops if silenced rootstock can efficiently transmit the silencing signal to non-transformed scions, as has already been demonstrated in herbaceous plants. This would provide a great opportunity to produce non-transgenic fruit from transgenic rootstock. In this review, we scrutinise some of the concerns that might arise with the use of RNAi for engineering virus-resistant plants, and we speculate that this virus resistance has fewer biosafety concerns. This is mainly because RNAi-eliciting constructs only express small RNA molecules rather than proteins, and because this technology can be applied using plant rootstock that can confer virus resistance to the scion, leaving the scion untransformed. We discuss the main biosafety concerns related to the release of new types of virus-resistant plants and the risk assessment approaches in the application of existing regulatory systems (in particular, those of the European Union, the USA, and Canada) for the evaluation and approval of RNAi-mediated virus-resistant plants, either as transgenic varieties or as plant virus resistance induced by transgenic rootstock.

  18. Rootstock-scion interactions in the cucumber: implications for cultivation and breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Grafting cucumbers onto low temperature tolerant rootstocks Cucurbita ficifolia and Sicyos angulatus promoted vegetative growth and early fruit production at suboptimal temperatures in winter. The positive effect of grafting. onto C. ficifolia on length growth and leaf initiation depended on the gen

  19. Development of Phytophthora root rot-resistant avocado rootstocks for the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophtora root rot (PRR), caused by Phytopthora cinnamoni Rands, poses the greatest limitation to avocado production worldwide. Through a collaborative effort between researchers at the USDA-ARS facility in Miami and the University of Florida in Homestead, PRR-resistant avocado rootstocks are bein...

  20. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  1. Recent advances in Citrus psorosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Achachi, Asmae; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Ibriz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Psorosis is a globally devastating disease of citrus caused by an infectious filamentous ophiovirus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which causes annual losses of about 5 % and a progressive decline of trees by affecting the conductive tissues. The disease can be harboured asymptomatically in many citrus species. In the field, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease in adult trees are bark scaling in the trunk and main branches and also internal staining in the underlying wood. The viru...

  2. Rootstock alleviates PEG-induced water stress in grafted pepper seedlings: physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Bautista, Alberto San; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Ángeles

    2014-06-15

    Recent studies have shown that tolerance to abiotic stress, including water stress, is improved by grafting. In a previous work, we took advantage of the natural variability of Capsicum spp. and selected accessions tolerant and sensitive to water stress as rootstocks. The behavior of commercial cultivar 'Verset' seedlings grafted onto the selected rootstocks at two levels of water stress provoked by adding 3.5 and 7% PEG (polyethylene glycol) was examined over 14 days. The objective was to identify the physiological traits responsible for the tolerance provided by the rootstock in order to determine if the tolerance is based on the maintenance of the water relations under water stress or through the activation of protective mechanisms. To achieve this goal, various physiological parameters were measured, including: water relations; proline accumulation; gas exchange; chlorophyll fluorescence; nitrate reductase activity; and antioxidant capacity. Our results indicate that the effect of water stress on the measured parameters depends on the duration and intensity of the stress level, as well as the rootstock used. Under control conditions (0% PEG) all plant combinations showed similar values for all measured parameters. In general terms, PEG provoked a strong decrease in the gas exchange parameters in the cultivar grafted onto the sensitive accessions, as also observed in the ungrafted plants. This effect was related to lower relative water content in the plants, provoked by an inefficient osmotic adjustment that was dependent on reduced proline accumulation. At the end of the experiment, chronic photoinhibition was observed in these plants. However, the plants grafted onto the tolerant rootstocks, despite the reduction in photosynthetic rate, maintained the protective capacity of the photosynthetic machinery mediated by osmotic adjustment (based on higher proline content). In addition, water stress limited uptake and further NO3(-) transfer to the leaves. Increased

  3. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%, P2O5 (9%, K2O (12%, Mg (1%, S (2.3%, B (0.02%, Cu (0.05%, Fe (1%, Mn (0.06%, Mo (0.02% and Zn (0.05%. A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-release fertilizer was added to Rendimax Floreira® substrate at doses of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g per liter, and rootstocks were produced in plastic containers with a capacity of two liters of substrate. Three seeds of clone GT 1 were scattered in each container and thinning was performed on day 60, leaving the most vigorous plant only. After the fourth leaf shot from each rootstock, the containers of each treatment were topped, due to compaction, with 300 mL of the relevant fertilizer and substrate mixture. The rootstocks were evaluated at eight months of age as to height, stem diameter (DC 5 cm above root collar, total dry matter, shoot and root dry matter, leaf nutrient levels and percentage of plants suitable for grafting (DC≥1.0 cm. Results revealed that adequate development and nutrition of rootstocks was achieved by using 6 g of controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate.

  4. Maiden pear trees growth in replant soil after inoculation of rootstocks with mycorrhizal inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Świerczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of fruit trees it is important to set up a nursery always in a new site, alternatively to follow crop rotation rules. It is not always possible due to the size of a farm and production volume. In order to limit the effects of replant soil one can use different procedures before setting up a nursery. Chemical methods, however, must be replaced with non chemical ones due to environmental protection and reduction of production costs. In the experiment conducted in 2009-2012, growth of maiden pear trees of ‘Conference’ growing on three quince MA, MC, S1 rootstocks, cultivated in replant and non-replant soil after the use of mycorrhizal treatment, was compared. The strongest growth of maiden pear trees was obtained on non-replant soil with mycorrhizal and without mycorrhizal treatment of rootstocks. Inoculation of rootstocks influenced positively the height and fresh mass of the root system of maiden pear trees growing on two considered sites. On the other hand, inoculation did not rise the diameter of stem and number of lateral shoots of the maidens. Influence of mycorrhizal treatment of rootstocks on the length of lateral shoots was not obvious. Significantly the best results of maiden pear trees growth, except for the stem diameter, were obtained on MA quince compared to two other types. The mycorrhizal treatment gave better result of percentage obtained by maiden pear trees only in the replant site. The best efficiency of maiden pear trees in nursery production was observed for MA quince rootstock.

  5. Deep sequencing discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huaping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated identification of species-specific or lowly expressed as well as conserved or highly expressed miRNAs in plants. Results In this research, we used Solexa sequencing to discover new microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata which is an important rootstock of citrus. A total of 13,106,753 reads representing 4,876,395 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNA extracted from C. trifoliata flower and fruit tissues. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, we found that 156,639 reads representing 63 sequences from 42 highly conserved miRNA families, have perfect matches to known miRNAs. We also identified 10 novel miRNA candidates whose precursors were all potentially generated from citrus ESTs. In addition, five miRNA* sequences were also sequenced. These sequences had not been earlier described in other plant species and accumulation of the 10 novel miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Potential target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. Moreover, four target genes including one encoding IRX12 copper ion binding/oxidoreductase and three genes encoding NB-LRR disease resistance protein have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in C. trifoliata. Conclusion Deep sequencing of short RNAs from C. trifoliata flowers and fruits identified 10 new potential miRNAs and 42 highly conserved miRNA families, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in C. trifoliata. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important trifoliate orange

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  7. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  8. Rootstock Potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria Germplasm for Watermelon: Plant Growth, Graft Compatibility, and Resistance to Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    YETİŞİR, Halit; Şener KURT; Sari, Nebahat; TOK, Fatih M.

    2007-01-01

    The rootstock potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria germplasm for watermelon was evaluated. Among 210 accessions, 72 genotypes were selected based on morphological characteristics. Two commercial hybrid rootstocks were also used for comparison. Crimson Tide watermelon cultivar was used as a scion. Emergence rate, hypocotyl morphology, survival rate, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) were investigated. Grafted plants were grown for 3 weeks in order to investigate the ...

  9. EVALUATION OF PAL ACTIVITY, PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS IN THREE PISTACHIO ( PISTACIA VERA L.) CULTIVARS GRAFTED ONTO THREE DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Nadernejad; Ahmadimoghadam, A.; J. Hossyinifard; S. Poorseyedi

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" ...

  10. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  11. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices. PMID:17472944

  12. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medena, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Condo-Ruiz, Rebecca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernandez-Fernandez, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two qua...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  14. Nutrição e produção da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" em porta-enxertos e plantas de cobertura permanente na entrelinha Nutrition and yield of the 'Folha Murcha' orange in rootstocks and groundcover management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estado nutricional e a produção de citros não são conhecidos para as diferentes combinações copa/porta-enxertos e plantas de coberturas permanente na entrelinha. O estudo foi instalado em um experimento de laranjeira "Folha Murcha" [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] com oito anos de idade, conduzido entre 1997 a 2002, no município de Paranavaí, região Noroeste do Paraná. O solo corresponde a um Argissolo Vermelho distr��fico típico textura areia/franco arenoso. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por sete porta-enxertos: limoeiro "Cravo", limoeiro "Rugoso da África", limoeiro "Volcameriano", tangerineira "Cleópatra", tangerineira "Sunki", citrangeiro "C-13" e Trifoliata, com três plantas em cada parcela experimental. As repetições foram constituídas por três blocos com a cobertura Paspalum notatum e por um bloco com Arachis pintoi. Foram avaliados os teores dos nutrientes foliares e a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha". O manejo das entrelinhas com a leguminosa elevou os teores de N à faixa excessiva nas folhas do porta-enxerto limoeiro "Cravo", e reduziu a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" em relação à gramínea. Nas entrelinhas com gramínea, a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" foi dependente das safras agrícolas e dos teores foliares de Ca, Mg e Zn. A absorção máxima de Ca pelas folhas de laranjeira "Folha Murcha" precede a de Mg e Zn. Nestas condições, os porta-enxertos tangerineira "Cleópatra" e limoeiro "Rugoso da África" apresentaram maior produção de frutos de laranjeira "Folha Murcha".The nutritional status and yield of citrus are not known for different canopy/rootstocks and soil groundcover management systems. The study was set up in a 8-year-old 'Folha Murcha' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] orange experiment, and was carried out from 1997 to 2002 in Paranavai, in the northwest region of the state of Parana

  15. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  16. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  17. Resistance and tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stover-led research team focuses on developing improved citrus scion varieties, through both conventional breeding and transgenics, with special attention to confronting the threat of citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Collaborations are underway with more than 20 research groups around the world to ha...

  18. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  19. Effects of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on rooting of grapevine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study. effects of topical applications of two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains and their combination (Bacillus BA16, OSU142 and BA16+OSU142 on the rooting of 41B and Rupestris du Lot rootstocks were investigated. The results showed that none of the bacterial strains have significant effects on success rate at 41B and Rupestris du Lot alone, but BA16+0SU142 combination significantly increased the rooting rate and rooting degree of 41B, and decreased the rooting rate and rooting degree of Rupestris du Lot compared with control. In addition, none of the applications had significant effects in number, length and weight of roots on cuttings of both 41B and Rupestris du Lot. Our results suggest that PGPR may have a great potential to stimulate the rooting of hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks, with low rooting capability.

  20. In silico analysis of ESTs from roots of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Boscariol-Camargo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CitEST project resulted in the construction of cDNA libraries from different Citrus sp. tissues under various physiological conditions. Among them, plantlets of Rangpur lime were exposed to hydroponic conditions with and without water stress using PEG6000. RNA from roots was obtained and generated a total of 4,130 valid cDNA reads, with 2,020 from the non-stressed condition and 2,110 from the stressed set. Bioinformatic analyses measured the frequency of each read in the libraries and yielded an in silico transcriptional profile for each condition. A total of 40 contigs were differentially expressed and allowed to detect up-regulated homologue sequences to well known genes involved in stress response, such as aquaporins, dehydrin, sucrose synthase, and proline-related synthase. Some sequences could not be classified by using FunCat and remained with an unknown function. A large number of sequences presented high similarities to annotated genes involved with cell energy, protein synthesis and cellular transport, suggesting that Rangpur lime may sustain active cell growth under stressed condition. The presence of membrane transporters and cell signaling components could be an indication of a coordinated morphological adaptation and biochemical response during drought, helping to explain the higher tolerance of this rootstock to water stress.

  1. Use of in vitro propagation of `Obla?inska? sour cherry in rootstock breeding

    OpenAIRE

    DORIC, DUSICA; Vladislav OGNJANOV; Barac, Goran; LJUBOJEVIC, MIRJANA; PRANJIC, ANKICA; DUGALIC, KRUNOSLAV; ERCİŞLİ, SEZAİ

    2015-01-01

    Prunus cerasus L. `Obla?inska? sour cherry germplasm was established in vitrodirectly from in situ plants on different explant collection dates, enabling quick clonal multiplication and introduction to a rootstock breeding program. Rosette initiation of four investigated genotypes was possible from November to April on the medium containing Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) macroelements, Murashige and Skoog (MS) microelements, and vitamins supplemented with (in mg L?1) 6-benzyladenine (BA), 0.5; i...

  2. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses ...

  3. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obta...

  4. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  5. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  6. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  7. STUDY ON FREEZING RESISTANCE OF 5 CITRUS SOMATIC HYBRIDS%5个柑桔体细胞杂种的抗寒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伯勋; 曾凤

    2001-01-01

    研究了5个柑桔细胞杂种的抗寒性,其结果是伏令夏橙+宜昌橙( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + C.ichangensis Swingle)抗-11℃、伏令夏橙+‘key'来檬( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + C. aurantifolia cv. Key lime)抗-7.59℃、伏令夏橙+宁波金柑( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + Fortunella crassifolia Swingle cv. Meiwa)抗-9.54℃、哈姆林甜橙+粗柠檬( C. sinensis Osb.cv. Hamlin + C .jamhiri L. )抗-7.1℃,哈姆林甜橙+飞龙枳( Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Hamlin + Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Flying Dragon)抗-12.89℃、并且证明了5个体细胞杂种的抗寒性均介于两亲本之间.其中哈姆林甜橙+飞龙枳杂种、伏令夏橙+宜昌橙杂种的抗寒性均高于其它几个组合.还证明了柑桔体细胞杂种的抗寒能力几乎不受栽培管理水平的影响.

  8. Anti-Obesity and Hypoglycemic Effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. Extracts in High-Fat Diet C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the possible anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. extracts. Mature fruit were divided into flavedo (PF and juice sacs (PJ, and extracts from them were tested on C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for thirteen weeks. Both fruit extracts (40 mg/kg body weight, respectively showed anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. Consumption of PF and PJ extracts reduced body weight by 9.21% and 20.27%, respectively. Liver and adipose weights, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride (TG, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels decreased significantly, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and oral glucose tolerance levels increased significantly in response to two fruit extracts. These effects were due in part to the modulation of serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. Furthermore, transcript levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 were reduced while those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2 were increased in the liver of C57BL/6 mice, which might be an important mechanism affecting lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, P. trifoliata fruit can be potentially used to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  9. Nitric oxide is involved in dehydration/drought tolerance in Poncirus trifoliata seedlings through regulation of antioxidant systems and stomatal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Jun; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a component of the repertoire of signals implicated in plant responses to environmental stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of NO-releasing donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) on dehydration and drought tolerance of Poncirus trifoliata. The endogenous NO level was enhanced by SNP pretreatment, but decreased by L-NAME, in the hydroponic or potted plants with or without stresses. Under dehydration, leaves from the SNP-treated hydroponic seedlings displayed less water loss, lower electrolyte leakage and reactive oxygen species accumulation, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and smaller stomatal apertures as compared with the control (treated with water). In addition, pretreatment of the potted plants with SNP resulted in lower electrolyte leakage, higher chlorophyll content, smaller stomatal conductance and larger photosynthetic rate relative to the control. By contrast, the inhibitor treatment changed these physiological attributes or phenotypes in an opposite way. These results indicate that NO in the form of SNP enhanced dehydration and drought tolerance, whereas the inhibitor makes the leaves or plants more sensitive to the stresses. The stress tolerance by NO might be ascribed to a combinatory effect of modulation of stomatal response and activation of the antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, NO is involved in dehydration and drought tolerance of P. trifoliata, implying that manipulation of this signal molecule may provide a practical approach to combat the environmental stresses. PMID:21938448

  10. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless

  11. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  12. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  13. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  14. Genetic Diversity among Iranian Local and Commercial Apple Rootstocks by Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Darvishzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic diversity among twelve apple rootstocks by using 14 simple sequence repeat primer pairs. Generally, 44 alleles were scored at SSR loci. The number of alleles (na per locus ranged from two to five alleles with an average of 3.14. The maximum effective number of alleles (ne, expected heterozygosity (He, and observed heterozygosity (Hobs were 2.3, 0.56 and 0.36, respectively. Results showed that the studied genotypes were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most of studied loci. The polymorphism information content (PIC varied from 0.5 to 0.86 which confirmed the effectiveness of SSR markers in determination of molecular polymorphism and characterization of the rootstocks genotypes. Cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm on the basis of Jaccard’s similarity coefficient classified the studied genotypes into three distinct groups. In this study, three Iranian local rootstocks were located in separate groups.

  15. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  16. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  17. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-01-01

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia. Five genotypes of P. laurocerasus, not used as rootstock, were included in the molecular analysis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 12, with a mean of 9, while the number of microsatellite genotypes varied from 8 to 17, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. The degree of heterozygosity (0.61) was high. Clustering analysis resulted in two main clusters. The first cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster consisted of P. avium and P. cerasus, and the second subcluster consisted of P. laurocerasus. The second cluster was divided into two subclusters. The first subcluster consisted of P. mahaleb genotypes and the second consisted of P. angustifolia genotypes. The reference rootstocks also clustered with their associated botanical species. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. laurocerasus genotypes had less genetic variation and that P. avium genotypes were more closely related to P. cerasus. The SSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy information, suggesting the applicability of SSR analysis for genotyping and phylogenetic studies in the genus Prunus. PMID:21053179

  18. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  19. Dwarifng apple rootstock responses to elevated temperatures:A study on plant physiological features and transcription level of related genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bei-bei; SUN Jian; LIU Song-zhong; JIN Wan-mei; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Qin-ping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of heat stress on physiological features, together with endogenous hormones and the transcription level of related genes, to estimate the heat resistance ability and stress injury mechanism of different dwarifng apple rootstocks. Among the six rootstocks, the rootstocks of native Shao series (SH series) showed better heat stress resistance than those of Budagovski 9 (B9), Cornel-Geneva 24 (CG24), and Maling 26 (M26) from abroad. Among SH series rootstocks, SH1 and SH6 showed higher heat stress resistance than SH40. M26 demonstrated the lowest adaption ability to heat stress, showing higher leaf conductivity and lower liquid water content (LWC) with the increase in temperature. Heat stress also resulted in the suppression of photosynthesis, which showed no signiifcant res-toration after 7-day recovery. It should be noted that although a higher temperature led to a lower LWC and photosynthetic efifciency (Pn) of CG24, there was no signiifcant increase in leaf conductivity, and 7 days after the treatment, thePn of CG24 recovered. The extremely high temperature tolerance of SH series rootstocks could be related to the greater osmotic ad-justment (OA), which was relfected by smaler reductions in leaf relative water content (RWC) and higher turgor potentials and leaf gas exchange compared with the other rootstocks. Determination of hormones indicated multivariate regulation, and it is presumed that a relatively stable expression levels of functional genes under high-temperature stress is necessary for heat stress resistance of rootstocks.

  20. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg...

  1. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  2. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447].

  3. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  4. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  5. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa), and Pomelo (Citrus maxima) Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert Adrianto; Subagyo Yotopranoto; Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, ...

  6. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  7. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  8. Evaluation of PAL activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Three Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Cultivars Grafted onto Three Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadernejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi" on three rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs. PAL activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured toward the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it is more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogen. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, and therefore it is concluded that pistachio rootstocks may affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels.

  9. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  10. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  11. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  12. The effect of rootstocks on the growth and yielding of sour cherry cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength of growth of 'Łutówka' trees was related to the soil quality and the rootstock. Measurements of the tree trunks and the crown size showed that on fertile soil the trees grafted on Mahaleb cherry grew worse, forming by 12% thinner trunks and by over 20% (significantly smaller crowns as compared to Mazzard cherry trees. On poor sandy-loamy soil the crowns of trees grafted on Mahaleb were significantly, more than 40% bigger than those on Mazzard cherry. No significant differences in the yielding and productivity of trees grafted on Mahaleb and Mazzard cherry trees were found on grey brown podzolic soil. The experiment conducted on sandy-loamy soil pointed to significant differences in the yielding and productivity between 'Łutówka' trees grafted on the studied rootstocks. The trees grafted on Mahaleb cherry in both studied years were characterized by significantly greater productivity than on the other rootstocks. Significantly higher yields were gathered from the trees on Mahaleb cherry than on vegetative rootstocks, and by 70% higher than on Mazzard cherry. P-HL A rootstock is of little use in the planting of 'Łutówka', which grown poorly on light soils. Besides poor growth and yielding, in longer dry periods the studies found the appearance of chlorosis of magnesium on older leaves, and even wilting of the leaves.

  13. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  14. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  15. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  16. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  17. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insectici...

  18. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  19. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  20. Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, van E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus Hirsutellathompsonii Fisher and partly through a decline in feed qual

  1. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... (78 FR 8435-8441, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0060) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including... the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the continental United States. As a...

  2. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  3. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  4. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.). The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy.

  5. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.). The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy. PMID:27223695

  6. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO DE HASTES DE LARANJA CACAU (Citrus sinensis Osb NO "PEGAMENTO" DE BORBULHAS EFFECT OF THE STORAGE PERIOD OF “CACAU” ORANGE (Citrus sinensis OSB BUDWOODS ON THE QUALITY OF BUDS FOR GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Teixeira Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da conservação de borbulhas de laranja “Cacau” (Citrus sinensis Osb embaladas em sacos plásticos, no pegamento de enxertos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram enxertia com borbulhas de hastes com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias de conservação. A percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente em função do período de conservação. À medida que aumentava a intensidade de descoloração das hastes, diminuía a percentagem de "pegamento" de enxertos. Para nossas condições as borbulhas de laranja "cacau" (Citrus sinensis Osb não devem ser conservadas em sacos plásticos, à temperatura ambiente, por mais de 5 dias, pois a percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente com o período de conservação das hastes.

    This work was carried out at the Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO. This study was made to test the effect of the storage period of the “cacau” orange budwood on the quality of buds for grafting. Budwoods of the “Cacau” orange (Citrus sinensis  Osb were harvested, packed in polyethylene bags and maintained at environmental temperature. The buds were grafted on rootstocks of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osb at intervals of 6 days (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. It was noted that the loss of bud viability increased simultaneously with progressive change in budwood color from the natural green to an intense brown. The percentages of buds alive after 60 days of grafting were: 100% on the day budwoods were harvested; 70% after 5 days of storage; 36% after 10 days of storage and 00% after 15 days.

  7. Identificação de espécies de citros mediante polimorfismo enzimático Identification of citrus species by means of enzymatic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, mediante polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida, a variabilidade genética das espécies de laranja-doce (Citrus sinensis; laranja-azeda (C. aurantium; tangerinas clementina (C. clementina, sunki (C. sunki, cleópatra (C. reshni e poncã (C. rsticulata; lima-da-pérsia (C. limettioides; limão-galego (C. aurantifolia; limão-cravo (C. limonia e trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata. Extratos de folhas foram analisados para as isoenzimas de malato deidrogenase (MDH, enzima málica (ME, leucino amino peptidase (LAP, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase (GOT, fosfoglucoisomerase (PGI, fosfoglucomutase (PGM e isocitrato deidrogenase (IDH. Verificou-se grande variabilidade genética interespecífica, porém nenhuma entre os cultivares de laranja-doce. Foram encontradas algumas aloenzimas, além das referidas pela literatura em gel de amido, como aquelas de uma região próxima ao loco conhecido por Pgm-1, responsável por proteínas monoméricas. Este sistema, denominado PGM, revelou a maior diferenciação entre as espécies, tendo apresentado duas regiões distintas com 9 alelos. No sistema MDH, foram considerados dois locas codificando para proteínas diméricas com 7 alelos; no ME, um loco com 3 alelos; no LAP, possivelmente dois locos responsáveis por proteínas monoméricas com 4 alelos; no GOT, dois focos com 7 alelos; no PGI, um loco com 3 alelos e no IDH, um loco com 4 alelos.The genetic diversity of citrus cultivars was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on sweet orange (C. sinensis; tangerines (C. clementine, C. sunki, C. reshni, C. reticulata; Palestine lime (C. Iimettioides; West Indian lime (C. aurantifolia; Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Sour orange (C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata. Citrus leaf extracts were analysed for isozymes of malato dehidrogenase (MDH, malic enzyme (ME, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphoglucose mutase (PGM and

  8. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, L.; Priolo, A.; L. Biondi; Lanza, M.; Bognanno, M.; Gravador, R.; Luciano, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrateswith high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates inwhich 24% and 35% dried citrus pulpwere included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and satu...

  9. 茄子砧木引种试验%Introduction Test of Eggplant Rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳弟贵; 杨建国; 熊立新

    2014-01-01

    筛选和引进更多优质砧木资源是解决茄子连作障碍的关键技术,研究以早青茄(对照)为接穗,分别嫁接茄砧一号、托鲁巴姆、托托斯加3个茄子砧木品种,并分析了其嫁接效果。结果表明:3个嫁接处理成活率高;与对照相比,始收期延迟,早期产量极显著降低,但抗病性明显提高,总产量极显著高于对照,嫁接对接穗品质影响小,可作为优良砧木品种在岳阳地区交替应用与推广。%The screening and introduction of more high-quality rootstock is the key technology to solve the con-tinuous cropping obstacle ,taking Zaoqingqie(CK)as the scion which was grafted on three varieties of eggplant rootstocks respectively including Qiezhen 1 ,Tuolubam and Tuotuosijia ,and the effect of grafting were ana-lyzed .The results showed that the survival rate of three grafting were high .Compared with the control ,the grafted plants exhibited delay of first harvesting time ,early yield was significantly reduced and showed signifi-cant higher of disease-resistance and output .Grafting had less impact on quality of scion .All of above ,Tuotu-osijia ,Qiezhen 1 and Tuolubam could be used interchangeably in local agricultural production as excellent root-stocks .

  10. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  11. Susceptibility of sixteen citrus genotypes to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is the most serious threat to citrus production worldwide and in the last decade has devastated the Florida citrus industry. HLB is associated with a phloem-limited a-proteobacter Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and its insect vector the Asian citrus psyllid (Dia...

  12. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  13. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  14. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  15. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ, エル, サイド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  16. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obtained from a long-term grape growing. In addition, they have to be supported by histological and biochemical analyses.

  17. Chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA sequences in an apple rootstock using a digoxygenin detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER

    1995-01-01

    A 6kb rDNA probe comprising the 18S coding plus spacer sequences has been hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of apple rootstock cultivar MM106 demonstrating the localization of ribosomal gene arrays in the vicinity of the telomeric regions of the short arms of chromosomes 6 and 14.The in situ results using digoxygenin labelling coupled to an alkaline phosphatase immunoassay were confirmed by silver staining for NORs and nucleoli.This study demonstrates the feasibility of molecular cytogenetic analysis of very small chromosomes(1.0-2.7μm) of apple.

  18. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo; Elainy Botelho Carvalho Pereira; Ailton Vitor Pereira; Nelson Venturin; Antonio Nilson Zamunér Filho

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL) on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%), P2O5 (9%), K2O (12%), Mg (1%), S (2.3%), B (0.02%), Cu (0.05%), Fe (1%), Mn (0.06%), Mo (0.02%) and Zn (0.05%). A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-r...

  19. The Influence of Salinity on Seedling Growth of Some Pumpkin Varieties Used as Rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Rana KURUM; ULUKAPI, Kamile; Köksal AYDINŞAKİR; Onus, Ahmet Naci

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different salinity levels (0, “control”, 2, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1) on seedling growth of Obez, RS 841 and Ferro F1 pumpkin varieties, widely used around the world as rootstock, were investigated. Seedlings grown under saline conditions were investigated for plant main stem length, plant length, root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weights and ion concentrations (Ca++, K+, Na+) in the leaves of pumpkin varietie...

  20. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  1. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  2. The influence of rootstock and time of harvest on the fruit quality during storage of in two grapefruit cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo rootstocks and time of harvest on the quality of cold-stored (13°C and 90% R.H. ‘Ruby Red’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit grown under the tropical conditions prevalent in Ceará state, Brazil, were evaluated. Fruit quality was assessed by mass loss and peel color, the percentage of juice, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturity index, and ascorbic acid content. The results suggested that ‘Ruby Red’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit presented similar amounts of soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid levels at harvest, and the trends over the course of storage followed similar patterns for both cultivars, regardless of rootstock. The influence of scion-rootstock combination on the studied variables was dependent on the time of harvest. The peel color of ‘Ruby Red’ grafted on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo is more vivid and redder when harvested in October than when harvested in August. ‘Ruby Red’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit harvested in October are sweeter, less acidic, juicier, and richer in ascorbic acid than those harvested in August. ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin rootstock might favor ascorbic acid levels at harvest, but the fruit may lose more weight during storage.

  3. Differential responses of grapevine rootstocks to water stress are associated with adjustments in fine root hydraulic physiology and suberization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficits are known to alter fine root structure and function, but little is known about how these responses contribute to differences in drought resistance across grapevine rootstocks. We studied how water deficit affects root anatomical and physiological characteristics in two grapevine root...

  4. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  5. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity....

  6. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  7. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  8. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  9. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dēķena Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  10. HCO3-和pH对3种柑橘悬浮培养材料的生理效应%PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HCO3- AND PH ON THE SUSPENSION CULTURES OF THREE CITRUS SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玲; 李道高

    2001-01-01

    In an investigation of the physiologic al effects of HCO3- and pH on the cells or cell of sour orange ( Citrus aurantium),mandarine ( C. rectuculata ) and trifiiat orange ( Poncirus trifoliata ) in suspension clture,the activity of their catalase and peroxidase and membrane permeabuility wee determined. The esults indicated that the cells or cell lumps of all the three species wee,to different extents,injured physuologically.The injury suffered by P. tifoliata was most serious,followed by C. recticalata and C. aurantium.%考察了HCO3-和pH对酸橙、红桔和枳的悬浮培养细胞(团)的生理效应,测定了过氧化物酶、过氧化氢酶及质膜透性等生理指标。结果表明,3种试材的细胞(团)均受到了一定的生理伤害,其中以酸橙受到的伤害最轻,红桔次之,枳最重。

  11. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

  12. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  13. 橡胶树砧木和接穗之间的相互影响%Interaction between Scion and Rootstock in Rubber Tree(Hevea Brasiliensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立军; 林位夫

    2012-01-01

    以GT1和RRIM600两种实生苗为巴西橡胶树砧木材料和GT1、RRIM600和PR107无性系及其砧木自身芽4种接穗材料进行成对芽接,研究了橡胶树砧木品种、砧木大小和接穗组合对芽接成活率、砧木和接穗直径生长的影响.结果表明:(1)砧木品种对接穗的直径生长量的影响因接穗品系和砧木大小而异;(2)砧木大小极显著影响接穗直径生长量,而对芽接成活率的影响较小;(3)接穗组合对芽接成活率、砧木和接穗直径生长量均有显著影响,且与砧木品种有关.在同等大小的GT1砧木上,3种接穗组合的砧木直径无显著差异;砧木自身芽(RB)与RRIM600组合时的芽接成活率极显著地低于其他两种组合,RB的直径生长量明显强于GT1,但弱于PR107和RRIM600.在RRIM600砧木上,砧木自身芽的芽接成活率极显著低于RRIM 600、显著低于PR107;砧木自身芽组合的砧木直径显著或明显大于GT1+PR107和GT1+RRIM600组合;砧木自身芽的直径生长量极显著或显著大于GT1和PR107的接穗.%In this study, four scions(GTl, RRIM600, PR107 clones and rootstock bud, RB for short)were pairwise grafted on the two rootstocks (seedling of GT1 and RRIM600 cultivars)in rubber tree (hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg.), and the effect of rootstock cultivar, rootstock size and scion combination on the graft survival rate of scions and diameter of rootstocks and scions were investigated. Results showed: (l)The effect of rootstock cultivars on scion diameter was related to scion clones and rootstock size. (2)Rootstock size had a significant influence on scion diameter, but a little influence on graft survival rate. (3)Scion combination had a notable influence on graft survival rate and diameter of rootstock and scion, and its effect was correlated to rootstock cultivars. On same size GT1 rootstock, there was no significant difference among rootstock diameter of three scion combinations; the graft survival rate of RB

  14. Efficient Isolation of RNA from Fruit Peel and Pulp of Ripening Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%一种适合于成熟脐橙果皮和果肉的RNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 刘庆; 陶能国; 邓秀新

    2006-01-01

    An efficient RNA isolation method was established in the present paper. RNA extracted from peel and pulp collected at different ripening time was successfully used for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) without DNase treatment, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), and RNA blotting. The A260/A230ratios were higher than 2. 0, and the A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.65 to 1.92. In addition, the protocol is safe, convenient and proved to be widely applicable, since it was successfully employed for RNA extraction from citrus leaves, immature fruit, Poncirus seedling and citrus callus as well.%研究了一种适合脐橙果实成熟过程中有效的RNA提取方法.结果表明利用该方法从不同成熟时期果实的果皮和果肉中提取的RNA可以有效用于RT-PC,cDNA-AFLP和RNA杂交.其A260/A230的比值超过2.0,A260/A280的比值在1.65-1.92的范围之间.另外该方法也证明可以广泛用于柑橘叶片,未成熟的幼果,枳壳幼苗和柑橘愈伤组织的RNA提取,是一种安全、方便和适用性较广的RNA提取方法.

  15. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of po...

  16. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE BUD-BREAK AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF 420 A AND 5 BB AMERICAN VINE ROOTSTOCKS IRRADIATED WITH DIFFERENT GAMMA DOSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dardeniz, Alper; TAYYAR, Şemun

    2005-01-01

    Viticulture is an important and intensive agricultural branch in Çanakkale province and also in Turkey. Different American vine rootstocks are widely used against phylloxera in our country. Plant breeders have been using gamma radiation for creating new varieties of crops and for obtaining broad genetic diversity for years. In this study, four different doses of gamma rays were applied to 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks when the buds on the cuttings were at the dormant stage. Then, ef...

  17. Effect of Hypocotyl Morphology on Survival Rate and Growth of Watermelon Seedlings Grafted on Rootstocks with Different Emergence Performance at Various Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    YETİŞİR, Halit

    2004-01-01

    The emergence performance of different rootstocks and watermelon cultivars at different temperatures, and the effect of hypocotyl structure on grafting success and survival rate were investigated. Evaluated rootstocks were Cucurbita moschata (landrace), C. maxima (Arıcan local cultivar), Strong Tosa (C. maxima x C. moschata), P360 (C. maxima x C. moschata), Luffa cylindrica, Benincasa hispida, Lagenaria siceraria (landrace), Skopje (Landrace), and 2 Lagenaria hybrids, 216 and FR Gold. The Cri...

  18. Preliminary Studies on Species and Distribution of Citrus Viroids in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Chang-yong; TANG Ke-zhi; LAN Jian-qiang; ZHOU Yan; LI Zhon-gan

    2008-01-01

    Citrus viroids are the small but economically important RNA pathogens.For investigating their occurrence and distribution in China,65 viroid samples collected from 8 major citrus cultivated regions were evaluated using one-step or multiplex one-step RT-PCR and biological indexing for specifically detection of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd),Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd),Hop stunt viroid (HSVd),Citrus viroid-ⅢI (CVd-Ⅲ) and Citrus viroid-Ⅳ (CVd-Ⅳ).The results showed that there were at least 4 kinds of citrus viroids (CEVd,CBLVd,HSVd,and CVd-Ⅲ) on citrus trees in China.Most of the infected citrus plants harbored more than one viroid species,and two plants were infected with up to 4 citrus viroids.Sweet orange was more frequently infected by viroids than other citrus varieties.It is the preliminary report on the species and distribution of citrus viroids in China.

  19. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  20. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  1. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  2. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  3. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  4. 西瓜嫁接砧木资源的初步筛选研究%Evaluation of Watermelon Rootstock Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马双武; 尚建立; 王吉明

    2012-01-01

    为了获得优良的西瓜嫁接砧本,对70份砧木资源进行了西瓜嫁接栽培试验.结果表明:南瓜仍然是西瓜嫁接最好的砧木,增产效果最好,选用适当的品种可以提高抗病性、改善果实品质:其次是葫芦,嫁接的西瓜品质较好,选用适当的品种可以提高抗病性和产量.已选出具有较大利用价值的南瓜砧木5份,葫芦砧木3份.%Seventy rootstock germplasm were evaluated for selecting proper rootstock for watermelon. Squash rootstocks are the best choice for watermelon grafting because the improved yield,quality and disease resistance they offered. The second group is the Lagenaria bottle gourd rootstocks. Five squash rootstock varieties and 3 bottle gourd rootstock varieties were selected for further testing and commercial application.

  5. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  6. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  7. Métodos para identificação e controle da tristeza dos citros Methods of identification and control of tristeza disease of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moreira

    1954-01-01

    s vezes é possível o emprego de pés francos provenientes dos embriões nucelares. Nas plantações já existentes pode-se fazer a substituição total ou parcelada (individual das plantas, conforme se constate predominância de afídios muito ou pouco eficientes e de estirpes fortes ou fracas do vírus. A sub-enxertia ("inarching", a sôbre-enxertia ("topworking" e o afrancamento do enxerto são outras tantas modalidades de controle da tristeza, as quais podem ser vantajosamente empregadas em determinadas condições. Medidas de quarentena podem retardar a invasão das zonas ainda livres da tristeza, -sendo de interesse o esclarecimento do público quanto ao perigo representado pela importação de plantas ou suas partes vivas, exceto as sementes.The tristeza disease of citrus has not yet been reported from European countries nor from various other citrus growing areas of the world. Investigations on the disease have been carried out in various countries, such as Argentina, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, and United States. Knowledge obtained from these investigations enables citrus experts from areas not invaded by tristeza to recognize its presence in the orchards and to prevent disastrous losses for the industry. General decline symptoms of tristeza resemble those caused by foot rot, but root examination permits the differentiation of the two diseases. Presence of pitting symptoms in trees of West Indian limes or of grapefruits permits easy diagnosis of tristeza in the orchards. Stock-scion combinations may be tolerant or intolerant to tristeza. Thus, it be comes important to determine the rootstock in case of plants showing decline symptoms. This fact can be established by direct examination of sprouts from the rootstock or by observing the degree of congeniality of rootstock and scion. The colorimetric tests made with bark of the rootstock may help to determine it. Field observation of symptoms complemented by Schneider's histological tests may replace the

  8. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  9. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  10. Ecological and genetic aspects of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) performance on rootstock hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneck, A; Walker, M A; Blaich, R

    2001-12-01

    Performance and genetic variability of clonal lineages derived from one Californian and one German population of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch were studied on their natal grape rootstock host and on three novel hosts over four generations in an aseptic dual culture system. The ability of D. vitifoliae to adapt to new hosts was measured by changes in fitness (rm) over four generations. The performance of a given clonal lineage changed over successive generations, depending upon the host plant and the phylloxera group. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (AFLP-PCR) banding patterns from 40 individual parthenogenetic D. vitifoliae revealed equal levels of genetic variation both among the four clonal lineages analysed and within the different generations of one lineage. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no significant differences between the D. vitifoliae lineages reared on different host plants, nor was a correlation between host performance and genotype found. PMID:11818039

  11. Effects of transient soil waterlogging and its importance for rootstock selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morales-Olmedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under transient waterlogging, a number of transformations in the soil are generated associated with lack of aeration, seriously affecting the root system. Significant progress has been reported on understanding the effects of lack of oxygen on the metabolism of the roots, although few studies have examined changes in the soil. Diverging conclusions about the degree of tolerance exhibited by plants exclude the effects of hypoxia and anoxia on physical-chemical soil properties under plant experiments. This review examines the main changes occurring in soil and roots due to transient soil waterlogging conditions. Parameters such as antioxidant capacity, nutrient uptake dynamics and regeneration and distribution of the root system are relevant for selecting rootstocks tolerant to soil waterlogging.

  12. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety Helwani, was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  13. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  14. Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosny H Kesba; Hossam S El-Beltagi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of humic acid on nematode infected, resistant and susceptible grapes in relation to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant mechanisms on selected biochemical parameters known as proactive substances. Methods: The grape rootstocks, superior, superior/freedom and freedom were reacted differently to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis according to rootstock progenitor. Two weeks after inoculation, two commercial products of humic acid were applied at the rate of (2, 4 mL or grams/plant) as soil drench. After 4 months, nematode soil populations were extracted and counted. A subsample of roots from each plant was stained and gall numbers, embedded stages per root were calculated, final population, nematode build up (Pf/Pi), average of eggs/eggmass were estimated. Subsamples of fresh root of each treatment were chemically analyzed. Results: Freedom reduced significantly the nematode criteria and build up. Humic acid granules appeared to be more suppressive to nematode build up on superior and the higher dose on superior/freedom than liquid treatments. On freedom, all treatments reduced significantly the nematode build up regardless to the material nature. The higher dose was more effective than the lower one. As a result of humic acid applications, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were significantly reduced after humic acid treatments while the antioxidant compounds glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (ASA) and total phenol contents were significantly increased when compared with check. Antioxidant defense enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) showed significant increase in their specific activities in treated plants compared with nematode treated check. Conclusions: Humic acid treatments improve the yield of grape by increasing the contents of antioxidant compounds and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  15. The influence of season collection of explants on micropropagation of peach rootstock GF-677

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elektra Spahiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of season on the rate of multiplication on in vitro culture of peach rootstock GF- 677 was investigated on Murashige and Skoog (MS media, supplemented with GA3 0.1 mg/L and IAA 0.1mg/l. Benzyladenine (BAP at concentrations 1mg/l was used in the multiplication stage and 1mg/l IBA in the stage of rooting. Shoot-tip and nodal segment explants were collected from 5 years old rootstock GF-677 (Prunus persica x Prunus amygdalus in February 24th (from dormant shoots that have been sprouted in climatic room, March 22th, April 20th, May 18th and September 15th during the 2009 growing season and have been sterilized by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 10% for 20 min. The data on the effect of the season collection of the explants on number of shoots per explants, the mean shoot length and the percentage of rooted shoots were recorded six weeks after culture. In vitro performance of explants indicated a positive correlation between shoot proliferation and season collection The highest number of shoots per explants (3,5 was obtained on explants collected in March 22th (3,5, which was on a par with explants collected in February 24th (from shoots that have been sprouted in climatic room. Moreover, the highest shoot length was observed on explants collected on February and March (1,53cm and 1,505cm respectively. The percentage of rooted shoots from explants sampled on February was not markedly greater than those sampled on March. The number of shoots per explants, the shoot length and the percentage of rooted shoots on explants sampled in April, May and September were significantly lower than those sampled in February and March. The amount of chlorophyll a + b of the shoots coming from explants collected in March was markedly greater than those collected in February, April, May and September.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON CITRUS: A REVIEW PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN Al-Yassin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, effi cient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative infl uence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees’ growth and causes physiological disorders. Primarily salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and water potential of citrus tree leaves, in addition to accumulation of excessive concentration of Chloride or Sodium in leaves. A great deal of research indicates that citrus have the genetic potential to be salt-sensitive; however inheritance studies in citrus are scarce. In this paper the adverse of effects of salinity on physiological aspects of citrus are reviewed. The review summarizes the prevailing state of knowledge about the responses and tolerance of citrus trees to salinity.

  17. Progress on Dissecting and Controlling the Citrus Huanglongbing Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Zhang, Muqing; Benyon, Lesley; Armstrong-Vahling, Cheryl; Hoffman, Michele; Hao, Guixia; Zou, Huasong; Doud, Melissa; Ding, Fang; Morgan, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a century-old and emerging disease that impedes citrus production worldwide. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the globally prevalent species of HLB bacteria. Here we describe our molecular characterizations of Las, and our newly-developed control methods for citrus HLB. From a genomics standpoint, we revealed Las has a significantly reduced genome (1.26Mb) and unique features adapted to its intracellular life style.  Although the genome is small, Las ...

  18. Citrus Genetic Resources Grown on the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; ヤマモト, マサシ; 山本, 雅史

    2014-01-01

    The Ryukyu Islands are located southwest part of Japan. Various local citrus are grown in this subtropical region. Since there are large geographical and climatic differences between the Ryukyu Islands and the main islands (Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku) of Japan, there are unique local citrus genetic resources on the Ryukyu Islands. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa) is an indigenous mandarin species in this region. This species is clearly distinguished from the mandarin grown in China and India ba...

  19. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Benito F. García; Ascensión Torres; Francisco A. Macías

    2015-01-01

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compoun...

  20. Production of aromatic acids during anaerobic digestion of citrus peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1980-06-01

    Commercially prepared citrus oils, distilled citrus oils, limonene and the non-volatile fraction of lemon oils were all found to be toxic to the anaerobic digestion process for conversion of citrus waste to methane. Toxicity was characterised by appearance of benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the digestion liquors, though these acids were not in themselves toxic. The bulk of the phenylpropionic acid was derived from flavonoids.

  1. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  2. Mechanisms of sexual polyploidization and inheritance in triploid citrus populations

    OpenAIRE

    CUENCA IBÁÑEZ, JOSÉ

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the main fruit crop in the world and Spain is the 6th producer and the major exporter for the fresh fruit market. Seedlessness is one of the most important fruit quality traits for this market since consumers do not accept seedy fruits. Recovery of triploid hybrids has become an important breeding strategy to develop new seedless citrus varieties and several of them have been already released from citrus breeding programs worldwide. Despite the undisputable importance of polyploidy ...

  3. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515

  4. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates of Wild Type Citrus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Long; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from Chinese wild type citrus were analyzed by comparing the sequences of nine genomic regions (p23, p20, p13, p18, p25, p27, POL, HEL and k17) with the CTV isolates of cultivated citrus from different countries. The results showed that the divergence pattern of genomic RNA of the CTV isolates from wild type citrus was similar to that of other isolates from cultivated citrus, the 3´ proximal region was relatively conserved, and the 5´ proximal region had greater variability. The nine genomic regions of CTV isolates analyzed were found to have been under purifying selection in the evolution process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven Chinese wild CTV isolates were located at different clades and did not relfect their geographical origins, suggesting genetic diversity among the Chinese wild CTV populations. These results will aid in the understanding of molecular evolution of the Chinese CTV populations.

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reazai; Issa Mohammadpourfard; Shahrokh Nazmara; Mahdi Jahanbakhsh; Leila Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also o...

  7. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents. PMID:27146015

  8. Effect of rootstock on the scion of Hevea brasiliensis through metabolic analysis of latex samples by 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of rootstock on grafting through metabolomic analysis of latex (Hevea brasiliensis samples was verified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and multivariate data analysis. Sixteen metabolites present in the latex cytosol were characterized by NMR. PCA analysis showed that the latex samples of the RR and GR groups can be differentiated. The GR group samples present a metabolic profile similar to the RR group samples, while the RG group is in an intermediate position between RR and GG groups. Sucrose and formate contributed greatly to the separation obtained by PCA, presenting a good correlation between the results. 1H NMR was an efficient technique to differentiate latex samples from different types of rootstocks and grafting and in the future could be used to predict rubber production by latex analysis.

  9. Clarifying the Effects of Dwarfing Rootstock on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth during Tree Development: A Study on Apple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, E.; García-Villanueva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the widespread use of dwarfing rootstocks in the fruit-tree industry, their impact on tree architectural development and possible role in the within-tree balance between growth and flowering are still poorly understood, in particular during the early years of growth. The present study addressed this question in apple trees, through a detailed analysis of shoot populations, i.e. both vegetative and flowering shoots, during tree development. Methods Architectural databases were constructed for trees of two cultivars that were either own-rooted or grafted on dwarfing rootstock. Within-tree shoot demographics and annual shoot characteristics, i.e. their dimensions, number of laterals and flowering, were observed from the first to the fifth year of growth and compared among scion/root system combinations. Key Results Differences in axis demographics appeared among scion/root system combinations after the second year of growth. Differences were found (a) in the number of long axes and (b) the number of medium axes. Dwarfing rootstock reduced the total number of axes developed in a tree, and this reduction resulted from proportionally more medium axes and spurs than long axes. The life span of spurs was also shortened. These phenomena appeared after an increase in flowering that started in the second year of growth and involved both axillary and terminal positions. Flowering regularity was also increased in grafted trees. Conclusions These results confirm that the number of long shoots and flowering potential depend on the cultivar. They indicate that tree architectural plasticity in response to its root system mainly derives from the number of medium shoots developed and follows priorities within the whole tree axis population. There was also evidence for dwarfing rootstock involvement in adjusting the flowering abundance and that differences in flowering occurrence take precedence over those regarding vegetative growth during tree development

  10. Rootstock breeding program for apricot through interspecific crosses of Myrobalan x apricot: Significant effect of accidental pollinations

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Daorden Álvarez, María Elena; García Martín, Elena; Andreu Puyal, Pilar; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rootstock breeding programme for apricot is being developed through interspecific crosses of the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and the 'Moniqui' and 'Moniqui Borde' (P. armeniaca L.) apricot cultivars. In this work, the incidence of accidental pollinations on these low-setting hybridisations was assessed. The progeny originated through hand-pollination of emasculated flowers of three Myrobalan clones, in three consecutive years. Fruit set was low and variable among years (1.8-8.0...

  11. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  12. Growth and Photosynthetic Response of Two Persimmon Rootstocks (Diospyros kaki and D. virginiana under Different Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral INCESU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity continues to be a major factor in reduced crop productivity and profit in many arid and semiarid regions. Seedlings of Diospyros kaki Thunb. and D. virginiana L. are commonly used as rootstock in persimmon cultivation. In this study we have evaluated the effects of different salinity levels on photosynthetic capacity and plant development of D. kaki and D. virginiana. Salinity was provided by adding 50 mM, 75 mM and 100 mM NaCl to nutrient solution. In order to determine the effects of different salinity levels on plant growth, leaf number, plant height, shoot and root dry mass were recorded. Besides leaf Na, Cl, K and Ca concentrations were determined. Also leaf chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’ and leaf gas exchange parameters including leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, leaf transpiration rate (E, and CO2 substomatal concentration (Ci were investigated. Significant decrease of leaf number, shoot length and plant dry mass by increasing salinity levels was observed in both rootstocks. D. virginiana was less affected in terms of plant growth under salinity stress. Leaf chlorophyll concentration reduction was higher in the leaves of D. kaki in comparison to D. virginiana in 100 mM NaCl treatment. By increasing salinity levels PN, gS and E markedly decreased in both rootstocks and D. kaki was more affected from salinity in terms of leaf gas exchange parameters. In addition there was no significant difference but slight decreases were recorded in leaf chlorophyll fluorescences of both rootstocks.

  13. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  14. Evaluation of Productivity and Light Quality in Two High Density Dwarf Rootstock Apple Orchards in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengtao GAO; Jingnan GUO; Zhifeng WEI; Qingjin FAN; Chaoxuan YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ohjective] The aim of the study is to investigate the productivity and light quality in two high density M26 dwarf rootstock apple orchards in central China so as to provide some management guidance for close planting of dwarf rootstock apples.[Method] The technical parameters of individual trees and group parameters as shoot number and composition and canopy coverage were determined, and the light quality in the canopy, fruit production and quality were investigated. [Result] Slender spindle (SS) orchard has 54 thousands shoots per 667 m^2. Coverage rate is 76%. Leaf area index is 1.9. The ratio of long, medium and spur shoots is 1:1:8. Fruit yield is 3 263 kg/667 m^2 with 85% first grade fruit. Light interception in the canopy is 58% while the ratio of canopy with good light is 65%. Modified slender spindle (MSS) orchard has 93 thousands shoots per 667 m^2 and the coverage is 77%. Leaf area index is 3.3. The ratio cf long, medium and spur shoots is 1:2:7. Fruit yield is 3 931 kg/667 m^2 with 85% first grade fruit. The light interception in the canopy is 73% while the ratio of canopy with good light is 35%. [Conclusion] Apple orchard with M26 dwarf rootstock trained as SS and MSS tree form in medium planting density may be useful to the management of the similar orchards in Central China.

  15. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  16. Effects of Partial Rootzone Drying on the Growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Malvasia Grafted on Different Rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; GUAN Xue-qiang; LI En-mao; ZHAI Heng; WANG Xiao-fang; DU Yuan-peng

    2007-01-01

    To lay a biological foundation for rootstocks and alternate irrigation (AI) popularization, the effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD) on the growth of the grapevine Malvasia grafted on different rootstocks were investigated. Biological effects of 1/2 divided root irrigation on three combinations, i.e., Malvasia/420A, Malvasia/3309C, and Malvasia/110R,were studied by wood-boxed plants. All the plants were separated into three groups for different irrigation strategies.Mass growth of new root in alternate-irrigated plants was remarkably promoted by about 7.8-22.2% higher than the wellwatered ones. However, new shoot growth, especially the internode was reduced by alternate irrigation. The average root-shoot ratio of all the three combinations was increased from 1.1 to 1.46. New root growth and internode length were decreased by fixed partial rootzone irrigation (FI) at different amount, M/3309C at 37.9 and 36.9%, M/110R at 18.4 and 22.5%, respectively. Total biomass of all the three combinations under FI decreased at the rate of 19.2-34.3% compared with well-watered ones. Water stress adaptation of grapevine mainly depends on rootstock. 110R is more efficient than3309C and 420A in water stress adaptation. PRD-AI benefited root growth, thus improved the drought-resistant ability of grapevine.

  17. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  18. Subacute toxicity assessment of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

    2012-02-01

    The mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) was tested for subacute oral toxicity. In this study, dose levels of 0, 200, 500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day were administered by gavage to 10 Wistar rats/sex/group for 28 days. No statistically significant, dose-related effect on food consumption, food efficiency, body weight gain, clinical signs or ophthalmoscopic parameters was observed in any treatment group. Urinalysis, hematological, blood coagulation and serum biochemical examination as well as necropsy or histopathology showed that no observed adverse effect was found. These findings suggested that the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level for the mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel was at least 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. PMID:22197624

  19. Transformation of Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin construct expressing untranslatable versions of the genes coding for the three silencing suppressors of Citrus tristeza virus confers complete resistance to the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Nuria; Plomer, Montserrat; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2012-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the causal agent of the most devastating viral disease of citrus, has evolved three silencing suppressor proteins acting at intra- (p23 and p20) and/or intercellular level (p20 and p25) to overcome host antiviral defence. Previously, we showed that Mexican lime transformed with an intron-hairpin construct including part of the gene p23 and the adjacent 3' untranslated region displays partial resistance to CTV, with a fraction of the propagations from some transgenic lines remaining uninfected. Here, we transformed Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin vector carrying full-length, untranslatable versions of the genes p25, p20 and p23 from CTV strain T36 to silence the expression of these critical genes in CTV-infected cells. Three transgenic lines presented complete resistance to viral infection, with all their propagations remaining symptomless and virus-free after graft inoculation with CTV-T36, either in the nontransgenic rootstock or in the transgenic scion. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs was necessary but not sufficient for CTV resistance. Inoculation with a divergent CTV strain led to partially breaking the resistance, thus showing the role of sequence identity in the underlying mechanism. Our results are a step forward to developing transgenic resistance to CTV and also show that targeting simultaneously by RNA interference (RNAi) the three viral silencing suppressors appears critical for this purpose, although the involvement of concurrent RNAi mechanisms cannot be excluded.

  20. New depside from Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2014-01-01

    A new depside, named depcitrus A (1), and 31 known compounds were isolated from the peels, leaves and branch barks of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Methylation of the high polarity fractions from the branch barks and peels gave one new methylated compound named depcitrus B (14) and five known compounds. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some pure compounds were evaluated. PMID:24635118

  1. Citrus phytophthora diseases: Management challenges and successes

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J; Feichtenberger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora spp. are present in nearly all citrus groves in Florida and Brazil and phytophthora-induced diseases, especially foot and root rot, have the potential to cause economically important crop losses. Disease-related losses due to root rot are difficult to estimate because fibrous root damage and yield loss are not always directly proportional. Challenges from phytophthora diseases have been addressed in both countries by enacting phytosanitary requirements for production of pathogen-...

  2. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  3. Polyembryony in non-apomictic citrus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo. PMID:20675656

  4. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  5. Consideration for alternative outlet for new citrus hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus sinensis (sweet orange, ex. Hamlin, Midsweet, Valencia) is the source of “orange juice” and juice must contain no less than 90% C. sinensis to be marketed as such. Juice produced from Citrus reticulata (mandarins) and C. reticulata hybrids (Orlando, Murcott, Fallglo, Sunburst, Minneola) can b...

  6. Sensory and quality evaluation of selected citrus hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their demand for diversity of products, greater health potential and good eating quality. The evaluation of a population of mandarin citrus (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin hybrids, was initiated in 2006-2007 with the goal of establishing bas...

  7. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p3...

  8. Microwave extraction of citrus peel to release pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...

  9. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  10. Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

  11. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  12. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  13. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...

  14. EFFECTS OF DWARFING GISELA 5 ROOTSTOCK ON REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL, VEGETATIVE GROWTH, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SOME SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS IN HIGH-DENSITY SWEET CHERRY ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisela 5 rootstock is most important in terms of reducing the vigor of growth. The varieties grafted on Gisela 5 had good horticultural results in terms of yield, adaptability and dwarf growth. This study was aimed to evaluate the growth and physiological behavior of the most popular sweet cherry cultivars in Europe grafted of Gisela 5 rootstock in one of the most important fruit growing area from Romania. The rootstock – scion combinations namely Skeena, Kordia and Ferrovia were grafted on Gisela 5 dwarf rootstocks. Gisela 5 influenced significantly the trunk cross section area among all the tested cultivars (p<0.05. Ferrovia cultivar was the most vigorous in terms of trunk cross sectional area and total annual growth length. Total annual growth was lower for Kordia (1225.61 cm. The ratio between Chl a and Chl b seems to be constant in all grafted plants. The photosynthesis rate [µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1] varied from 24.12 µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Kordia grafted sweet cherry variety to 25.80 µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Ferrovia sweet cherry cultivar. Data obtained from field measurements and laboratory observations demonstrated that the Gisela 5 rootstock is compatible with foreign sweet cherry varieties under the selected growing area and can be used to achieve high-density sweet cherry orchards.

  15. Effects of Inoculation with Phosphate-solubilizing Bacteriaon Plant Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Citrus Budlings%溶磷菌对柑桔嫁接苗磷素营养及生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛廷香; 邓烈; 易时来; 简仙水; 赵旭阳; 王亮; 何绍兰

    2011-01-01

    Two inorganic phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains and two organic solubilizing bacterial strains were used separately to inoculate the soils growing potted citrus budlings to investigate the effects of these phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSBs) on the phosphorus levels in soils and plants,and the growth of citrus budlings. The results showed that inoculation of both non-sterilized and sterilized soils with PSBs significantly increased the total P content in the above ground parts of the seedlings. In leaves, N, Fe, Cu levels were also significantly increased and the increase in Mg content was even more significant, when compared with controls. The plant heights, stem diameters and the above ground fresh and dry weights of the budlings were significantly increased by soil inoculation of PSBs. Inoculation with inorganic PSBs in both sterilized or non-sterilized soils showed a significant improvement in plant P nutrition and growth while inoculation with organic PSBs in nonsterilized soils had better improvement effects.%将扩繁的无机溶磷菌和有机溶磷菌各2株,分别接种于灭菌和非灭菌的盆栽枳橙Poncirus trifoliata×Citrus sinensis cv.Carrizo Citrange砧塔罗科血橙C.sinensis cv.Tarocco Blood orange嫁接苗土壤中,研究溶磷菌对植株磷营养及其生长发育的影响.结果表明,供试菌株接种于非灭菌和灭菌土壤中,植株地上部总磷含量均显著增加,同时氮、铁、铜以及镁含量亦显著增加.土壤施用溶磷菌的柑桔嫁接苗株高、茎粗及地上部分生物量等显著增加.无论土壤灭菌与否,无机溶磷菌对改善植株磷素营养和促进苗木生长均有明显促进作用,而有机溶磷菌接种于非灭菌土中其效应更为明显.

  16. Salinity Responses of Grafted Grapevines: Effects of Scion and Rootstock Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray SIVRITEPE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old Sultana and Mke vines (Vitis vinifera L. grafted onto Rupestris du Lot (Vitis rupestris Scheele and 110 R (Vitis berlandieri Vitis rupestris were grown in soil, sand, sphagnum peat and farmyard manure mixture (2:1:1:1 v/v irrigated with 0.3, 2.7 and 5.45 dS m-1 NaCl solutions for a period of 60 days. Biomass accumulation, relative chlorophyll content, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and transpiration were significantly reduced by salinity in all graft combinations. The inhibiting effect of salinity on growth varied according to the characteristics of the scion genotype and the level of salinity. The results imply the predominance of the scion genotype in determining variation in the leaf-level physiological characteristics of grafted vines because stomatal conductance and transpiration were higher in Sultana than in Mke at the same leaf water potential and the level of salinity, regardless of the rootstock genotype. NaCl treatments did not affect leaf Cu concentration while inducing significant Na, K, Ca, N, P, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn elevations in the leaves of all scion/rootstock combinations. While salinity caused an increase in N content and a decrease in K content in the roots of all graft combinations, it had no influence on Ca, P, Cu and Zn concentrations. In contrast to the Sultana grafted vines, NaCl salinity led to a decrease in Mg, Fe and Mn concentrations in the roots of Mke grafted vines. Nevertheless, ion accumulation in leaves and roots of grafted vines under saline or non-saline conditions was controlled predominantly by the genotype of the scion. In response to salinity, Sultana grafts accumulated higher amounts of ions in their leaves than in their roots. However, in Mke, higher ion concentrations were seen in the roots. Therefore, the increase in the transport of inorganic ions up to the leaves seems to be the major component of osmotic adjustment in salt-stressed Sultana vines.

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  18. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  19. Molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus historically associated with Meyer lemon trees: complete genome sequence and development of biologically active in vitro transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Afunian, Mohammad R; Hilf, Mark E; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O; Garnsey, Stephen M

    2009-04-01

    Citrus tatter leaf virus isolated from Meyer lemon trees (CTLV-ML) from California and Florida induces bud union incompatibility of citrus trees grafted on the widely used trifoliate and trifoliate hybrid rootstocks. The complete genome sequence of CTLV-ML was determined to be 6,495 nucleotides (nts), with two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a poly (A) tail at the 3' end. The genome organization is similar to other capilloviruses, with ORF1 (nts 37 to 6,354) encoding a putative 242-kDa polyprotein which contains replication-associated domains plus a coat protein (CP), and ORF2 (nts 4,788 to 5,750), which is located within ORF1 in a different reading frame and encodes a putative movement protein. Although the proteins encoded by CTLV-ML possesses 84 to 96% amino acid sequence identity with strains of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), we observed two strikingly different regions in ORF1: variable region I (amino acids 532 to 570) and variable region II (amino acids 1,583 to 1,868), with only 15 to 18 and 56 to 62% identities, respectively, with the corresponding regions of ASGV strains. Conditions for a herbaceous systemic assay host were optimized in which the wild-type virus induced systemic infection in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Light Red Kidney (LRK) bean plants at 19 or 22 degrees C but not at higher temperatures. In vitro transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones induced systemic symptoms on LRK bean plants similar to that of the wild-type virus. Replication of the recombinant virus was confirmed by hybridization of a 5' positive-stranded RNA-specific probe to a genome-sized RNA and by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  20. Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2008-09-10

    In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate coughs and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO) are well recognized as key events in inflammation-related respiratory tract diseases. Despite the fact that the enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels has been well documented, the impact of heat treatment on citrus peel beneficial activities regarding anti-inflammation is unclear. To address this issue, we determined the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts by measuring their inhibitory effect upon NO production by lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel was significantly elevated after 100 degrees C heat treatment in a time-dependent fashion during a period from 0 to 120 min. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression was the major NO-suppressing mechanism of the citrus peel extract. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel extract highly correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Conclusively, proper and reasonable heat treatment helped to release nobiletin and tangeretin, which were responsible for the increased anti-inflammatory activity of heat-treated citrus peels. PMID:18683945

  1. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  2. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers. PMID:26470097

  3. Comparison of FTIR spectra between huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease Huanglongbing(HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant ...

  4. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers.

  5. Detection of a new medium for budwood culture in vitro of citrus

    OpenAIRE

    SERTKAYA, Gülşen ŞAŞ; ÇINAR, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of new and quality citrus species and cultivars from one country or growing area to another may lead to the introduction of new pests and diseases. Therefore the import and direct production of citrus budwood without adequate control measures has a high risk. The citrus virus and virus-like disease agents can be successfully eliminated using the shoot-tip grafting (STG) technique which is routinely used to obtain virus-free plants in citrus improvement programs in major citrus...

  6. 76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... regulations to implement the PPA. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease... the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening...

  7. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

  8. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. PMID:25491482

  9. Pararhizobium polonicum sp. nov. isolated from tumors on stone fruit rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puławska, Joanna; Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Willems, Anne; Pothier, Joël F

    2016-05-01

    Five Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different stone fruit rootstocks in Poland: strains F5.1(T) and F5.3 from Prunus avium F12/1, strains CP3.5 and CP17.2.1 from Prunus avium and strain AL5.1.8 from Prunus cerasifera. On the basis of 16S rDNA phylogeny, the strains cluster together and belong to the genus Pararhizobium with type strain of Pararhizobium herbae (99.6-99.8%) as their closest relative. Phylogenetic analysis of the novel strains using housekeeping genes atpD, recA and rpoB revealed their distinct position separate from other known Rhizobium species and confirmed their relation to P. herbae. DNA-DNA hybridization of strains F5.1(T), with the type strain of P. herbae LMG 25718(T) and Pararhizobium giardinii R-4385(T) revealed 28.3% and 27.9% of DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively. Phenotypic and physiological properties differentiate the novel isolates from other closely related species. On the basis of the results obtained, the five isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pararhizobium, for which the name Pararhizobium polonicum sp. nov. (type strain F5.1(T)=LMG 28610(T)=CFBP 8359(T)) is proposed. PMID:27026286

  10. Pomological properties of sweet cherry cultivars grafted on ‘colt’ rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomological properties of 11 newly sweet cherry cultivars grafted on Colt rootstock were studied in the region of Macva over a three-year period (2010- 2012. An investigation has included phenological traits (flowering and maturing, the elements of productivity (number of flowers in an inflorescence, fruit set and yield, the most important fruit characteristics (physical, chemical and sensory, and fruit cracking index. Average time of flowering of tested cultivars was in the first and the second decade of April, while the maturing time was between 15 May (‘Early Lory’ and 20 June (‘Penny’. The highest yield was achieved by cultivars ‘Giorgia’, ‘Sunburst’, and ‘Crystalina’. Large fruit size was found in cultivars ‘Penny’, ‘Santina’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘Olympus’, and ‘Kordia’. The lowest susceptibility to fruit cracking was manifested in cultivars ‘Early Lory’ and ‘Giorgia’. Cultivars ‘Kordia’ and ‘Cristalina’ were given the highest sensory ratings. Overall, the best results were shown by medium-early season cultivar ‘Santina’, which can be recommended for commercial cultivation. In addition, the early-season cultivar ‘Early Lory’, and the late-season cultivar ‘Kordia’ can also be recommended for cultivation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  11. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE BUD-BREAK AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF 420 A AND 5 BB AMERICAN VINE ROOTSTOCKS IRRADIATED WITH DIFFERENT GAMMA DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper DARDENIZ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important and intensive agricultural branch in Çanakkale province and also in Turkey. Different American vine rootstocks are widely used against phylloxera in our country. Plant breeders have been using gamma radiation for creating new varieties of crops and for obtaining broad genetic diversity for years. In this study, four different doses of gamma rays were applied to 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks when the buds on the cuttings were at the dormant stage. Then, effects of different gamma radiation doses on the cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks were investigated. The aim of the research was to study the effect of different gamma radiation doses on some growth parameters of cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB, and to determine the GR50 dose. The results obtained were statistically elaborated by TARIST.

  12. The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shi, K; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Considine, Michael J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO(2) assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance. PMID:24735050

  13. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  14. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

  15. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2013-07-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious α-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments.

  16. Determination of callusing performance and vine sapling characteristics on different rootstocks of ‘Merzifon Karası’ grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent KÖSE; ÇELIK, Hüseyin; Karabulut, Besim

    2015-01-01

    Grafted vines are the only option while establishing vineyards over the sites contaminated with phylloxera. Furthermore, grafted vines used to establish new vineyards should be well-developed, healthy and compatible with the scions. In this research, we aimed to find out the most suitable rootstock for ‘Merzifon Karası’ using ten rootstocks (140 Ruggeri, 110 R, 99 R, 41B, 5C, 5BB, SO4, 1103 Paulsen 140 Ruggeri and Rupestris du Lot) in 2010 and 2011. The effects on the callusing performance, g...

  17. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Regina’

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Baryła; Magdalena Kapłan; Marcela Krawiec

    2014-01-01

    Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.), on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vege...

  18. Assignment of SNP allelic configuration in polyploids using competitive allele-specific PCR: application to citrus triploid progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyploidy is a major component of eukaryote evolution. Estimation of allele copy numbers for molecular markers has long been considered a challenge for polyploid species, while this process is essential for most genetic research. With the increasing availability and whole-genome coverage of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, it is essential to implement a versatile SNP genotyping method to assign allelic configuration efficiently in polyploids. Scope This work evaluates the usefulness of the KASPar method, based on competitive allele-specific PCR, for the assignment of SNP allelic configuration. Citrus was chosen as a model because of its economic importance, the ongoing worldwide polyploidy manipulation projects for cultivar and rootstock breeding, and the increasing availability of SNP markers. Conclusions Fifteen SNP markers were successfully designed that produced clear allele signals that were in agreement with previous genotyping results at the diploid level. The analysis of DNA mixes between two haploid lines (Clementine and pummelo) at 13 different ratios revealed a very high correlation (average = 0·9796; s.d. = 0·0094) between the allele ratio and two parameters [θ angle = tan−1 (y/x) and y′ = y/(x + y)] derived from the two normalized allele signals (x and y) provided by KASPar. Separated cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) from mixed DNA simulating triploid and tetraploid hybrids provided 99·71 % correct allelic configuration. Moreover, triploid populations arising from 2n gametes and interploid crosses were easily genotyped and provided useful genetic information. This work demonstrates that the KASPar SNP genotyping technique is an efficient way to assign heterozygous allelic configurations within polyploid populations. This method is accurate, simple and cost-effective. Moreover, it may be useful for quantitative studies, such as relative allele-specific expression analysis and bulk segregant analysis

  19. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

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    Majd Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  20. Morte súbita dos citros: suscetibilidade de seleções de limão-cravo e uso de interenxertos Citrus sudden death: susceptibility of rangpur lime selections and the use of interstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte súbita dos citros é uma doença que afeta cultivares de laranjas e tangerinas enxertadas nos limões-Cravo e Volkameriano. Ela foi observada em plantas com dois a seis anos de idade que, após mostrarem sintomas gerais de declínio, entraram em colapso e morreram. A retirada da casca dos porta-enxertos suscetíveis revela o amarelecimento na região cambial, sendo esse o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença e que precede os sintomas da copa. As plantas enxertadas nas tangerinas Cleópatra e Sunki, no trifoliata e no citrumelo Swingle, não mostram sintomas da doença. A transmissão por borbulha e a evolução espacial sugerem que a morte súbita dos citros seja causada por patógeno transmitido por vetor alado. Com o objetivo de selecionar porta-enxertos tolerantes à doença, laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em 254 porta-enxertos foram plantadas em maio de 2003 e 2004 em solos onde foram erradicados pomares afetados pela morte súbita dos citros e próximos a pomares afetados pela doença. Em novembro de 2006, o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença estava presente em dez seleções de limão-Cravo: Santa Barbara red lime, Borneo red lime, Limão-Cravo Taquaritinga, Rangpur India C-26-1, Rangpur rose lemon, Rangpur Kusaie lime, Rangpur red lime D-33-40, Rangpur Egyptian lime, Rangpur lemon India e Japanshe citroen. A presença de interenxerto de trifoliata ou de tangerina Cleópatra, entre o limão-Cravo e a laranja Valência, não impediu a manifestação da doença.Citrus sudden death (CSD or morte súbita dos citros affects sweet orange cultivars and some mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon rootstocks. The disease was observed in trees with ages ranging from two to six years; after showing general decline symptoms, the affected trees suddenly collapse and die. Trees on Cleopatra and Sunki mandarins, 'Swingle' citrumelo and trifoliate orange showed no symptoms of CSD. Cambial yellowing in the rootstock can be observed

  1. Embriogénesis somática de Citrus macrophylla Wester con el empleo del Pectimorf® y análogos de brasinoesteroides

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    Lourdes Bao Fundora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Somatic embryogenesis of Citrus macrophylla Wester using Pectimorf® and analogues of brassinosteroids Resumen Los cítricos son frutales muy utilizados como patrones de injerto. Para incrementar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones citrícolas, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro como la embriogénesis somática, que requiere medios de cultivos artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es el uso de biorreguladores del crecimiento de producción nacional como: los análogos de brasinoesteroides: 25(R 2α, 3α, dihidroxi 5α espirostan- 6-ona (Biobras-6 y C: 25(R 2α, 3α, 5α, trihidroxiespirostan-6-ona (MH-5 y una mezcla de oligogalacturónido de grado de polimerización entre 10-14 (Pectimorf®.  Estos biorreguladores son efectivos en los procesos morfogenéticos como sustitutos o complemento de las auxinas y citoquininas. El presente trabajo estuvo dirigido a determinar el efecto del Pectimorf® y los brasinoesteroides como sustitutos de las fitohormonas tradicionales en el desarrollo de la embriogénesis somática y en la obtención de una línea celular embriogénica de Citrus macrophylla Wester. Se utilizó el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS (1962, suplementado con los biorreguladores del crecimiento MH-5, Biobras-6 y Pectimorf®. Mediante la embriogénesis somática se obtuvieron embriones, raíces y plántulas, en todos los tratamientos. En la formación de plántulas estos biorreguladores fueron muy efectivos. Palabras clave: cultivo in vitro; Citrus; biorreguladores del crecimiento. Abstract Citrus fruits are widely used as rootstock. To increase the amount of these crops in plantations, in vitro propagation techniques such as somatic embryogenesis can be used, which requires artificial culture media and plant hormones. Due to the high cost of the plant hormone, a Cuban alternative is the use of cuban bioregulators growth

  2. INFLUENCE OF CITRUS LEPROSIS ON THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Citrus sinensis LEAVES

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    N. de L. Nogueira

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis is the main viral disease affecting citrus in Brazil. Viral diseases can affect the mineral composition of citrus leaves, inducing mineral deficiencies. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of citrus leprosis on the mineral composition of citrus leaves, cultivar Pera. Orange seedlings were grown in pots containing sterile soil, and kept under greenhouse conditions. When plants had 15 to 20 leaves, they were infested with the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, the leprosis vector, collected from infected citrus plants. Other plants were not infested, and were used as the control. Ninety days after infestation, all the infested plants presented leprosis lesions. The six upper leaves of each plant were collected and the determination of macro and micro-elements was performed. Leaves from the infected plants showed lower levels of N and higher levels of Ca, S and Fe, as compared to the control (= 0.05. Both treatments presented similar levels of P, K, Mg, Cu,Mn, Zn and B.A leprose dos citros é uma das principais doenças de citros no Brasil. As doenças causadas por vírus podem afetar a composição mineral de folhas de citros, induzindo deficiências minerais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência da leprose dos citros na composição mineral de folhas de citros, cultivar Pera. Seedlings de laranja foram crescidos em vasos contendo solo estéril e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Plantas com 15 a 20 folhas foram infestadas com ácaro da espécie Brevipalpus phoenicis, vetor da leprose dos citros, provenientes de plantas de citros com sintomas da doença. Outras plantas não foram infestadas, e serviram como controle. Após noventa dias, todas as plantas infestadas apresentavam lesões de leprose. Seis folhas da parte superior de cada planta foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de macro e micronutrientes. As folhas das plantas infectadas apresentaram níveis mais baixos de N e mais elevados de Ca, S

  3. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  4. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals possible common ancestors of nucleotide-binding sites domain containing genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementina genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified and re-annotated candidate disease resistance (R) genes with nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) domain from a Citrus clementina genome and two complete Citrus sinensis genome sequences (one from the USA and one from China). We found similar numbers of NBS genes from three citrus genomes, r...

  5. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  6. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

  7. Comportamento do pessegueiro 'Granada' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos The behavior of peach tree 'Granada' on differents rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Rossi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos porta-enxertos Aldrighi, Flordaguard, Hansen 2168, Okinawa, Pavia Moscatel, Tsukuba 1 e Umezeiro sobre o comportamento da cv. Granada, nas condições do Sul do Brasil. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Durante o período de execução do experimento, foram avaliados diâmetro do tronco, volume da copa, peso fresco do material vegetal retirado nas podas verde e de inverno, índice de intensidade de poda, data de plena floração, comprimento do período de floração, peso médio das frutas, produção por planta, produção estimada por hectare, eficiência produtiva, sólidos solúveis totais e firmeza de polpa das frutas. As avaliações permitiram concluir que os porta-enxertos mais vigorosos conferem maior diâmetro do tronco e volume de copa, bem como maior produção às plantas; a maior produção obtida nas plantas sobre porta-enxertos mais vigorosos não afeta o peso médio das frutas. Pela resistência a fitonematóides e o comportamento observado neste estudo, os porta-enxertos Tsukuba 1 e Okinawa podem ser indicados como porta-enxertos potenciais para a cultura do pessegueiro nas condições do Sul do Brasil.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of Aldrighi, Flordaguard, Hansen 2168, Okinawa, Pavia Moscatel, Tsukuba 1 and Umezeiro rootstocks on behavior of the cultivar Granada in the South of Brazil. The experiment was developed at "Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas". The parameters evaluated were trunk diameter, foliage size, pruning wood weight, pruning intesity index, full bloom date, bloom period, weight fruits, production per plant, estimed prodcution per hectare, yield efficiency, soluble solid content and fruit firmess. The results showed that vigorous roostocks resulted higher trunk diameter and foliage size and production; the higher

  8. Simulation and Application of Growth Model of Immature Fruit of Poncirus trifoliata(Linn.)Raf.%绿衣枳实生长规律模型模拟及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑诚乐; 吴宪志; 潘东明; 陈菁瑛; 郭志雄; 苏海兰

    2009-01-01

    Logistic model for growth vs time and the dynamic fractal mode for transversal diameter vs single fruit weight were established for accurate description of the growth of immature fruit of trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (Linn.) Raf.] and of the dynamic fractal relationship between growth characteristic values. Through this model the date for picking the immature fruit can be predicted, and the quality of the dried immature fruit of P. trifoliata can be indirectly estimated based on the relation between the picking date and the medicinal ingredients. In this context the quality of the dried immature fruit can be controlled from cultivation to circulation.%建立了绿衣枳实生长量与时间的logistic模型和横径与单果重的动态分形模型,用以精确描述绿衣枳实生长过程和横径、平均单果重之间的动态分形关系,并能通过此模型预测采摘日期.结合日期与药效成分含量的关系间接地判断其质量优劣,从生产栽培和商品药材流通方面对绿衣枳实的质量进行控制.

  9. Cytoplasmic inheritance of somatic hybrids and development of primers for cpSSR in Citrus%柑橘体细胞胞质遗传及叶绿体SSR引物开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江

    2011-01-01

    data of CAPS with RFLPs in chloroplast genome analysis, 14 out of the 38 fusion combinations showed some degree of polymorphisms, chloroplasts were randomly segregated among these combinations. To further study the origin of chloroplast genome among other combinations, new markers are required to be developed.6. To characterize the organelle at the expression level, RT-PCR and Northern hybridization were used in mitochondria. Results showed that expression of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids was higher than that in their corresponding fusion parents, while no clear difference existed among cybrids and their parents.7. Thirty-three pairs of cpSSR primers designed according to the chloroplast genomes of pine (Pinus thunbergii),rice (Oryza sativa) ,tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis thaliana were amplified with Citrus genomic DNA. After strictly screened,fourteen specific primers were obtained and named as SPCC1 to SPCC14,and subsequent studies were performed as follows:1)Thirty-four representative accessions of Citrus, Fortunella,Poncirus and some of their hybrids were selected and amplified with 14 SPCC primers. Loci among the 34 genotypes ranged from 1 to 8 with an average of 3. 54,and the mean PIC value was 0. 356. Results of neighbor-joining cluster based upon the cpSSR data showed that all the samples were divided into 7 clusters,namely citron (C medico) ,lime (C. Aurantifolia), pummelo (C. Grandiss), Yichang papeda; (C, ichangensis), kumquat (Fortunella spp. ),trifoliate orange {Poncirus spp) and mandarin (C. Reticulata) clusters.2)Seventeen fragments of SPCC1 and 21 of SPCC11 were cloned, sequenced and aligned withse-quences of the original primer motif from tobacco and Arabidopsis , the outcomes revealed that all the cloned sequences were from the chloroplast genomes and the polymorphism was caused by mononucle-otide repeat of poly (A) or poly (T).3) According to the cpSSR classification results,suitable SPCC primers were selected to analyze the

  10. Fita plástica e fita degradável na enxertia de citros Plastic and degradable tape on citrus budding

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    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fitas plástica e degradável no pegamento e no desenvolvimento de enxertos de citros, em viveiro telado. Borbulhas certificadas de 6-8 mm das cultivares de laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerineira 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco e do híbrido 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] foram enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, com 10 meses de idade, em fevereiro de 2003. A fixação das borbulhas nos porta-enxertos foi feita com fitas de dois tipos: fita plástica de polietileno transparente e fita degradável de parafilme. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (3 cultivares x 2 tipos de fita, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais constituídas por dez plantas. A média geral de pegamento dos enxertos foi elevada (99,6%, em razão das condições propícias à enxertia fornecidas no viveiro telado. Não houve efeito do tipo de fita no pegamento dos enxertos nem das cultivares no pegamento e desenvolvimento dos enxertos. No entanto, o desenvolvimento dos enxertos foi sensivelmente maior quando a enxertia foi realizada com fita degradável em relação à fita plástica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the plastic and degradable tape on budding efficiency and scion development of citrus in nursery under screenhouse. Certificated 6-8 mm buds of the cultivars navel orange 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, mandarin 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco and the hybrid 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] were budded on 10 months rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck, in February 2003. The buds were attached to the rootstocks using either one of two types of tape: plastic polyethylene transparent tape and parafilm degradable tape. The experimental design was a factorial entirely randomized with 3 cultivars, 2 tape types and four

  11. Citrus orchard planted with no tillage and conventional systemsHuerto de cítricos plantado con sistema de cero labranza y sistema convencional

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    Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available No tillage system has brought many advantages to soil protection, without reducing the yield of annual crops. This system has been adapted for Citrus orchards, with the plantation of trees in furrows opened in areas previously occupied by pastures. This work had as objective to evaluate tree development, root system, yield, and soil characteristics in an orchard planted in two systems. The study was made in Parana State, Brazil, in a medium texture oxisol with ‘Valência’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. trees with Rangpur lime rootstock (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The treatments were no tillage (furrowing and plantation and conventional plantation (hole area plowing and disk harrowing before furrowing and plantation. The yield was 86 - 129 kg of fruits per plant, without significant difference between treatments. The plantation systems either do not affect the development of the plants, the amount of roots and the fruit quality. In the conventional plantation system the soil has greater resistance to penetration in inter rows than in the zero tillage system plantation.El sistema de cero labranza ha traído muchas ventajas en la protección del suelo, sin perjudicar el rendimiento de los cultivos anuales. Este sistema ha sido adaptado para los huertos citrícolas, realizándose la plantación en surcos abiertos en terrenos anteriormente ocupados por pastizales. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el desarrollo de las plantas y del sistema radicular, producción, características del suelo en un huerto plantado en dos sistemas de labranza. El estudio fue realizado en el Noroeste de Paraná, en un oxisol con textura media, en plantas de naranja ‘Valência’ con patrón de lima Rangpur. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: cero labranza (apertura de surcos y plantación y plantación convencional (arado de discos y grada, seguido de apertura de surcos y plantación. La producción fue de 86 a 129 kg de frutos por planta, sin diferencia significativa

  12. Green Control Techniques of Diseases and Insect Pests of Citrus%柑橘病虫害绿色防控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕辉; 彭昌家; 苟建华; 李鸿韬

    2014-01-01

    Introduced the quarantine control (including the strict implementation of quarantine mea⁃sures,new citrus orchard location need to consult thelocal station of plant protection or plant quarantine station quarantine shall consult opinions,establish the risk of harmful biological monitoring,timely sam⁃pling inspection,do a good job of citrus canker blockade control),agricultural control and prevention (in⁃cluding choosing superior resistant rootstock varieties and virus-free seedling,science and pruning,improv⁃ing ventilation condition,big fruit fly on early removal of tangerine trees fruit,winter, spring gar⁃den,cleaning tillage,conservation and utilization of natural enemies,strengthen the cultivation and man⁃agement,fruit bagging,trunk white-washed,suitable harvest),physical prevention and control (includ⁃ing light trapping,artificial to kill), physical and chemical induced control (including the yellow board trap,sexual trapping agent booby trap,food trapping agent) the scope of application of green control tech⁃niques and various technical and scientific medication and other citrus pests etc.%介绍了检疫控制(包括严格执行检疫措施、新柑橘园选址须征询当地植保植检站或植物检疫站意见、建立检疫性和外来危险性有害生物监测点,及时抽样送检、切实搞好柑橘溃疡病的封锁控制)、农业防控(包括选用优良抗性砧木品种和无病毒苗木、科学修剪,改善通风条件、及早摘除橘树上大实蝇有虫果、冬、春清园、翻耕、保护利用天敌、加强栽培管理、果实套袋、主干刷白、适期采收)、物理防控(包括灯光诱杀、人工捕杀)、理化诱控(包括黄板诱杀、性诱剂诱杀、食诱剂诱杀)和科学用药等柑橘病虫害绿色防控技术及各项技术的适用范围。

  13. Keberhasilan sambungan pada beberapa jenis batang atas dan famili batang bawah kakao (Theobroma cocoa L.. (Grafting performance of some scion clones and root-stock family on cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.

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    Indah Anita Sari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Differences in performance of grafting seedling were estimated from effect of using the root-stock and scion clones. This research aimed to study the differences of performance of some root-stock and scion clones on grafting seedling. The study used split plot design. First factor was root-stock consisted of ICS 60, Sca 6, Sca 12 and KW 165 and the second factor were 12 scions clones consisted of ICCRI 01, ICCRI 04, ICCRI 05, DR 2, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 516, KW 514, KW 617, KW 570, KEE 2, and KW 604. There were three replication in each treatment and each replication consisted of 15 samples. Viability, lingkage diameter, ratio of root-stock and scion, hight of shoot, number of leaves and shoot were observed. The study showed that differences of root-stock just affected viability, lingkage diameter, and high of shoot. Scion clones factor affected to all of the characters. Their interaction caused the differences of all characters except of the number of shoot. Root-stock Sca 6 showed the lowest viability and number of the shoot, however root-stock KW 165 and ICS 60 showed the best performance to all parameters. The cluster analysis was done based on growth parameters and viability on lingkage distance of 15. There were three clusters; cluster 1 (KW 570, cluster 2 (ICCRI 04, ICCRI 05, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 514, KW 165 and cluster 3 (ICCRI 01, DR 2, KW 516, KW 617, KW 604. Correlation analysis showed that main factor which affected the high viability root-stock diameter and diameter ratio of root-stock and scion were used.

  14. Quince 'CPP': new dwarf rootstock for pear trees on organic and high density planting

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    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, pear production presents the same incipient situation over the last 15 years, due mostly to low production technology. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the development, growth and production of the pear tree cultivars Cascatense, Tenra and Hosui grafted on 'CPP' quince rootstock, using 'FT' pear as interstem. This trial was carried out in Guarapuava, State of Paraná, Southern region of Brazil, by five productive cycles. The pear trees were planted in September of 2004, spaced at 1.0 x 4.0 m (2,500 trees ha-1, trained to the modified central leader, on a Four-wire trellis, with drip irrigation and cultivated under organic production system. The following variables were evaluated: sprouting, anthesis, yield, fruit weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pulp firmness, canopy area per plant and per hectare and trunk diameter. The pear tree cv. Tenra was outstanding most of the years for fruit yield, and, consequently, showed the highest accumulated yield over the period (51.6 t ha-1, followed by the cultivars Cascatense (39.7 t ha-1 and Hosui (18.7 t ha-1. All pear cultivars presented suitable physical-chemical characteristics for commercial purposes, with minimal average soluble solids content of 11% at harvest. The maximum canopy area per hectare was attained for cv. Cascatense (3063.2 m², that was considered insufficient for a high yield. These results suggest the needs for studies with higher density planting and other training systems, searching optimize canopy volume. One of the most limiting factors in the organic pear orchard was the incidence of pear dieback caused by Botriosphaeria dothidea, severe more often in pear trees cv. Hosui.

  15. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms

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    Sarah Almeida Coelho Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10: C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05. C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7% was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  17. Citrus phytophtorose in humid subtropical zone of West Georgia

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    Mziuri Gabaidze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials about harmfulness of phytophtorose, which is one of the significant disease of citrus, its spread, time of emergency and effective means of its control are given in the article.

  18. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  19. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges. PMID:11453761

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

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    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with Agrobacterium suspension for 5, 10, 20 or 40 minutes; co-cultivation medium was supplemented with acetosyringone at 0, 100 or 200 mmol L-1; Explants ends had a longitudinal terminal incision (2-3 mm; co-cultivation temperatures of 19, 23 or 27degreesC were imposed. The experimental design was completely randomized in all experiments with five replications, each consisted of a Petri dish (100 x 15 mm with 30 explants and resulted in a total of 150 explants per treatment. Longitudinal terminal incision in the explant ends did not improve shoot regeneration. However, transgenic plants of all three cultivars were confirmed from explants that had been subjected to inoculation time of 20 minutes, co-culture of three days at 23-27degreesC, in the absence of acetosyringone.