Sample records for citizen problem solving

  1. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Bingham, Alpheus


    Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africa’s most successful mobile network operators, will talk about “Mobile phones and Africa: a success story”. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves indus...

  2. Problem Solving (United States)

    Kinsella, John J.


    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  3. In Search of Facilitating Citizens' Problem Solving: Public Libraries' Collaborative Development of Services with Related Organizations (United States)

    Ikeya, Nozomi; Tamura, Shunsaku; Miwa, Makiko; Koshizuka, Mika; Saito, Seiichi; Kasai, Yumiko


    Introduction: The paper attempts to understand value constellations in organising and using the business information service that was recently developed by various stakeholders with libraries who were in pursuit of supporting people's problem solving in Japanese public libraries. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted not only with users and…

  4. Building Virtual Cities, Inspiring Intelligent Citizens: Digital Games for Developing Students' Problem Solving and Learning Motivation (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn


    This study investigates the effectiveness digital game-based learning (DGBL) on students' problem solving, learning motivation, and academic achievement. In order to provide substantive empirical evidence, a quasi-experimental design was implemented over the course of a full semester (23 weeks). Two ninth-grade Civics and Society classes, with a…

  5. Group Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, Patrick R


    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  6. Problem Solving and Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha


    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  7. Mathematics as Problem Solving. (United States)

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  8. Creative Problem Solving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There have considerable number of design philosophies and design methods in this world,but today I’d like to intorduce a new design problem solving system which comes from Chinese traditonal religion Dao.

  9. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....

  10. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar. (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  11. Solving Problems through Circles (United States)

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.


    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  12. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David


    employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher......Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... and participants and was documented by qualitative methods. This paper presents an academic literature review on Appreciative Inquiry and problem solving for continuous improvements that did not reveal successful attempts in combining the two.Both the literature and the empirical study showed one of the main...

  13. Appreciative Problem Solving


    Hansen, David


    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?”The r...

  14. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal


    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  15. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  16. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco


    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  17. Planning and Problem Solving (United States)


    Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and ProblemSolving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R

  18. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A


    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  19. Depression and social problem solving. (United States)

    Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C


    Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.

  20. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist


    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...

  1. Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Nellie


    This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving pr

  2. Expertise in Problem Solving. (United States)


    obstacles that were not encountered previously in puzzle-like problems. Basically, the exact operators to be used are usually not given, the goal state...same height on other side 5. IF something goes down frictionless surface THEN can find acceleration of gravity on the incline using trigonometry 6

  3. Children Solve Problems. (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  4. Solving A Corrosion Problem (United States)


    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  5. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  6. An investigation on solving cooperative problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadat Abtahi


    Full Text Available One of the most important techniques to improve teaching skills is to use cooperative problem solving (CPS approach. Implementing CPS techniques in elementary schools helps us train more creative generations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out how much elementary teachers use CPS techniques at different schools located in city of Zanjan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 90 volunteers out of 120 teachers who were enrolled in elementary schools. The study analyzes the data using some basic statistics and the result indicates that teachers maintain an average CPS score of 39.37, which is well above the average level. The study provides some guidelines for exploring teachers CPS’s capabilities.

  7. Problem Solving with General Semantics. (United States)

    Hewson, David


    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  8. Problem Solving and Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guinand, Frédéric


    The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.

  9. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  10. Solving Optimal Timing Problems Elegantly


    Todorova, Tamara


    Few textbooks in mathematical economics cover optimal timing problems. Those which cover them do it scantly or in a rather clumsy way, making it hard for students to understand and apply the concept of optimal time in new contexts. Discussing the plentiful illustrations of optimal timing problems, we present an elegant and simple method of solving them. Whether the present value function is exponential or logarithmic, a convenient way to solve it is to convert the base to the exponential numb...

  11. 2008+ solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Nasar, Syed


    SciTech Publishing is reissuing this extremely valuable learning resource, originally published in 1992 in the Schaum's Problem-Solving Series for students of electromagnetics and those who wish to refresh and solidify their understanding of its challenging applications. Problem-solving drill helps develop confidence, but few textbooks offer the answers, never mind the complete solutions, to their chapter exercises. Here noted author Professor Syed Nasar has divided the book's problems into topic areas similar to a textbook and presented a wide array of problems, followed immediately by their

  12. Students' Problem Solving and Justification (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.


    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  13. Promote Problem-Solving Discourse (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim


    Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…

  14. Teaching Employees to Solve Problems. (United States)

    Miller, Lauren E.; Feggestad, Kurt


    John Deere's systematic problem-solving training for its employees is applicable in the vocational classroom. The process includes stating the problem, writing its specifications, identifying distinctions, determining changes that occurred at the time, identifying possible causes, testing the possibilities, verifying the most probable cause, and…

  15. Mathematical problem solving by analogy. (United States)

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J


    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  16. Aging and skilled problem solving. (United States)

    Charness, N


    Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.

  17. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina


    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  18. Solving the drift control problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Ormeci Matoglu


    Full Text Available We model the problem of managing capacity in a build-to-order environment as a Brownian drift control problem. We formulate a structured linear program that models a practical discretization of the problem and exploit a strong relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a functional lower bound for the continuous problem from a dual solution to the discrete problem. Refining the discretization proves a functional strong duality for the continuous problem. The linear programming formulation is so badly scaled, however, that solving it is beyond the capabilities of standard solvers. By demonstrating the equivalence between strongly feasible bases and deterministic unichain policies, we combinatorialize the pivoting process and by exploiting the relationship between dual solutions and relative value functions, develop a mechanism for solving the LP without ever computing its coefficients. Finally, we exploit the relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a scheme analogous to column generation for refining the discretization so as to drive the gap between the discrete approximation and the continuous problem to zero quickly while keeping the LP small. Computational studies show our scheme is much faster than simply solving a regular discretization of the problem both in terms of finding a policy with a low average cost and in terms of providing a lower bound on the optimal average cost.

  19. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard


    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  20. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie


    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  1. On transfer during problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamel, R.; Jakab, E.


    A puzzle is equally new for everyone who is presented with it for the first time. However, it is not if we take one’s previous knowledge into account. Some knowledge may be utilised while working on the puzzle. If this is the case, problem solving as well as the development of knowledge about the pu

  2. Robot computer problem solving system (United States)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.


    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  3. Human Problem Solving in 2006 (United States)

    Pizlo, Zygmunt


    This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…

  4. Genetics problem solving and worldview (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  5. Anticipating Student Responses to Improve Problem Solving (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.


    This article illustrates how problem solving can be enhanced through careful planning and problem presentation. Often, students shut down or are turned off when presented with a problem to solve. The author describes how to motivate students to embrace a problem to be solved and provides helpful prompts to further the problem-solving process.…

  6. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving (United States)

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.


    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  7. Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles. (United States)

    Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.

    Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…

  8. Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving (United States)

    Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina


    This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…

  9. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool? (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris


    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  10. Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents. (United States)

    Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

    The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

  11. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.


    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  12. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving. (United States)

    Ouellette, Hugh


    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  13. Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. H. Rosenthal


    Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.

  14. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana


    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  15. Problem-solving and Cognitive Style. (United States)

    Garrett, Roger M.


    Reviewed are 15 studies on cognitive style and problem solving in science education. The effects of problem context, problem type, and three kinds of cognitive style on subjects' abilities to encounter and solve problems are investigated. Three protocols of the subjects' encountering activities are provided. (YP)

  16. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving. (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.


    Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…

  17. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika


    Eny Susiana


    Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving) is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and l...

  18. Problem solving using soft systems methodology. (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  19. Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems (United States)

    Mairing, Jackson Pasini


    Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…

  20. Mathematical problem solving in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovou, A.


    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each corre

  1. Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet


    The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit problem-so

  2. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.


    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  3. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef


    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  4. Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Intelligence. (United States)


    is a markted adjective, the subject takeS additional time in seriating the relation spatially in the nonpreferCA" (usually bottom-up) direction. If...PROBLE4 SOLVING, AND INTELLIGENCE I have reviewed in this chapter only a small segment of the literature that could sensibly be viewed as dealing with

  5. Common Core: Solve Math Problems (United States)

    Strom, Erich


    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  6. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving. (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro


    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.

  7. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji


    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.

  8. Does social problem solving differ from other types of problem solving during the adult years? (United States)

    Heidrich, S M; Denney, N W


    One hundred thirteen individuals, ages 18-81, were presented with a test of social problem solving, a test of practical problem solving, the Twenty Questions task (a test of traditional problem solving), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Vocabulary subtest (a measure of crystallized intelligence), and Raven's Progressive Matrices (a measure of fluid intelligence). The effects of age, sex, education, and intellectual abilities on problem-solving performance were examined. Social problem solving was positively related to higher education and higher Vocabulary scores, but it was not related to age. Social problem solving and practical problem solving were significantly related to each other and to scores on the Vocabulary subtest, whereas traditional problem solving was significantly related to scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices. These results suggest that different types of problem solving are differentially related to other intellectual abilities and to age.

  9. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving (United States)

    Barczi, Krisztina


    Teaching how to solve problems--from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks--has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might…

  10. Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems? (United States)

    Edge, Julian


    Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…

  11. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  12. Pre-Service Class Teacher' Ability in Solving Mathematical Problems and Skills in Solving Daily Problems (United States)

    Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman


    This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…

  13. Solving a problem by analogy (United States)

    Easton, Don


    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  14. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.


    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  15. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C


    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...

  16. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura


    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  17. The Process of Solving Complex Problems (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim


    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  18. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2" (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin


    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  19. Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving (United States)

    Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold


    Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

  20. Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving. (United States)

    Baker, E. L.; Mayer, R. E.


    Examines the components required to assess student problem solving in technology environments. Discusses the purposes of testing, provides an example demonstrating the difference between retention and transfer, defines and analyzes problem solving, and explores techniques and standards for measuring the quality of student understanding. Contains…

  1. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon


    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  2. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis (United States)

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.


    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  3. The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving (United States)

    Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George


    In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

  4. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster (United States)

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya


    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  5. Collection of solved problems in physics (United States)

    Koupilová, ZdeÅka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie


    To solve physics problems is a key ability which students should reach during their physics education. Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of fully solved problems. The structure of problems' solutions is specially designed to substitute tutor's help during lesson and encourage students to solve at least some parts of a problem independently. Nowadays the database contains about 770 fully solved problems in physics in Czech, more than 100 problems in Polish and more than 140 problems in English. Other problems are still being translated. Except for physics problems, the Collection has also a mathematical part, which contains more than 300 fully solved problems in mathematics. This paper follows the presentation of the Collection of solved problems from previous years and introduces a new interface of the Collection, its enhanced functionality, new topics, newly created interface for teachers, user feedback and plans for future development. The database is placed at the website of the Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, the links are: (Czech version); (English version).

  6. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem (United States)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson


    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  7. Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Nikita


    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...

  8. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi


    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  9. Solving complex problems a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin


    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  10. Solving the Telomere Replication Problem (United States)

    Maestroni, Laetitia; Matmati, Samah; Coulon, Stéphane


    Telomeres are complex nucleoprotein structures that protect the extremities of linear chromosomes. Telomere replication is a major challenge because many obstacles to the progression of the replication fork are concentrated at the ends of the chromosomes. This is known as the telomere replication problem. In this article, different and new aspects of telomere replication, that can threaten the integrity of telomeres, will be reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the functions of shelterin and the replisome for the preservation of telomere integrity. PMID:28146113

  11. Lesion mapping of social problem solving. (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H


    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.

  12. Solving computationally expensive engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She


    Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...

  13. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry (United States)

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi


    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  14. Solving the factorization problem with P systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Leporati; Claudio Zandron; Giancarlo Mauri


    P systems have been used many times to face with computationally difficult problems, such as NP-complete decision problems and NP-hard optimization problems. In this paper we focus our attention on another computationally intractable problem: factorization. In particular, we first propose a simple method to encode binary numbers using multisets. Then, we describe three families of P systems: the first two allow to add and to multiply two binary encoded numbers, respectively, and the third solves the factorization problem.

  15. Emerging representation technologies for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Spector, J. Michael; Merrill, M. David; Elen, Jan; Bishop, M.J.


    When learners solve problems they often create an external representation to organize the information given in the problem statement, to translate this problem description into underlying domain terms, and to complete this with knowledge they already have. This representation is subsequently used to

  16. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar (United States)

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly


    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  17. Tree Searching and Student Problem Solving (United States)

    Alderman, Donald L.


    Tree searching was applied as a computer model of simple addition sentences. Results indicated that the number of problem reductions performed in tree searching accounted for most of the variance across problems in student error rate and solution time. The technique constitutes a computer test for the adequacy of a problem solving prescription.…



    Gennady A. Berketov


    The article considers the original algorithmfor solving the generalized problem ofscheduling theory, based on the branch and bound method. Task schedulingperform works (operations) and restrictions on resources used often occur with scheduling discrete manufacturing operations, optimizing network implementationschedules of scientific, economic or technical projects. Tools to solve suchproblems are included in the decisionsupport system ACS in many businesses.The effectiveness of the proposed ...

  19. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.


    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  20. Productive Dialog During Collaborative Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, Robert G M; van de Sande, Carla; VanLehn, Kurt


    Collaboration is an important problem-solving skill; however, novice collaboration generally benefits from some kind of support. One possibility for supporting productive conversations between collaborators is to encourage pairs of students to provide explanations for their problem-solving steps. To test this possibility, we contrasted individuals who were instructed to self-explain problem-solving steps with dyads who were instructed to jointly explain problem-solving steps in the context of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The results suggest that collaboratively developed explanations prompted students to remediate their errors in dialog, as opposed to relying on the ITS for assistance, which is provided in the form of on-demand hints. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for combining proven learning interventions.

  1. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy


    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  2. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games (United States)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina


    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  3. Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution (United States)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.


    Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.

  4. Methods of solving sequence and series problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina


    This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...

  5. Solving traveling salesman problems by genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The gene section ordering on solving traveling salesman problems is analyzed by numerical experiments. Some improved crossover operations are presented. Several combinations of genetic operations are examined and the functions of these operations are analyzed. The essentiality of the ordering of the gene section and the significance of the evolutionary inversion operation are discussed. Some results and conclusions are obtained and given, which provide useful information for the implementation of the genetic operations for solving the traveling salesman problem.

  6. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students’ Achievements of Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan KARATAS


    Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.

  7. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Pehkonen


    Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

  8. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.

  9. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  10. When Creative Problem Solving Strategy Meets Web-Based Cooperative Learning Environment in Accounting Education (United States)

    Cheng, Kai Wen


    Background: Facing highly competitive and changing environment, cultivating citizens with problem-solving attitudes is one critical vision of education. In brief, the importance of education is to cultivate students with practical abilities. Realizing the advantages of web-based cooperative learning (web-based CL) and creative problem solving…

  11. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving (United States)

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.


    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  12. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath


    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  13. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving. (United States)

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J


    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Solving Problems of Practice in Education. (United States)

    Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen


    Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)

  15. A reflexive perspective in problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chio, José Angel


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.

  16. Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving. (United States)

    Forgan, James W.


    This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

  17. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems (United States)

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.


    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  18. A program to solve rotating plasma problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Berg, M.S. van den


    It is shown that the solution of a rotating plasma problem minimizes a quitably chosen funtional. This variational problem is solved by the Ritz-Galerkin methud using piecewise bilinear functions and applying some Newton-Côtes-like quadrature. The resulting linear system with a sparse nonegative def

  19. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall" (United States)

    Benson, Dave


    Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

  20. Mathematical problem solving in primary school


    Kolovou, A


    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each correct answer. If a question is not answered or the answer is wrong, one point is subtracted from your score. The quiz contains 10 questions. Tina received 8 points in total. How many questions did Tin...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai


    new solutions that would help solve the global problem of sanitation. Lack of sanitation is a problem for 42% of the world’s population but it is also a taboo topic that only very few people will engage in. In the one-day workshop participants from very different areas came together and brought...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...

  2. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan


    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  3. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya (United States)

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel


    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  4. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim


    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  5. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems (United States)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho


    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  6. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva ILGIN


    Full Text Available In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts were carried out with problem solving activities in experimental group. In the research, “Problem Solving Test” which were used as data collection tools, were developed by benefiting from matching of attainment-problem solving steps-cognitive domain steps. Problem Solving Test is made up of 16 multiple choice and 9 open ended questions. In the analysis of data, t test was used. It was found that problem solving teaching succeeded at “identifying different possible solutions in the light of collected data, applying the decided way of solution, evaluating types of solutions, evaluating used problem solving method” stages of problem solving.

  7. A Problem with Current Conceptions of Expert Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew


    Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical understanding into mathematics, then performs mathematical/symbolic manipulations, then interprets the mathematical solution physically. However, other research suggests that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning during symbolic manipulations can reflect expertise. We explore the hypothesis that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning (i) indicates problem-solving expertise more than adherence to "expert" problem-solving steps and (ii) is something some undergraduates do spontaneously, suggesting it's a feasible instructional target. Interviewed students were asked to (1) explain a particular equation and (2) solve a problem using that equation. In-depth analysis of two students, Alex and Pat, revealed a pattern of behavior. All 11 interviews were coded to investigate the generalizability of this pattern. Alex describe...

  8. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  9. SVM for Solving Forward Problems of EIT. (United States)

    Wu, Youxi; Li, Ying; Guo, Lei; Yan, Weili; Shen, Xueqin; Fu, Kun


    Support Vector Machine (SVM) can be seen as a new machine learning way which is based on the idea of VC dimensions and the principle of structural risk minimization rather than empirical risk minimization. SVM can be used for classification and regression. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is a very important branch of Support Vector Machine. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) have been successfully treated by using SVR in previous works. The forward problems of EIT are the basis of EIT inverse problems. The forward problem's essence is to solve PDEs. The method has been successfully tested on the forward problems of EIT and has yielded accurate results.

  10. Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving (United States)

    Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.


    The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

  11. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving (United States)

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.


    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  12. Writing about the Problem-Solving Process To Improve Problem-Solving Performance. (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth M.


    Concludes that writing about the executive processes of problem solving, difficulties encountered, alternative strategies that might have been used, and the problem solving process in general helped students in the treatment group learn to use executive processes more quickly and more effectively than students in the control group. (Author/NB)

  13. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group proble...

  14. Should Children Learn to Solve Problems? (United States)

    Watras, Joseph


    In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…

  15. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play (United States)

    Borg, Suzanne


    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  16. Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry. (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…

  17. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer (United States)

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.


    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  18. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef


    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  19. Latest Trends in Problem Solving Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karyotaki


    Full Text Available Problem solving is the skill that coordinates all the cognitive, metacognitive and behavioral processes taking place when individuals encounter a previously unprecedented situation or difficulty. Metacognitive processes seem to play the most important role for resolving a problematic situation as individuals reflect on their acquired knowledge, skills and experiences, thus become aware of their capabilities and how to regulate them. Therefore, metacognitive awareness is the competence that mostly assists individuals in their attempt to construct new knowledge and reach their goals. Furthermore, individuals’ self-assessment and peer-assessment processes could reveal their level of metacognitive awareness and therefore, by far, their problem solving competency. Consequently, ICTs could capture individuals’ problem solving skills through tracking down and analyzing the latters’ cognitive and metacognitive processes as well as their behavioral patterns. The aforementioned computer-based assessment could consist of a fuzzy expert system with domain knowledge from an automated task-based test with particular solution strategies in combination with log data for identifying and classifying one’s level of problem solving ability according to specific criteria.

  20. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning (United States)

    Crul, Liselore


    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  1. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry. (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.


    Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…

  2. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving. (United States)

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  3. Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving (United States)

    Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz


    In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

  4. Why Some Communities Can Solve Their Problems. (United States)

    Mathews, David


    Effective communities are well-educated about themselves, have a better understanding of public information, talk through public issues to generate shared knowledge, appreciate the difference between public opinion and public judgment, and believe in public leadership as the key to using public power to solve community problems. (SK)

  5. Problem solving stages in the five square problem. (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael


    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  6. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving (United States)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg


    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  7. A Heuristic Approach to Innovative Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Hök


    Full Text Available A methodic approach to innovative problem solving is suggested. First, Bayesian techniques are analyzed for quantifying, monitoring and predicting the process. The symmetry of Bayes‟ theorem implicates that the chances of success offrail ideas with small base rates can be boosted by highly accurate tests built on solid scientific ground. Second, a hypothesis is presented in which five methodic elements – connection, selection, transformation, balance and finish - are deemed to be necessary and sufficient to explain innovative solutions to complex problems. The hypothesis is supported by the analysis of disruptive innovations in several fields, and by emulation of a data base including 40,000 inventions.The reported findings may become useful in the further methodic development of innovative problem solving, especially in the risky and lengthy preconceptual phases

  8. A Problem Solving Environment Based on CORBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lancaster


    Full Text Available We have investigated aspects of the design of Problem Solving Environments (PSE by constructing a prototype using CORBA as middleware. The two issues we are mainly concerned with are the use of non-trivial (containing more than just a start method CORBA interfaces for the computational components, and the provision of interactivity using the same mechanisms used for flow control. After describing the design decisions that allow us to investigate these issues, and contrasting them with alternatives, we describe the architecture of the prototype and its use in the context of a study of photonic materials. We argue that having several methods on a component interface can be used to mitigate performance problems that may arise when trying to solve problems in PSE's based on small components. We describe how our mechanism allows a high degree of computational steering over all components.

  9. Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Galen


    Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what apercentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems.This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson - the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages

  10. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students’ Achievements of Problem Solving


    Ilhan KARATAS; Baki, Adnan


    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students....

  11. Learning via problem solving in mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Human


    Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproficiency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the

  12. Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems (United States)

    Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.


    This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

  13. Spreadsheet modelling for solving combinatorial problems: The vendor selection problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ipsilandis, Pandelis G


    Spreadsheets have grown up and became very powerful and easy to use tools in applying analytical techniques for solving business problems. Operations managers, production managers, planners and schedulers can work with them in developing solid and practical Do-It-Yourself Decision Support Systems. Small and Medium size organizations, can apply OR methodologies without the presence of specialized software and trained personnel, which in many cases cannot afford anyway. This paper examines an efficient approach in solving combinatorial programming problems with the use of spreadsheets. A practical application, which demonstrates the approach, concerns the development of a spreadsheet-based DSS for the Multi Item Procurement Problem with Fixed Vendor Cost. The DSS has been build using exclusively standard spreadsheet feature and can solve real problems of substantial size. The benefits and limitations of the approach are also discussed.

  14. Imagination as the crank of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    and the imagination of the preferred present or future. Imagination is the foundation of problem solving, in this case the problems identified in the PR. The role of imagination cannot be underestimated in this collaborative process in which the interface between the individual and the collective dimensions merge...... and encourage the participants’ imagination to flow freely in order to redefine reality at work. I see different paths for this exploration: I could look into cultural practices and values concerning relations and interactions among colleagues who have solved a task together (Branco & lopes). Or I could dig...... into who “says” or “decides” what is preferred or favored in the sense of who seems to get the power in the team (Latour, Dunne & Raby). Or I could concentrate on the term “dialogue” (Bakhtin, Bohm, Oliveira). I hope the winterschool will add more view angles to this study.My premature research question is...

  15. Learning Matlab a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Walter


    This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014.  Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.

  16. Logic training through algorithmic problem solving


    Ferreira, João Fernando; Mendes, Alexandra; Cunha, Alcino; Baquero, Carlos; Silva, Paulo; L. S. Barbosa; Oliveira, José Nuno Fonseca


    Available for individual study only. Although much of mathematics is algorithmic in nature, the skills needed to formulate and solve algorithmic problems do not form an integral part of mathematics education. In particular, logic, which is central to algorithm development, is rarely taught explicitly at preuniversity level, under the justification that it is implicit in mathematics and therefore does not need to be taught as an independent topic. This paper argues in the opposite direction...

  17. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson


    Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.

  18. Development of analogical problem-solving skill. (United States)

    Holyoak, K J; Junn, E N; Billman, D O


    3 experiments were performed to assess children's ability to solve a problem by analogy to a superficially dissimilar situation. Preschoolers and fifth and sixth graders were asked to solve a problem that allowed multiple solutions. Some subjects were first read a story that included an analogous problem and its solution. When the mapping between the relations involved in the corresponding solutions was relatively simple, and the corresponding instruments were perceptually and functionally similar, even preschoolers were able to use the analogy to derive a solution to the transfer problem (Experiment 1). Furthermore, salient similarity of the instruments was neither sufficient (Experiment 2) nor necessary (Experiment 3) for success by preschool subjects. When the story analog mapped well onto the transfer problem, 4-year-olds were often able to generate a solution that required transformation of an object with little perceptual or semantic similarity to the instrument used in the base analog (Experiment 3). The older children used analogies in a manner qualitatively similar to that observed in comparable studies with adults (Experiment 1), whereas the younger children exhibited different limitations.

  19. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills


    ILGIN, Havva; Arslan, Derya


    In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...

  20. A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving (United States)

    Pritchard, David

    The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on (see; it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).

  1. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  2. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.


    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  3. Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Galen


    Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson  -  the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages.Keywords: percentage, model, design research DOI:

  4. Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Masoumi, Ali [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)


    Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ=0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.

  5. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help? (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew


    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  6. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong


    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  7. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills (United States)

    Grigg, Sarah J.


    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…

  8. Solving the Examination Timetabling Problem in GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Kolonias


    Full Text Available The examination timetabling problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization problems and is of great importance for every University. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm running on a GPU is employed to solve the examination timetabling problem. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm proposed has a genetic algorithm component and a greedy steepest descent component. The GPU computational capabilities allow the use of very large population sizes, leading to a more thorough exploration of the problem solution space. The GPU implementation, depending on the size of the problem, is up to twenty six times faster than the identical single-threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated with the well known Toronto datasets and compares well with the best results found in the bibliography. Moreover, the selection of the encoding of the chromosomes and the tournament selection size as the population grows are examined and optimized. The compressed sparse row format is used for the conflict matrix and was proven essential to the process, since most of the datasets have a small conflict density, which translates into an extremely sparse matrix.

  9. Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile


    Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

  10. Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Andreas


    This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...

  11. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ganor-Stern

    Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.

  12. Variable and Value Ordering When Solving Balanced Academic Curriculum Problems


    Castro, Carlos; Manzano, Sebastian


    In this paper we present the use of Constraint Programming for solving balanced academic curriculum problems. We discuss the important role that heuristics play when solving a problem using a constraint-based approach. We also show how constraint solving techniques allow to very efficiently solve combinatorial optimization problems that are too hard for integer programming techniques.

  13. How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K


    Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

  14. Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems (United States)

    Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.


    We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.

  15. SolveDB: Integrating Optimization Problem Solvers Into SQL Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Many real-world decision problems involve solving optimization problems based on data in an SQL database. Traditionally, solving such problems requires combining a DBMS with optimization software packages for each required class of problems (e.g. linear and constraint programming) -- leading...... to workflows that are cumbersome, complex, inefficient, and error-prone. In this paper, we present SolveDB - a DBMS for optimization applications. SolveDB supports solvers for different problem classes and offers seamless data management and optimization problem solving in a pure SQL-based setting. This allows...... for much simpler and more effective solutions of database-based optimization problems. SolveDB is based on the 3-level ANSI/SPARC architecture and allows formulating, solving, and analysing solutions of optimization problems using a single so-called solve query. SolveDB provides (1) an SQL-based syntax...

  16. Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya (United States)

    Lederman, Eric


    In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…

  17. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing


    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  18. Projective geometry solved problems and theory review

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita


    This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...

  19. Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem (United States)

    Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja


    In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

  20. Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.


    Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  1. Dynamics of students' epistemological framing in group problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hai D; Sayre, Eleanor C


    Many studies have investigated students' epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students' problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternate paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  2. Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (United States)

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.


    Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

  3. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics. (United States)

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…

  4. Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics. (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard

    This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the…

  5. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective (United States)

    Hung, Woei


    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  6. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle


    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  7. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel


    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  8. Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms (United States)

    Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal


    This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…

  9. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer


    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  10. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir


    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  11. Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin


    In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

  12. Method for solving a convex integer programming problem


    Stefanov, Stefan M.


    We consider a convex integer program which is a nonlinear version of the assignment problem. This problem is reformulated as an equivalent problem. An algorithm for solving the original problem is suggested which is based on solving the simple assignment problem via some of known algorithms.

  13. Leprosy: a problem solved by 2000? (United States)

    Stearns, A T


    It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has

  14. A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving (United States)

    Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.


    This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.

  15. Partial differential equations theory and completely solved problems

    CERN Document Server

    Hillen, Thomas; van Roessel, Henry


    Uniquely provides fully solved problems for linear partial differential equations and boundary value problems Partial Differential Equations: Theory and Completely Solved Problems utilizes real-world physical models alongside essential theoretical concepts. With extensive examples, the book guides readers through the use of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for successfully solving and modeling phenomena in engineering, biology, and the applied sciences. The book focuses exclusively on linear PDEs and how they can be solved using the separation of variables technique. The authors begin

  16. A New Searching Problem Solved by Quantum Computers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is well known that a quantum computer can search more quickly than a classical computer while solving the so-called Grover-searching problem. We present a new searching problem which cannot be classified into Grover's problem and can be solved by using the modified searching iterations with the same efficiency as for Grover's problem.

  17. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students (United States)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.


    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  18. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer. (United States)

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John


    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge.



    Novotná, Jarmila; EISENMANN. Petr; PŘIBYL, Jiří; ONDRUŠOVÁ, Jiřina; BŘEHOVSKÝ, Jiří


    The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-te...

  20. A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms. (United States)

    Beck, Judith S.


    Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)

  1. Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Verna


    Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...

  2. Solving traveling salesman problems using generalized chromosome genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yang; Chunguo Wu; Heow Pueh Lee; Yanchun Liang


    Generalized chromosome genetic algorithm (GCGA) was proposed for solving generalized traveling salesman problems (GTSP) as reported in the authors' earlier work. Theoretically, the GCGA could also be used to solve the classical traveling salesman problem (CTSP), which has not been reported by others. In this paper, the generalized chromosome characteristics are analyzed and the feasibility for consistently solving the GTSP and CTSP is verified. Numerical experiments show the advantages of the GCGA for solving a large-scale CTSP.

  3. Solving set partitioning problems using lagrangian relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, M.G.C.


    This thesis focuses on the set partitioning problem. Given a collection of subsets of a certain root set and costs associated to these subsets, the set partitioning problem is the problem of finding a minimum cost partition of the root set. Many real-life problems, such as vehicle routing and crew s

  4. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities

  5. Transfer Between Analogies: How Solving One Analogy Problem Helps to Solve Another


    Keane, Mark T.


    This paper deals with transfer between analogies; with what people acquire from one analogy problem-solving episode that can be re-applied to a subsequent analogy, problem-solving episode. This issue must be resolved if we are to understand the nature of expertise and the appropriate use of analogy in education. There are two main explanations of what subjects acquire from an analogy problem-solving episode. The schema-induction hypothesis maintains that subjects acquire an abs...

  6. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress. (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M


    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  7. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew


    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate level physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students' responses to some survey questions are less expert-like than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for...

  8. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten (United States)

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees


    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  9. Protocol Analysis of the Social Problem Solving of Teachers. (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.; And Others


    Social problem solving and cognitive style (field independence/field dependence) were studied in a sample of 70 elementary and secondary teachers taking a summer course in counseling. Protocol analysis was used to identify the variety of problem-solving methods applied to social problems. (SLD)

  10. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics (United States)

    Devine, Matthew T.


    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  11. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information (United States)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc


    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  12. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use. (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda


    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  13. Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress


    J. David Creswell; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M.P.; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M.


    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indi...

  14. Cobweb Heuristic for solving Multi-Objective Vehicle Routing Problem


    Okitonyumbe Y.F., Joseph; Ulungu, Berthold E.-L.; Kapiamba Nt., Joel


    Abstract Solving a classical vehicle routing problem (VRP) by exact methods presents many difficulties for large dimension problem. Consequently, in multi-objective framework, heuristic or metaheuristic methods are required. Due to particular VRP structure, it seems that a dedicated heuristic is more suitable than a metaheuristic. The aim of this article is to collapse different heuristics solving classical VRP and adapt them for to solve the multi-objective vehicle routing problem (MOVRP)...

  15. Phenomenographic study of students’ problem solving approaches in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Walsh


    Full Text Available This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

  16. Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry. (United States)

    Norris, A. C.


    Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

  17. General Problem Solving: Navy Requirements and Solutions. (United States)


    subjects’ ability to manipulate their environment. In one test, the subjects were asked to tell how to save a kitten stranded at the top of a tree. The...unstruc- - .tured design problem to a structured problem. "* We have to be careful not to introduce unnecessary constraints in a problem. This is the case

  18. Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week (United States)

    Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009


    Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

  19. Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students. (United States)

    Mousley, K; Kelly, R R


    Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students.

  20. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software (United States)

    Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

  1. Surveying graduate students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh


    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

  2. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms. (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David


    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  3. The Family as a Small Problem Solving Group (United States)

    Tallman, Irving


    Analyzes relationship between "open channels of communication" and "centralization of authority", and "cultural" variables in terms of their contributions to optimal problem solving structures and activities. (Author)

  4. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving. (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko


    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  5. Solving Thousand Digit Frobenius Problems Using Grobner Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt


    A Gröbner basis-based algorithm for solving the Frobenius Instance Problem is presented, and this leads to an algorithm for solving the Frobenius Problem that can handle numbers with thousands of digits. Connections to irreducible decompositions and Hilbert functions are also presented.......A Gröbner basis-based algorithm for solving the Frobenius Instance Problem is presented, and this leads to an algorithm for solving the Frobenius Problem that can handle numbers with thousands of digits. Connections to irreducible decompositions and Hilbert functions are also presented....

  6. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  7. Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice. (United States)

    Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem.

  8. Same Old Problem, New Name? Alerting Students to the Nature of the Problem-Solving Process (United States)

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Magen, Esther


    Students frequently misconceive the process of problem-solving, expecting the linear process required for solving an exercise, rather than the convoluted search process required to solve a genuine problem. In this paper we present an activity designed to foster in students realization and appreciation of the nature of the problem-solving process,…

  9. A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems (United States)

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga


    In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…

  10. Dental caries vaccine: some problems solved? (United States)

    Everhart, D L; Mallett, C P; Doyle, G


    The interest in a dental caries vaccine has been great over the past few years. Studies have shown two possible problems using Streptococcus mutans as an immunogen: (i) the production of heart reactive antibody, and (ii) the need to protect against several serotypes. Possible solutions to these problems are discussed.

  11. Vibrations and Stability - Order & Chaos, Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel


    A collection of worked out solutions to many of the exercise problems in my textbook "Vibrations and Stability", McGraw-Hill, London, 1997.......A collection of worked out solutions to many of the exercise problems in my textbook "Vibrations and Stability", McGraw-Hill, London, 1997....

  12. Solving infeasibility problems in computerized test assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timminga, E.


    Linear programming techniques have been used successfully in a variety of test assembly problems. It is, however, possible that no test can be found meeting all the constraints in the linear programming model. The problem of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear programming models is discussed.

  13. Thinking can cause forgetting: memory dynamics in creative problem solving. (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon


    Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found that attempting to generate a novel common associate to 3 cue words caused the forgetting of other strong associates related to those cue words. This problem-solving-induced forgetting effect occurred even when participants failed to generate a viable solution, increased in magnitude when participants spent additional time problem solving, and was positively correlated with problem-solving success on a separate set of RAT problems. These results implicate a role for forgetting in overcoming fixation in creative problem solving.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-lin Jiang; Bo Chen


    This paper investigates various Weber problems including unconstrained Weber problems and constrained Weber problems under l1,l2 and l∞-norms. First with a transformation technique various Weber problems are turned into a class of monotone linear variational inequalities. By exploiting the favorable structure of these variational inequalities, we present a new projection-type method for them. Compared with some other projection-type methods which can solve monotone linear variational inequality, this new projection-type method is simple in numerical implementations and more efficient for solving this class of problems; Compared with some popular methods for solving unconstrained Weber problem and constrained Weber problem, a singularity would not happen in this new method and it is more reliable by using this new method to solve various Weber problems.

  15. Solving Hitchcock's transportation problem by a genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-feng; CHO Joong Rae; LEE Jeong.Tae


    Genetic algorithms (GAs) employ the evolutionary process of Darwin's nature selection theory to find the solutions of optimization problems. In this paper, an implementation of genetic algorithm is put forward to solve a classical transportation problem, namely the Hitchcock's Transportation Problem (HTP), and the GA is improved to search for all optimal solutions and identify them automatically. The algorithm is coded with C++ and validated by numerical examples. The computational results show that the algorithm is efficient for solving the Hitchcock's transportation problem.

  16. Social problem solving and coping skills of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Yigit


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students' social problem solving and coping skills. Material and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, data were gathered from 457 medical students. Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory were used. Results: The most preferred activities when the students face a problem were talking with friends (87.1%, talking with special persons (85.4%, sleeping (82.6%, talking with family members (81.6%, and eating (79.8%. The ratio of the behaviors that can be deemed risky were exhibiting aggressive and violent behaviors (18.9%, drinking alcohol (18.7%, smoking (17.6%, playing games of chance (16.9%, and using substance (3.8%. There was a positive relationship between total scores of Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory. It is found that immature social problem solving ability has increased the risk of unfavourable behaviours by 3.1 fold. Conclusion: Social problem solving ability is significantly correlated with coping behaviours and may predict it. Medical students who are the doctors and the role models of the future need to develop their social problem solving skills in addition to clinical problem solving skills. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 721-731

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving. (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.


    Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…

  18. Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics (United States)

    Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian


    This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…

  19. Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.


    There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…

  20. A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies


    Shour, Robert


    A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.

  1. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin


    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  2. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems (United States)

    Gok, Tolga


    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  3. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie


    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  4. Solving constrained minimax problem via nonsmooth equations method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-xia(郭修霞)


    A new nonsmooth equations model of constrained minimax problem was derived. The generalized Newton method was applied for solving this system of nonsmooth equations system. A new algorithm for solving constrained minimax problem was established. The local superlinear and quadratic convergences of the algorithm were discussed.

  5. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.


    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

  6. The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving (United States)

    Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli


    Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…

  7. Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby


    This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

  8. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2 (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin


    We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…

  9. The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies. (United States)

    Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.

    Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…

  10. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems. (United States)

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy


    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

  11. Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment (United States)

    Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saadé, Raafat George


    This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills…

  12. The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study (United States)

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.


    fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…

  13. Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems II (United States)

    Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.


    This paper is a continuation of the paper [8] and presents more applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce some new properties of Fitzpatrick functions useful for solving optimization problems, using also their already presented specific properties, as the maximal monotonicity, proper, convex and lower semi-continuity.

  14. Solving L-L Extraction Problems with Excel Spreadsheet (United States)

    Teppaitoon, Wittaya


    This work aims to demonstrate the use of Excel spreadsheets for solving L-L extraction problems. The key to solving the problems successfully is to be able to determine a tie line on the ternary diagram where the calculation must be carried out. This enables the reader to analyze the extraction process starting with a simple operation, the…

  15. Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Skills: The Journey to Success (United States)

    Rousseau, Donna


    The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem…

  16. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.


    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for ch

  17. Structured collaboration versus individual learning in solving physics problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning


    The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took

  18. Administrator Participation in Promoting Effective Problem-Solving Teams (United States)

    Rafoth, Mary Ann; Foriska, Terry


    Although the participation of administrators in problem-solving consultation teams is frequently mentioned in the literature as an important factor in the effectiveness of those teams, there has been little research into the impact of administrators on such teams. The impact of administrator participation on problem-solving consultation teams…

  19. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru


    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  20. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K


    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  1. Designing Computer Software for Problem-Solving Instruction. (United States)

    Duffield, Judith A.


    Discusses factors that might influence the effectiveness of computer software designed to teach problem solving. Topics discussed include the structure of knowledge; transfer of training; computers and problem solving instruction; human-computer interactions; and types of software, including drill and practice programs, tutorials, instructional…

  2. (Eds.). Resource-bounded problem solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 14341)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhimusa, Y.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Varma, S.; Wareham, H.T.


    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14341 'Resource-bounded Problem Solving'. This seminar is a successor to Dagstuhl Seminar 11351: 'Computer Science & Problem Solving: New Foundations', held in August 2011, which was the first Dagstuhl event to bring together com

  3. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird. (United States)

    Logan, Corina J


    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  4. Using Neighborhood Diversity to Solve Hard Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ganian, Robert


    Parameterized algorithms are a very useful tool for dealing with NP-hard problems on graphs. Yet, to properly utilize parameterized algorithms it is necessary to choose the right parameter based on the type of problem and properties of the target graph class. Tree-width is an example of a very successful graph parameter, however it cannot be used on dense graph classes and there also exist problems which are hard even on graphs of bounded tree-width. Such problems can be tackled by using vertex cover as a parameter, however this places severe restrictions on admissible graph classes. Michael Lampis has recently introduced neighborhood diversity, a new graph parameter which generalizes vertex cover to dense graphs. Among other results, he has shown that simple parameterized algorithms exist for a few problems on graphs of bounded neighborhood diversity. Our article further studies this area and provides new algorithms parameterized by neighborhood diversity for the p-Vertex-Disjoint Paths, Graph Motif and Prec...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ


    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  6. Field-dependent-independent cognitive style in solving dynamics problems. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xin; Ren, Ming-Zhang


    251 senior middle school (Grade 11) students were tested on the Chinese Group Embedded Figures Test and Dynamic Problems Test. A 2 (cognitive style) x 2 (sex) analysis of variance indicated a nonsignificant effect with respect to cognitive style in solving easier Dynamics problems but a main significant effect in solving complex Dynamics problems. Multiple comparisons (post hoc t tests) indicated that cognitive style is a significant factor among boys but not girls. The difference between Field-independent students and Field-dependent students in solving complex Dynamics problems may be that the former students more easily form a clear map of motion than the latter students.

  7. Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model. (United States)

    Volden, C M; Monnig, R


    A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.

  8. Smoothing Newton Algorithm for Solving Generalized Complementarity Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红; 倪铁


    The generalized complementarity problem includes the well-known nonlinear complementarity problem and linear complementarity problem as special cases.In this paper, based on a class of smoothing functions, a smoothing Newton-type algorithm is proposed for solving the generalized complementarity problem.Under suitable assumptions, the proposed algorithm is well-defined and global convergent.

  9. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence (United States)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer


    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  11. A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction. (United States)

    Griesser, Sara Anne

    Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

  12. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza


    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  13. The Effects of Pair Problem Solving Technique Incorporating Polya's Problem Solving Strategy on Undergraduate Students' Performance in Chemistry (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pair problem solving technique incorporating Polya's problem solving strategy on undergraduate students' performance in conceptual and algorithmic questions in chemistry. The subjects of this study were 89 students enrolled from two first year chemistry classes. The experimental group was…

  14. Impacts of Learning Inventive Problem-Solving Principles: Students' Transition from Systematic Searching to Heuristic Problem Solving (United States)

    Barak, Moshe


    This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…

  15. How indirect supportive digital help during and after solving physics problems can improve problem-solving abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.


    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they hav

  16. Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Guazzini, Andrea; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Levnajic, Zoran


    Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.

  17. Interval Arithmetic for Nonlinear Problem Solving



    Implementation of interval arithmetic in complex problems has been hampered by the tedious programming exercise needed to develop a particular implementation. In order to improve productivity, the use of interval mathematics is demonstrated using the computing platform INTLAB that allows for the development of interval-arithmetic-based programs more efficiently than with previous interval-arithmetic libraries. An interval-Newton Generalized-Bisection (IN/GB) method is developed in this platfo...

  18. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  19. A UV-decomposed method for solving an MPEC problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Feng; PANG Li-ping; ZHU Li-mei; XIA Zun-quan


    A UV-decomposition method for solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints(MPEC)problem with linear complementarity constraints is presented.The problem is first converted into a nonlinear programming one.The structure of subdifierential a corresponding penalty function and refults of its UV-decomposition are given.A conceptual algorithm for solving this problem with a superlinear convergence rate is then constructed in terms of the obtained results.

  20. 1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kamal, Ahmad A


    This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduates and graduates physics students in the area of modern physics, specially particle and nuclear physics. Lecturers/tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in USA, U.K., and other countries. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each chapter beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas, tables and line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.

  1. Solving Maximal Clique Problem through Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Rajawat, Shalini; Hemrajani, Naveen; Menghani, Ekta


    Genetic algorithm is one of the most interesting heuristic search techniques. It depends basically on three operations; selection, crossover and mutation. The outcome of the three operations is a new population for the next generation. Repeating these operations until the termination condition is reached. All the operations in the algorithm are accessible with today's molecular biotechnology. The simulations show that with this new computing algorithm, it is possible to get a solution from a very small initial data pool, avoiding enumerating all candidate solutions. For randomly generated problems, genetic algorithm can give correct solution within a few cycles at high probability.

  2. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri


    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  3. From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyub, Bilal M


    Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.

  4. Linking problem solving and learning contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Marianna; Winsløw, Carl


    A main difference between the mathematical activity of students and that of researchers is that researchers pursue their mathematical work in a seemingly self-sustaining dynamics of questions and answers, while students rely on teachers to sustain this dynamics. Unlike researchers, students...... generally do not construct the questions they work on, and do not search, rearrange and question the established contents they need to answer the questions. The basic problem approached in this paper is: could students also engage in a more self-sustaining and complete work with questions and answers? We...... to new external answers and their test against an appropriate experimental milieu is shown to be a crucial bootstrap for the dynamics of research and study processes....

  5. Information theory and coding solved problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivaniš, Predrag


    This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...

  6. Neural correlates of mental preparation for successful insight problem solving. (United States)

    Tian, F; Tu, S; Qiu, J; Lv, J Y; Wei, D T; Su, Y H; Zhang, Q L


    A distinct type of mental preparation (activity in medial frontal and temporal areas) had been found to facilitate insight problem solving independent of specific problems [25]. In order to explore whether neural activity during a preparatory interval (mental preparation) is associated with which insight problems would be solved or not, we developed a task that uses Chinese logogriphs (riddles) as materials. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between Successful and Unsuccessful mental preparation were measured. Results showed that mental preparation leading to successful problem solving involves heightened activity in the left middle/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, the bilateral claustrum and the left postcentral gyrus. We discussed the role of these areas in mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.

  7. Solving Tensor Structured Problems with Computational Tensor Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Oleksii


    Since its introduction by Gauss, Matrix Algebra has facilitated understanding of scientific problems, hiding distracting details and finding more elegant and efficient ways of computational solving. Today's largest problems, which often originate from multidimensional data, might profit from even higher levels of abstraction. We developed a framework for solving tensor structured problems with tensor algebra that unifies concepts from tensor analysis, multilinear algebra and multidimensional signal processing. In contrast to the conventional matrix approach, it allows the formulation of multidimensional problems, in a multidimensional way, preserving structure and data coherence; and the implementation of automated optimizations of solving algorithms, based on the commutativity of all tensor operations. Its ability to handle large scientific tasks is showcased by a real-world, 4D medical imaging problem, with more than 30 million unknown parameters solved on a current, inexpensive hardware. This significantly...

  8. A Numerical Embedding Method for Solving the Nonlinear Optimization Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田保锋; 戴云仙; 孟泽红; 张建军


    A numerical embedding method was proposed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem. By using the nonsmooth theory, the existence and the continuation of the following path for the corresponding homotopy equations were proved. Therefore the basic theory for the algorithm of the numerical embedding method for solving the non-linear optimization problem was established. Based on the theoretical results, a numerical embedding algorithm was designed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem, and prove its convergence carefully. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is effective.

  9. Problem-solving Model for Managing Stress and Anxiety


    Taghi Abutalebi Ahmadi


    The purpose of this study is to take a look at problem-solving model for managing stress and anxiety. If each of us as a human being has an organized method for solving the different problems of our life, at that time we can get along with stress and anxiety easily. The capability of problem solving makes it possible for that person a) to distinguish emotions in himself and others b) to understand how excitement affects behavior c) to be able to show different reactions to different emotions....

  10. Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June


    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…

  11. A unified constructive network model for problem-solving. (United States)

    Takahashi, Y


    We develop a neural network model that relieves time-consuming trial-and-error computer experiments usually performed in problem-solving with networks where problems, including the traveling salesman problem, pattern matching and pattern classification/learning, are formulated as optimization problems with constraint. First, we specify and uniquely distinguish the model as a set of constituent functions that should comply with restrictive conditions. Next, we demonstrate that it is unified, i.e., it yields most current networks. Finally, we verify that it is constructive, that is, we show a standard method that systematically constructs from a given optimization problem a particular network in that model to solve it.

  12. Embedding Game-Based Problem-Solving Phase into Problem-Posing System for Mathematics Learning (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-En; Wu, Lin-Jung; Weng, Sheng-En; Sung, Yao-Ting


    A problem-posing system is developed with four phases including posing problem, planning, solving problem, and looking back, in which the "solving problem" phase is implemented by game-scenarios. The system supports elementary students in the process of problem-posing, allowing them to fully engage in mathematical activities. In total, 92 fifth…

  13. Neural network method for solving elastoplastic finite element problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A basic optimization principle of Artificial Neural Network-the Lagrange Programming Neural Network (LPNN) model for solving elastoplastic finite element problems is presented. The nonlinear problems of mechanics are represented as a neural network based optimization problem by adopting the nonlinear function as nerve cell transfer function. Finally, two simple elastoplastic problems are numerically simulated. LPNN optimization results for elastoplastic problem are found to be comparable to traditional Hopfield neural network optimization model.

  14. A Trust Region Algorithm for Solving Bilevel Programming Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-shan LIU; Shi-qin XU; Ji-ye HAN


    In this paper,we present a new trust region algorithm for a nonlinear bilevel programming problem by solving a series of its linear or quadratic approximation subproblems.For the nonlinear bilevel programming problem in which the lower level programming problem is a strongly convex programming problem with linear constraints,we show that each accumulation point of the iterative sequence produced by this algorithm is a stationary point of the bilevel programming problem.

  15. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  16. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David M.; Lusby, Richard Martin;


    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  17. Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali


    Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...

  18. Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

  19. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.


    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  20. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review (United States)

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.


    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  1. Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails


    Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

  2. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin;


    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  3. Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work (United States)

    Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.


    The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to

  4. Solving the uncalibrated photometric stereo problem using total variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quéau, Yvain; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Durou, Jean-Denis


    In this paper we propose a new method to solve the problem of uncalibrated photometric stereo, making very weak assumptions on the properties of the scene to be reconstructed. Our goal is to solve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity (GBR) by performing a total variation regularization of both th...

  5. Socratic Problem-Solving in the Business World (United States)

    Peterson, Evan


    Accurate and effective decision-making is one of the most essential skills necessary for organizational success. The problem-solving process provides a systematic means of effectively recognizing, analyzing, and solving a dilemma. The key element in this process is critical analysis of the situation, which can be executed by a taking a Socratic…

  6. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems (United States)

    Čančula, Maja Poklinek; Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia


    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  7. Solving Engineering, Project, and Production Management Problems through Modeling


    Chien-Ho Ko


    This issue presents five papers covering engineering management, project management, and production management. While distinct, these three fields frequently overlap and share common managerial concepts, e.g. solving problems through modeling.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper we develop multilevel iteration methods for solving linear systems resulting from the Galerkin method and Tikhonov regularization for ill-posed problems. The algorithm and its convergence analysis are presented in an abstract framework.

  9. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (United States)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  10. The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving Cooperative Agreement Program (United States)

    The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving (CPS) Cooperative Agreement Program provides financial assistance to eligible organizations working on or planning to work on projects to address local environmental and/or public health issues

  11. Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry

    site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver....... Second, we present a formulation with an exponential number of variables which we solve using column generation. Our results show that both approaches have difficulties solving the ROADEF problem instances to optimality. The column generation approach is however able to generate good quality solutions......In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...

  12. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.


    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate i

  13. Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro

    CERN Document Server

    Yamin, Mohammad


    This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...

  14. Assessing Mathematics 4. Problem Solving: The APU Approach. (United States)

    Foxman, Derek; And Others


    Presented are examples of problem-solving items from practical and written mathematics tests. These tests are part of an English survey designed to assess the mathematics achievement of students aged 11 and 15. (JN)

  15. Genetic Algorithm for Solving Simple Mathematical Equality Problem


    Hermawanto, Denny


    This paper explains genetic algorithm for novice in this field. Basic philosophy of genetic algorithm and its flowchart are described. Step by step numerical computation of genetic algorithm for solving simple mathematical equality problem will be briefly explained

  16. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón


    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  17. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving. (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth


    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  18. From Students' Problem-Solving Strategies to Connections in Fractions (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Klein, Erika


    Strategies that children used to solve a fraction problem are presented, and an insight into how students think about divisions and fractions is described. Teachers can use these strategies to help students establish connections related to fractions.

  19. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was

  20. (Numerical algorithms for solving linear algebra problems). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, G.H.


    We have concentrated on developing and analyzing various numerical algorithms for solving problems arising in a linear algebra context. The papers and research fall into basically three categories: (1) iterative methods for solving linear equations arising from p.d.e.'s; (2) calculation of Gauss-type quadrature rules; and (3) solution of matrix and data problems arising in statistical computation. We summarize some of these results, highlighting those which are of most importance.

  1. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students


    Mansour Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Bayani; Ali Bayani


    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  2. Solving Problems: How Does the Family Physician Do It? (United States)

    Feightner, J. W.; Barrows, H. S.; Neufeld, V. R.; Norman, G. R.


    Objective evidence exists for a model of clinical problem solving by family physicians. Previous studies have examined the activities of family physicians, but there have been no data indicating the mental process behind these activities. This study, exploring the thought processes of family physicians engaged in clinical problem solving, has lead to the model described in this paper. Its educational and clinical implications are considered. PMID:21304873

  3. Situated, embodied and social problem-solving in virtual worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Gosper


    Full Text Available Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domainspecific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involvesknowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activitiesthat incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies,this paper outlines how situated, embodied and social problem-solving activitieswithin virtual worlds can elicit responses that engage all facets of expertise.

  4. Critical review of problem solving processes traditional theoretical models


    Botía Sanabria, María Lucero; Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia; Orozco Pulido, Luis Humberto; Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia


    This paper presents a brief analysis of most known problem solving theoretical models realized using epistemological categories such as observer position, object of study, methods and procedures, and descriptive or explicative scope. The review showed linear and cyclical models, the need to recognize method's limitations to generalizing, the relevance of expliciting observer position, and a diffuse delimitation of the object problem solving as a cognitive process. An integrative and molar the...

  5. The art and science of participative problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  6. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir SAYAH


    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaochun Wu


    Full Text Available A novel algorithm for solving the classic Stefan problem is proposed in the paper. Instead of front tracking, we preset the moving interface locations and use these location coordinates as the grid points to find out the arrival time of moving interface respectively. Through this approach, the difficulty in mesh generation can be avoided completely. The simulation shows the numerical result is well coincident with the exact solution, implying the new approach performes well in solving this problem.

  8. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J David Creswell

    Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  9. Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress (United States)

    Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.


    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

  10. DNA computation model to solve 0-1 programming problem. (United States)

    Zhang, Fengyue; Yin, Zhixiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Jin


    0-1 programming problem is an important problem in opsearch with very widespread applications. In this paper, a new DNA computation model utilizing solution-based and surface-based methods is presented to solve the 0-1 programming problem. This model contains the major benefits of both solution-based and surface-based methods; including vast parallelism, extraordinary information density and ease of operation. The result, verified by biological experimentation, revealed the potential of DNA computation in solving complex programming problem.

  11. Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen

    In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...... problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta...

  12. Creative Problem Solving A Guide for Trainers and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Van Gundy, Arthur B


    Creative problem solving (CPS) is a six-step process designed to help people systematically resolve nonroutine, ambiguous types of problems. Because most organizational problems tend to be nonroutine, skill in using CPS process can confer a significant competitive advantage. Creative Problem Solving gives training managers the information they need to develop and teach a course on CPS. VanGundy provides an overview of the process, elements of the creative climate needed to foster CPS and innovative thinking, creative thinking exercises designed to illustrate specific CPS principles, and easy-t

  13. An ant colony algorithm for solving Max-cut problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Gao; Yan Zeng; Anguo Dong


    Max-cut problem is an NP-complete and classical combinatorial optimization problem that has a wide range of appfications in dif-ferent domains,such as bioinformatics,network optimization,statistical physics,and very large scale integration design.In this paper we investigate the capabilities of the ant colony optimization(ACO)heuristic for solving the Max-cut problem and present an AntCut algo-rithm.A large number of simulation experiments show that the algorithm can solve the Max-cut problem more efficiently and effectively.

  14. Problem-solving Model for Managing Stress and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Abutalebi Ahmadi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to take a look at problem-solving model for managing stress and anxiety. If each of us as a human being has an organized method for solving the different problems of our life, at that time we can get along with stress and anxiety easily. The capability of problem solving makes it possible for that person a to distinguish emotions in himself and others b to understand how excitement affects behavior c to be able to show different reactions to different emotions. If we don’t deal with emotional states such as grief, anger or anxiety properly, theses emotions will have negative effects on the physical and mental health of the person. Problem solving teaching is a treatment method by which the person learns to utilize effective cognitive skills to get along with inter-personal and problematic situations. In this study, we would like to emphasize the importance of the problem-solving teaching, and learn about its varieties and principal and implementation techniques, so that we can use it to manage our internal and environmental stressors. Among the various models, I will mention the easy and helpful five-step problem solving approach of Dixon and Glover (1984, as cited Yari (2009 as an example including describing the problem, stating the problem in precise and clear terms, selecting guidelines for solving the problems and prioritizing them, implementing the guidelines characterized at the previous stage, finally evaluating. At this stage, we will consider what we have gained vis a vis what we had hoped to gain.

  15. Solving linear integer programming problems by a novel neural model. (United States)

    Cavalieri, S


    The paper deals with integer linear programming problems. As is well known, these are extremely complex problems, even when the number of integer variables is quite low. Literature provides examples of various methods to solve such problems, some of which are of a heuristic nature. This paper proposes an alternative strategy based on the Hopfield neural network. The advantage of the strategy essentially lies in the fact that hardware implementation of the neural model allows for the time required to obtain a solution so as not depend on the size of the problem to be solved. The paper presents a particular class of integer linear programming problems, including well-known problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem and the Set Covering Problem. After a brief description of this class of problems, it is demonstrated that the original Hopfield model is incapable of supplying valid solutions. This is attributed to the presence of constant bias currents in the dynamic of the neural model. A demonstration of this is given and then a novel neural model is presented which continues to be based on the same architecture as the Hopfield model, but introduces modifications thanks to which the integer linear programming problems presented can be solved. Some numerical examples and concluding remarks highlight the solving capacity of the novel neural model.

  16. Does Solving Insight-Based Problems Differ from Solving Learning-Based Problems? Some Evidence from an ERP Study (United States)

    Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark


    We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…

  17. An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems (United States)

    Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo


    Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed.

  18. Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha


    We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

  19. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research. (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K


    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  20. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study. (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna


    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  1. The Development of Potential Problem Solving of Students, Mahasarakham University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorn Suwannimitr


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem is a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved. It is involve in daily life of everyone including the students who study in University. Basically, they have to face with the physiological and psychological change; the significant problems also exactly affected to them. These situations led them to be the risk group in which they would have inappropriate behaviors. Consequently, the quality of life of the students, their families and society would impact eventually. Approach: To (1 describe the potential of problem solving of the students of Mahasarakham University, (2 compare the potential of problem solving between the group of students, (3 purpose the strategies to improve problem solving potential. This descriptive research using cluster random sampling, to define the sample, which consisted of 355 students, separated by 3 group. They were: (1 Human-Social Science, (2 Science and Technology and (3 Health Science. The research instrument was the problem solving inventory which comprised of three components; (1 problem solving confidence (2 approach-avoidance style and (3 personal control. Descriptive statistic and inferential statistic (t-test, F-test was applied. Results: The majority of the subjects were female (77.2% the mean age of 18.66 and more than 55.8% were over 19 years old. Most of them were studied in the area of Human and Social Science (69.3 %. The problem solving potential level of these students in overall were in moderate level with the mean scores of 102.95. To divided by group, their mean score were: (1 the Human-Social Science group = 104.85 (2; the Health Science group = 94.86 and (3 the Science and Technology = 105.32. Most of students who able to solve the problem quite well were coping with the positive approach by did not avoiding the problem. In addition, they played attention with problem analysis, using emotional control and using the process of decision making. In contrast, the

  2. Lateral Thinking and Andragogy: Improving Problem Solving in Adulthood. (United States)

    Brown, Helen W.


    Considers strategies to improve problem solving, especially at stages where roadblocks are likely to occur and which may account for problems experienced with andragogy. Following a brief look at the implications of adult developmental theory for andragogy, this article examines "lateral thinking" as one way to increase the effectiveness…

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Measuring Clinical Problem-Solving (United States)

    Bashook, Philip G.


    Presents a 3-dimensional conceptual framework for measuring clinical competence: problem-solving process, clinical discipline, and context of care. The intersection of the dimensions defines the clinical practice domain to be measured. For each domain specific problems can be identified and clinicians asked to demonstrate competence in resolving…

  4. Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.


    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes

  5. A Unified Model of Attention and Problem Solving. (United States)


    paradigma deocribed boro. In confliot condition. In a facolitation condition GREEN Stroup sitnations signls are preented simultaneously o would be plinted In...and perforlao. paradigma similar to theae studied .. . .. ’ Attention and Problem solInS Page 65 Attention and Problem Solving Page 66 her.. Mis

  6. Cognitive variables in science problem solving: a review of research


    Solaz Portolés, Joan Josep; Vicente SANJOSÉ LÓPEZ


    This paper provides an overview of research into cognitive variables that are involved in problem solving and how these variables affect the performance of problem solvers. The variables discussed are grouped together in: prior knowledge, formal reasoning ability and neo-Piagetian variables, long-term memory and working memory, knowledge base, and metacognitive variables.

  7. Solving quadratic programming problems by delayed projection neural network. (United States)

    Yang, Yongqing; Cao, Jinde


    In this letter, the delayed projection neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems is proposed. The neural network is proved to be globally exponentially stable and can converge to an optimal solution of the optimization problem. Three examples show the effectiveness of the proposed network.

  8. Individual Differences: A Third Component in Problem-Solving Instruction. (United States)

    Ronning, Royce R.; And Others


    Examined field dependence/independence in the context of other variables for its value in providing a clearer understanding of the problem-solving process. Results from 150 students indicate that field independent students significantly out-performed field dependent students on the six problems administered. (JN)

  9. The Students Decision Making in Solving Discount Problem (United States)

    Abdillah; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Susanto, Hery; Abadyo


    This research is reviewing students' process of decision making intuitively, analytically, and interactively. The research done by using discount problem which specially created to explore student's intuition, analytically, and interactively. In solving discount problems, researcher exploring student's decision in determining their attitude which…

  10. Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems (United States)

    Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.


    This paper presents applications of Fitzparick functions to optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce applications of the Fitzpatrick functions, involving their specific properties as the maximal monotonicity, or the proper, convex and lower semi-continuity, for solving optimization problems.

  11. A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine (United States)

    Van Wart, Arthur D.


    The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

  12. Fast Multilevel Methods for Solving Ill-posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲英; 宋丽红; 马富明


    Many industrial and engineering applications require numerically solving ill-posed problems. Regularization methods are employed to find approximate solutions of these problems. The choice of regularization parameters by numerical algorithms is one of the most important issues for the success of regularization methods. When we use some discrepancy principles to determine the regularization parameter,

  13. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent


    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  14. Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills (United States)

    Levesque, Aime A.


    Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and…

  15. Emergence of Abductive Reasoning in Mathematical Problem Solving. (United States)

    Cifarelli, Victor

    This paper examines the novel problem solving actions of a pair of college students. The analysis highlights the role of the solvers' inferential processes including abductions, deductions, and inductions as structuring resources that contribute to both their understanding of the problems they face and the emerging novelty that constitutes their…

  16. Another Approach to Solving Problems in Rotational Statics. (United States)

    Fineman, Morton A.; Burnett, Carl, Jr.


    Presents a technique which aids students in solving static problems involving three or more torques about a given axis. The method is longer and equivalent to the standard method, but students experience success with this new way to treat the more complicated equilibrium problems. (DH)

  17. The Importance of Monitoring Skills in Physics Problem Solving (United States)

    Ali, Marlina; Talib, Corrienna-Abd; Hasniza Ibrahim, Nor; Surif, Johari; Halim Abdullah, Abdul


    The purpose of this paper is to show how important "monitoring" is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on…

  18. Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties (United States)

    Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa


    The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving…

  19. Successive projection method for solving the unbalanced Procrustes problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenyue; DU Keqin


    We present a successive projection method for solving the unbalanced Procrustes problem: given matrix A ∈ Rn×n and B ∈ Rn×κ, n >κ, minimize the residual ‖AQ - B‖F with the orthonormal constraint QTQ = Iκ on the variant Q ∈ Rn×κ. The presented algorithm consists of solving k least squares problems with quadratic constraints and an expanded balance problem at each sweep. We give a detailed convergence analysis. Numerical experiments reported in this paper show that our new algorithm is superior to other existing methods.

  20. Numerical methods for solving terminal optimal control problems (United States)

    Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.


    Numerical methods for solving optimal control problems with equality constraints at the right end of the trajectory are discussed. Algorithms for optimal control search are proposed that are based on the multimethod technique for finding an approximate solution of prescribed accuracy that satisfies terminal conditions. High accuracy is achieved by applying a second-order method analogous to Newton's method or Bellman's quasilinearization method. In the solution of problems with direct control constraints, the variation of the control is computed using a finite-dimensional approximation of an auxiliary problem, which is solved by applying linear programming methods.

  1. Solving the Travelling Salesman Problem Using the Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Čičková


    Full Text Available In this article, we study a possibility of solving the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP, which ranges among NP-hard problems, and offer a theoretical overview of some methods used for solving this problem. We discuss the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, which belongs to the group of evolutionary techniques and presents the approach used in the application of ACO to the TSP. We study the impact of some control parameters by implementing this algorithm. The quality of the solution is compared with the optimal solution.

  2. A Novel Method for Solving Unbounded Knapsack Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rung-Ching; LIN Ming-Hsian


    Knapsack problem is one kind of NP-Complete problem. Unbounded knapsack problems are more complex and harder than general knapsack problem. In this paper, we apply QGAs (Quantum Genetic Algorithms) to solve unbounded knapsack problem and then follow other procedures. First, present the problem into the mode of QGAs and figure out the corresponding genes types and their fitness functions. Then, find the perfect combination of limitation and largest benefit. Finally, the best solution will be found. Primary experiment indicates that our method has well results.

  3. An adaptive genetic algorithm for solving bilevel linear programming problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bilevel linear programming, which consists of the objective functions of the upper level and lower level, is a useful tool for modeling decentralized decision problems.Various methods are proposed for solving this problem. Of all the algorithms, the genetic algorithm is an alternative to conventional approaches to find the solution of the bilevel linear programming. In this paper, we describe an adaptive genetic algorithm for solving the bilevel linear programming problem to overcome the difficulty of determining the probabilities of crossover and mutation. In addition, some techniques are adopted not only to deal with the difficulty that most of the chromosomes may be infeasible in solving constrained optimization problem with genetic algorithm but also to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. The performance of this proposed algorithm is illustrated by the examples from references.

  4. Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S. [Hong Kong Baptist College (Hong Kong)


    The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU


    Full Text Available Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken from psychology. This paper, which creates a bridge between the field of economy and that of psychology, proposes innovative tools to stimulate creativity and the problem solving ability. The tools suggested are based on analogy, the fundamental operation of thinking and creative imagination, and can be applied in various business functions.

  6. Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergult Anneleen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter. In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM, the finite element method (FEM and the finite difference method (FDM. In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative

  7. Sinus actuator solves emc problems; Sinussteller loest EMV-Probleme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, Olaf [Systemtechnik LEBER GmbH und Co. KG, Schwaig (Germany)


    The steep slope of the phase angle variation control tend to cause problems of electromagnetic compatibility. A sinus actuator controls the amplitude of the current continuously from 0 to 100 percent. It also has low power loss and requires no rectifier. (orig.)

  8. A Heuristic Framework to Solve a General Delivery Problem (United States)

    Lian, Lian; Castelain, Emmanuel


    This paper presents a new distribution and route planning problem, General Delivery Problem (GDP) which is more general than the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. To solve a GDP, a three-phase framework heuristic approach based on decomposition techniques is introduced. The decomposition techniques are employed to divide an original problem into a set of sub-problems, which can reduce the problem size. A kind of decomposition technique, Capacity Clustering Algorithm (CCA), is embedded into the framework with Simulated Annealing (SA) to solve a special GDP. The proposed three-phase framework with the above two algorithms is compared with five other decomposition methods in a distribution instance of the Regional Fire and Emergency Center in the north of France.

  9. Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat George Saadé


    Full Text Available This article investigates students’ perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills acquisition including research, creativity and critical thinking skills. The course entailed two categories of learning, namely resources-based and interactive components. The study aimed at answering the following questions: 1 To what extent do students understand the definitions of Problem-solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generation skills, and Critical Thinking skills? (2 What is the relative contribution of the various learning components (activities and resources of the course to the perceived acquisition of Problem-Solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generations skills, and Critical Thinking skills; (3 Is the understanding of the definitions correlated with the perceived contributions of the learning components (activities and resources of the course to the skills development? (4 To what extent is perceived Problem-solving skill acquisition explained by the acquisition of the other three skills?

  10. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving. (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N


    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  11. Marginality and Problem Solving Effectiveness in Broadcast Search


    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Lakhani, Karim R


    We examine who the winners are in science problem solving contests characterized by open broadcast of problem information, self-selection of external solvers to discrete problems from the laboratories of large R&D intensive companies and blind review of solution submissions. Analyzing a unique dataset of 166 science challenges involving over 12,000 scientists revealed that technical and social marginality, being a source of different perspectives and heuristics, plays an important role in...

  12. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  13. Extending AI Planning to Solve more Realistic Problems


    Zalaket, Joseph


    In this chapter, we have presented multiple extensions for classical planning algorithms in order to allow them to solve more realistic problems. This kind of problems can contain any type of knowledge and can require complex handling which is not yet supported by the existing planning algorithms. Some complicated problems can be expressed with the recent extensions to PDDL language, but the main lack remains especially because of the incapacity of the current planners. We have suggested and ...

  14. Solving a Fully Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem through Compromise Programming


    Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai


    In the current literatures, there are several models of fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) problems where all the parameters and variables were fuzzy numbers but the constraints were crisp equality or inequality. In this paper, an FFLP problem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed, and a method for solving this FFLP problem is also proposed. We first transform the fuzzy equality constraints into the crisp inequality ones using the measure of the similarity, which is interpreted as t...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xikui; Li Yan; Xu Jin


    Molecular programming is applied to minimum spanning problem whose solution requires encoding of real values in DNA strands. A new encoding scheme is proposed for real values that is biologically plausible and has a fixed code length. According to the characteristics of the problem, a DNA algorithm solving the minimum spanning tree problem is given. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation. The advantages and disadvantages of this algorithm are discussed.

  16. The construction of the representation in solving a physics problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Coleoni


    Full Text Available Written solutions of a physics problem provided by high school students in a physics olympiad are analysed. The study was done on the basis of theoretical developments which take into account peculiarities of the understanding of scientific problems. Some errors are typefied according to failures at different levels of the representation process. A categorization is proposed suggesting the possibility of reinterpreting some mistakes made by physics students in problem solving.



    Sadhak Gautam*, Mridul Jaggi, Santosh Anand


    Problem statement: The optimization processes in mathematics, computer science and economics are solving effectively by choosing the best element from set of available alternatives elements. The most important and successful applications in the optimization refers to transportation problem (TP), that is a special class of the linear programming (LP) in the operation research (OR).   Approach: The main objective of transportation problem solution methods is to minimize the cost or the ...



    Marlina; Corrienna; Nor; Johari; Abdul


    The purpose of this paper is to show how important “monitoring” is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on their problems. Each of the students was videotaped, and interviewed right after the task. A schema was used to grade the written answers. As a concl...

  19. Developing A Combined Strategy For Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahyaningsih


    Full Text Available Abstract The quadratic assigment problem QAP is one of the most interesting and most challenging combinatorial optimization problems in existence. In this paper we propose a random point strategy to get a starting point and then we use a combination methods to get optimal solution. As a computational experience weve solved QAP 30 x 30 adopted from Nugent and backboard wiring problem 42 amp61620 42 adopted from Skorin-Kapov.

  20. Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing...... activities in Denmark and abroad. The target groups for this book are people and professionals from communities, organizations, and ad-hoc groups facing problematic situations that have to be solved in an innovative way....

  1. Solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem using Genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergvinsdottir, Kristin Berg; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    service level constraints (Quality of Service). In this paper we present a genetic algorithm for solving the DARP. The algorithm is based on the classical cluster-first route-second approach, where it alternates between assigning customers to vehicles using a genetic algorithm and solving independent...... routing problems for the vehicles using a routing heuristic. The algorithm is implemented in Java and tested on publicly available data sets....

  2. Solving the MDBCS Problem Using the Metaheuric–Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bogdanovic


    Full Text Available The problems degree-limited graph of nodes considering the weight of the vertex or weight of the edges, with the aim to find the optimal weighted graph in terms of certain restrictions on the degree of the vertices in the subgraph. This class of combinatorial problems was extensively studied because of the implementation and application in network design, connection of networks and routing algorithms. It is likely that solution of MDBCS problem will find its place and application in these areas. The paper is given an ILP model to solve the problem MDBCS, as well as the genetic algorithm, which calculates a good enough solution for the input graph with a greater number of nodes. An important feature of the heuristic algorithms is that can approximate, but still good enough to solve the problems of exponential complexity. However, it should solve the problem heuristic algorithms may not lead to a satisfactory solution, and that for some of the problems, heuristic algorithms give relatively poor results. This is particularly true of problems for which no exact polynomial algorithm complexity. Also, heuristic algorithms are not the same, because some parts of heuristic algorithms differ depending on the situation and problems in which they are used. These parts are usually the objective function (transformation, and their definition significantly affects the efficiency of the algorithm. By mode of action, genetic algorithms are among the methods directed random search space solutions are looking for a global optimum.

  3. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali


    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  4. The Relation between Problem Categorization and Problem Solving among Novices and Experts. (United States)

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau; And Others

    This investigation examined the relationship between problem solving ability and the criteria used to decide whether two classical mechanics problems could be solved similarly. The investigators began by comparing experts and novices on a similarity judgment task and found that experts predominantly relied on the problems' deep structure in…

  5. A Problem-Solving Conceptual Framework and Its Implications in Designing Problem-Posing Tasks (United States)

    Singer, Florence Mihaela; Voica, Cristian


    The links between the mathematical and cognitive models that interact during problem solving are explored with the purpose of developing a reference framework for designing problem-posing tasks. When the process of solving is a successful one, a solver successively changes his/her cognitive stances related to the problem via transformations that…

  6. Teaching Problem Solving; the Effect of Algorithmic and Heuristic Problem Solving Training in Relation to Task Complexity and Relevant Aptitudes. (United States)

    de Leeuw, L.

    Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…

  7. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students (United States)

    Ancel, Gulsum


    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach…

  8. Concrete Physics Method for Solving NP hard Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With a NP hard problem given, we may find a equivalent physicalworld. The rule of the changing of the physical states is simply the algorithm for sol ving the original NP hard problem .It is the most natural algorithm for solving NP hard problems. In this paper we deal with a famous example , the well known NP hard problem--Circles Packing. It shows that our algorithm is dramatically very efficient. We are inspired that, the concrete physics algorithm will alway s be very efficient for NP hard problem.

  9. An Algorithm to Solve Separable Nonlinear Least Square Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeb Gharibi


    Full Text Available Separable Nonlinear Least Squares (SNLS problem is a special class of Nonlinear Least Squares (NLS problems, whose objective function is a mixture of linear and nonlinear functions. SNLS has many applications in several areas, especially in the field of Operations Research and Computer Science. Problems related to the class of NLS are hard to resolve having infinite-norm metric. This paper gives a brief explanation about SNLS problem and offers a Lagrangian based algorithm for solving mixed linear-nonlinear minimization problem

  10. Solving the constrained shortest path problem using random search strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we propose an improved walk search strategy to solve the constrained shortest path problem. The proposed search strategy is a local search algorithm which explores a network by walker navigating through the network. In order to analyze and evaluate the proposed search strategy, we present the results of three computational studies in which the proposed search algorithm is tested. Moreover, we compare the proposed algorithm with the ant colony algorithm and k shortest paths algorithm. The analysis and comparison results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is an effective tool for solving the constrained shortest path problem. It can not only be used to solve the optimization problem on a larger network, but also is superior to the ant colony algorithm in terms of the solution time and optimal paths.

  11. Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish


    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...

  12. Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh


    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  13. Bigger brains may make better problem-solving carnivores. (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer


    Benson-Amram, Dantzer, Stricker, Swanson, & Holekamp's (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 25321-25376, 2016) recent demonstration that larger-brained carnivores were more successful in a single problem-solving task, relative to smaller-brained carnivores, irrespective of social complexity, poses a challenge to proponents of the social intelligence hypothesis (Humphrey, 1976) and provides some support for the idea that larger relative brain sizes have evolved to support greater problem-solving abilities. However, an important question, neglected by the authors, is the extent to which foraging ecology, rather than social environment, more accurately predicts problem solving, and whether this relationship would be observed in noncarnivore, noncaptive animals across a range of tasks.

  14. Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions about Their Problem Solving Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan DEMİRTAŞ


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the perceptions of high school teachers abouttheir level of problem solving skills and to find out whether their perceptions differaccording to gender, seniority, branch, marital status, how many children they have, thelast school of graduation, their mothers’ and fathers’ the level of education. Theresearch was conducted on 445 high school teachers working in Malatya city centerduring 2005-2006 academic year. The data were collected using Problem SolvingInventory, Form-A (PSI-A. In order to analyze the data, t-test, One-Way Anova, LSD,Kruskal Wallis H-test, and Mann Whitney U-test were used. Research results revealedthat high school teachers perceived their problem solving skill levels as “medium”.Results also showed that there were statistically significant differences among teachers’perceptions according to their seniority, the last school of graduation, and theeducation level of teachers’ mothers and fathers.

  15. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Parwati


    Full Text Available Abstract: Developing Mathematics Learning Materials Oriented to Open-ended Problem Solving. Mathematics learning should develop students' critical and creative thinking competences, which can be done through open-ended problem-solving activities. This study aims at developing mathematics learning materials for the fifth grade of elementary schools which can facilitate such activities. The de­velopment process employed a four-D model (define, design, develop, and disseminate. At the define and design stages, the researcher produced the drafts of student's book, student's worksheet, and teacher's manual accompanied with the lesson plans. At the develop and disseminate stages, the mathematics learning materials oriented to open-ended problem solving for the fifth-grade elementary school students were found to be valid, effective, and feasible. Abstrak: Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving. Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif sangat diperlukan dalam memecahkan masalah yang merupakan tujuan pokok dari pembelajaran matematika. Penyajian masalah matematika terbuka merupakan alternatif untuk menumbuhkembangkan kemampuan berpikir siswa. Agar proses pembelajaran berlangsung efektif, perlu didukung dengan perangkat pembelajaran yang relevan. Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran matematika SD berorientasi open-ended problem solving. Pengembangan prototipe perangkat pembelajaran tersebut, menggunakan four-D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate. Penelitian dilakukan pada SD di kota Singaraja, Bali. Tahap define dan design menghasilkan draf perangkat pembelajaran berupa buku siswa beserta LKS, dan buku petunjuk guru beserta rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP. Berikutnya, dilaksanakan tahap develop dan disseminate. Perangat pembelajaran matematika SD kelas V berorientasi open-ended problem solving yang dikembangkan terbukti valid, efektif, dan layak pakai.

  16. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving. (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James


    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem-solving

  17. A new DNA algorithm to solve graph coloring problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xingpeng; Li Yin; Meng Ya; Meng Dazhi


    Using a small quantity of DNA molecules and little experimental time to solve complex problems successfully is a goal of DNA computing. Some NP-hard problems have been solved by DNA computing with lower time complexity than conventional computing.However, this advantage often brings higher space complexity and needs a large number of DNA encoding molecules. One example is graph coloring problem. Current DNA algorithms need exponentially increasing DNA encoding strands with the growing of problem size.Here we propose a new DNA algorithm of graph coloring problem based on the proof of four-color theorem. This algorithm has good properties of needing a relatively small number of operations in polynomial time and needing a small number of DNA encoding molecules (we need only 6R DNA encoding molecules if the number of regions in a graph is R ).

  18. Task Assignment Problem Solved by Continuous Hopfield Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettaouil Mohamed


    Full Text Available The task assignment problem with non uniform communication costs (TAP consists in finding an assignment of the tasks to the processors such that the total execution and communication costs is minimized. This problem is naturally formulated as 0-1 quadratic programming subject to linear constraints (QP. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solve the task assignment problem with non uniform communication costs using the continuous Hopfield network (CHN. This approach is based on some energy or Lyapunov function, which diminishes as the system develops until a local minimum value is obtained. We show that this approach is able to determine a good solution for this problem. Finally, some computational experiments solving the task assignment problem with non-uniform communication costs are shown.

  19. Problem-solving model in radiology for medical students. (United States)

    Blane, C E; Vydareny, K H; Ten Haken, J D; Calhoun, J G


    Current undergraduate medical education is criticized for not preparing physicians to be independent thinkers. The rapid development of new imaging techniques and the problem of escalating medical costs call for efficient patient management. The development of algorithms in imaging work-up of patient problems is an excellent example of problem solving or medical decision making. The senior elective in radiology at our institution incorporates this type of problem-solving session. Small groups (15-25 students) with faculty guidance discuss 5-6 common patient problems to develop an investigative plan in imaging. Algorithms are thus developed by the group, but not presented for memorization. Small changes are then made in the case history so that the students are forced to make new hypotheses and generate a modified algorithm. Correlative costs are included. Flexibility and initiative in development of patient management algorithms are stressed.

  20. Effects of the SOLVE Strategy on the Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth


    This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…

  1. Doing physics with scientific notebook a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, Joseph


    The goal of this book is to teach undergraduate students how to use Scientific Notebook (SNB) to solve physics problems. SNB software combines word processing and mathematics in standard notation with the power of symbolic computation. As its name implies, SNB can be used as a notebook in which students set up a math or science problem, write and solve equations, and analyze and discuss their results. Written by a physics teacher with over 20 years experience, this text includes topics that have educational value, fit within the typical physics curriculum, and show the benefits of using SNB.

  2. A new algorithm for solving linear programming problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Leonardo Ramírez Leal


    Full Text Available Linear programming (LP is one of the most widely-applied techniques in operations research. Many methods have been developed and several others are being proposed for solving LP problems, including the famous simplex method and interior point algorithms. This study was aimed at introducing a new method for solving LP problems. The proposed algorithm starts from an interior point and then carries out orthogonal projections using parametric straight lines to move between the interior and polyhedron frontier defining the feasible region until reaching the extreme optimal point.

  3. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... in each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can...... be solved faster when the number of categories is small....

  4. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper


    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine...... interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large......, whereas the MILP can be solved faster when the number of categories is small....

  5. Solving Excess Water Production Problems in Productive Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyrev Ilya


    Full Text Available One of the important developments of the Russian Federation national economy is a petroleum resource. Water shut off techniques are used in the oilfields to avoid the massive water production. We describe a technology for solving excess water production problems focusing on the new gel-based fluid which can be effectively applied for water shutoff. We study the effect of the gel-based fluid solution experimentally to show the feasibility of its treatment the in the near wellbore region to solve the excess water production problem.

  6. A Parallel Processing Algorithms for Solving Factorization and Knapsack Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Aloy Anuja Mary


    Full Text Available Quantum and Evolutionary computation are new forms of computing by their unique paradigm for designing algorithms.The Shors algorithm is based on quantum concepts such as Qubits, superposition and interference which is used to solve factoring problem that has a great impact on cryptography once the quantum computers becomes a reality. The Genetic algorithm is a computational paradigm based on natural evolution including survival of the fittest, reproduction, and mutation is used to solve NP_hard knapsack problem. These two algorithms are unique in achieving speedup in computation by their adaptation of parallelism in processing.

  7. A framework for solving ill-structured community problems (United States)

    Keller, William Cotesworth

    A multifaceted protocol for solving ill-structured community problems has been developed. It embodies the lessons learned from the past by refining and extending features of previous models from the systems thinkers, and the fields of behavioral decision making and creative problem solving. The protocol also embraces additional features needed to address the unique aspects of community decision situations. The essential elements of the protocol are participants from the community, a problem-solving process, a systems picture, a facilitator, a modified Delphi method of communications, and technical expertise. This interdisciplinary framework has been tested by a quasi experiment with a real world community problem (the high cost of electrical power on Long Island, NY). Results indicate the protocol can enable members of the community to understand a complicated, ill-structured problem and guide them to action to solve the issue. However, the framework takes time (over one year in the test case) and will be inappropriate for crises where quick action is needed.

  8. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.


    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  9. Building problem solving environments with the arches framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV


    The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

  10. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)


    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  11. Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem (United States)

    Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin


    Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ≤ 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

  12. Modelling human problem solving with data from an online game. (United States)

    Rach, Tim; Kirsch, Alexandra


    Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research. In addition, we present three geometrical models mapping the starting point preferences in the problems presented in the game as the result of an evaluation of the data set.

  13. Solving Quantum Ground-State Problems with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng


    Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems; for general many-body Hamiltonians, there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10^-5 decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wavefunctions than c...

  14. Ant Colony Search Algorithm for Solving Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Surya Kalavathi


    Full Text Available In this paper Ant Colony Search Algorithm is proposed to solve thermal unit commitment problem. Ant colony search (ACS studies are inspired from the behavior of real ant colonies that are used to solve function or combinatorial optimization problems. In the ACSA a set of cooperating agents called ants cooperates to find good solution of unit commitment problem of thermal units. The UC problem is to determine a minimal cost turn-on and turn-off schedule of a set of electrical power generating units to meet a load demand while satisfying a set of operational constraints. This proposed approach is a tested on 10 unit power system and compared to conventional methods.

  15. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill. (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.


    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  16. Solve the partitioning problem by sticker model in DNA computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Huiqin; LU Mingming; ZHU Hong


    The aim of this work is to solve the partitioning problem, the most canonical NP-complete problem containing numerical parameters, within the sticker model of DNA computing. We firstly design a parallel program for addition, and then give a program to calculate the subset sums of a set. At last, a program for partitioning is given, which contains the former programs. Furthermore, the correctness of each program is proved in this paper.

  17. Modified Filled Function to Solve NonlinearProgramming Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Filled function method is an approach to find the global minimum of nonlinear functions. Many Problems, such as computing,communication control, and management, in real applications naturally result in global optimization formulations in a form ofnonlinear global integer programming. This paper gives a modified filled function method to solve the nonlinear global integerprogramming problem. The properties of the proposed modified filled function are also discussed in this paper. The results ofpreliminary numerical experiments are also reported.

  18. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez;


    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networ......-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems....

  19. Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science


    DeHaan, Robert L.


    Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property...

  20. Solving the Quadratic Assignment Problem by a Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Gunawan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid algorithm to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP. The proposed algorithm involves using the Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to obtain an initial solution, and then using a combined Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS algorithm to improve the solution. Experimental results  indicate that the hybrid algorithm is able to obtain good quality solutions for QAPLIB test problems within reasonable computation time.

  1. Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.

  2. Information- problem solving: A review of problems students encounter and instructional solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els


    Walraven, A., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H.P.A. (2008). Information- problem solving: A review of problems students encounter and instructional solutions. Computers in Human Behavior, 24 (3), 623-648.

  3. Solving scheduling tournament problems using a new version of CLONALG (United States)

    Pérez-Cáceres, Leslie; Riff, María Cristina


    The travelling tournament problem (TTP) is an important and well-known problem within the collective sports research community. The problem is NP-hard which makes difficult finding quality solution in short amount of time. Recently a new kind of TTP has been proposed 'The Relaxed Travelling Tournament Problem'. This version of the problem allows teams to have some days off during the tournament. In this paper, we propose an immune algorithm that is able to solve both problem versions. The algorithm uses moves which are based on the team home/away patterns. One of these moves has been specially designed for the relaxed travel tournament instances. We have tested the algorithm using well-known problem benchmarks and the results obtained are very encouraging.

  4. Exploring Relationship between Scientific Reasoning Skills and Mathematics Problem Solving (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan


    Reasoning is considered to be an important proficiency in national mathematics curricula both in Australia (ACARA, 2014) and Malaysia (MOE, 2013). However, the nature of reasoning that supports learning and problem solving in mathematics is an area that requires further study (Schoenfeld, 2013). In this study we explored the link between…

  5. Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving (United States)

    Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen


    Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…

  6. Reversible Reasoning and the Working Backwards Problem Solving Strategy (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay


    Making sense of mathematical concepts and solving mathematical problems may demand different forms of reasoning. These could be either domain-based, such as algebraic, geometric or statistical reasoning, while others are more general such as inductive/deductive reasoning. This article aims at giving visibility to a particular form of reasoning…

  7. Group Mirrors to Support Interaction Regulation in Collaborative Problem Solving (United States)

    Jermann, Patrick; Dillenbourg, Pierre


    Two experimental studies test the effect of group mirrors upon quantitative and qualitative aspects of participation in collaborative problem solving. Mirroring tools consist of a graphical representation of the group's actions which is dynamically updated and displayed to the collaborators. In addition, metacognitive tools display a standard for…

  8. SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving. (United States)

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

  9. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers (United States)

    Gencel, Ilke Evin


    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  10. Team Self-Assessment: Problem Solving for Small Workgroups. (United States)

    LoBue, Robert


    Describes team self-assessment, a task force approach involving frontline workers/supervisors in solving problems or improving performance. Provides examples and discusses its theoretical bases: control self-assessment, Belbin's team roles research, and the team climate inventory. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  11. Strategies for Promoting Problem Solving and Transfer: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey


    Problem solving allows students to use what they know to achieve a goal when no solution is apparent. Traditional educational models evolved from an earlier system, based on rote memorization and designed to produce employees for industry. The workforce of tomorrow must move beyond rote learning by both applying current knowledge and using…

  12. The Triple Jump: Assessing Problem Solving in Psychiatry. (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ethna C.; Trimble, Peter; Smyth, Joe


    Describes an attempt to assess a final-year course in psychiatry using the Triple Jump. In this course, students on placement in psychiatric units perfect psychiatry skills that were acquired during the previous year by direct contact with patients. The Triple Jump is used to assess problem-solving skills in management strategy on cases. (PVD)

  13. MAUVE: A New Strategy for Solving and Grading Physics Problems (United States)

    Hill, Nicole Breanne


    MAUVE (magnitude, answer, units, variables, and equations) is a framework and rubric to help students and teachers through the process of clearly solving and assessing solutions to introductory physics problems. Success in introductory physics often derives from an understanding of units, a command over dimensional analysis, and good bookkeeping.…

  14. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving (United States)

    Highfield, Kate


    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  15. Impact of Authenticity on Sense Making in Word Problem Solving (United States)

    Palm, Torulf


    The study presented in this paper seeks to investigate the impact of authenticity on the students' disposition to make necessary real world considerations in their word problem solving. The aim is also to gather information about the extent to which different reasons for the students' behaviors are responsible for not providing solutions that are…

  16. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.


    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step proc

  17. Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon


    Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…

  18. Motivational Influences on Transfer of Problem-Solving Strategies (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Kaplan, Avi


    Two experiments investigated the effect of achievement goals on the transfer of a problem-solving strategy in 7- and 11-year-old children. In the first experiment, motivational priming took place before the learning of the strategy, affecting the learning as well as the transfer of the strategy. In the second experiment, motivational priming took…

  19. Advice and Feedback: Elements of Practice for Problem Solving. (United States)

    Phye, Gary D.; Sanders, Cheryl E.


    The roles of advice and feedback in the facilitation of online processing during acquisition and subsequent impact on memory-based processing during a delayed problem-solving task were studied in 2 experiments with 123 college students. Results indicate that corrective feedback improves online processing during training. (SLD)

  20. Problem Solving Abilities and Perceptions in Alternative Certification Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.


    It is important for teacher educators to understand new alternative certification middle and high school teachers' mathematical problem solving abilities and perceptions. Teachers in an alternative certification program in New York were enrolled in a proof-based algebra course. At the beginning and end of a semester participants were given a…

  1. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.


    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  2. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck


    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  3. Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian


    This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

  4. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills? (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia


    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  5. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lizett Olivares-Olivares


    Full Text Available Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 experts in medical education and applied to 135 registered students on the sixth year of the M.D. Physician Surgeon program at a private medical school. Cronbach’s alpha indicated an internal consistency of 0.751. The findings suggest that selected items have both homogeneity and validity. The factor analysis resulted in components that were associated with three problem-solving subcategories. The students’ perceptions are higher in the pattern recognition and application of general strategies for problem solving subcategories of the Problem solving disposition model.

  6. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio


    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  7. Hats off to Problem-Solving with Couples (United States)

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Nelson, Judy; Eckstein, Daniel


    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how counselors can use de Bono's Six Thinking Hats problem-solving technique in their work with couples. Part 1 of the article focuses on an introduction to the technique, including a theoretical rationale and supporting research. Following a detailed description of the process of using the model as a…

  8. Knowledge based method for solving complexity in design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.


    The process of design aircraft systems is becoming more and more complex, due to an increasing amount of requirements. Moreover, the knowledge on how to solve these complex design problems becomes less readily available, because of a decrease in availability of intellectual resources and reduced kno

  9. Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach. (United States)

    Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.


    Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)

  10. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling


    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  11. A Semantic Scene Description Language for Procedural Layout Solving Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutenel, T.; Smelik, R.M.; Bidarra, R.; Kraker, K.J. de


    Procedural content generation is becoming more and more relevant to solve the problem of content creation for the ever growing virtual worlds of games, simulations and other applications. However, these procedures are often unintuitive or use vague parameters, making it somewhat difficult for a desi

  12. Content Emphasis, Practice, and Cognitive Style in Analogical Problem Solving. (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wedman, John F.


    This study investigated the effect of content emphasis, learning practice, and field dependence/independence on college students' analogous problem-solving skills. Under certain conditions, field-independent subjects performed significantly better than field-dependent subjects. Subjects given a principle-based content emphasis performed…

  13. Protocol Analysis of Social Problem Solving in Counselor Trainees. (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.; And Others

    This study investigated social problem solving (SPS) and cognitive style (field dependence-independence) in 70 counselor trainees who were also elementary or secondary school teachers. Specifically, the study attempted to analyze and describe the SPS responses of counselor trainees; to examine whether SPS elements, styles, and processes varied…

  14. The Domino Effect: Problem Solving with Common Table Games. (United States)

    Reimer, Wilbert


    Domino games are used to illustrate problem-solving techniques in a college principles-of-mathematics course. Students develop tables and use Pascal's triangle to find the total number of pips and the sum of numbers on the pieces. (DC)

  15. Why Teach Cooperative Problem-Solving in Adult Education? (United States)

    Walker, Ann


    This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…

  16. Problem Solving in the Borderland between Mathematics and Physics (United States)

    Jensen, Jens Højgaard; Niss, Martin; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas


    The article addresses the problématique of where mathematization is taught in the educational system, and who teaches it. Mathematization is usually not a part of mathematics programs at the upper secondary level, but we argue that physics teaching has something to offer in this respect, if it focuses on solving so-called unformalized problems,…

  17. Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems (United States)

    Alexander, Melissa


    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurate…

  18. A Working Memory Model Applied to Mathematical Word Problem Solving (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Hassan


    The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence/independence), working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students' mathematics problem solving. A sample of 161 school girls (13-14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin's cognitive style (Group Embedded…

  19. Adventures in Exercise Physiology: Enhancing Problem Solving and Assessment (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.


    I altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. I used the SALGains evaluation to compare the two approaches and saw significant improvements in the evaluation ratings of students who were taught using the new format. Narrative responses…

  20. Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment. (United States)

    Towler, Constance F.


    Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…

  1. Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables (United States)

    Gauthier, N.


    The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

  2. Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving (United States)

    Abramovich, Sergei


    This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)

  3. A new method of solving the coefficient inverse problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper is concerned with the new method for solving the coefficient inverse problem in the reproducing kernel space. It is different from the previous studies. This method gives accurate results and shows that it is valid by the numerical example.

  4. Problem Solving and the Use of Math in Physics Courses (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.


    Mathematics is an essential element of physics problem solving, but experts often fail to appreciate exactly how they use it. Math may be the language of science, but math-in-physics is a distinct dialect of that language. Physicists tend to blend conceptual physics with mathematical symbolism in a way that profoundly affects the way equations are…

  5. IMMEX Problem-Solving Software: Integrating Curriculum into Technology. (United States)

    Underdahl, Jennifer


    Explains the history of IMMEX (Interactive Multi-Media Exercises) and its evolution into a Web-delivered, interactive software program, which assesses student understanding of curriculum in K-16 classrooms by tracking its application in real-world, problem-solving scenarios. Discusses performance feedback for teachers and students, and offers…

  6. Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith


    Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation…

  7. A Unified Approach for Solving Nonlinear Regular Perturbation Problems (United States)

    Khuri, S. A.


    This article describes a simple alternative unified method of solving nonlinear regular perturbation problems. The procedure is based upon the manipulation of Taylor's approximation for the expansion of the nonlinear term in the perturbed equation. An essential feature of this technique is the relative simplicity used and the associated unified…

  8. Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving (United States)

    Osman, Magda


    This study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem-solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based…

  9. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions (United States)

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.


    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  10. Bandit-Inspired Memetic Algorithms for Solving Quadratic Assignment Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puglierin, Francesco; Drugan, Madalina M.; Wiering, Marco


    In this paper we propose a novel algorithm called the Bandit-Inspired Memetic Algorithm (BIMA) and we have applied it to solve different large instances of the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Like other memetic algorithms, BIMA makes use of local search and a population of solutions. The novelty

  11. On the development of knowledge during problem solving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hamel; J.J. Elshout


    A person might solve a problem progressing very quickly after an initial period of very little progress, as if new insight was suddenly gained, without that person possessing anything that merits being called insight. This is demonstrated in a series of studies as an extension of the experiments of

  12. Play and Divergent Problem Solving: Evidence Supporting a Reciprocal Relationship. (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.


    Three studies examined the relationship between specific forms of preschoolers' social and pretend play and divergent/convergent problem solving. Naturalistic and experimental designs were used to provide clearer account of relationship and to challenge assumption of single direction of influence. Results support complex reciprocal causality model…

  13. A heuristic method for solving triangle packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-bo; HE Da-hua


    Given a set of triangles and a rectangle container, the triangle packing problem is to determine ifthese triangles can be placed into the container without overlapping. Triangle packing problem is a special case of polygon packing problem and also NP-hard, so it is unlikely that an efficient and exact algorithm can be developed to solve this problem. In this paper, a new concept of rigid placement is proposed, based on which a discrete solution space called rigid solution space is constructed. Each solution in the rigid solution space can be built by continuously applying legal rigid placements one by one until all the triangles are placed into the rectangle container without overlapping. The proposed Least-Destruction-First (LDF) strategy determines which rigid placement has the privilege to go into the rectangle container. Based on this, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem.Combining Least-Destruction-First strategy with backtracking, the corresponding backtracking algorithm is proposed. Computational results show that our proposed algorithms are efficient and robust. With slight modification, these techniques can be conveniently used for solving polygon packing problem.

  14. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines. (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B


    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices.

  15. Solving Classical Insight Problems without Aha! Experience: 9 Dot, 8 Coin, and Matchstick Arithmetic Problems (United States)

    Danek, Amory H.; Wiley, Jennifer; Öllinger, Michael


    Insightful problem solving is a vital part of human thinking, yet very difficult to grasp. Traditionally, insight has been investigated by using a set of established "insight tasks," assuming that insight has taken place if these problems are solved. Instead of assuming that insight takes place during every solution of the 9 Dot, 8 Coin,…

  16. Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving (with examples from diagnosis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teije, A. ten; Harmelen, van F.A.H.


    Flexible problem solving consists of the dynamic selection and configuration of problem solving methods for a particular problem type, depending on the particular problem and the goal of problem solving. In this paper, we propose an architecture that supports such flexible problem solving automatic

  17. Noticing relevant problem features: Activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle M Crooks


    Full Text Available This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + _. Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil & Alibali, 2000. One possible reason is that children’s experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil & Alibali, 2005: the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an operations = answer format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means calculate the total, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problems. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the

  18. Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide (United States)

    Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.


    Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the

  19. Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding1,*


    Full Text Available It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a solver to conduct a general search for underlying concepts. Hypothesizing that complete reliance on EOC problems trains students to rely on a nonexpert approach, we designed and implemented “synthesis” problems, each combining two major concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching timeline. To provide students with guided conceptual scaffolding, we encapsulated each synthesis problem into a sequence with two preceding conceptually based multiple-choice questions. Each question contained one of the major concepts covered in the subsequent synthesis problem. Results from a small-scale interview study and two large-scale written tests showed that the scaffolding encouraged students to search for and apply appropriate fundamental principles in solving synthesis problems, and that repeated training using scaffolded synthesis problems also helped students to make cross-topic transfers.

  20. Solving Vertex Cover Problem Using DNA Tile Assembly Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Chen


    Full Text Available DNA tile assembly models are a class of mathematically distributed and parallel biocomputing models in DNA tiles. In previous works, tile assembly models have been proved be Turing-universal; that is, the system can do what Turing machine can do. In this paper, we use tile systems to solve computational hard problem. Mathematically, we construct three tile subsystems, which can be combined together to solve vertex cover problem. As a result, each of the proposed tile subsystems consists of Θ(1 types of tiles, and the assembly process is executed in a parallel way (like DNA’s biological function in cells; thus the systems can generate the solution of the problem in linear time with respect to the size of the graph.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur İŞÇİ


    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.

  2. About decomposition approach for solving the classification problem (United States)

    Andrianova, A. A.


    This article describes the features of the application of an algorithm with using of decomposition methods for solving the binary classification problem of constructing a linear classifier based on Support Vector Machine method. Application of decomposition reduces the volume of calculations, in particular, due to the emerging possibilities to build parallel versions of the algorithm, which is a very important advantage for the solution of problems with big data. The analysis of the results of computational experiments conducted using the decomposition approach. The experiment use known data set for binary classification problem.

  3. Solving constrained traveling salesman problems by genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunguo; LIANG Yanchun; LEE Heowpueh; LU Chun; LIN Wuzhong


    Three kinds of constrained traveling salesman problems (TSP) arising from application problems, namely the open route TSP, the end-fixed TSP, and the path-constrained TSP, are proposed. The corresponding approaches based on modified genetic algorithms (GA) for solving these constrained TSPs are presented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the algorithm for the open route TSP shows its advantages when the open route is required, the algorithm for the end-fixed TSP can deal with route optimization with constraint of fixed ends effectively, and the algorithm for the path-constraint could benefit the traffic problems where some cities cannot be visited from each other.

  4. Mathematical modeling/problem solving in global oxygen transport. (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin; Hill, Andrew; Dent, Leon; Nguyen, Minh Ly


    A simplified approach to mathematical modeling/problem solving in global oxygen transport is presented. In addition to standard oxygen transport formulae, it uses the S-Factor and a mathematical relationship relating SvO(2) to the ratio DO(2)/VO(2). This method allows the determination or specification of SvO(2), PvO(2), P(50), and systemic shunting in the context of this simplified approach. Heretofore this has not been possible. With this approach, essentially all clinical problems in global oxygen transport can be dealt with. This is illustrated by the broad scope of the five problems presented.

  5. Solving the quadratic assignment problem with clues from nature. (United States)

    Nissen, V


    This paper describes a new evolutionary approach to solving quadratic assignment problems. The proposed technique is based loosely on a class of search and optimization algorithms known as evolution strategies (ES). These methods are inspired by the mechanics of biological evolution and have been applied successfully to a variety of difficult problems, particularly in continuous optimization. The combinatorial variant of ES presented here performs very well on the given test problems as compared with the standard 2-Opt heuristic and results with simulated annealing and tabu search. Extensions for practical applications in factory layout are described.

  6. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa


    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  7. Modified Block Iterative Method for Solving Convex Feasibility Problem, Equilibrium Problems and Variational Inequality Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Sheng ZHANG; Chi Kin CHAN; H.W. JOSEPH LEE


    The purpose of this paper is by using the modified block iterative method to propose an algorithm for finding a common element in the intersection of the set of common fixed points of an infinite family of quasi-φ-asymptotically nonexpansive and the set of solutions to an equilibrium problem and the set of solutions to a variational inequality.Under suitable conditions some strong convergence theorems are established in 2-uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces.As applications we utilize the results presented in the paper to solving the convex feasibility problem (CFP) and zero point problem of maximal monotone mappings in Banach spaces.The results presented in the paper improve and extend the corresponding results announced by many authors.

  8. Enhancing decision-making effectiveness in problem-solving teams. (United States)

    Bazan, S


    Active participation by all group members as well as the generation, presentation, and critical evaluation of a wide range of perspectives and alternatives are hallmarks of effective problem-solving teams. Diverse groups with an odd number of participants (five to seven members are generally best) are manageable and provide an adequate range of perspectives and alternatives. Several problems limit the effectiveness of problem-solving teams. Dysfunctional concurrence or "groupthink" occurs when concurrence seeking in cohesive groups overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Managers initially should withhold their own opinions, assign members the role of critical evaluators, and bring in people from outside the initial group to minimize this problem. Domination by a select few is also a problem because it can squelch the presentation of diverse opinions. Brainstorming and nominal group technique can mitigate this problem. In nominal group technique, a manager guides the group through steps involving brainstorming, recording, and voting on the merits of various alternatives before open discussion is allowed. Decision-making dropouts are group members who withdraw from active participation in the group. Managers can reduce this problem by emphasizing the importance of active participation and by monitoring performance.

  9. Investigation of Problem-Solving and Problem-Posing Abilities of Seventh-Grade Students (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan


    This study aims to examine the effect of multiple problem-solving skills on the problem-posing abilities of gifted and non-gifted students and to assess whether the possession of such skills can predict giftedness or affect problem-posing abilities. Participants' metaphorical images of problem posing were also explored. Participants were 20 gifted…

  10. Seventh Grade Students' Problem Solving Success Rates on Proportional Reasoning Problems (United States)

    Pelen, Mustafa Serkan; Artut, Perihan Dinç


    This research was conducted to investigate 7th grade students' problem solving success rates on proportional reasoning problems and whether these success rates change with different problem types. 331 randomly selected students of grade seven participated in this study. A problem test which contains three different types of missing value (direct…

  11. The Effect of Problem Solving and Problem Posing Models and Innate Ability to Students Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Kartika Irawati


    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Problem Solving dan Problem Posing serta Kemampuan Awal terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa   Abstract: Chemistry concepts understanding features abstract quality and requires higher order thinking skills. Yet, the learning on chemistry has not boost the higher order thinking skills of the students. The use of the learning model of Problem Solving and Problem Posing in observing the innate ability of the student is expected to resolve the issue. This study aims to determine the learning model which is effective to improve the study of the student with different level of innate ability. This study used the quasi-experimental design. The research data used in this research is the quiz/test of the class which consist of 14 multiple choice questions and 5 essay questions. The data analysis used is ANOVA Two Ways. The results showed that Problem Posing is more effective to improve the student compared to Problem Solving, students with high level of innate ability have better outcomes in learning rather than the students with low level of innate ability after being applied with the Problem solving and Problem posing model, further, Problem Solving and Problem Posing is more suitable to be applied to the students with high level of innate ability. Key Words: problem solving, problem posing, higher order thinking skills, innate ability, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Pemahaman konsep-konsep kimia yang bersifat abstrak membutuhkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Pembelajaran kimia belum mendorong siswa melakukan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Penggunaan model pembelajaran Problem Solving dan Problem Posing dengan memperhatikan kemampuan awal siswa diduga dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model pembelajaran yang efektif dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar dengan kemampuan awal siswa yang berbeda. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksperimen semu. Data penelitian menggunakan tes hasil belajar

  12. Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation. (United States)

    Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan


    Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving.

  13. Recent Advances in Solving the Protein Threading Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Andonov, Rumen; Gibrat, Jean-François; Marin, Antoine; Poirriez, Vincent; Yanev, Nikola


    The fold recognition methods are promissing tools for capturing the structure of a protein by its amino acid residues sequence but their use is still restricted by the needs of huge computational resources and suitable efficient algorithms as well. In the recent version of FROST (Fold Recognition Oriented Search Tool) package the most efficient algorithm for solving the Protein Threading Problem (PTP) is implemented due to the strong collaboration between the SYMBIOSE group in IRISA and MIG in Jouy-en-Josas. In this paper, we present the diverse components of FROST, emphasizing on the recent advances in formulating and solving new versions of the PTP and on the way of solving on a computer cluster a million of instances in a easonable time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila


    Full Text Available The paper is a sequel to the article (Novotná et al., 2014, where the authors present the results of a 4-month experiment whose main aim was to change pupils’ culture of problem solving by using heuristic strategies suitable for problem solving in mathematics education. (Novotná et al., 2014 focused on strategies Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Working backwards and Use of graphs of functions. This paper focuses on two other heuristic strategies convenient for improvement of pupils’ culture of problem solving: Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition. In the first part, the strategies Guess – Check – Revise, Working backwards, Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition are characterized in detail and illustrated by examples of their use in order to capture their characteristics. In the second part we focus on the newly introduced strategies and analyse work with them in lessons using the tools from (Novotná et al., 2014. The analysis of results of the experiment indicates that, unlike in case of the strategy Introduction of an auxiliary element, successful use of the strategy Omitting a condition requires longer teacher’s work with the pupils. The following analysis works with the strategy Systematic experimentation, which seemed to be the easiest to master in (Novotná et al., 2014; we focus on the dangers it bears when it is used by pupils. The conclusion from (Novotná et al., 2014, which showed that if pupils are introduced to an environment that supports their creativity, their attitude towards problem solving changes in a positive way already after the period of four months, is confirmed.

  15. Solving network design problems via decomposition, aggregation and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bärmann, Andreas


    Andreas Bärmann develops novel approaches for the solution of network design problems as they arise in various contexts of applied optimization. At the example of an optimal expansion of the German railway network until 2030, the author derives a tailor-made decomposition technique for multi-period network design problems. Next, he develops a general framework for the solution of network design problems via aggregation of the underlying graph structure. This approach is shown to save much computation time as compared to standard techniques. Finally, the author devises a modelling framework for the approximation of the robust counterpart under ellipsoidal uncertainty, an often-studied case in the literature. Each of these three approaches opens up a fascinating branch of research which promises a better theoretical understanding of the problem and an increasing range of solvable application settings at the same time. Contents Decomposition for Multi-Period Network Design Solving Network Design Problems via Ag...

  16. Chemical reaction optimization for solving shortest common supersequence problem. (United States)

    Khaled Saifullah, C M; Rafiqul Islam, Md


    Shortest common supersequence (SCS) is a classical NP-hard problem, where a string to be constructed that is the supersequence of a given string set. The SCS problem has an enormous application of data compression, query optimization in the database and different bioinformatics activities. Due to NP-hardness, the exact algorithms fail to compute SCS for larger instances. Many heuristics and meta-heuristics approaches were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a meta-heuristics approach based on chemical reaction optimization, CRO_SCS that is designed inspired by the nature of the chemical reactions. For different optimization problems like 0-1 knapsack, quadratic assignment, global numeric optimization problems CRO algorithm shows very good performance. We have redesigned the reaction operators and a new reform function to solve the SCS problem. The outcomes of the proposed CRO_SCS algorithm are compared with those of the enhanced beam search (IBS_SCS), deposition and reduction (DR), ant colony optimization (ACO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms. The length of supersequence, execution time and standard deviation of all related algorithms show that CRO_SCS gives better results on the average than all other algorithms.

  17. Combinatorial particle swarm optimization for solving blocking flowshop scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Eddaly


    Full Text Available This paper addresses to the flowshop scheduling problem with blocking constraints. The objective is to minimize the makespan criterion. We propose a hybrid combinatorial particle swarm optimization algorithm (HCPSO as a resolution technique for solving this problem. At the initialization, different priority rules are exploited. Experimental study and statistical analysis were performed to select the most adapted one for this problem. Then, the swarm behavior is tested for solving a combinatorial optimization problem such as a sequencing problem under constraints. Finally, an iterated local search algorithm based on probabilistic perturbation is sequentially introduced to the particle swarm optimization algorithm for improving the quality of solution. The computational results show that our approach is able to improve several best known solutions of the literature. In fact, 76 solutions among 120 were improved. Moreover, HCPSO outperforms the compared methods in terms of quality of solutions in short time requirements. Also, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated according to a real-world industrial problem.

  18. Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving (with examples from diagnosis)


    Teije, A. ten; Harmelen, van, F.A.H.


    Flexible problem solving consists of the dynamic selection and configuration of problem solving methods for a particular problem type, depending on the particular problem and the goal of problem solving. In this paper, we propose an architecture that supports such flexible problem solving automatically. For this purpose, problem solving methods are described in a uniform way, by an abstract model of components, which together define the functionality of the methods. Such an abstract model is ...

  19. Solving the Stokes problem on a massively parallel computer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Owe; Barker, Vincent A.; Neytcheva, Maya;


    We describe a numerical procedure for solving the stationary two‐dimensional Stokes problem based on piecewise linear finite element approximations for both velocity and pressure, a regularization technique for stability, and a defect‐correction technique for improving accuracy. Eliminating...... boundary value problem for each velocity component, are solved by the conjugate gradient method with a preconditioning based on the algebraic multi‐level iteration (AMLI) technique. The velocity is found from the computed pressure. The method is optimal in the sense that the computational work...... is proportional to the number of unknowns. Further, it is designed to exploit a massively parallel computer with distributed memory architecture. Numerical experiments on a Cray T3E computer illustrate the parallel performance of the method....

  20. Function of hippocampus in "insight" of problem solving. (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Niki, Kazuhisa


    Since the work of Wolfgang Kohler, the process of "insight" in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investigation. Yet, the neural correlates of "insight" remain unknown. Theoretically, "insight" means the reorientation of one's thinking, including breaking of the unwarranted "fixation" and forming of novel, task-related associations among the old nodes of concepts or cognitive skills. Processes closely related to these aspects have been implicated in the hippocampus. In this research, the neural correlates of "insight" were investigated using Japanese riddles, by imaging the answer presentation and comprehension events, just after participants failed to resolve them. The results of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis demonstrated that the right hippocampus was critically highlighted and that a wide cerebral cortex was also involved in this "insight" event. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first neuroimaging study to have investigated the neural correlates of "insight" in problem solving.