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Sample records for circumstellar silica dust

  1. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  2. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  3. The composition of circumstellar and interstellar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Woodward, CE; Biscay, MD; Shull, JM

    2001-01-01

    A large number of solid dust components have been identified through analysis of stardust recovered from meteorites, and analysis of IR observations of circumstellar shells and the interstellar medium. These include graphite, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, diamond, PAHs, silicon-, iron-, and titanin

  4. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  5. Abundant Circumstellar Silica Dust and SiO Gas Created by a Giant Hypervelocity Collision in the ~12 Myr HD172555 System

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wyatt, M C; Morlok, A; Song, I; Bryden, G; Sheehan, P

    2009-01-01

    The fine dust detected by IR emission around the nearby Beta Pic analogue star HD172555 is very peculiar. The dust mineralogy is composed primarily of highly refractory, non-equilibrium materials, with approximately three-quarters of the Si atoms in silica (SiO2) species. Tektite and obsidian lab thermal emission spectra (non-equilibrium glassy silicas found in impact and magmatic systems) are required to fit the data. The best-fit model size distribution for the observed fine dust is dn/da = a-3.95 +/- 0.10. This steep a size distribution, with abundant micron-sized particles, argues for a fresh source of material within the last 0.1 Myr. The location of the dust with respect to the star is at 5.8 +/- 0.6 AU (equivalent to 1.9 +/- 0.2 AU from the Sun), within the terrestrial planet formation region but at the outer edge of any possible terrestrial habitability zone. The mass of fine dust is 4 x 10^19 - 2 x 10^20 kg, equivalent to a 150 - 200 km radius asteroid. Significant emission features centered at 4 and...

  6. Dust Stratification in Young Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rettig, T; Simon, T; Gibb, E; Balsara, D S; Tilley, D A; Kulesa, C; Simon, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectra of four YSOs (T Tau N, T Tau S, RNO 91, and HL Tau). The spectra exhibit narrow absorption lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O as well as broad emission lines of gas phase12CO. The narrow absorption lines of CO are shown to originate from the colder circumstellar gas. We find that the line of sight gas column densities resulting from the CO absorption lines are much higher than expected for the measured extinction for each source and suggest the gas to dust ratio is measuring the dust settling and/or grain coagulation in these extended disks. We provide a model of turbulence, dust settling and grain growth to explain the results. The techniques presented here allow us to provide some observationally-motivated bounds on accretion disk alpha in protostellar systems.

  7. Composite grains: Application to circumstellar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Vaidya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA we calculate the absorption efficiency of the composite grain, made up of a host silicate spheroid and inclusions of graphite, in the spectral region 5.0-25.0μm. We study the absorption as a function of the voulume fraction of the inclusions. In particular, we study the variation in the 10.0μm and 18.0μm emission features with the volume fraction of the inclusions. Using the extinction efficiencies, of the composite grains we calculate the infrared fluxes at several dust temperatures and compare the model curves with the observed infrared emission curves (IRAS-LRS, obtained for circumstellar dust shells around oxygen rich M-type stars.

  8. Dust Migration and Morphology in Optically Thin Circumstellar Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, T; Takeuchi, Taku; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of gas-dust coupling in the presence of stellar radiation pressure in circumstellar gas disks, which are in a transitional stage between the gas-dominated, optically thick, primordial nebulae, and the dust-dominated, optically thin Vega-type disks. Dust undergo radial migration, seeking a stable equilibrium orbit in corotation with gas. The migration of dust gives rise to radial fractionation of dust and creates a variety of possible observed disk morphologies, which we compute by considering the equilibrium between the dust production and the dust-dust collisions removing particles from their equilibrium orbits. Sand-sized and larger grains are distributed throughout most of the gas disk, with concentration near the gas pressure maximum in the inner disk. Smaller grains (typically in the range of 10 to 200 micron) concentrate in a prominent ring structure in the outer region of the gas disk (presumably at radius 100 AU), where gas density is rapidly declining with radius. The width an...

  9. Circumstellar Dust Created by Terrestrial Planet Formation in HD 113766

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wyatt, M C; Morlok, A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gas-poor circumstellar material in the HD 113766 binary system (F3/F5, 10 - 16 Myr), recently observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. For our study we have used the infrared mineralogical model derived from observations of the Deep Impact experiment. We find the dust dominated by warm, fine (~1 um) particles, abundant in Mg-rich olivine, crystalline pyroxenes, amorphous silicates, Fe-rich sulfides, amorphous carbon, and colder water-ice. The warm dust material mix is akin to an inner main belt asteroid of S-type composition. The ~440 K effective temperature of the warm dust implies that the bulk of the observed material is in a narrow belt ~1.8 AU from the 4.4 L_solar central source, in the terrestrial planet-forming region and habitable zone of the system (equivalent to 0.9 AU in the solar system). The icy dust lies in 2 belts, located at 4-9 AU and at 30 - 80 AU. The lower bound of warm dust mass in 0.1 - 20 um, dn/da ~ a^-3.5 particles is very large, at least 3 x 10^20 kg, eq...

  10. Evolution of Gas and Dust in Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Körner, D W

    1999-01-01

    A clear understanding of the chemical processing of matter, as it is transferred from a molecular cloud to a planetary system, depends heavily on knowledge of the physical conditions endured by gas and dust as these accrete onto a disk and are incorporated into planetary bodies. Reviewed here are astrophysical observations of circumstellar disks which trace their evolving properties. Accretion disks that are massive enough to produce a solar system like our own are typically larger than 100 AU. This suggests that the chemistry of a large fraction of the infalling material is not radically altered upon contact with a vigorous accretion shock. The mechanisms of accretion onto the star and eventual dispersal are not yet well understood, but timescales for the removal of gas and optically thick dust appear to be a few times 10$^6$ yrs. At later times, tenuous ``debris disks'' of dust remain around stars as old as a few times 10$^8$ yrs. Features in the morphology of the latter, such as inner holes, warps, and azi...

  11. Evolution of Cold Circumstellar Dust Around Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M; Schreyer, K; Launhardt, R; Henning, T; Carpenter, John M.; Wolf, Sebastian; Schreyer, Katharina; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Th.

    2004-01-01

    We present submillimeter (CSO 350um) and millimeter (SEST 1.2 mm, OVRO 3 mm) photometry for 125 solar-type stars from the FEPS Spitzer Legacy program that have masses between ~0.5 and 2.0 Msun and ages from 3 Myr to 3 Gyr. Continuum emission was detected toward four stars with a signal to noise ratio >= 3$: the classical T Tauri stars RX J1842.9-3532, RX J1852.3-3700, and PDS 66 with SEST, and the debris disk system HD 107146 with OVRO. RXJ1842.9-3532 and RXJ1852.3-3700 are located in projection nearby the R CrA molecular cloud with estimated ages of ~10 Myr, while PDS66 is a probable member of the 20 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB association. The continuum emission toward these three sources is unresolved at the 24'' SEST resolution and likely originates from circumstellar accretion disks, each with estimated dust masses of ~5x10**-5 Msun. Analysis of the visibility data toward HD107146 (age 80-200 Myr) indicates that the 3 mm continuum emission is centered on the star within the as...

  12. Circumstellar Dust Around AGB Stars and Implications for Infrared Emission from Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Villaume, Alexa; Johnson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models are used to infer many galactic properties including star formation histories, metallicities, and stellar and dust masses. However, most SPS models neglect the effect of circumstellar dust shells around evolved stars and it is unclear to what extent they impact the analysis of SEDs. To overcome this shortcoming we have created a new set of circumstellar dust models, using the radiative transfer code DUSTY Ivezic et al. 1999, for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and incorporated them into the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code. The circumstellar dust models provide a good fit to individual AGB stars as well as the IR color-magnitude diagrams of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. IR luminosity functions from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are not well-fit by the 2008 Padova isochrones when coupled to our circumstellar dust models, and so we adjusted the lifetimes of AGB stars in the models to provide a match to the data. We show, in agreement with ...

  13. Circumstellar Dust, PAHs, and Stellar Populations in Early-Type Galaxies: Insights from GALEX and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Simonian, Gregory V

    2016-01-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual PAH ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, the most likely origin is the large number of AGB stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of $\\sim350$ early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) mass-to-light ratios are inconsistent with model predictions for a single IMF, as found by previous work. While the stellar population differences...

  14. Infrared spectroscopy of circumstellar dust: signs of differentiated materials?

    OpenAIRE

    Morlok, A.; Köhler, M; Grady, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared absorption spectra of powdered achondrites are compared with the astronomical spectra of dust around young, evolving stars, to find evidence (or not) of dust formed in collisional cascades of material from planetesimals.

  15. Synthetic photometry for carbon-rich giants II. The effects of pulsation and circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotny, Walter; Höfner, Susanne; Lederer, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    By using self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres which simulate pulsation-enhanced dust-driven winds of AGB stars we studied in detail the influence of (i) pulsations of the stellar interiors, and (ii) the development of dusty stellar winds on the spectral appearance of long period variables with carbon-rich atmospheric chemistry. While the pulsations lead to large-amplitude photometric variability, the dusty envelopes cause pronounced circumstellar reddening. Based on one selected dynamical model which is representative of C-type Mira variables with intermediate mass loss rates, we calculated synthetic spectra and photometry for standard broad-band filters from the visual to the near-infrared. Our modelling allows to investigate in detail the substantial effect of circumstellar dust on the resultant photometry. The pronounced absorption of amorphous carbon dust grains leads to colour indices which are significantly redder than the corresponding ones based on hydrostatic dust-free models. Only if we account...

  16. Circumstellar CO Emission in S Stars I. Mass-Loss with Little or No Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Liechti, S.

    1994-01-01

    47 S stars have been searched for circumstellar CO (J=1-0 and/or 2-1) emission, and 29 have been detected, including 4 which show no evidence of dust in their IRAS LRS spectra and one with possibly no Tc (and therefore not an AGB star).

  17. Circumstellar dust, PAHs and stellar populations in early-type galaxies: insights from GALEX and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonian, Gregory V.; Martini, Paul

    2017-02-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, it likely originates from the large number of asymptotic giant branch stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of ˜310 early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 μm) mass-to-light ratios are consistent with the initial mass function variation found by previous work. While the stellar population differences in early-type galaxies correspond to a range of radiation field shapes incident upon the diffuse dust, the ratio of the ionization-sensitive 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH feature does not correlate with the shape of the radiation field, nor to variations with the size-sensitive 11.3 μm/17 μm ratio. The 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratio does tend to be smaller in galaxies with proportionally greater H2 emission, which is evidence that processing of primarily smaller grains by shocks is responsible for the unusual ratios, rather than substantial differences in the overall PAH size or ionization distribution.

  18. Constraints on the circumstellar dust around KIC 8462852

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, M A; Kemper, F; Geach, J E; Dunham, M M; Morata, O; Ertel, S; Ho, P T P; Dempsey, J; Coulson, I; Petitpas, G; Kristensen, L E

    2015-01-01

    We present millimetre (SMA) and sub-millimetre (SCUBA-2) continuum observations of the peculiar star KIC 8462852 which displayed several deep and aperiodic dips in brightness during the Kepler mission. Our observations are approximately confusion-limited at 850 $\\mu$m and are the deepest millimetre and sub-millimetre photometry of the star that has yet been carried out. No significant emission is detected towards KIC 8462852. We determine upper limits for dust between a few 10$^{-6}$ M$_{\\oplus}$ and 10$^{-3}$ M$_{\\oplus}$ for regions identified as the most likely to host occluding dust clumps and a total overall dust budget of $<$7.7 M$_{\\oplus}$ within a radius of 200 AU. Such low limits for the inner system make the catastrophic planetary disruption hypothesis unlikely. Integrating over the Kepler lightcurve we determine that at least 10$^{-9}$ M$_{\\oplus}$ of dust is required to cause the observed Q16 dip. This is consistent with the currently most favoured cometary breakup hypothesis, but nevertheless...

  19. Large dust grains in the inner region of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Isella, A; Testi, L; Isella, Andrea; Testi, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Simple geometrical ring models account well for near-infrared interferometric observations of dusty disks surrounding pre-main sequence stars of intermediate mass. Such models demonstrate that the dust distribution in these disks has an inner hole and puffed-up inner edge consistent with theoretical expectations. AIMS: In this paper, we reanalyze the available interferometric observations of six intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars (CQ Tau, VV Ser, MWC 480, MWC 758, V1295 Aql and AB Aur) in the framework of a more detailed physical model of the inner region of the dusty disk. Our aim is to verify whether the model will allow us to constrain the disk and dust properties. METHODS: Observed visibilities from the literature are compared with theoretical visibilities from our model. With the assumption that silicates are the most refractory dust species, our model computes self-consistently the shape and emission of the inner edge of the dusty disk (and hence its visibilities for given interferometer...

  20. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  1. On Absorption by Circumstellar Dust, With the Progenitor of SN2012aw as a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanek, C S; Dai, X

    2012-01-01

    We use the progenitor of SN2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond; (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mis-characterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly over-estimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 10^4.8 0.3 micron) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth (tau < 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

  2. Photoevaporation of Circumstellar Disks Revisited: The Dust-Free Case

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Kei E I; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Photoevaporation by stellar ionizing radiation is believed to play an important role in the dispersal of disks around young stars. The mass loss model for dust-free disks developed by Hollenbach et al. is currently regarded as a conventional one and has been used in a wide variety of studies. However, the rate in this model was derived by the crude so-called 1+1D approximation of ionizing radiation transfer, which assumes that diffuse radiation propagates in a direction vertical to the disk. In this study, we revisit the photoevaporation of dust-free disks by solving the 2D axisymmetric radiative transfer for steady-state disks. Unlike that solved by the conventional model, we determine that direct stellar radiation is more important than the diffuse field at the disk surface. The radial density distribution at the ionization boundary is represented by the single power-law with an index -3/2 in contrast to the conventional double power-law. For this distribution, the photoevaporation rate from the entire disk...

  3. Discovery of multiple dust shells beyond 1 arcmin in the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10216 using Herschel/PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decin, L.; Royer, P.; Cox, N.L.J.; Vandenbussche, B.; Ottensamer, R.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Barlow, M.J.; Lim, T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Posch, T.; Waelkens, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present new Herschel/PACS images at 70, 100, and 160 μm of the well-known, nearby, carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC+10216 revealing multiple dust shells in its circumstellar envelope. For the first time, dust shells (or arcs) are detected until 320''. The almost spherical shells are n

  4. Silica dust exposures during selected construction activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mary Ellen; Seixas, Noah; Majar, Maria; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study characterized exposure for dust-producing construction tasks. Eight common construction tasks were evaluated for quartz and respirable dust exposure by collecting 113 personal task period samples for cleanup; demolition with handheld tools; concrete cutting; concrete mixing; tuck-point grinding; surface grinding; sacking and patching concrete; and concrete floor sanding using both time-integrating filter samples and direct-reading respirable dust monitors. The geometric mean quartz concentration was 0.10 mg/m(3) (geometric standard deviation [GSD]=4.88) for all run time samples, with 71% exceeding the threshold limit value. Activities with the highest exposures were surface grinding, tuck-point grinding, and concrete demolition (GM[GSD] of 0.63[4.12], 0.22[1.94], and 0.10[2.60], respectively). Factors recorded each minute were task, tool, work area, respiratory protection and controls used, estimated cross draft, and whether anyone nearby was making dust. Factors important to exposure included tool used, work area configuration, controls employed, cross draft, and in some cases nearby dust. More protective respirators were employed as quartz concentration increased, although respiratory protection was found to be inadequate for 42% of exposures. Controls were employed for only 12% of samples. Exposures were reduced with three controls: box fan for surface grinding and floor sanding, and vacuum/shroud for surface grinding, with reductions of 57, 50, and 71%, respectively. Exposures were higher for sweeping compound, box fan for cleanup, ducted fan dilution, and wetted substrate. Construction masons and laborers are frequently overexposed to silica. The usual protection method, respirators, was not always adequate, and engineering control use was infrequent and often ineffective.

  5. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, David [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States); Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Rettig, Terrence W.; Tilley, David; Balsara, Dinshaw [Center for Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. {sup 12}CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  6. AGB stars in the LMC: evolution of dust in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; García-Hernández, D A; Rossi, C; Brocato, E

    2014-01-01

    We calculated theoretical evolutionary sequences of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, including formation and evolution of dust grains in their circumstellar envelope. By considering stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we calculate synthetic colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, which are compared with those obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions outlines that extremely obscured carbon-stars and oxygen-rich sources experiencing hot bottom burning (HBB) occupy well defined, distinct regions in the colour-colour ($[3.6]-[4.5]$, $[5.8]-[8.0]$) diagram. The C-rich stars are distributed along a diagonal strip that we interpret as an evolutionary sequence, becoming progressively more obscured as the stellar surface layers enrich in carbon. Their circumstellar envelopes host solid carbon dust grains with size in the range $0.05 2$, are the descendants of stars with initial mass $M_{in} \\sim 2.5 - 3 M_{\\odot}$ in the ver...

  7. Circumstellar Dust Composition of M-type Mira Variables observed with phase with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Tina; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.

    2017-01-01

    Our research concerns the detailed dust composition surrounding Mira variables. These regular pulsators are easily observed in the optical and infrared due to their changes in brightness. Data on 25 galactic Miras were obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument in 2008-09 under a GO program led by Creech-Eakman. The stars were observed approximately once per month to track changes in their brightness and spectral features. This dataset is unique for both the number of observations of each star and the high SNR due to their intrinsic brightness.The stars in this study span the range of oxygen- to carbon-rich, with each type exhibiting certain known solid state components (i.e dust). The current focus is on trying to reproduce dust spectral features in the short, high (SH) and long, high (LH) resolution wavelength range (~9.7 - 40 microns) of the oxygen-rich Miras (C/O features that provide insight into the stellar atmospheres and circumstellar dust composition with phase.Using the 1-D radiative transfer modeling code, DUSTY, we are attempting to identify several broad, and some sharp, dust features by including recently derived laboratory spectral indices for dust opacities. Prominent features seen in oxygen-rich Mira variables include potential identifications of water ice emission, as well as amorphous and crystalline silicates. We implement a greybody continuum obtained from MARCS, a 1-D hydrostatic spherical LTE model grid code, as the stellar continuum input for DUSTY. Using a greybody rather than a blackbody curve allows us to obtain a better agreement between the DUSTY spectrum and the Spitzer data. We will show these amended model fits that will improve the identification of the dust and other features in the spectra.

  8. Location and origin of dust in circumstellar debris disks: A mid-infrared imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerchen, Margaret Marie

    Approximately one third of A-type stars host dusty disks beyond the expected timescales for dissipation of the primordial disk material. The primordial dust particles may either be blown out by radiation pressure from the star or they may experience destructive collisions that generate smaller particles that are then blown out of the system. We infer from the sustained presence of the dust that it must be resupplied through collisions of already-formed planets and planetesimals or through the sublimation of cometary bodies, and systems with such dust are called debris disks. Since the 1984 discovery of the debris disk Vega, observations of circumstellar debris disks have revealed the presence planetary systems that would otherwise have remained unknown. In this work, we set out to find asymmetric structures in debris disks that would indicate a physical process sculpting the disk, such as a catastrophic planetesimal collision that generates a bright region of newly-formed dust, or a clumpy pattern comprised of dust that is trapped in an orbital resonance with a giant planet. We obtained high spatial resolution ([Special characters omitted.] 0.5") images of the thermally emitting dust in 21 debris disk candidates (some of which are now known not to be debris disks), and in most cases we did not detect any brightness asymmetry nor was the source even spatially resolved. However, among the resolved disks, we have discovered several structures that may be analogous to those in our own solar system, such as a potential asteroid belts (in z Lep) and a snow line (in HD 32297). One brightness asymmetry is seen, in the disk of 16 HR 4796A, and we have determined that the bright side of the disk is also hotter than the opposite side. We review the possible origins of such a temperature asymmetry in the dust disk, such as pericenter glow and resonant trapping, and this investigation is ongoing. More generally, two disk archetypes are observed among all of the disks in this

  9. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi_kimura@cps-jp.org [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, c/o CPS (Center for Planetary Science), Chuo-ku Minatojima Minamimachi 7-1-48, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  10. The Reincarnation of Interstellar Dust: The Importance of Organic Refractory Material in Infrared Spectra of Cometary Comae and Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  11. Circumstellar Dust Shells: Clues to the Evolution of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2016-06-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are an exotic group of extremely hydrogen- deficient, carbon-rich supergiants that are known for their spectacular declines in brightness (up to 8 mags) at irregular intervals. Two scenarios are currently competing to explain the origins of these stars. One suggests that RCB stars are the products after a binary white dwarf (WD) system merges. The other takes a single, evolved star and has it undergo a final, helium-shell flash (FF) and becoming a cool giant. Recently, observations of elemental abundances in RCB stars have strongly swung the argument in favor of the WD merger model. The FF scenario has maintained its relevancy by seemingly being the only model able to offer a suitable explanation for one RCB feature that merger model has historically struggled with explaining: the presence of cold, circumstellar dust envelopes which might be fossil planetary nebulae (PNe). In reality, the shells could actually be fossil PNe, material left over from the WD merger, or mass lost during the RCB phase, itself. I will present the results of my dissertation, which is to try and discern the nature and history of the far-IR dust shells around RCB stars to help understand the origin of these enigmatic stars. I will discuss our efforts to determine the mass, size, temperature, and morphology of these diffuse structures surrounding a sample of RCB stars using multi-wavelength observations ranging from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter. These observations have provided unprecedented wavelength coverage for both the central stars and their CSM. They have been examined by eye for morphology and have been used in the construction of maximum-light spectral energy distributions (SEDs). I will present the results of our Monte Carlo radiative transfer of the maximum-light SEDs. Finally, I will highlight our work investigating the HI abundance of the envelope of R Coronae Borealis, itself, using archival 21—cm observations from the Arecibo

  12. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1152 Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  13. A search for precursors of Ultracompact HII Regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources; 3, Circumstellar Dust Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, S; Cesaroni, R; Palla, Fabrizio; Molinari, Sergio; Brand, Jan; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Palla, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas. In spite of their high luminosities (L>10000 solar units), only ten of these sources are also associated with a radio counterpart. In 17 cases we could identify a clear peak of millimeter emission associated with the IRAS source, while in 9 sources the millimeter emission was extended or faint and a clear peak could not be identified; upper limits were found in 4 cases only. Using simple greybody fitting model to the observed SED, we derive global properties of the circumstellar dust. The dust temperature varies from 24 K to 45 K, while the exponent of the dust emissivity vs frequency power-law spans a range 1.56dust; total circumstellar masses ran...

  14. ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, E; Richards, A M S; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Harper, G M; Humphreys, E M; Kervella, P; Khouri, T; Muller, S

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\\times 10^{-4} $M$_{\\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to th...

  15. Silica dust exposure: Effect of filter size to compliance determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Suhaily; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Md Firoz; Leman, Abdul Mutalib; Goh, Eric; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring of respirable dust was performed using a set of integrated sampling system consisting of sampling pump attached with filter media and separating device such as cyclone or special cassette. Based on selected method, filter sizes are either 25 mm or 37 mm poly vinyl chloride (PVC) filter. The aim of this study was to compare performance of two types of filter during personal respirable dust sampling for silica dust under field condition. The comparison strategy focused on the final compliance judgment based on both dataset. Eight hour parallel sampling of personal respirable dust exposure was performed among 30 crusher operators at six quarries. Each crusher operator was attached with parallel set of integrated sampling train containing either 25 mm or 37 mm PVC filter. Each set consisted of standard flow SKC sampler, attached with SKC GS3 cyclone and 2 pieces cassette loaded with 5.0 µm of PVC filter. Samples were analyzed by gravimetric technique. Personal respirable dust exposure between the two types of filters indicated significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) with moderate relationship (r2 = 0.6431). Personal exposure based on 25 mm PVC filter indicated 0.1% non-compliance to overall data while 37 mm PVC filter indicated similar findings at 0.4 %. Both data showed similar arithmetic mean(AM) and geometric mean(GM). In overall we concluded that personal respirable dust exposure either based on 25mm or 37mm PVC filter will give similar compliance determination. Both filters are reliable to be used in respirable dust monitoring for silica dust related exposure.

  16. Carbon stars with oxygen-rich circumstellar dust shells Observational evidence for the onset of the carbon star phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, F.J.; De jong, T.

    1986-10-01

    Results from the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) are presented which show that some carbon stars are surrounded by circumstellar shells containing oxygen-rich silicate-type dust rather than carbon-rich dust. This observation suggests that these stars have quite recently become carbon stars because they are still surrounded by the last remnant of the oxygen-rich M-type phase. It also suggests a direct transition from M-type to C-type rather than through an intermediate S phase. The transition takes place in about 100 years. Using a simple statistical argument, the typical duration of the carbon star phase is estimated to be from 1000 to 10,000 years. 37 references.

  17. The Magellanic zoo: Mid-infrared Spitzer spectroscopy of evolved stars and circumstellar dust in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Wood, P R; Zijlstra, A A; Bernard-Salas, J; Devost, D; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We observed a sample of evolved stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Comparing samples from the SMC, LMC, and the Galaxy reveals that the dust-production rate depends on metallicity for oxygen-rich stars, but carbon stars with similar pulsation properties produce similar quantities of dust, regardless of their initial metallicity. Other properties of the oxygen-rich stars also depend on metallicity. As the metallicity decreases, the fraction of naked (i.e. dust-free) stars increases, and among the naked stars, the strength of the 8 um absorption band from SiO decreases. Our sample includes several massive stars in the LMC with long pulsation periods which produce significant amounts of dust, probably because they are young and relatively metal rich. Little alumina dust is seen in circumstellar shells in the SMC and LMC, unlike in Galactic samples. Three oxygen-rich sources also show emission from magnesium-rich crystalline ...

  18. Constraining dust properties in Circumstellar Envelopes of C-stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud: optical constants and grain size of Carbon dust

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Ambra; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Aringer, Bernhard; Girardi, Léo; Pastorelli, Giada; Bressan, Alessandro; Bladh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach aimed at constraining the typical size and optical properties of carbon dust grains in Circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of carbon-rich stars (C-stars) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To achieve this goal, we apply our recent dust growth description, coupled with a radiative transfer code to the CSEs of C-stars evolving along the TP-AGB, for which we compute spectra and colors. Then we compare our modeled colors in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) bands with the observed ones, testing different assumptions in our dust scheme and employing several data sets of optical constants for carbon dust available in the literature. Different assumptions adopted in our dust scheme change the typical size of the carbon grains produced. We constrain carbon dust properties by selecting the combination of grain size and optical constants which best reproduces several colors in the NIR and MIR at the same time. The different choices of optical properties and grain size lead to differences i...

  19. Vertical settling and radial segregation of large dust grains in the circumstellar disk of the Butterfly Star

    CERN Document Server

    Gräfe, Christian; Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Sauter, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Context: Circumstellar disks are considered to be the environment for the formation of planets. The growth of dust grains in these disks is the first step in the core accretion-gas capture planet formation scenario. Indicators and evidence of disk evolution can be traced in spatially resolved images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these objects. Aims: We develop a model for the dust phase of the edge-on oriented circumstellar disk of the Butterfly Star which allows one to fit observed multi-wavelength images and the SED simultaneously. Methods: Our model is based on spatially resolved high angular resolution observations at 1.3 mm, 894 micron, 2.07 micron, 1.87 micron, 1.60 micron, and 1.13 micron and an extensively covered SED ranging from 12 micron to 2.7 mm, including a detailed spectrum obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the range from 12 micron to 38 micron. A parameter study based on a grid search method involving the detailed analysis of every parameter was performed to constrai...

  20. The T Tauri star RY Tau as a case study of the inner regions of circumstellar dust disks

    CERN Document Server

    Schegerer, A A; Ratzka, Th; Leinert, Ch

    2007-01-01

    We study the inner region of the circumstellar disk around the TTauri star RY Tau. Our aim is to find a physical description satisfying the available interferometric data, obtained with the mid-infrared interferometric instrument at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, as well as the spectral energy distribution. We also compare the findings with the results of similar studies, including those of intermediate-mass stars. Our analysis is done within the framework of a passive circumstellar disk, which is optionally supplemented by the effects of accretion and an added envelope. To achieve a more consistent and realistic model, we used our continuum transfer code MC3D. In addition, we studied the shape of the 10um silicate emission feature in terms of the underlying dust population, both for single-dish and for interferometric measurements. We show that a modestly flaring disk model with accretion can explain both the observed spectral energy distribution and the mid-infrared visibilities obtained with the ...

  1. [Silicosis hazard of silica dusts in diamond mining industry (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, G E; Bezrukavnikova, L M; Kuz'mina, L P

    2001-01-01

    Slow progressing experimental coniosis was induced by exposure to two samples of silica dust that was obtained from diamond openwork in "Mir" quarry of Yakutia. Moderate fibrogenicity of the dusts studied results from relatively low portions of silica and from metals oxides admixtures.

  2. Constraining dust properties in circumstellar envelopes of C-stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud: optical constants and grain size of carbon dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Aringer, Bernhard; Girardi, Léo; Pastorelli, Giada; Bressan, Alessandro; Bladh, Sara

    2016-10-01

    We present a new approach aimed at constraining the typical size and optical properties of carbon dust grains in circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of carbon-rich stars (C-stars) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To achieve this goal, we apply our recent dust growth description, coupled with a radiative transfer code to the CSEs of C-stars evolving along the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch, for which we compute spectra and colours. Then, we compare our modelled colours in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) bands with the observed ones, testing different assumptions in our dust scheme and employing several data sets of optical constants for carbon dust available in the literature. Different assumptions adopted in our dust scheme change the typical size of the carbon grains produced. We constrain carbon dust properties by selecting the combination of grain size and optical constants which best reproduce several colours in the NIR and MIR at the same time. The different choices of optical properties and grain size lead to differences in the NIR and MIR colours greater than 2 mag in some cases. We conclude that the complete set of observed NIR and MIR colours are best reproduced by small grains, with sizes between ˜0.035 and ˜0.12 μm, rather than by large grains between ˜0.2 and 0.7 μm. The inability of large grains to reproduce NIR and MIR colours seems independent of the adopted optical data set. We also find a possible trend of the grain size with mass-loss and/or carbon excess in the CSEs of these stars.

  3. Recurring Occultations of RW Aurigae by Coagulated Dust in the Tidally Disrupted Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott; Weintraub, David A; Beatty, Thomas G; Lund, Michael B; Stevens, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations of RW Aurigae, a Classical T Tauri system, that reveal two remarkable dimming events. These events are similar to that which we observed in 2010-2011, which was the first such deep dimming observed in RW Aur in a century's worth of photometric monitoring. We suggested the 2010-2011 dimming was the result of an occultation of the star by its tidally disrupted circumstellar disk. In 2012-2013, the RW Aur system dimmed by ~0.7 mag for ~40 days and in 2014/2015 the system dimmed by ~2 mag for >250 days. The ingress/egress duration measurements of the more recent events agree well with those from the 2010-2011 event, providing strong evidence that the new dimmings are kinematically associated with the same occulting source. Therefore, we suggest that both the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 dimming events, measured using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope and the Kutztown University Observatory, are also occultations of RW Aur A by tidally disrupted circumstellar materi...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1145 - Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; minimum requirements. 84.1145 Section 84.1145 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1145 Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Three respirators will be tested. (b) As described in §...

  5. Silica in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, B A; Tayrien, C; McClure, M K; Li, A; Basu, A R; Manoj, P; Watson, D M; Bohac, C J; Furlan, E; Kim, K H; Green, J D; Sloan, G C

    2008-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of a few T Tauri stars (TTS) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope show prominent narrow emission features indicating silica (crystalline silicon dioxide). Silica is not a major constituent of the interstellar medium; therefore, any silica present in the circumstellar protoplanetary disks of TTS must be largely the result of processing of primitive dust material in the disks surrouding these stars. We model the silica emission features in our spectra using the opacities of various polymorphs of silica and their amorphous versions computed from earth-based laboratory measurements. This modeling indicates that the two polymorphs of silica, tridymite and cristobalite, which form at successively higher temperatures and low pressures, are the dominant forms of silica in the TTS of our sample. These high temperature, low pressure polymorphs of silica present in protoplanetary disks are consistent with a grain composed mostly of tridymite named Ada found...

  6. The nearby population of M dwarfs with WISE: A search for warm circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Avenhaus, Henning; Meyer, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Circumstellar debris disks are important for their connection to planetary systems. An efficient way to identify such systems is through their infrared excess. Most studies so far concentrated on early-type or solar-type stars, but less effort has gone into M dwarfs. We characterize the mid-infrared photometric behavior of M dwarfs and search for infrared excess in nearby M dwarfs taken from the volume-limited RECONS sample using data from the WISE satellite and the 2MASS catalog. Our sample consists of 85 sources encompassing 103 M dwarfs. We derive empirical infrared colors from these data and discuss their errors. From this, we check the stars for infrared excess and discuss the minimum excess we would be able to detect. Other than the M8.5 dwarf SCR 1845-6357 A, where the excess is produced by a known T6 companion, we detect no excesses in any of our sample stars. The limits we derive for the 22um excess are slightly larger than the usual detection limit of 10-15% for Spitzer studies, but the inclusion of...

  7. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Yashwant K; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2007-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV(1) values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  8. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Rajnarayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV 1 values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  9. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A Detailed Look at the Circumstellar Dust Component

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, W P; Long, K S; Williams, B J; Borkowski, K J; Sankrit, S P R R; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sankrit, Stephen P. Reynolds & Ravi

    2007-01-01

    We present 3.6 - 160 micron infrared images of Kepler's supernova remnant (SN1604) obtained with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We also present MIPS SED low resolution spectra in the 55 - 95 micron region. The observed emission in the MIPS 24 micron band shows the entire shell. Emission in the MIPS 70 micron and IRAC 8 micron bands is seen only from the brightest regions of 24 micron emission, which also correspond to the regions seen in optical Halpha images. Shorter wavelength IRAC images are increasingly dominated by stars, although faint filaments are discernible. The SED spectrum of shows a faint continuum dropping off to longer wavelengths and confirms that strong line emission does not dominate the mid-IR spectral region. The emission we see is due primarily to warm dust emission from dust heated by the primary blast wave; no excess infrared emission is observed in regions where supernova ejecta are seen in X-rays. We use models of the dust to interpret the observed 70/24...

  10. Dust in the disk winds from young stars as a source of the circumstellar extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Tambovtseva, L V

    2008-01-01

    We examine a problem of the dust grains survival in the disk wind in T Tauri stars (TTSs). For consideration we choose the disk wind model described by Garcia et al. (2001), where a gas component of the wind is heated by an ambipolar diffusion up to the temperature of the order of 10$^4$ K. It is shown that the dust grains heating due to collisions with the gas atoms and electrons is inefficient in comparison with heating by the stellar radiation, and thus, dust survives even in the hot wind component. Owing to this, the disk wind may be opaque for the ultraviolet and optical radiation of the star and is capable to absorb its noticeable fraction. Calculations show that at the accretion rate $\\dot{M_a} = 10^{-8}-10^{-6} M_\\odot$ per year this fraction for TTSs may range from 20% to 40% of a total luminosity of the star correspondingly. This means that the disk wind in TTSs can play the same role as the puffed inner rim considered in the modern models of accretion disks. In Herbig Ae stars (HAEs) inner regions ...

  11. Determination the Level of Dust ond Free Silica in Air of Khaf Iron Stone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadpour4

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Silica is an inorganic material that found in the nature in various forms. The hazards of crystal of silica or α-quartz (free silica is greater than other forms. Exposure to dust that contains free silica result to pulmonary injury and result to silicosis and death finally. The present research was conducted in order to evaluate the level of workers exposure to free silica in air of Khaf Iron stone quarries."nMaterials and methods: The exposure level to total and respiratory dust measured based on personal and environmental sampling methods and concentration of dust determined based on gravimetric method. For determination of amounts of free silica, dust samples analyses based on X-ray diffraction (XRD method, and results compared with standard levels."nResults: The maximum amount of total dust and free silica measured in stone breaking station (800±155mg/m3 and 26.11±6.7 mg/m3 and minimum of them measured in official and safeguarding station (8.28±2.2 mg/m3 and 0.012±0.0019 mg/m3. The maximum amount of respiratory dust and free silica measured in red mound digging number 1 (66.14±13.45 mg/m3 and 1.48±0.39 mg/m3 and minimum of them measured in air hammer machine station (5.26±2.62 mg/m3 and 0.01±0.005 mg/m3."nConclusion: Amount of total dust only in official and safeguarding station was lower than standard levels of Iran. Amount of respiratory dust in all stations was greater than Iran standard levels. Furthermore the level of respiratory free silica only in airy hammer machine station was lower than standard level of Iran. Regarding to this amounts it is so essential to that with applying different methods generation and emission of dust protected.

  12. The circumstellar disc in the Bok globule CB 26: Multi-wavelength observations and modelling of the dust disc and envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Sauter, J; Launhardt, R; Padgett, D L; Stapelfeldt, K R; Pinte, C; Duchêne, G; Ménard, F; McCabe, C -E; Pontoppidan, K; Dunham, M; Bourke, T -L; Chen, J -H

    2009-01-01

    Circumstellar discs are expected to be the nursery of planets. Grain growth within such discs is the first step in the planet formation process. The Bok globule CB 26 harbours such a young disc. We present a detailed model of the edge-on circumstellar disc and its envelope in the Bok globule CB 26. The model is based on HST near-infrared maps in the I, J, H, and K bands, OVRO and SMA radio maps at 1.1mm, 1.3mm and 2.7mm, and the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 0.9 microns to 3mm. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Caltech Submilimeter Observatory have been obtained and are part of our analysis. Using the self-consistent radiative transfer code MC3D, the model we construct is able to discriminate parameter sets and dust properties of both its parts, namely envelope and disc. We find that the disc has an inner hole with a radius of 45 +/- 5 AU. Based on a dust model including silicate and graphite the maximum grain size needed to reproduce the spectral millim...

  13. Levels of crystalline silica dust in dental laboratorium of Dental Health Technology Study Program of Vocational Faculty, Universitas Airlangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Inayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhaling particles of crystalline silica in a long time. The disease then results in inflammation and defects in lung tissue. Prosthesis construction is usually conducted in dental laboratory using a lot of materials containing crystalline silica, such as gypsum, ceramics, planting material, sandblast and others. Purpose: This research aims to determine levels of crystalline silica dust in the dental laboratory of Dental Health Technology Diploma Study Program, Vocational Faculty, Universitas Airlangga. Method: Three measurement points was determined, namely point 1, point 2 and point 3 in each dental laboratory space (I and II. Suctioning dust was performed at those points using Low Volume Dust Sampler (LVDS. Samples taken were divided into two groups, namely X and Y. Taking dust samples were carried out for 30 minutes. Elements of crystalline silica contained in the dust were quantitatively measured using XR Defractometry tool, while size and morphology of silica were measured using SEM EDX tool. Data obtained were statistically analyzed by paired t test. Result: The results showed significant differences in the levels of the total dust measured and crystalline silica in the form of quartz and cristobalite among those two dental laboratory spaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the levels of the total dust and silica quartz dust in the dental laboratory spaces I and II were greater than the Threshold Limit Value (TLV determined.

  14. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; minimum requirements. 84.1147 Section 84.1147 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Three non-powered respirators will be tested for a period of...

  15. Exposure to respirable dust and crystalline silica in bricklaying education at Dutch vocational training centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, D.; Spee, T.; Lumens, M.E.G.L.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Construction workers are educated at vocational training centers before they begin their working lives. Future bricklayers and their instructors are exposed to respirable dust and possibly to hazardous respirable crystalline silica from trial mortar. METHODS: Thirty-six personal air samp

  16. How reliable are crystalline silica dust concentration measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L A; Van Orden, D R; Lee, R J; Arlauckas, S M; Kautz, R A; Warzel, A L; Bailey, K F; Ranpuria, A K

    2015-10-01

    To determine how reliably commercial laboratories measure crystalline silica concentrations corresponding to OSHA's proposed limits, 105 filters were prepared with known masses of 20, 40, and 80 μg of respirable quartz corresponding to airborne silica concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/m(3) and were submitted, in a blind test, to qualified commercial laboratories over a nine month period. Under these test conditions, the reported results indicated a lack of accuracy and precision needed to reliably inform regulatory compliance decisions. This was true even for filters containing only silica, without an interfering matrix. For 36 filters loaded with 20 or more micrograms of silica, the laboratories reported non-detected levels of silica. Inter-laboratory variability in this performance test program was so high that the reported results could not be used to reliably discriminate among filters prepared to reflect 8-h exposures to respirable quartz concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μg/m(3). Moreover, even in intra-laboratory performance, there was so much variability in the reported results that 2-fold variations in exposure concentrations could not be reliably distinguished. Part of the variability and underreporting may result from the sample preparation process. The results of this study suggest that current laboratory methods and practices cannot necessarily be depended on, with high confidence, to support proposed regulatory standards with reliable data.

  17. Engineering controls for selected silica and dust exposures in the construction industry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2003-04-01

    This literature review summarizes engineering control technology research for dust and silica exposures associated with selected tasks in the construction industry. Exposure to crystalline silica can cause silicosis and lung fibrosis, and evidence now links it with lung cancer. Of over 30 references identified and reviewed, 16 were particularly significant in providing data and analyses capable of documenting the efficacy of various engineering controls. These reports include information on generation rates and worker exposures to silica and dust during four different tasks: cutting brick and concrete block, grinding mortar from between bricks, drilling, and grinding concrete surfaces. The major controls are wet methods and local exhaust ventilation. The studies suggest that while the methods provide substantial exposure reductions, they may not reduce levels below the current ACGIH threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.05 mg/m(3) for respirable quartz. Although further research on controls for these operations is indicated, it is clear that effective methods exist for significant exposure reduction.

  18. The circumstellar disc in the Bok globule CB 26. Multi-wavelength observations and modelling of the dust disc and envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, J.; Wolf, S.; Launhardt, R.; Padgett, D. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Pinte, C.; Duchêne, G.; Ménard, F.; McCabe, C.-E.; Pontoppidan, K.; Dunham, M.; Bourke, T. L.; Chen, J.-H.

    2009-10-01

    Context: Circumstellar discs are expected to be the nursery of planets. Grain growth within such discs is the first step in the planet formation process. The Bok globule CB 26 harbours such a young disc. Aims: We present a detailed model of the edge-on circumstellar disc and its envelope in the Bok globule CB 26. Methods: The model is based on HST near-infrared maps in the I, J, H, and K bands, OVRO and SMA radio maps at 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm and 2.7 mm, and the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 0.9 {μ m} to 3 mm. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Caltech Submilimeter Observatory are also part of our analysis. Using the self-consistent radiative transfer code MC3D, the model we construct is able to discriminate between parameter sets and dust properties of both envelope and disc. Results: We find that the data are fit by a disc that has an inner hole with a radius of 45±5 AU. Based on a dust model including silicate and graphite, the maximum grain size needed to reproduce the spectral millimetre index is 2.5 {μ m}. Features seen in the near-infrared images, dominated by scattered light, can be described as a result of a rotating envelope. Conclusions: Successful employment of ISM dust in both the disc and envelope hint that grain growth may not yet play a significant role for the appearance of this system. A large inner hole implies that CB 26 is a circumbinary disc.

  19. The Origin of the Near-infrared Excess in SN Ia 2012dn: Circumstellar Dust around the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Yamanaka, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    The nature of progenitors of the so-called super-Chandrasekhar candidate Type Ia supernovae (SC-SNe Ia) has been actively debated. Recently, Yamanaka et al. reported a near-infrared (NIR) excess for SN 2012dn and proposed that the excess originates from an echo by circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we examine a detailed distribution of the CS dust around SN 2012dn and investigate implications of the CS dust echo scenario for general cases of SC-SNe Ia. We find that a disk/bipolar CS medium configuration reproduces the NIR excess fairly well, where the radial density distribution is given by a stationary mass loss. The inner radius of the CS dust is 0.04 pc. The mass-loss rate of the progenitor system is estimated to be 1.2× {10}-5 and 3.2× {10}-6 M⊙ yr‑1 for the disk and bipolar CS medium configurations, respectively, which adds further support for the single-degenerate scenario. Our models limit SN 2009dc, another SC-SN Ia, to have a dust mass less than 0.16 times that of SN 2012dn. While this may merely indicate some variation on the CS environment among SC-SNe Ia, this could raise another interesting possibility. There could be two classes among SC-SNe Ia: the brighter SC-SNe Ia in a clean environment (SN 2009dc) and the fainter SC-SNe Ia in a dusty environment (SN 2012dn).

  20. Tanpopo cosmic dust collector: Silica aerogel production and bacterial DNA contamination analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Yano, Hajime; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic silica aerogels with ultra-low densities have been designed and developed as cosmic dust capture media for the Tanpopo mission which is proposed to be carried out on the International Space Station. Glass particles as a simulated cosmic dust with 30 \\mu m in diameter and 2.4 g/cm^3 in density were successfully captured by the novel aerogel at a velocity of 6 km/s. Background levels of contaminated DNA in the ultra-low density aerogel were lower than the detection limit of a polymerase chain reaction assay. These results show that the manufactured aerogel has good performance as a cosmic dust collector and sufficient quality in respect of DNA contamination. The aerogel is feasible for the biological analyses of captured cosmic dust particles in the astrobiological studies.

  1. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Sand Washing Workers Exposed to Silica Dusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Parsaseresht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:The health of sand washing workers could be threatened by the crystalline silica dust exposure. The aim of this study was the evaluation of occupational and biological monitoring with crystalline silica dusts in the sand washing workers. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical and cross-sectional study of 44 sand washing workers exposed to crystalline silica and also 63 municipality gardeners as a control group in the city of Dorood. Occupational exposure monitoring to respirable total dust and silica dust was performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH methods 0600 and 7602-respectively. Biological monitoring of workers' was carried out according to the Karatas method for the analysis of Malondialdehyde in the blood serum of exposed and control subjects. The informed consents were taken for obtaining blood samples of workers, according to the Helsinki Declaration. Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS version 16. The statistical test of Pearson, t-tests and linear regression was applied. Results: The occupational exposure of 54.55% was exceeded the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 3 mg/m3. The mean exposure of sand miners and control group to respirable silica dust was evaluated at 0.219 ± 0.177 and 0.010 ± 0.002 as mg/m3respectively. Occupational exposure of all sand washing workers was higher than the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 0.025 mg/m3.The concentration of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA exposed group and the control group were 36.64 ± 10.75 and 19.40 ± 4.68 as µM respectively. Conclusion: Due to the positive correlation between exposure of sand washing workers to silica dust sand serum MDA among exposed group(P-value<0.0001, r=0.881, periodical biological monitoring along with effective control measures of workers are recommended for the health promotion of these workers.

  2. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements. 84.1144 Section 84.1144 Public Health...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1144 Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters;...

  3. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Dust and Crystalline Silica in Foundries

    OpenAIRE

    Ali OMIDIANIDOST; Mehdi GHASEMKHANI; Azari, Mansour R.; Golbabaei,Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The term “crystalline silica” refers to crystallized form of SiO2 and quartz, as the most abundant compound on the earth’s crust; it is capable of causing silicosis and lung cancer upon inhaling large doses in the course of occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to assess occupational exposure to dust and crystalline silica in foundries in Pakdasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, airborne dust samples were collected on PVC filters (37 mm diameter, 0.8 mm por...

  4. Extensive HST Ultraviolet Spectra and Multi-wavelength Observations of SN 2014J in M82 Indicate Reddening and Circumstellar Scattering by Typical Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; McCully, C; Phillips, M M; Sand, D J; Zheng, W; Challis, P; Filippenko, A V; Folatelli, G; Hillebrandt, W; Hsiao, E Y; Jha, S W; Kirshner, R P; Kromer, M; Marion, G H; Nelson, M; Pakmor, R; Pignata, G; Roepke, F K; Seitenzahl, I R; Silverman, J M; Skrutskie, M; Stritzinger, M D

    2014-01-01

    SN 2014J in M82 is the closest detected Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in at least 28 years and perhaps in 410 years. Despite its small distance of 3.3 Mpc, SN 2014J is surprisingly faint, peaking at V = 10.6 mag, and assuming a typical SN Ia luminosity, we infer an observed visual extinction of A_V = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mag. But this picture, with R_V = 1.6 +/- 0.2, is too simple to account for all observations. We combine 10 epochs (spanning a month) of HST/STIS ultraviolet through near-infrared spectroscopy with HST/WFC3, KAIT, FanCam, and Spitzer photometry from the optical to the infrared and 9 epochs of high-resolution TRES spectroscopy to investigate the sources of extinction and reddening for SN 2014J. We argue that the wide range of observed properties for SN 2014J are caused by a combination of dust reddening, likely originating in the interstellar medium of M82, and scattering off circumstellar material. For this model, roughly half of the extinction is caused by reddening from typical dust (E(B-V) = 0.45 mag a...

  5. Deep 10 and 18 micron Imaging of the HR 4796A Circumstellar Disk Transient Dust Particles & Tentative Evidence for a Brightness Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Telesco, C M; Pina, R K; Knacke, R F; Dermott, S F; Wyatt, M C; Grogan, K; Holmes, E K; Ghez, A M; Prato, L; Hartmann, L W; Jayawardhana, R

    1999-01-01

    We present new 10.8 and 18.2 micron images of HR 4796A, a young A0V star that was recently discovered to have a spectacular, nearly edge-on, circumstellar disk prominent at ~20 microns (Jayawardhana et al. 1998; Koerner et al. 1998). These new images, obtained with OSCIR at Keck II, show that the disk's size at 10 microns is comparable to its size at 18 microns. Therefore, the 18 micron-emitting dust may also emit some, or all, of the 10 micron radiation. Using these multi-wavelength images, we determine a "characteristic" diameter of 2-3 microns for the mid-infrared-emitting dust particles if they are spherical and composed of astronomical silicates. Particles this small are expected to be blown out of the system by radiation pressure in a few hundred years, and therefore these particles are unlikely to be primordial. Dynamical modeling of the disk (Wyatt et al. 2000) indicates that the disk surface density is relatively sharply peaked near 70 AU, which agrees with the mean annular radius deduced by Schneide...

  6. Studies of mobile dust in scrape-off layer plasmas using silica aerogel collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Ratynskaia, S.; Litnovsky, A.; Ogata, D.; Sahle, W.

    2011-08-01

    Dust capture with ultralow density silica aerogel collectors is a new method, which allows time resolved in situ capture of dust particles in the scrape-off layers of fusion devices, without substantially damaging the particles. Particle composition and morphology, particle flux densities and particle velocity distributions can be determined through appropriate analysis of the aerogel surfaces after exposure. The method has been applied in comparative studies of intrinsic dust in the TEXTOR tokamak and in the Extrap T2R reversed field pinch. The analysis methods have been mainly optical microscopy and SEM. The method is shown to be applicable in both devices and the results are tentatively compared between the two plasma devices, which are very different in terms of edge plasma conditions, time scale, geometry and wall materials.

  7. OISTER optical and near-infrared observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova candidate SN 2012dn: Dust emission from the circumstellar shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S.; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from -11 to +140 d after the date of its B-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO (Optical and Infrared Synergetic Telescopes for Education and Research Target of Opportunity) program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the B-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as an SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from 30 d after the B-band maximum. The H- and Ks-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at 40 and 70 d after the B-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The H- and Ks-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating an NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to 4.8-6.4 × 10-2 pc. No emission lines were found in its early phase spectra, suggesting that the ejecta-circumstellar material interaction could not occur. On the other hand, we found no signature that strongly supports the scenario of dust formation. The mass-loss rate of the pre-explosion system is estimated to be 10-6-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, assuming that the wind velocity of the system is 10-100 km s-1, which suggests that the progenitor of SN 2012dn could be a recurrent nova system. We conclude that the progenitor of this SC SN could be explained by the single-degenerate scenario.

  8. Respirable dust and silica exposure among World Trade Center cleanup workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Mirer, Franklin E

    2017-03-01

    The cleanup effort following the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) was unprecedented and involved removal of 1.8 million tons of rubble over a nine-month period. Work at the site occurred 24 hr a day, 7 days a week and involved thousands of workers during the process. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) conducted personal and area exposure sampling during the cleanup of the site. Secondary data analysis was performed on OSHA air sampling data for respirable dust and silica from September 2001 to June 2002 at the WTC recovery site to characterize workers' exposure. Results for silica and respirable particulate were stratified by area and personal samples as well as job task for analysis. Of 1108 samples included in the analysis, 693 were personal and 415 were area. The mean result for personal silica samples was 42 μg/m(3) (Range: 4.2-1800 μg/m(3)). Workers identified as drillers had the highest mean silica exposure (72 μg/m(3); range: 5.8-800 μg/m(3)) followed by workers identified as dock builders (67 μg/m(3); range: 5.8-670 μg/m(3)). The mean result for personal samples for respirable particulate was 0.44 mg/m(3) (range: 0.00010-13 mg/m(3)). There were no discernable trends in personal respirable dust and silica concentrations with date.

  9. Cohesion of Amorphous Silica Spheres: Toward a Better Understanding of the Coagulation Growth of Silicate Dust Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Senshu, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion forces between submicrometer-sized silicate grains play a crucial role in the formation of silicate dust agglomerates, rocky planetesimals, and terrestrial planets. The surface energy of silicate dust particles is the key to their adhesion and rolling forces in a theoretical model based on the contact mechanics. Here we revisit the cohesion of amorphous silica spheres by compiling available data on the surface energy for hydrophilic amorphous silica in various circumstances. It turned out that the surface energy for hydrophilic amorphous silica in a vacuum is a factor of 10 higher than previously assumed. Therefore, the previous theoretical models underestimated the critical velocity for the sticking of amorphous silica spheres, as well as the rolling friction forces between them. With the most plausible value of the surface energy for amorphous silica spheres, theoretical models based on the contact mechanics are in harmony with laboratory experiments. Consequently, we conclude that silicate grains ...

  10. Electrostatic application of inert silica dust based insecticides onto plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichs, C; Krause, F; Rocksch, T; Goswami, A; Mewis, I

    2006-01-01

    One of the most effective naturally occurring insecticide powders is diatomaceous earth (DE), which contains above 96 % of silica (silicon dioxide SiO2). In recent days, the possibility to use new improved DE formulations for plant protection in horticulture has been the focus of research. For aphids and other under-leaf insects only insecticides deposited on leaf undersides are effective. We tested electrostatic application of different silica containing dusts onto the cruciferous crop pak-choi (Brassica chinensis). The materials tested were Fossil Shield 90.0s, Advasan, Biobeck PA910, and a formulation newly developed by the Urban Horticultural Section at Humboldt University called "Al-06". Silica materials were tested for their effect on plant photosynthesis and efficacy against the mustard beetle (Phaedon cochleariae F.). All materials have been effective in contact experiments against tested insects. However, significant differences were observed between materials after application onto plant leaves. Fossil Shield, Advasan, and Al-06 application resulted in a good coverage and in high protection against the mustard beetle. Biobeck PA910 was easily removed by wind from leaf surfaces and did not protect the plants well. However, photosynthesis has been reduced in treated plants and remained at a lower level even after dust removal. Experimental results are critically discussed in the view of future potential for crop protection programs.

  11. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A.M.S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G.M.; Humphreys, E.M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These

  12. Silica aerogel for capturing intact interplanetary dust particles for the Tanpopo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Kawai, Hideyuki; Imai, Eiichi; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report the progress in developing a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust capture panel for use in the Tanpopo experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Previous studies revealed that ultralow-density silica aerogel tiles, comprising two layers with densities of 0.01 and 0.03 g/cm(3) developed using our production technique, were suitable for achieving the scientific objectives of the astrobiological mission. A special density configuration (i.e., box framing) aerogel with a holder was designed to construct the capture panels. Qualification tests for an engineering model of the capture panel as an instrument aboard the ISS were successful. Sixty box-framing aerogel tiles were manufactured in a contamination-controlled environment.

  13. Silica aerogel for capturing intact interplanetary dust particles for the Tanpopo experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Imai, Eiichi; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the progress in developing a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust capture panel for use in the Tanpopo experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Previous studies revealed that ultralow-density silica aerogel tiles comprising two layers with densities of 0.01 and 0.03 g/cm$^3$ developed using our production technique were suitable for achieving the scientific objectives of the astrobiological mission. A special density configuration (i.e., box framing) aerogel with a holder was designed to construct the capture panels. Qualification tests for an engineering model of the capture panel as an instrument aboard the ISS were successful. Sixty box-framing aerogel tiles were manufactured in a contamination-controlled environment.

  14. Effects of prolonged inhalation of silica and olivine dusts on immune functions in the mouse. [Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Eskew, M.L.; Zarkower, A.

    1985-12-01

    Immunologic responses determined in Balb/c mice following intermittent silica or olivine inhalations for 150, 300, or 570 days. Animals dust-exposed for 570 days were tested immediately postexposure, while those exposed for 150 or 300 days were tested immediately or were rested for 30 or 150 days as a measure of possible recovery from effects of the dust inhalations. Silica inhalation suppressed the number of specific plaque-forming cells (PFC) in the spleen produced in response to aerosolized Escherichia coli bacteria. When tested after 570 days, silica inhalation also reduced the ability of alveolar marcophages to phagocytize Staphylococcus auerus in vitro. Olivine inhalation also suppressed splenic PFCs and alveolar macrophage phagocytosis, but to a lesser degree than silica. In animals tested after 570 days of dust exposure, it was determined that the ability to lyse allogeneic tumor cells in vitro was impaired by olivine slightly more than by silica, while antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic and mitogenic responses by splenic lymphocytes were unchanged by inhalation of either dust. The effects of increased exposure periods, and of recovery periods after exposure, were confounded by age-related immunologic changes which were present after the longer exposures.

  15. Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdel Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF or rice husk ash (RHA, on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC containing cement kiln dust (CKD cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of PSC and CKD improved by RHA were investigated. Hardened blended cement pastes were prepared from each cement blend by using water/cement ratio (W/C of 0.30 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 days at the normal curing conditions under tap water at room temperature. Each cement paste was tested for its physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics; these characteristics include: compressive strength and kinetics of hydration. The phase composition of the formed hydration products was identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. It was found that the partial substitution of PSC by 10% and 15% of CKD is associated with an increase in the rate of hydration and a subsequent improvement of compressive strength of hardened PSC–CKD pastes. In addition, the replacement of PSC, in PSC–CKD blends, by 5% active silica was accompanied by further improvement of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the hardened PSC–CKD pastes.

  16. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    We propose to continue our successful investigations into simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in planetary nebulae using primarily far-IR broadband images and spatially-resolved spectroscopic data cubes obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory to enhance our understanding of the circumstellar environments. This research originally started as the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) - an open time 1 program of the Herschel Space Observatory - in which 11 high-excitation PNs were observed to study the nebular energetics that involves very hot X-ray emitting plasma to very cold dust grains, whose density ranges over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and temperature ranges over 7 orders of magnitude. The HerPlaNS data include broadband maps, IFU spectral data cubes, and bolometer array spectral data cubes covering 50 to 670 microns. Because of the sheer volume and complexity of the data set, the original funding was exhausted almost exclusively to the initial data reduction and not much to the subsequent science analysis. However, we managed to perform a nearly full science analysis for one target, NGC 6781, for which the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbonrich dust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. We also demonstrated that spatially resolved far-IR line diagnostics would yield the (Te, ne) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allowed to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195 with a standard deviation of 110. The analysis also yielded estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M_sun, consisting of 0.54 M_sun of ionized gas, 0.12 M_sun of atomic gas, 0.2 M_sun of molecular gas, and 0.004 M_sun of dust grains. These estimates

  17. Pulmonary inflammation and crystalline silica in respirable coal mine dust: dose-response

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E D Kuempel; M D Attfield; V Vallyathan; N L Lapp; J M Hale; R J Smith; V Castranova

    2003-02-01

    This study describes the quantitative relationships between early pulmonary responses and the estimated lungburden or cumulative exposure of respirable-quartz or coal mine dust. Data from a previous bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) study in coal miners ( = 20) and nonminers ( = 16) were used including cell counts of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Miners’ individual working lifetime particulate exposures were estimated from work histories and mine air sampling data, and quartz lung-burdens were estimated using a lung dosimetry model. Results show that quartz, as either cumulative exposure or estimated lung-burden, was a highly statistically significant predictor of PMN response ( < 0.0001); however cumulative coal dust exposure did not significantly add to the prediction of PMNs ( = 0.2) above that predicted by cumulative quartz exposure ( < 0.0001). Despite the small study size, radiographic category was also significantly related to increasing levels of both PMNs and quartz lung burden (-values < 0.04). SOD in BAL fluid rose linearly with quartz lung burden ( < 0.01), but AM count in BAL fluid did not ( > 0.4). This study demonstrates dose-response relationships between respirable crystalline silica in coal mine dust and pulmonary inflammation, antioxidant production, and radiographic small opacities.

  18. Laboratory evaluation to reduce respirable crystalline silica dust when cutting concrete roofing tiles using a masonry saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Rebecca V; Sheehy, John; Feng, H Amy; Sieber, William K

    2010-04-01

    Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure in residential roofers is a recognized hazard resulting from cutting concrete roofing tiles. Roofers cutting tiles using masonry saws can be exposed to high concentrations of respirable dust. Silica exposures remain a serious threat for nearly two million U.S. construction workers. Although it is well established that respiratory diseases associated with exposure to silica dust are preventable, they continue to occur and cause disability or death. The effectiveness of both a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system and a water suppression system in reducing silica dust was evaluated separately. The LEV system exhausted 0.24, 0.13, or 0.12 m(3)/sec of dust laden air, while the water suppression system supplied 0.13, 0.06, 0.03, or 0.02 L/sec of water to the saw blade. Using a randomized block design, implemented under laboratory conditions, the aforementioned conditions were evaluated independently on two types of concrete roofing tiles (s-shape and flat) using the same saw and blade. Each engineering control (LEV or water suppression) was replicated eight times, or four times for each type of tile. Analysis of variance was performed by comparing the mean airborne respirable dust concentrations generated during each run and engineering control treatment. The use of water controls and ventilation controls compared with the "no control" treatment resulted in a statistically significant (p capture velocity, additional weight of the saw with the LEV system, electricity connections, and cost of air handling unit.

  19. Hydrothermal Characteristics of Blended Cement Pastes Containing Silica Sand Using Cement Kiln Dust as an Activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand was studied using cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator in addition to the Portlandcement fraction of El-Karnak cement (a blend of ordinary Portland cement and ground sand). Autoclaved El-Karnak cementpastes were studied at pressures of 0.507, 1.013 and 1.520 MPa of saturated steam with respect to their compressive strength,kinetics of hydrothermal reaction and the phase composition of the formed hydrates. The role of CKD in affecting thephysicochemical and mechanical properties of El-Karnak cement pastes was studied by autoclaving of several pastes containing5, 7.5, 10 and 20% CKD at a pressure of 1.013 MPa of saturated steam. CKD was added either as a raw CKD (unwashed) orafter washing with water (washed CKD). The results of these physicochemical studies obtained could be related as much aspossible to the role of CKD (raw or washed) in affecting the hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand in El-Karnak cement pastes.

  20. Effectiveness of dust control methods for crystalline silica and respirable suspended particulate matter exposure during manual concrete surface grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Milz, Sheryl A; Wagner, Cynthia D; Bisesi, Michael S; Ames, April L; Khuder, Sadik; Susi, Pam; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2010-12-01

    Concrete grinding exposes workers to unacceptable levels of crystalline silica dust, known to cause diseases such as silicosis and possibly lung cancer. This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory. Air was monitored during 201 concrete grinding sessions while using a variety of grinders, accessories, and existing dust control methods, including general ventilation (GV), local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and wet grinding. Task-specific geometric mean (GM) of respirable crystalline silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled-grinding, while GV was off/on, were 0.17/0.09, 0.57/0.13, 1.11/0.44, and 23.1/6.80, respectively. Silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ using 100-125 mm (4-5 inch) and 180 mm (7 inch) grinding cups were 0.53/0.22 and 2.43/0.56, respectively. GM concentrations of silica dust were significantly lower for (1) GV on (66.0%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (99.0%), LEV:Shop-vac- (98.1%) or wet- (94.4%) vs. uncontrolled-grinding. Task-specific GM of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled grinding, while GV was off/on, were 1.58/0.63, 7.20/1.15, 9.52/4.13, and 152/47.8, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP using 100-125 mm and 180 mm grinding cups were 4.78/1.62 and 22.2/5.06, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP were significantly lower for (1) GV on (70.2%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (98.9%), LEV:Shop-vac- (96.9%) or wet- (92.6%) vs. uncontrolled grinding. Silica dust and RSP were not significantly affected by (1) orientation of grinding surfaces (vertical vs. inclined); (2) water flow rates for wet grinding; (3) length of task-specific sampling time; or, (4) among cup sizes of 100, 115 or 125 mm. No combination of factors or control methods reduced an 8-hr exposure level to below the

  1. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, David G; Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-09

    Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel) and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth) were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3-4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer). Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug's cuticle.

  2. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Lilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3–4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer. Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug’s cuticle.

  3. Evaluation of workers' exposure to total, respirable and silica dust and the related health symptoms in Senjedak stone quarry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabaei, Farideh; Barghi, Mohammad-Ali; Sakhaei, Manouchehr

    2004-01-01

    The present research was conducted in a stone quarry of marble located in northeast of Iran. Time weighted average of total dust, respirable dust, and crystalline silica (alpha-quartz) concentration in workers' breathing zone were monitored by using both gravimetric and XRD methods. The results showed that the employees working in hammer drill process had the highest exposure to the total and respirable dust: 107.9 +/- 8.0 mg/m3, 11.2 +/- 0.77 mg/m3 respectively, while the cutting machine workers had the lowest exposure (9.3 +/- 3.0 mg/m3, 1.8 +/- 0.82 mg/m3). The maximum concentration of a-quartz in total and respirable dust were detected equal to 0.670 +/- 8.49 x 10(-2) and 5.7 x 10(-2) +/- 1.6 x 10(-2) mg/m3 respectively, which belonged to the exposure of the workers of hammer drill process. The prevalence of skin and respiratory symptoms were higher in hammer drill workers, however, respiratory symptoms showed no significant prevalence. Regarding the average age of workers (31.6 +/- 1.9 yr) and average of their work history (3.8 +/- 1.0 yr), these results were predictable.

  4. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.

  5. Central Heat and Power Plant Coal Dust and Silica Risk Management, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    autoimmune diseases and in death from other nonmalignant respiratory diseases , including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . There are some... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica; Proposed Rule. This consultative letter is in...strategies, occupational and environmental exposure limits, and air sampling methods as they apply to CHPP operations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Silica

  6. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Tielens, AGGM; Waters, LBFM; de Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch "21 mum object" HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model th

  7. Particle size distribution and particle size-related crystalline silica content in granite quarry dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Greg; Hosgood, Howard Dean; Slade, Martin D; Borak, Jonathan

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that the relationship between empirically derived particle counts, particle mass determinations, and particle size-related silica content are not constant within mines or across mine work tasks. To better understand the variability of particle size distributions and variations in silica content by particle size in a granite quarry, exposure surveys were conducted with side-by-side arrays of four closed face cassettes, four cyclones, four personal environmental monitors, and a real-time particle counter. In general, the proportion of silica increased as collected particulate size increased, but samples varied in an inconstant way. Significant differences in particle size distributions were seen depending on the extent of ventilation and the nature and activity of work performed. Such variability raises concerns about the adequacy of silica exposure assessments based on only limited numbers of samples or short-term samples.

  8. Crystalline silica dust and respirable particulate matter during indoor concrete grinding - wet grinding and ventilated grinding compared with uncontrolled conventional grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Milz, Sheryl; Ames, April; Susi, Pamela P; Bisesi, Michael; Khuder, Sadik A; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of wet grinding (wet dust reduction method) and ventilated grinding (local exhaust ventilation method, LEV) in reducing the levels of respirable crystalline silica dust (quartz) and respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) were compared with that of uncontrolled (no dust reduction method) conventional grinding. A field laboratory was set up to simulate concrete surface grinding using hand-held angle grinders in an enclosed workplace. A total of 34 personal samples (16 pairs side-by-side and 2 singles) and 5 background air samples were collected during 18 concrete grinding sessions ranging from 15-93 min. General ventilation had no statistically significant effect on operator's exposure to dust. Overall, the arithmetic mean concentrations of respirable crystalline silica dust and RSP in personal air samples during: (i) five sessions of uncontrolled conventional grinding were respectively 61.7 and 611 mg/m(3) (ii) seven sessions of wet grinding were 0.896 and 11.9 mg/m(3) and (iii) six sessions of LEV grinding were 0.155 and 1.99 mg/m(3). Uncontrolled conventional grinding generated relatively high levels of respirable silica dust and proportionally high levels of RSP. Wet grinding was effective in reducing the geometric mean concentrations of respirable silica dust 98.2% and RSP 97.6%. LEV grinding was even more effective and reduced the geometric mean concentrations of respirable silica dust 99.7% and RSP 99.6%. Nevertheless, the average level of respirable silica dust (i) during wet grinding was 0.959 mg/m(3) (38 times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] threshold limit value [TLV] of 0.025 mg/m(3)) and (ii) during LEV grinding was 0.155 mg/m(3) (6 times the ACGIH TLV). Further studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of a greater variety of models, types, and sizes of grinders on different types of cement in different positions and also to test the simulated field lab experimentation in the field.

  9. Detection of Strong Millimeter Emission from the Circumstellar Dust Disk Around V1094 Sco: Cold and Massive Disk around a T Tauri Star in a Quiescent Accretion Phase?

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Momose, Munetake; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Ikeda, Norio; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S; Scott, Kimberly; Austermann, Jay; Perera, Thushara; Hughes, David; Aretxaga, Itziar; Mauskopf, Philip; Ezawa, Hajime; Kohno, Kotaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of a cold massive dust disk around the T Tauri star V1094 Sco in the Lupus molecular cloud from the 1.1 millimeter continuum observations with AzTEC on ASTE. A compact ($r\\lesssim$320 AU) continuum emission coincides with the stellar position having a flux density of 272 mJy which is largest among T Tauri stars in Lupus. We also present the detection of molecular gas associated with the star in the five-point observations in $^{12}$CO J=3--2 and $^{13}$CO J=3--2. Since our $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO observations did not show any signature of a large-scale outflow or a massive envelope, the compact dust emission is likely to come from a disk around the star. The observed SED of V1094 Sco shows no distinct turnover from near infrared to millimeter wavelengths, which can be well described by a flattened disk for the dust component, and no clear dip feature around 10 $\\micron$ suggestive of absence of an inner hole in the disk. We fit a simple power-law disk model to the observed SED. The es...

  10. Design of a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust collector for the Tanpopo mission aboard the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Mita, Hajime; Okudaira, Kyoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust collector for use in the Tanpopo experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station. The mass production of simple two-layer hydrophobic aerogels was undertaken in a contamination-controlled environment, yielding more than 100 undamaged products. The collector, comprising an aerogel tile and holder panel, was designed to resist launch vibration and to conform to an exposure attachment. To this end, a box-framing aerogel with inner and outer densities of 0.01 and 0.03 g/cm$^3$, respectively, was fabricated. The aerogel mounted in the panel passed random vibration tests at the levels of the acceptance and qualification tests for launch. It also withstood the pressure changes expected in the airlock on the International Space Station.

  11. Six White Dwarfs with Circumstellar Silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M; Zuckerman, B

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope spectra reveal 10 micron silicate emission from circumstellar dust orbiting six externally-polluted white dwarfs. Micron-size glasses with an olivine stoichiometry can account for the distinctively broad wings that extend to 12 microns; these particles likely are produced by tidal-disruption of asteroids. The absence of infrared PAH features is consistent with a scenario where extrasolar rocky planets are assembled from carbon-poor solids.

  12. OISTER Optical and Near-Infrared Observations of the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate SN 2012dn: Dust Emission from the Circumstellar Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from $-11$ to $+140$ days after the date of its $B$-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the $B$-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing a further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as a SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from $30$ days after the $B$-band maximum. The $H$ and $K_{s}$-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at $40$ and $70$ days after the $B$-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The $H$ and $K_{s}$-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating a NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to be $4.8 - 6.4\\times10^{-2}$ pc. No ...

  13. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    James Sarfo-Ansah; Eugene Atiemo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar...

  14. Risk evaluation and exposure control of mineral dust containing free crystalline silica: a study case at a quarry in the Recife Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Mario; Kohlman Rabbani, E; Barkokébas Junior, Beda; Lago, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    During the production of aggregates at quarry sites, elevated quantities of micro-particulate mineral dust are produced in all stages of the process. This dust contains appreciable amounts of free crystalline silica in a variety of forms which, if maintained suspended in the air in the work environment, expose the workers to the risk of developing occupational silicosis, which causes reduced ability to work and potential shortening of lifespan. This study was conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate workers' exposure to mineral dust containing free crystalline silica at a midsized quarry in the Recife metropolitan area, in the State of Pernambuco. It involved evaluation of the industrial process, collection and analysis of representative dust samples, and interviews with the management team of the company with the intent to assess the compliance of the company with Regulatory Standard (NR) 22--Occupational safety and health in mining. In order to assist the company in managing risks related to dust exposure, three protocols were developed, implemented and made available, the first based on NR 22, from which the company was also given an economic safety indicator, the second based on the recommendations and requirements of Fundacentro to implement a Respiratory Protection Program and, finally, an assessment protocol with respect to the guidelines of the International Labor Organization to implement a health and safety management system. This study also showed the inadequacy of the formula for calculating tolerance limits in Brazilian legislation when compared with the more strict internationally accepted control parameters. From the laboratory results, unhealthy conditions at the quarry site were confirmed and technical and administrative measures were suggested to reduce and control dust exposure at acceptable levels, such as the implementation of an occupational health and safety management system, integrated with other management systems. From these

  15. Carbon in intimate contact with quartz reduces the biological activity of crystalline silica dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Tomatis, Maura; Doublier, Sophie; Grendene, Francesca; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Fubini, Bice

    2013-01-18

    To evaluate the effect of carbonaceous materials on the pathogenic activity of quartz dusts, mixtures of carbon soot (1 and 10%) and quartz (Min-U-Sil) were prepared and then milled so to attain an intimate association of carbon and the quartz surface. Both cellular and cell-free tests show that carbon associated to quartz completely inhibits the typical free radical generation of quartz dusts (through Fenton activity and homolytic cleavage of a C-H bond) and suppresses the oxidative stress and inflammation induced by quartz alone on MH-S murine macrophage cells (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide release, and tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis). The cytotoxic response to quartz is also largely reduced. An extremely pure quartz milled with 10% of soot showed inactivating effects on the adverse reactions to quartz similar to Min-U-Sil quartz. None of these effects takes place when the same experiments are carried out with mechanically mixed samples, which suggests that carbon acts not just as a radical quencher but because of its association to the quartz surface.

  16. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sarfo-Ansah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR. Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar bar samples confirmed the formation of an expansive sodium silica gel in the reference Portland cement mortar bar as the agent responsible for ASR. Stable calcium silicates were formed in the mortar bars containing calcined clay in increasing quantities whilst the presence of the sodium silicate gel decreased.The occurrence of these stable silicates in hydrated samples containing steel slag and granite dust was however minimal, compared to calcined clay cement mortars. The highest expansion was recorded for granite dust mortar bars, reaching a maximum of 25.98% at 35 days. Mortar-bar expansion decreased as calcined clay content in the cement increased;mortar bars with 25% calcined clay were the least expansive recording expansion less than 0.1% at all test ages. Whilst the expansion was reduced by between 42.5% and 107.8% at 14 days with increasing calcined clay content, expansion rather increased between 36.8% and 169.5% at 14 days with increasing granite dust content.Steel slag mortar bars experienced reduction in 14 days expansion between 14.3% - 46.2%.The study confirms that steel slag and calcined clay pozzolan have greater influence on ASR in mortar bars than granite dust and shows that calcined clay and low CaO steel slag could be considered as remedial admixtures for ASR at replacement levels of 25% and 15% respectively.

  17. SIZE AND DENSITY ESTIMATION FROM IMPACT TRACK MORPHOLOGY IN SILICA AEROGEL: APPLICATION TO DUST FROM COMET 81P/WILD 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Rei; Tsuchiyama, Akira [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kadono, Toshihiko [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Okudaira, Kyoko [Office for Planning and Management, The University of Aizu, Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Tabata, Makoto [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Watanabe, Takayuki; Yagishita, Masahito [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Machii, Nagisa; Nakamura, Akiko M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa [Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nakano, Tsukasa, E-mail: kadonot@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Geological Survey of Japan, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    A large number of cometary dust particles were captured with low-density silica aerogel during the NASA Stardust mission. The dust particles penetrated into the aerogel and formed various track shapes. To estimate the properties of the dust particles, such as density and size, based on the morphology of the tracks, we carried out systematic experiments testing impacts into low-density aerogel at 6 km s{sup -1} using projectiles of various sizes and densities. We found that the maximum track diameter and the ratio of the track length to the maximum track diameter in aerogel are good indicators of projectile size and density, respectively. Based on these results, we estimated the size and density of individual dust particles from comet 81P/Wild 2. The average density of the 'fluffy' dust particles and the bulk density of all dust particles were obtained as 0.35 {+-} 0.07 and 0.49 {+-} 0.18 g cm{sup -3}, respectively. These statistical data provided the content of monolithic and coarse grains in the Stardust particles, {approx}30 wt%. Combining this result with some mid-infrared observational data, we found that the content of crystalline silicates is {approx}50 wt% or more of non-volatile material.

  18. Checklist Model to Improve Work Practices in Small-Scale Demolition Operations with Silica Dust Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Succop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic approach was developed to review, revise and adapt existing exposure control guidance used in developed countries for use in developing countries. One-page employee and multiple-page supervisor guidance sheets were adapted from existing documents using a logic framework and workers were trained to use the information to improve work practices. Interactive, hands-on training was delivered to 26 workers at five small-scale demolition projects in Maputo City, Mozambique, and evaluated. A pre-and-post walkthrough survey used by trained observers documented work practice changes. Worker feedback indicated that the training was effective and useful. Workers acquired knowledge (84% increase, p < 0.01 and applied the work practice guidance. The difference of proportions between use of work practice components before and after the intervention was statistically significant (p < 0.05. Changes in work practices following training included preplanning, use of wet methods and natural ventilation and end-of-task review. Respirable dust measurements indicated a reduction in exposure following training. Consistency in observer ratings and observations support the reliability and validity of the instruments. This approach demonstrated the short-term benefit of training in changing work practices; follow-up is required to determine the long-term impact on changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  19. Ultralow-density double-layer silica aerogel fabrication for the intact capture of cosmic dust in low-Earth orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Imai, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of an ultralow-density hydrophobic silica aerogel for the intact capture cosmic dust during the Tanpopo mission is described. The Tanpopo experiment performed on the International Space Station orbiting the Earth includes the collection of terrestrial and interplanetary dust samples on a silica aerogel capture medium exposed to space for later ground-based biological and chemical analyses. The key to the mission's success is the development of high-performance capture media, and the major challenge is to satisfy the mechanical requirements as a spacecraft payload while maximizing the performance for intact capture. To this end, an ultralow-density (0.01 g cm$^{-3}$) soft aerogel was employed in combination with a relatively robust 0.03 g cm$^{-3}$ aerogel. A procedure was also established for the mass production of double-layer aerogel tiles formed with a 0.01 g cm$^{-3}$ surface layer and a 0.03 g cm$^{-3}$ open-topped, box-shaped base layer, and 60 aerogel tiles were manufactured. The fabric...

  20. The Circumstellar Environments of Exoplanet Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christine

    The WFIRST-AFTA mission currently includes the provision for a high contrast imaging instrument with a primary goal of discovering new, low mass exoplanets and characterizing their atmospheres. To date, eight exoplanetary systems have been discovered via direct imaging using the current generation of ground-based high-contrast facilities. Five of those systems, including the iconic beta Pictoris and HR 8799 systems, possess infrared excesses, indicative of the presence of circumstellar dust. Detailed studies of dust and gas morphology in the beta Pictoris disk provided the impetus for searching for, and eventually imaging the planet. These studies further suggest that additional planets orbit the star, but are below current detection thresholds. Such systems will be prime targets for WFIRST-AFTA, which will obtain visual spectroscopy of several spectral features from molecules in the exoplanet atmospheres including CH4, H2O, and CO2. We propose to: (1) model the dust in exoplanetary systems with well characterized planets and infrared excesses to better constrain the dust geometry and particle properties; (2) generate synthetic WFIRST-AFTA images of these disks with embedded known and putative planets using point-spread-functions generated by JPL, and run our simulations though a WFIRST-AFTA pipeline; and (3) evaluate the sensitivity of WFIRST-AFTA to known and putative planets that have a range of masses and distances from their host stars. The proposed simulations will also assist the community in understanding how WFIRST-AFTA will contribute to our knowledge of debris disks and the role that minor bodies play in the delivery of water into the terrestrial planet zone. The proposed project is complementary to the efforts currently being carried out by the Science Definition Team (SDT), which focus on simulating planets embedded in tenuous disks, analogous to the Zodiacal dust system in our Solar System, the Earth s resonant dust ring, and the HR 4796 dust ring

  1. Circumstellar Debris Disks: Diagnosing the Unseen Perturber

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvold, Erika R; Vican, Laura; Farr, Will M

    2016-01-01

    The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles' eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N-body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai-Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare t...

  2. Interstellar and circumstellar fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Jones, A P; Peeters, E; Micelotta, E R; Otsuka, M; Sloan, G C; Kemper, F; Groenewegen, M

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are a particularly stable class of carbon molecules in the shape of a hollow sphere or ellipsoid that might be formed in the outflows of carbon stars. Once injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), these stable species survive and are thus likely to be widespread in the Galaxy where they contribute to interstellar extinction, heating processes, and complex chemical reactions. In recent years, the fullerene species C60 (and to a lesser extent C70) have been detected in a wide variety of circumstellar and interstellar environments showing that when conditions are favourable, fullerenes are formed efficiently. Fullerenes are the first and only large aromatics firmly identified in space. The detection of fullerenes is thus crucial to provide clues as to the key chemical pathways leading to the formation of large complex organic molecules in space, and offers a great diagnostic tool to describe the environment in which they reside. Since fullerenes share many physical properties with PAHs, understand...

  3. Mean gas opacity for circumstellar environments and equilibrium temperature degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Malygin, M G; Klahr, H; Dullemond, C P; Henning, Th

    2014-01-01

    In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. We prod...

  4. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Vega-like Stars: Abundances and Circumstellar Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, S. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Ryan, Sean G.

    1996-01-01

    Vega-like stars are main-sequence stars exhibiting excess infrared emission. In an effort to improve the information available on this class of star, 13 stars have been analyzed which have been classed as Vega-like, or have an infra-red excess attributable to dust in their circumstellar environment. In a separate paper stellar properties such as effective temperature and log g have been derived and in this poster we highlight the results of the photospheric abundance analysis also carried out during this work. King recently drew attention to the possible link between Vega-like stars and the photospheric metal-depleted class of A-stars, the Lambda Bootis stars. Since Vega-like stars are thought to have disks of dust, it might be expected that accretion of depleted gas onto the surface of these stars may cause this same phenomenon. In the 6 stars studied for depletions, none showed the extreme underabundance patterns observed in Lambda Bootis stars. However, depletions of silicon and magnesium were found in two of the sample, suggesting that these elements are in silicate dust grains in the circumstellar environment of these stars. Absorption lines attributed to circumstellar gas have been positively identified in three stars in our sample. Individual cases show evidence either of high-velocity outflowing gas, variability in the circumstellar lines observed, or evidence of circumstellar gas in excited lines of Fe II. No previous identification of circumstellar material has been made for two of the stars in question.

  5. Regulation of TXB2 and PGE2 production by TGF-β1 in in vitro silica dust-exposed rat alveolar macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Orlinska

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of transforming factor factor-β1 (TGF-β1 on thromboxane B2 (TXB2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in in vitro silica dust-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (AM. In the presence of 5 μg of anti-TGF-β1 antibodies, TXB2 production decreased, but PGE2 production increased. Addition of 2 ng of TGF-β1 to the culture medium potentiated TXB2 production, but PGE2 production apparently did not change. At 50 ng of TGF-β1, TXB2 production decreased, and PGE2 production varied. Our data suggest that in rat AM: (1 both endogenous and exogenous TGF-β1 regulate TXB2 production; and (2 in the absence of endogenous TGF-β1 the liberation of PGE2 increases; however, exogenous TGF-β1 does not have a regulatory effect on PGE2.

  6. Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The bou...

  7. CONFIRMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR PHOSPHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Decin, L. [Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Teyssier, D. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Urb. Villafranca del Castillo, P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH{sub 3} in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH{sub 3} in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R {sub *} from the star, with an abundance of 10{sup –8} relative to H{sub 2}. The detection of PH{sub 3} challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH{sub 3} holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH{sub 3} outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

  8. Confirmation of circumstellar phosphine

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; Teyssier, D

    2014-01-01

    Phosphine (PH3) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC+10216 and CRL2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J=1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J=2-1 rotational transition of PH3 in IRC+10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH3. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping to excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R* from the star, with an abundance of 1e-8 relative to H2. The detection of PH3 challenges chemical models, none of which offers a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH3 locks just 2 % of the total available phosphorus in IRC+10216, it is together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggest...

  9. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  10. The Circumstellar Disk of the Butterfly Star in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, S; Stapelfeldt, K R; Wolf, Sebastian; Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of the circumstellar environment of the so-called ``Butterfly Star'' in Taurus (IRAS 04302+2247). The appearance of this young stellar object is dominated by a large circumstellar disk seen edge-on and the light scattering lobes above the disk. The model is based on multi-wavelength continuum observations: Millimeter maps and high-resolution near-infrared images obtained with HST/NICMOS. It was found that the disk and envelope parameters are comparable with those of the circumstellar environment of other young stellar objects. A main result is that the dust properties must be different in the circumstellar disk and in the envelope: While a grain size distribution with grain radii up to 100 micron is required to reproduce the millimeter observations of the disk, the envelope is dominated by smaller grains similar to those of the interstellar medium. Preprint with high figure quality available at: http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/swolf/homepage/public/preprints/i04302.ps

  11. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  12. On the gas temperature in circumstellar disks around A stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kamp, I; Kamp, Inga; Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan van

    2001-01-01

    In circumstellar disks or shells it is often assumed that gas and dust temperatures are equal where the latter is determined by radiative equilibrium. This paper deals with the question whether this assumption is applicable for tenous circumstellar disks around young A stars. In this paper the thin hydrostatic equilibrium models described by Kamp & Bertoldi (2000) are combined with a detailed heating/cooling balance for the gas. The most important heating and cooling processes are heating through infrared pumping, heating due to the drift velocity of dust grains, and fine structure and molecular line cooling. Throughout the whole disk gas and dust are not efficiently coupled by collisions and hence their temperatures are quite different. Most of the gas in the disk models considered here stays well below 300 K. In the temperature range below 300 K the gas chemistry is not much affected by T_gas and therefore the simplifying approximation T_gas = T_dust can be used for calculating the chemical structure of...

  13. External Shaping of Circumstellar Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2015-08-01

    The circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants (RSGs) are complex chemical and physical environments, and the specifics of their mass-loss history are important for both stellar and galactic evolution. One key aspect in this is to understand how the circumstellar medium of these stars can be shaped and affected by both internal and external mechanisms. These influences can skew our view on the (dust) chemistry and mass-loss history of these stars, and hence their role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. This contribution focuses on the external mechanism related to the interaction between the slow dusty stellar wind and the local ambient medium. I will discuss what recent observations and hydrodynamical simulations have revealed and how these can help us learn more about AGB stars and RSGs, as well as the interstellar medium (ISM).

  14. Spectroscopic diagnostics for circumstellar disks of B[e] supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are emission-line objects, presumably in a short-lived phase in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. Their intense infrared excess emission indicates large amounts of warm circumstellar dust, and the stars were longtime assumed to possess an aspherical wind consisting of a classical line-driven wind in polar direction and a dense, slow equatorial wind dubbed outflowing disk. The general properties obtained for these disks are in line with this scenario, although current theories have considerable difficulties reproducing the observed quantities. Therefore, more sophisticated observational constraints are needed. These follow from combined optical and infrared spectroscopic studies, which delivered the surprising result that the circumstellar material of B[e]SGs is concentrated in multiple rings revolving the stars on stable Keplerian orbits. Such a scenario requires new ideas for the formation mechanism, in which pulsations might play an important role.

  15. In situ extraction and analysis of volatiles and simple molecules in interplanetary dust particles, contaminants, and silica aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmetz, C. P.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Blanford, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented for the analyses of eight interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) for the volatile elements H, C, N, O, and S and their molecular species, as well as of the volatiles associated with contaminants (i.e., the compounds used during the collection and curation of IDPs), which were carried out using a laser microprobe interfaced with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. It was found that the volatile species from contaminants were always present in the spectra of IDPs. Despite the contamination problems, several indigenous molecular species could be identified, including OH, CO2 or C2H4, C and CS2, CO2 along with CO (possibly indicating the presence of carbonate), H2S, SO, COS, SO2, and CS2. In some cases, the sulfur components can be attributed to aerosols; however, in one of the IDPs, the presence of H2S, SO, COS, and SO2 indicates the possible presence of elemental sulfur.

  16. Radiative transfer modeling of three T Tauri stars: selecting candidates for studying circumstellar disk evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liu; Hong-Chi Wang; Sebastian Wolf; David Madlener

    2013-01-01

    We present modeling work on three young stellar objects that are promising targets for future high-resolution observations to investigate circumstellar disk evolution.The currently available data comprise the spectral energy distribution from optical to millimeter wavelengths which allow constraining the structure of the circumstellar disk using self-consistent radiative transfer models.The results suggest that the assumption of well-mixed dust and gas leads to overestimation of flux in the far-infrared.Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that an overall decrease in far-infrared excess can be explained by dust settling towards the midplane.A new disk model is hence employed to take the effect of dust sedimentation into account.The extended model satisfactorily reproduces all existing observations.The three targets studied here therefore deserve follow-up observations to reveal the evolutionary state of their protoplanetary disks.

  17. An energetic stellar outburst accompanied by circumstellar light echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, H E; Levay, Z G; Panagia, N; Sparks, W B; Starrfield, S; Wagner, R M; Corradi, R L M; Munari, U; Bond, Howard E.; Henden, Arne; Levay, Zoltan G.; Panagia, Nino; Sparks, William B.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2003-01-01

    Some classes of stars, including supernovae and novae, undergo explosive outbursts that eject stellar material into space. In 2002, the previously unknown variable star V838 Monocerotis brightened suddenly by a factor of about 10^4. Unlike a supernova or nova, V838 Mon did not explosively eject its outer layers; rather, it simply expanded to become a cool supergiant with a moderate-velocity stellar wind. Superluminal light echoes were discovered as light from the outburst propagated into surrounding, pre-existing circumstellar dust. Here we report high-resolution imaging and polarimetry of the light echoes, which allow us to set direct geometric distance limits to the object. At a distance of >6 kpc, V838 Mon at its maximum brightness was temporarily the brightest star in the Milky Way. The presence of the circumstellar dust implies that previous eruptions have occurred, and spectra show it to be a binary system. When combined with the high luminosity and unusual outburst behavior, these characteristics indic...

  18. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  19. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG/M3, THEN MAINTAINED FOR SIX MONTHS PRIOR TO ASSESSMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. To induce a fibrotic lesion, Fischer-344 rats were exposed to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg Si0{sub 2}/m{sup 3} for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for six months and then maintained in an animal room, equipped with a laminar flow unit, for six months prior to assessment of the end points.

  20. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  1. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar disks around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These disks which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these disks can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot disks which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of disks, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting disks is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disk geometrical parameters e.g. the disk inner radius and the lens trajectory with resp...

  2. CIRCUMSTELLAR MAGNETITE FROM THE LAP 031117 CO3.0 CHONDRITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zega, Thomas J. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine [Laboratory for Space Sciences and Physics Department, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Stroud, Rhonda M., E-mail: tzega@lpl.arizona.edu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Code 6366, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We report the first microstructural confirmation of circumstellar magnetite, identified in a petrographic thin section of the LaPaz Icefield 031117 CO3.0 chondrite. The O-isotopic composition of the grain indicates an origin in a low-mass (∼2.2 M{sub ⊙}), approximately solar metallicity red/asymptotic giant branch (RGB/AGB) star undergoing first dredge-up. The magnetite is a single crystal measuring 750 × 670 nm, is free of defects, and is stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We hypothesize that the magnetite formed via oxidation of previously condensed Fe dust within the circumstellar envelope of its progenitor star. Using an empirically derived rate constant for this reaction, we calculate that such oxidation could have occurred over timescales ranging from approximately ∼9000–500,000 years. This timescale is within the lifetime of estimates for dust condensation within RGB/AGB stars.

  3. The Three-dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    Surrounding SN 1987A is a three-ring nebula attributed to interacting stellar winds, yet no model has successfully reproduced this system. Fortunately, the progenitor's mass-loss history can be reconstructed using light echoes, in which scattered light from the supernova traces the three-dimensional morphology of its circumstellar dust. In this paper, we construct and analyze the most complete map to date of the progenitor's circumstellar environment, using ground- and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 lt-yr from the SN. Previously known structures, such as an inner hourglass, Napoleon's Hat, and a contact discontinuity, are probed in greater spatial detail than before. Previously unknown features are also discovered, such as a southern counterpart to Napoleon's Hat. Careful analyses of these echoes allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. From the hourglass to the large, bipolar lobes, echo fluxes suggest that the gas density drops from 1-3 to >~0.03 cm-3, while the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm, and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar. The geometry of the three rings is

  4. Crystalline Silica Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  5. The Evolution of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T

    2011-01-01

    Dust constitutes only about one percent of the mass of circumstellar disks, yet it is of crucial importance for the modeling of planet formation, disk chemistry, radiative transfer and observations. The initial growth of dust from sub-micron sized grains to planetesimals and also the radial transport of dust in disks around young stars is the topic of this thesis. Circumstellar dust is subject to radial drift, vertical settling, turbulent mixing, collisional growth, fragmentation and erosion. We approach this subject from three directions: analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and comparison to observations. We describe the physical and numerical concepts that go into a model which is able to simulate the radial and size evolution of dust in a gas disk which is viscously evolving over several million years. The resulting dust size distributions are compared to our analytical predictions and a simple recipe for obtaining steady-state dust size distributions is derived. With the numerical model at han...

  6. Small carbon chains in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, R J; Bernath, P F

    2014-01-01

    Observations were made for a number of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes using the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope to determine the abundance of small carbon chain molecules. Vibration-rotation lines of the $\

  7. B[e] Supergiants' circumstellar environment: disks or rings?

    CERN Document Server

    Maravelias, G; Aret, A; Cidale, L; Arias, M L; Fernandes, M Borges

    2016-01-01

    B[e] Supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] Supergiants, for which we examined the [OI] and [CaII] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or in multiple equatorial rings.

  8. B[e] Supergiants' Circumstellar Environment: Disks or Rings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.; Kraus, M.; Aret, A.; Cidale, L.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI /Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] supergiants, for which we examined the [O I] and [Ca II] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or multiple equatorial rings.

  9. Detailed modelling of the circumstellar molecular line emission of the S-type AGB star W Aquilae

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, T; Justtanont, K; Lombaert, R; Maercker, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S; Royer, P

    2014-01-01

    S-type AGB stars have a C/O ratio which suggests that they are transition objects between oxygen-rich M-type stars and carbon-rich C-type stars. As such, their circumstellar compositions of gas and dust are thought to be sensitive to their precise C/O ratio, and it is therefore of particular interest to examine their circumstellar properties. We present new Herschel HIFI and PACS sub-millimetre and far-infrared line observations of several molecular species towards the S-type AGB star W Aql. We use these observations, which probe a wide range of gas temperatures, to constrain the circumstellar properties of W Aql, including mass-loss rate and molecular abundances. We used radiative transfer codes to model the circumstellar dust and molecular line emission to determine circumstellar properties and molecular abundances. We assumed a spherically symmetric envelope formed by a constant mass-loss rate driven by an accelerating wind. Our model includes fully integrated H2O line cooling as part of the solution of th...

  10. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, S

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially with increasing optical depth, converging towards the temperature distribution resulting from the approximation of mean dust grain parameters, and (2) the resulting spectral energy distributions do not differ by more than 10% if >= 2^5 grain sizes are considered which justifies the mean parameter approximation and the many results obtained under its assumption so far. Nevertheless, the dust grain temperature dispersion at the inner boundary of a dust shell may amount to >>100K and has therefore to be considered in the cor...

  11. Circumstellar Molecular Spectra towards Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of, and possible scientific gains which can be acquired from studying circumstellar molecular spectra toward evolved stars. Where can we expect circumstellar molecular spectra, why would we want to study these spectra, which molecules might be present, and what can we learn from these studies? We present an overview of reported detections, and discuss some of the results.

  12. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  13. Indicator of Exo-Solar Planet(s) in the Circumstellar Disk Around Beta Pictoris

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkavyi, N; Ozernoy, L M; Taidakova, T; Mather, J; Gorkavyi, Nick; Heap, Sara; Ozernoy, Leonid; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John

    2000-01-01

    Our efficient numerical approach has been applied to modeling the asymmetric circumstellar dust disk around Beta Pictoris as observed with the HST/STIS. We present a new model on the origin of the warping of the Beta Pic disk. We suggest that the observed warp is formed by the gravitational influence of a planet with a mass of about 10 masses of Earth, at a distance of 70 AU, and a small inclination ($\\sim 2.5^\\circ$) of the planetary orbit to the main dust disk. Results of our modeling are compared with the STIS observations.

  14. Dust-forming molecules in VY Canis Majoris (and Betelgeuse)

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, T; Schmidt, M R; Patel, N A; Young, K H; Menten, K M; Brunken, S; Muller, H S P; Winters, J M; McCarthy, M C

    2013-01-01

    The formation of inorganic dust in circumstellar environments of evolved stars is poorly understood. Spectra of molecules thought to be most important for the nucleation, i.e. AlO, TiO, and TiO2, have been recently detected in the red supergiant VY CMa. These molecules are effectively formed in VY CMa and the observations suggest that non-equilibrium chemistry must be involved in their formation and nucleation into dust. In addition to exploring the recent observations of VY CMa, we briefly discuss the possibility of detecting these molecules in the dust-poor circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse.

  15. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  16. The photochemistry of carbon-rich circumstellar shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of ambient ultraviolet photons on the chemical structure of carbon-rich, circumstellar envelopes is investigated with a simple formulation of the time-dependent, photochemical rate equations valid for optically thick shells. Molecules injected into the shielded inner envelope are broken down when they reach the outer regions where ambient ultraviolet photons can penetrate. A quantitative description of the abundance variations is obtained for the case of uniform expansion by detailed consideration of the shielding of the radiation by the dust and molecules of the envelope. Representative results are presented to illustrate the role of shielding in defining the extent of molecular envelopes, the formation of C I and C II shells by photodestruction of carbon-bearing molecules, and the development of layered chemical structures from the photobreakup of polyatomic molecules. Photochemistry makes the outer parts of thick, carbon-rich envelopes into complex regions containing radicals, ions, and atoms which are of considerable observational and theoretical interest.

  17. The infrared spectral features of circumstellar envelope of evolved low-and intermediate-mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; JIANG BiWei

    2008-01-01

    The circumstellar envelope of evolved stars of low-and intermediate-mass is an important site for dust formation. In comparison with the interstellar medium, they have more types of organics and different types of inorganics. Various infrared features in the circumstellar envelope can reveal the composition and abundance of dust, as well as the chemical and physical conditions of the circumstellar shell. Infrared features and their carriers are different in the C-rich or O-rich environment, and the mixed-environment where the C-rich and O-rich circumstellar materials co-exist. The C-rich sources exhibit a series of spectral features which are attrib-uted to organic molecules. They also show two prominent features at 21 μm and 30 μm which emit a large portion of infrared radiation. The O-rich sources exhibit the strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm features attributed to the Si-O bending and O-Si-O stretching modes of amorphous silicate dust. With the ISO/SWS spectrometer, about 50 narrow bands are identified with the crystalline silicate grains, mainly forsterite and enstatite. In addition, a series of features, at 13 μm, 16.8 μm, 19.5 μm and 31.8 μm, appearing to be correlated with each other, are attributed to oxides. Some objects simultaneously show the C-rich and O-rich features, e.g. some C-rich sources have silicate features. There is no well-accepted interpretation for such mixed appearance, though a binary model is suggested.

  18. The infrared spectral features of circumstellar envelope of evolved low- and intermediate-mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The circumstellar envelope of evolved stars of low- and intermediate-mass is an important site for dust formation. In comparison with the interstellar medium, they have more types of organics and different types of inorganics. Various infrared features in the circumstellar envelope can reveal the composition and abundance of dust, as well as the chemical and physical conditions of the circumstellar shell. Infrared features and their carriers are different in the C-rich or O-rich environment, and the mixed-environment where the C-rich and O-rich circumstellar materials co-exist. The C-rich sources exhibit a series of spectral features which are attrib- uted to organic molecules. They also show two prominent features at 21 μm and 30 μm which emit a large portion of infrared radiation. The O-rich sources exhibit the strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm features attributed to the Si-O bending and O-Si-O stretching modes of amorphous silicate dust. With the ISO/SWS spectrometer, about 50 narrow bands are identified with the crystalline silicate grains, mainly forsterite and enstatite. In addition, a series of features, at 13 μm, 16.8 μm, 19.5 μm and 31.8 μm, appearing to be correlated with each other, are attributed to oxides. Some objects simultaneously show the C-rich and O-rich features, e.g. some C-rich sources have silicate features. There is no well-accepted interpretation for such mixed appearance, though a binary model is suggested.

  19. Dust amorphization in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Glauser, Adrian M; Watson, Dan M; Henning, Thomas; Schegerer, Alexander A; Wolf, Sebastian; Audard, Marc; Baldovin-Saavedra, Carla

    2009-01-01

    High-energy irradiation of the circumstellar material might impact the structure and the composition of a protoplanetary disk and hence the process of planet formation. In this paper, we present a study on the possible influence of the stellar irradiation, indicated by X-ray emission, on the crystalline structure of the circumstellar dust. The dust crystallinity is measured for 42 class II T Tauri stars in the Taurus star-forming region using a decomposition fit of the 10 micron silicate feature, measured with the Spitzer IRS instrument. Since the sample includes objects with disks of various evolutionary stages, we further confine the target selection, using the age of the objects as a selection parameter. We correlate the X-ray luminosity and the X-ray hardness of the central object with the crystalline mass fraction of the circumstellar dust and find a significant anti-correlation for 20 objects within an age range of approx. 1 to 4.5 Myr. We postulate that X-rays represent the stellar activity and consequ...

  20. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, G.; Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.15" (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.1" (14 AU). It is inclined by 46 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees as the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25 - 30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66 %) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh scattering nor Mie scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with the radii of 30 micrometers is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  1. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Ryoko; Itoh, Yoichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hioki, Tomonori; Oasa, Yumiko; Gupta, Ranjan; Sen, Asoke K.; Wisniewski, John P.; Muto, Takayuki; Grady, Carol A.; Hashimoto, Jun; Fukagawa, Misato; Mayama, Satoshi; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Werren, Chelsea; Curé, Michel; Currie, Thayne; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Momose, Munetake; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Inutsuka, Shu-ichi; Takeuchi, Taku; Dong, Ruobing; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Fukue, Tsubasa; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-12-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.''15 (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A, which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.''1 (14 AU). It is inclined by 46° ± 2°, since the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery have suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25-30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23 AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66%) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh-scattering nor Mie-scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with radii of 30μm is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations, and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  2. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    CERN Document Server

    Hony, S; Waters, L B F M; De Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch ``21 micron object'' HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model the emission of the dust we use amorphous carbon, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, magnesium sulfide and titanium carbide. We present a detailed parametrisation of the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon as a function of H/C content. The mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy is best reproduced by a single dust shell from 1.2 to 2.6 arcsec radius around the central star. This shell originates from a short period during which the mass-loss rate exceeded 10^(-4) M_sun/yr. We find that the strength of the ``21'' micron feature poses a problem for the TiC identification. The low abundance of Ti requires very high absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range to explain the st...

  3. The photodissociation of CO in circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, G. A.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The CO photodissociation rate for the unshielded ISM is calculated using recent laboratory results which confirm that photodissociation occurs by way of line absorption. A value of 2.0 x 10 to the -10th/s, an order of magnitude higher than the rate used in the past, is obtained. The new rate and a treatment of the radiative transfer and shielding are used to develop a theory for the CO abundance in the circumstellar envelopes of cool, evolved stars, and results are presented on the spatial variation of CO, C, and C(+). It is shown that these distributions play important roles in determining the observational properties of circumstellar envelopes.

  4. Stirring up the dust: a dynamical model for halo-like dust clouds in transitional disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijt, S.; Dominik, C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A small number of young stellar objects show signs of a halo-like structure of optically thin dust, in addition to a circumstellar disk. This halo or torus is located within a few AU of the star, but its origin has not yet been understood. Aims. A dynamically excited cloud of planetesimals

  5. From Protoplanetary Disks to Extrasolar Planets: Understanding the Life Cycle of Circumstellar Gas with Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Ardila, David R; Bergin, Edwin A; Brown, Alexander; Burgh, Eric B; Calvet, Nuria; Chiang, Eugene; Cook, Timothy A; Désert, Jean-Michel; Ebbets, Dennis; Froning, Cynthia S; Green, James C; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Johns-Krull, Christopher M; Koskinen, Tommi T; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Redfield, Seth; Roberge, Aki; Schindhelm, Eric R; Scowen, Paul A; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Tumlinson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Few scientific discoveries have captured the public imagination like the explosion of exoplanetary science during the past two decades. This work has fundamentally changed our picture of Earth's place in the Universe and led NASA to make significant investments towards understanding the demographics of exoplanetary systems and the conditions that lead to their formation. The story of the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems is essentially the story of the circumstellar gas and dust that are initially present in the protostellar environment; in order to understand the variety of planetary systems observed, we need to understand the life cycle of circumstellar gas from its initial conditions in protoplanetary disks to its endpoint as planets and their atmospheres. In this white paper response to NASA's Request for Information "Science Objectives and Requirements for the Next NASA UV/Visible Astrophysics Mission Concepts (NNH12ZDA008L)", we describe scientific programs that would use the unique capabi...

  6. Interferences in determination of free silica in dust of workplaces with pyrophosphoric acid method%工作场所粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量焦磷酸测定法的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彦; 于会明; 于冬雪; 顾竹琳; 马岩; 孙玉凤; 王静; 苏红

    2012-01-01

    目的 准确测定工作场所粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量,为评价粉尘危害提供可靠依据.方法 用改进后的焦磷酸法对普通玻璃、硬质玻璃、石英玻璃、硅胶、硅藻土、焦磷酸难溶矿物,包括黄玉、刚玉、锆英石、绿柱石、电气石、碳化硅以及方石英和鳞石英进行实验分析,研究其在焦磷酸和氢氟酸中的溶解对游离二氧化硅定量测定的影响,以及石英在焦磷酸中的损失对游离二氧化硅定量测定的影响.结果 粉尘中含有普通玻璃、硅胶、黄玉、刚玉、锆英石时,不影响粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量的测定,而硬质玻璃、石英玻璃、硅藻土、绿柱石、电气石、碳化硅的存在则影响游离二氧化硅的测定结果,方石英和磷石英在焦磷酸中的溶解损失影响耐火材料和陶瓷生产等工业粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量的测定,石英溶解损失也对游离二氧化硅测定存在影响.结论 明确某些物质对工作场所粉尘中游离二氧化硅含量测定的影响,从而对游离二氧化硅在工作场所粉尘中的存在状况做出正确判断.%Objective To accurately determine the free silica content in settled dust of workplaces so as to provide reliable criteria for assessing the dust hazard. Methods Ordinary glass, hard glass, quartz glass, silica gel, diatomaceous earth, and pyrophosphoric acid slightly or hardly soluble minerals including topaz, corundum, zircon, beryl, tourmaline, silicon carbide, cristobalite and tridymite were analyzed by modified pyrophosphoric acid method. The impact of their solution in pyrophosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid on the determination of free silica was studied. The impact of quartz loss in pyrophosphoric acid on the determination of free silica was also studied. Results Results showed that ordinary glass, silica gel, topaz, corundum, and zircon did not affect the determination of free silica content, whereas hard glass, quartz glass

  7. The complex circumstellar environment of HD 142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S.M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD 142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of

  8. The complex circumstellar environment of HD 142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; Van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S.M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of i

  9. The complex circumstellar environment of HD142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S. M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of i

  10. Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Christa; Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Dwek, Eli; Maund, Justyn R; Fox, Ori; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele; Day-Jones, Avril C

    2014-07-17

    The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions, but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1 to 0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae in the first few years after explosion. Observations of the spectral evolution of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40 to 240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength-dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (exceeding one micrometre) grains, which resist destruction. At later times (500 to 900 days), the near-infrared thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the dust source from the circumstellar medium to the ejecta. This provides the link between the early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

  11. The frequency and infrared brightness of circumstellar discs at white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchetto, M; Gaensicke, B T; Bergfors, C

    2014-01-01

    White dwarfs whose atmospheres are polluted by terrestrial-like planetary debris have become a powerful and unique tool to study evolved planetary systems. This paper presents results for an unbiased Spitzer IRAC search for circumstellar dust orbiting a homogeneous and well-defined sample of 134 single white dwarfs. The stars were selected without regard to atmospheric metal content but were chosen to have 1) hydrogen rich atmospheres, 2) 17 000 K < T_eff < 25 000 K and correspondingly young post main-sequence ages of 15-270Myr, and 3) sufficient far-ultraviolet brightness for a corresponding Hubble Space Telescope COS Snapshot. Five white dwarfs were found to host an infrared bright dust disc, three previously known, and two reported here for the first time, yielding a nominal 3.7% of white dwarfs in this post-main sequence age range with detectable circumstellar dust. Remarkably, complementary HST observations indicate that a fraction of 27% show metals in their photosphere that can only be explained ...

  12. Extinction Laws toward Stellar Sources within a Dusty Circumstellar Medium and Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nozawa, Takaya

    2016-06-01

    Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains by adopting various dust grain models. We confirm that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains, especially the total-to-selective extinction ratio R V , which characterizes the extinction law and can be either increased or decreased and compared with the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the B and V bands. We also find that either small silicate grains or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary for realizing a low value of R V as often measured toward SNe Ia if the multiple scattering by CS dust is responsible for their non-standard extinction laws. Using the derived relations between the properties of dust grains and the resulting effective extinction laws, we propose that the extinction laws toward dusty objects could be used to constrain the properties of dust grains in CS environments.

  13. Silica, silicosis and cancer in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, T; Jaakkola, J; Tossavainen, A

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 100 000 Finnish workers are currently employed in jobs and tasks that may involve exposure to airborne silica dust. The major industries involved are mining and quarrying; production of glass, ceramics, bricks and other building materials; metal industry, particularly iron and steel founding; and construction. Over 1500 cases of silicosis have occurred in Finland since 1935. Tuberculosis has been a frequent complication of silicosis. Results of studies from several countries strongly suggest that silica dust also causes lung cancer. The results of the relevant Finnish epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies addressing cancer risk and exposure to quartz dust are summarized.

  14. Spatial Distributions of Multiple Dust Components in the PPN/PN Dust Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, T; Meixner, M; Dayal, A; Hora, J L; Fazio, G G; Deutsch, L K; Hoffmann, W F; Ueta, Toshiya; Speck, Angela K.; Meixner, Margaret; Dayal, Aditya; Hora, Joseph L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Hoffmann, William F.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate spatial distributions of specific dust components in the circumstellar shells of a proto-planetary nebula candidate, HD 179821, and a planetary nebula, BD$+30^{\\circ}$3639, by means of spectral imaging. With high-resolution ground-based images and ISO spectra in the mid-infrared, we can derive ``dust feature only'' maps by subtracting synthesized continuum maps from the observed images at the feature wavelength. Such spatially detailed information will help to develop models for the evolution of dust grains around evolved stars.

  15. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...

  16. The circumstellar environment of pre-SN Ia systems

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, E; Boumis, P; Kopsacheili, M; Akras, S; Sabin, L; Jurkic, T

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the possible preexisting circumstellar debris of supernova type Ia systems. Classical, symbiotic and recurrent novae all accrete onto roughly solar mass white dwarfs from main sequence or Mira type companions and result in thermonuclear runaways and expulsion of the accreted material at high velocity. The expelled material forms a fast moving shell that eventually slows to planetary nebula expansion velocities within several hundred years. All such systems are recurrent and thousands of shells (each of about 0.001 Mo) snow plough into the environment. As these systems involve common envelope binaries the material is distributed in a non-spherical shell. These systems could be progenitors of some SN Ia and thus explode into environments with large amounts of accumulated gas and dust distributed in thin non-spherical shells. Such shells should be observable around 100 years after a SN Ia event in a radio flash as the SN Ia debris meets that of the ejected material of the systems previous incarna...

  17. ALMA Observations of HD141569's Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    White, J A; Hughes, A M; Flaherty, K M; Ford, E; Wilner, D; Corder, S; Payne, M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA band 7 (345 GHz) continuum and $^{12}$CO(J = 3-2) observations of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD141569. At an age of about 5 Myr, the disk has a complex morphology that may be best interpreted as a nascent debris system with gas. Our $870\\rm~\\mu m$ ALMA continuum observations resolve a dust disk out to approximately $ 56 ~\\rm au$ from the star (assuming a distance of 116 pc) with $0."38$ resolution and $0.07 ~ \\rm mJy~beam^{-1}$ sensitivity. We measure a continuum flux density for this inner material of $3.8 \\pm 0.4 ~ \\rm mJy$ (including calibration uncertainties). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas is resolved kinematically and spatially from about 30 to 210 au. The integrated $^{12}$CO(3-2) line flux density is $15.7 \\pm 1.6~\\rm Jy~km~s^{-1}$. We estimate the mass of the millimeter debris and $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas to be $\\gtrsim0.04~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$ and $\\sim2\\times 10^{-3}~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$, respectively. If the millimeter grains are part of a collisional cascade, then we infer that the inner disk ($&...

  18. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S.

    2012-07-01

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution typically is ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amount of cooler dust. Such a phase of rapid ejecta evolution has not been previously predicted or observed, and no currently available physical model satisfactorily explains the observations.

  19. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and 12CO J = 3-2 line fluxes of disks around low-mass (0.14-1.66 M ⊙) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, five are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area (≲40 au), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least ˜1000 relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of {M}{dust}\\propto {M}* 1.67+/- 0.37. Disk dust masses in Upper Sco are compared to those measured in the younger Taurus star-forming region to constrain the evolution of disk dust mass. We find that the difference in the mean of {log}({M}{dust}/{M}* ) between Taurus and Upper Sco is 0.64 ± 0.09, such that M dust/M * is lower in Upper Sco by a factor of ˜4.5.

  20. A New View of the Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    We summarize the analysis of a uniform set of both previously known and newly discovered scattered-light echoes, detected within 30" of SN 1987A in 10 years of optical imaging, and with which we have constructed the most complete three-dimensional model of the progenitor's circumstellar environment. Surrounding the SN is a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``peanut,'' which we believe is the contact discontinuity between the red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior, the innermost circumstellar material lies along a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. The three-dimensional geometry of the three circumstellar rings is studied, suggesting the northern and southern rings are located 1.3 and 1.0 lt-yr from the SN, while the equatorial ring is elliptical (b/a~0.03 cm-3 the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar, yielding a red-supergiant mass loss around 5×10-6 Msolar yr-1. We compare these results to current formation models and find that no model has successfully reproduced this system. However, our results suggest a heuristic evolutionary sequence in which the progenitor evolves through two ``blue loops,'' perhaps accompanied by a close binary companion.

  1. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchio, Marco; Marassi, Stefania; Schneider, Raffaella; Bianchi, Simone; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. We have developed a new code (GRASH_Rev) which follows the newly-formed dust evolution throughout the supernova explosion until the merging of the forward shock with the circumstellar ISM. We have considered four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN1987A, CasA, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations and estimate that between 1 and 8% of the observed mass will survive, leading to a SN dust production rate of (3.9± 3.7)×10^(-4) MM_{⊙})/yr in the Milky Way. This value is one order of magnitude larger than the dust production rate by AGB stars but insufficient to counterbalance the dust destruction by SNe, therefore requiring dust accretion in the gas phase.

  2. Sub-Keplerian accretion onto circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, R

    2010-01-01

    Models of the formation, evolution and photoevaporation of circumstellar disks are an essential ingredient in many theories of the formation of planetary systems. The ratio of disk mass over stellar mass in the circumstellar phase of a disk is largely determined by the angular momentum of the original cloud core from which the system was formed. While full 3D or 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamical models of accretion onto the disk automatically treat all aspects of angular momentum, this is not so trivial for 1D and semi-2D viscous disk models. Since 1D and semi-2D disk models are still very useful for long-term evolutionary modelling of disks with relatively little numerical effort, we investigate how the 2D nature of accretion affects the formation and evolution of the disk in such models. A proper treatment of this problem requires a correction for the sub-Keplerian velocity at which accretion takes place. We develop an update of our semi-2D time-dependent disk evolution model to properly treat the effects of s...

  3. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: Methods, Performance at First Light, and the Circumstellar Ring around HR 4796A

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Marshall D; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Graham, James R; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Kalas, Paul G; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David W; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wang, Jason J; Wolff, Schuyler G

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side >9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Ba...

  4. Diagnostics of circumstellar grains in geometric models I: structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, J. H. P.; Greaves, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of circumstellar dust has been extensively used to diagnose the sizes and compositions of dust grains. We show that variations of SED slope in the long wavelength (submillimetre to radio) regime can be used to diagnose the gross physical nature (and hence origins) of the dust, using simple geometric models that complement the use of detailed simulations. We consider two dust grain types: (i) clustered aggregates of smaller particles (monomers), and (ii) composite grains comprising ferrous inclusions within a silicate matrix. These types are intended to be analogous to fluffy cometary particles and fragments of compacted asteroids, respectively. Our results indicate that clusters of silicate grains produce a smooth SED, while composite grains with FeS inclusions produce an SED that has a pronounced drop at a wavelength an order of magnitude larger than the grain size, and is flatter at long wavelengths. As a test case, we compare the model predictions to flux measurements of the TW Hydrae disc. This SED shows a drop that only occurs in our models of compacted grains with inclusions. Since the TW Hya discs spans approximately 10-40 AU in radius, fluffy particles from comets were perhaps expected, as in the Sun's Kuiper belt.

  5. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Barenfeld, Scott A; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and $^{12}$CO $J = 3-2$ line fluxes of disks around low mass ($0.14-1.66$ $M_{\\odot}$) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, 5 are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area ($\\lesssim 40$ AU), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least $\\sim1000$ relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of $M_{dust}\\propto M_*^...

  6. Silica Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghahramani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2 is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600–7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents.

  7. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Ori system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we will use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. We recorded spectrally dispersed (R˜35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases and the SED of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ˜3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ˜70 degree. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ˜0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ˜70 degree and an additional dust envelope. The finding of an ˜70 degree inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar.

  8. Revealing the inclined circumstellar disk in the UX Orionis system KK Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kishimoto, M.; Schertl, D.; Tambovtseva, L.; Clausse, J.-M.; Massi, F.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori-type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. Methods: We recorded spectrally dispersed (R ~ 35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases, and the spectral energy distribution of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). Results: We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ~3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ~70°. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ~70° and an additional dust envelope. Conclusions: The finding of an ~70° inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID: 083.D-0224(C) and 088.C-0575(A).

  9. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin, Eric; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Cavarroc, Celine; Sterzik, Michael F.

    2008-07-01

    The phase A study of a mid infrared imager and spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), called METIS, was endorsed in May 2008. Two key science drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo-planets and b) characterization of circumstellar discs from the early proto-planetary to the late debris phase. Observations in the 10μm atmospheric window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet or the disc of ~ 105. At shorter wavelengths the contrast between star and reflected light from the planet-disc system exceeds >~ 107 posing technical challenges. By means of end-to-end detailed simulations we demonstrate that the superb spatial resolution of a 42m telescope in combination with stellar light rejection methods such as coronagraphic or differential imaging will allow detections at 10μm for a solar type system down to a star-planet separation of 0.1" and a mass limit for irradiated planets of 1 Jupiter (MJ) mass. In case of self-luminous planets observations are possible further out e.g. at the separation limit of JWST of ~ 0.7", METIS will detect planets >~5MJ. This allows to derive a census of all such exo-planets by means of thermal imaging in a volume limited sample of up to 6pc. In addition, METIS will provide the possibility to study the chemical composition of atmospheres of exo-planets using spectroscopy at moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 100) for the brightest targets. Based on detailed performance and sensitivity estimates, we demonstrate that a mid-infrared instrument on an ELT is perfectly suited to observe gravitationally created structures such as gaps in proto- and post- planetary discs, in a complementary way to space missions (e.g. JWST, SOFIA) and ALMA which can only probe the cold dust emission further out.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide in a circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukita, N.; Morris, M.

    1983-01-01

    A search for hydrogen sulfide in the cool circumstellar envelopes of 25 stars was made using the 1(10)-1(01) rotational line at 1.8 mm. It was detected in the bipolar nebula/OH maser OH231.8+4.2, an object having a high rate of mass loss. An approximate analysis indicates that 1/60 of the sulfur in this outflowing envelope is in the form of H2S, a fraction which may be similar to that in the atmosphere of the central star. In addition, the shape of the observed line profile is discussed in terms of a possible variation of the outflow velocity with latitude above the system's equatorial plane.

  11. Evaluation of Respirable Crystalline Silica in High School Ceramics Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Fechser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11 high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44. Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher’s work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an exceedance of 21%.

  12. Evaluation of Respirable Crystalline Silica in High School Ceramics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-01-01

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher’s work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an exceedance of 21%. PMID:24464235

  13. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on

  14. Atomic and molecular hydrogen in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the expanding circumstellar envelopes of cool evolved stars is discussed. The main concern is to evaluate the effects of photodestruction of H2 by galactic UV radiation, including shielding of the radiation by H2 itself and by dust in the envelope. One of the most important parameters is the H/H2 ratio which is frozen out in the upper atmosphere of the star. For stars with photospheric temperatures greater than about 2500 K, atmospheric models suggest that the outflowing hydrogen is mainly atomic, whereas cooler stars should be substantially molecular. In the latter case, photodissociation of H2 and heavy molecules contribute to the atomic hydrogen content of the outer envelope. The presented estimates indicate that atomic hydrogen is almost at the limit of detection in the C-rich star IRC + 10216, and may be detectable in warmer stars. Failure to detect it would have important implications for the general understanding of circumstellar envelopes.

  15. Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH+ in the optical spectra of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Waters, L B F M; Schoenmaker, T; Bakker, Eric J.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Schoenmaker, Ton

    1996-01-01

    We present optical high-resolution spectra of a sample of sixteen post-AGB stars and IRC +10216. Of the post-AGB stars, ten show C2 Phillips and Swan and CN Red System absorption, one CH+ emission, one CH+ absorption, and four without any molecules. We find typically Trot=43-399, 155-202, and 18-50 K, log N = 14.90-15.57, 14.35, and 15.03-16.47 cm-2 for C2, CH+, and CN respectively, and 0.620. The presence of C2 and CN absorption is correlated with cold dust (Tdust300K). All objects with the unidentified 21mum emission feature exhibit C2 and CN absorption, but not all objects with C2 and CN detections exhibit a 21mum feature. The derived expansion velocity, ranging from 5 to 44 km/s, is the same as that derived from CO millimeter line emission. This unambiguously proves that these lines are of circumstellar origin and are formed in the AGB ejecta (circumstellar shell expelled during the preceding AGB phase). Furthermore there seems to be a relation between the C2 molecular column density and the expansion vel...

  16. The Evolutionary State of Anemic Circumstellar Disks and the Primordial-to-Debris Disk Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of $\\sim$ 3 Myr-old MIPS-detected circumstellar disks in IC 348 that may be in an intermediate stage between primordial, optically-thick disks of gas/dust and debris disks characteristic of the final stages of planet formation. We demonstrate that these \\textit{anemic} disks are not a homogenous class of objects corresponding to a unique evolutionary state. Rather, such disks around early (B/A) spectral type stars are most likely warm, terrestrial zone debris disks; MIPS-detected anemic disks around later (M) stars are likely \\textit{evolved primordial disks} such as transition disks in their mid-IR colors, accretion signatures, and disk luminosities. Anemic disks surrounding G and K stars contain both populations. The difference in evolutionary states between anemic disks surrounding early type vs. late-type stars is consistent with a mass-dependent evolution of circumstellar disks from the primordial disk phase through the debris disk phase. Specifically, disks characteristicall...

  17. The circumstellar disc of AB Aurigae: evidence for envelope accretion at late stages of star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Pietu, Vincent; Dutrey, Anne; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Ho, Paul T P

    2012-01-01

    The circumstellar disc of AB Aurigae has garnered great attentions due to the apparent existence of spirals at a relatively young stage and also the asymmetric disc traced in thermal dust emission. However, the physical conditions of the spirals are still not well understood. The origin of the asymmetric thermal emission is unclear. We observe the disc at 230 GHz (1.3 mm) in both continuum and the spectral line ^12 CO 2-1 with IRAM 30 m, the PdBI and the SMA to sample all spatial scales from 0.37" to about 50". To combine the data obtained from these telescopes, several methods and calibration issues have been checked and discussed. The 1.3 mm continuum (dust) emission is resolved into inner disc and outer ring. The emission from the dust ring is highly asymmetric in azimuth, with intensity variations by a factor 3. Molecular gas at high velocities traced by the CO line is detected aside the stellar location. The inclination angle of the disc is found to decrease toward the center. At larger scale, based on t...

  18. A SCUBA-2 850-$\\mu$m survey of circumstellar disks in the $\\lambda$ Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Cieza, Lucas A

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an 850-$\\mu$m survey of the $\\sim$ 5 Myr old $\\lambda$ Orionis star-forming region. We used the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to survey a $\\sim$0.5-diameter circular region containing 36 (out of 59) cluster members with infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar disks. We detected only one object at $>3\\sigma$ significance, the Herbig Ae star HD 245185, with a flux density of $\\sim74$ mJy beam$^{-1}$ corresponding to a dust mass of $\\sim150$ M$_{\\oplus}$. Stacking the individually undetected sources did not produce a significant mean signal but gives an upper limit on the average dust mass for $\\lambda$ Orionis disks of $\\sim3$ M$_{\\oplus}$. Our follow-up observations of HD 245185 with the Submillimeter Array found weak CO 2--1 line emission with an integrated flux of $\\sim170$ mJy km s$^{-1}$ but no $^{13}$CO or C$^{18}$O isotopologue emission at 30 mJy km s$^{-1}$ sensitivity, suggesting a gas mass of $\\lesssim1$ M$_{\\rm Jup}$. The implied gas-to-dust ratio i...

  19. The circumstellar matter of supernova 2014J and the core-degenerate scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2015-01-01

    I show that the circumstellar matter (CSM) of the type Ia supernova 2014J is too massive and its momentum too large to be accounted for by any but the core-degenerate (CD) scenario for type Ia supernovae. Assuming the absorbing gas is of CSM origin, the several shells responsible of the absorption potassium lines are accounted for by a mass loss episode from a massive asymptotic giant branch star during a common envelope phase with a white dwarf companion. The time-varying potassium lines can be accounted for by ionization of neutral potassium and the Na-from-dust absorption (NaDA) model. Before explosion some of the potassium resides in the gas phase and some in dust. Weakening in absorption strength is caused by potassium-ionizing radiation of the supernova, while release of atomic potassium from dust increases the absorption. I conclude that if the absorbing gas originated from the progenitor of SN 2014J, then a common envelope phase took place about 15,000 years ago, leading to the merging of the core wit...

  20. An efficient algorithm for two-dimensional radiative transfer in axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes and disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dullemond, C P

    2000-01-01

    We present an algorithm for two-dimensional radiative transfer in axisymmetric, circumstellar media. The formal integration of the transfer equation is performed by a generalization of the short characteristics (SC) method to spherical coordinates. Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and Ng's algorithm are used to converge towards a solution. By taking a logarithmically spaced radial coordinate grid, the method has the natural capability of treating problems that span several decades in radius, in the most extreme case from the stellar radius up to parsec scale. Flux conservation is guaranteed in spherical coordinates by a particular choice of discrete photon directions and a special treatment of nearly-radially outward propagating radiation. The algorithm works well from zero up to very high optical depth, and can be used for a wide variety of transfer problems, including non-LTE line formation, dust continuum transfer and high temperature processes such as compton scattering. In this paper we focus on multip...

  1. Ground-based near-infrared imaging of the HD141569 circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Boccaletti, A; Marchis, F; Hanh, J

    2003-01-01

    We present the first ground-based near-infrared image of the circumstellar disk around the post-Herbig Ae/Be star HD141569A initially detected with the HST. Observations were carried out in the near-IR (2.2 $\\mu$m) at the Palomar 200-inch telescope using the adaptive optics system PALAO. The main large scale asymmetric features of the disk are detected on our ground-based data. In addition, we measured that the surface brightness of the disk is slightly different than that derived by HST observations (at 1.1 $\\mu$m and 1.6 $\\mu$m). We interpret this possible color-effect in terms of dust properties and derive a minimal

  2. Infrared spectra of silica polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, C.; Noguchi, R.; Chihara, H.; Suto, H.; Ohtaka, O.; Imai, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    The existence of silica within several debris disks has been suggested. We investigate the annealing conditions of α-cristobalite, and further prepare various types of silica, including α-cristobalite, α-quartz, coesite, stishovite, and fused quartz, which are natural, synthetic or commercial samples. We compare the results to previous studies and find that α-cristobalite synthesized at higher temperature than annealed silica. The interesting result of features similar to those of forsterite should be highlighted, where αcristobalite and coesite showed similar peaks at 16, 33, and 69 μm as forsterite. The 69 μm band for αcristobalite is especially very broad and strong, and shifts largely to a shorter wavelengths under cooling to low temperatures. The band for coesite, however, is very sharp, and shifts only a small amount to longer wavelengths under cooling to low temperatures. The peak positions of 16 and 69-μm band due to α-cristobalite can become index for temperature of silica dust. We discuss the possibility of silica detection around debris disks.

  3. Dust Evolution and the Formation of Planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T; Johansen, A

    2016-01-01

    The solid content of circumstellar disks is inherited from the interstellar medium: dust particles of at most a micrometer in size. Protoplanetary disks are the environment where these dust grains need to grow at least 13 orders of magnitude in size. Our understanding of this growth process is far from complete, with different physics seemingly posing obstacles to this growth at various stages. Yet, the ubiquity of planets in our galaxy suggests that planet formation is a robust mechanism. This chapter focuses on the earliest stages of planet formation, the growth of small dust grains towards the gravitationally bound "planetesimals", the building blocks of planets. We will introduce some of the key physics involved in the growth processes and discuss how they are expected to shape the global behavior of the solid content of disks. We will consider possible pathways towards the formation of larger bodies and conclude by reviewing some of the recent observational advances in the field.

  4. Circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Albi, T; Bachiller, R; Neri, R; Planesas, P; Testi, L; Berne, O; Joblin, C

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out a search for circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars using the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the IRAM Plateau de Bure (PdB) interferometers. In this Paper, we present our new VLA and PdBI data on the three objects MWC 297, Z CMa and LKHa 215. We have constructed the SED from near-IR to centimeter wavelengths by adding our millimeter and centimeter data to the available data at other wavelengths, mainly Spitzer images. The whole SED has been fitted using a disk+envelope model. In addition, we have compiled all the disk millimeter observations in the literature and made some statistics. We show that the disk mass is usually only a small percentage (less than 10%) of the mass of the whole envelope in HBe stars. Concerning the disks, there are large source to source variations. Two disks of our sample, R Mon and Z CMa, have similar sizes and masses to those found in T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. The disks around MWC 1080 and MWC 297 are, however, smaller (rout<100 AU). We have not detec...

  5. An MCMC Circumstellar Disks Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Elodie; Soummer, Remi; Ren, Bin; Pueyo, Laurent; Debes, John H.; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present an enhanced software framework for the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of circumstellar disk observations, including spectral energy distributions and multi wavelength images from a variety of instruments (e.g. GPI, NICI, HST, WFIRST). The goal is to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in the derived properties. This modular code is designed to work with a collection of existing modeling tools, ranging from simple scripts to define the geometry for optically thin debris disks, to full radiative transfer modeling of complex grain structures in protoplanetary disks (using the MCFOST radiative transfer modeling code). The MCMC chain relies on direct chi squared comparison of model images/spectra to observations. We will include a discussion of how best to weight different observations in the modeling of a single disk and how to incorporate forward modeling from PCA PSF subtraction techniques. The code is open source, python, and available from github. Results for several disks at various evolutionary stages will be discussed.

  6. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2015-01-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to th...

  7. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Griffith, Christopher V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: jsilverman@astro.as.utexas.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

  8. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks....

  9. Is mass loss from red giant stars dust driven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J. A.

    1992-12-01

    Long period variable stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch are observed to be losing mass in the form of cool dusty molecular stellar winds at rates from 10-7 to 10-4 Msunyr-1. The driving force for this mass loss is thought to be radiation pressure on dust particles. The dust transfers its momentum to gas molecules via collisions. This paper discusses the existing evidence for this scenario. New results, from analysis of 22 GHz H2O maser observations made by Merlin, show that the cruical acceleration past the stellar escape velocity of the central star takes place in the inner circumstellar envelope around the central star. The analysis of the velocity fields of the circumstellar envelopes of VX Sgr and VY CMa using the model described by Chapman and Cohen (1986) are discussed.

  10. An in vivo tracing study on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats exposed to silica dust%骨髓间充质干细胞在染矽尘大鼠体内示踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永梅; 黄明; 燕玲; 曾子芳; 吴奇峰; 梁伟辉; 曾小菁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell ( BMMSC) in rats exposed to silica dust.Methods BMMSCs were isolated from 7 specific pathogen free healthy male SD rats through bone marrow adherent method and transfected using lentiviral vector-enhanced green fluorescence protein ( LV-eGFP ) .Then Trypan blue staining and CCK-8 were applied to assay the cellular survival rate and cell proliferation activity before and after transfection, while 8 rats of the same kind were randomly divided into control group and silicotic group, with 4 rats in each group.Silicotic group was injected intratracheally with 1.0 mL silica suspension ( mass concentration was 40 g/L) while control group was given 1.0 mL physiological sodium chloride solution.The transfected BMMSCs were intravenously injected into the caudal veins of rats of the two groups.The lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain were taken and observed under the fluorescence microscopy by frozen section 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks respectively after transplantation.The fluorescence distribution and of BMMSCs transplanted with LV-eGFP were detected, the fluorescence intensity of every organ was calculated by Image-pro plus 6.0.Results When the multiplicity of infection was 50, the transfection efficiency of BMMSCs was 80.00%, the green fluorescence expression was powerful and sustained, and there was not any change found in morphological characteristics of BMMSC after transfection.The respective cellular survival rates had no statistical significant difference between transfected and untransfected BMMSCs with LV-eGFP [ ( 97.67 ±0.60 )% vs (98.03 ±0.56 )%, P >0.05 ] .Cell proliferation activity had no statistical significant difference in main effects of transfection treatment (P >0.05).In the first week after transplantation of BMMSCs transfected with LV-eGFP, the fluorescence expression was observed in tissue sections of each organ in rats of two groups, the stronger fluorescence was

  11. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-01-28

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via di erential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  12. POLARIMETRY WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: METHODS, PERFORMANCE AT FIRST LIGHT, AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING AROUND HR 4796A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Marshall D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Duchene, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul G. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Max [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Chilcote, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald [Department of Astronomy, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); De Rosa, Robert J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Doyon, René [Department de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  13. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchio, M; Schneider, R; Bianchi, S; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A

    2016-01-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. We have developed a new code (GRASH\\_Rev) which follows the newly-formed dust evolution throughout the supernova explosion until the merging of the forward shock with the circumstellar ISM. We have considered four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN1987A, CasA, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations and estimate that between 1 and 8$\\%$ of the observed mass will survive, leading to a SN dust production rate of $(3.9 \\pm 3.7) \\times 10^{-4}$ M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$ in the Milky Way. This value i...

  14. A deep Spitzer survey of circumstellar disks in the young double cluster, h and χ Persei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutier, Ryan; Currie, Thayne; Jayawardhana, Ray [University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2J7 (Canada); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Balog, Zoltan, E-mail: cloutier@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: currie@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze very deep Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) photometry of ∼12, 500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and χ Persei, building upon our earlier, shallower Spitzer Cycle 1 studies. Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 μm and 24 μm, indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 μm excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems, but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 μm reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, though similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide constraints. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times (τ{sub 0}) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr, respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters, these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime than previously thought. In both cases, the transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is ≈1 Myr. Finally, 24 μm excess frequencies for 4-6 M {sub ☉} stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M {sub ☉} stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.

  15. Millimeter emission from protoplanetary disks : dust, cold gas, and relativistic electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salter, Demerese Marie

    2010-01-01

    Star formation occurs when a dense cloud of interstellar gas and dust gravitationally collapses. Rotation during this collapse leads naturally to the formation of a flattened circumstellar disk around the forming star. These disks are additionally known as protoplanetary disks because the orbiting c

  16. Far-IR Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberge, Aki; Kamp, I.; Augereau, J.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Olofsson, J.; Donaldson, J.; Howard, C. D.; Eiroa, C.; Dent, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory far-IR imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Cet, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. Photometry was obtained at 7

  17. Herschel Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberge, A.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Dent, W. R. F.; Meeus, G.; Donaldson, J. K.; Olofsson, J.; Moór, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Howard, C.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Ardila, D. R.; Sandell, G.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space

  18. The Circumstellar Medium of Massive Stars in Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Meyer, Dominique M -A; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.

  19. The Origin and Formation of the Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2010-01-01

    The formation and evolution of the circumstellar disk in the collapsing molecular cloud is investigated from the prestellar stage resolving both the molecular cloud core and the protostar itself. In the collapsing cloud, the first adiabatic core appears prior to the protostar formation. Reflecting the thermodynamics of the collapsing gas, the first core is much more massive than the protostar. When the molecular cloud has no angular momentum, the first core falls onto the protostar and disappears a few years after the protostar formation. On the other hand, when the molecular cloud has an angular momentum, the first core does not disappear even after the protostar formation, and directly evolves into the circumstellar disk with a Keplerian rotation. There are two paths for the formation of the circumstellar disk. When the initial cloud has a considerably small rotational energy, two nested disks appear just after the protostar formation. During the early main accretion phase, the inner disk increases its size...

  20. The EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE)

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Tenerelli, Domenick J

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE), selected by NASA for technology development and maturation. EXCEDE will study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems, and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. EXCEDE provides contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities ~ 1000x greater than HST or JWST coronagraphs at a much smaller effective inner working angle (IWA), thus enabling the exploration and characterization of exoplanetary circumstellar disks in currently inaccessible domains. EXCEDE will utilize a laboratory demonstrated high-performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraph (PIAA-C) integrated with a 70 cm diameter unobscured aperture visible light telescope. The EXCEDE PIAA-C will deliver star-to-disk augmented image contrasts of < 10E-8 and a 1.2 L/D IWA or 140 mas with a wavefront control system utilizing a 2000-element MEMS DM and fast steering mirror. EXCEDE will...

  1. Photochemistry and molecular ions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.; Omont, A.; Lucas, R.

    1987-01-01

    An earlier theory of ionization of C-rich circumstellar envelopes based on the photochemical model is extended to include the temperature dependence of ion-molecule reactions with polar molecules, particularly HCN, and line self-shielding of CO dissociating radiation. The results are applied to the abundances of HCO(+) and HNC in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. With standard parameters for IRC + 10216, the model is found to be consistent with the new upper limit to the antenna temperature of the J = 1-0 line of HCO(+) obtained with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The photochemical model provides a natural explanation of the relatively large ratio of HCN to HNC observed for C-rich circumstellar envelopes, and good agreement is obtained for the H(C-13)N/HNC antenna temperature ratio measured for IRC + 10216.

  2. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  3. Structure and Composition of Two Transitional Circumstellar Disks in Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, A M; Wilner, D J; Meyer, M R; Carpenter, J M; Qi, C; Hales, A S; Casassus, S; Hogerheijde, M R; Mamajek, E E; Wolf, S; Henning, T; Silverstone, M D

    2010-01-01

    The late stages of evolution of the primordial circumstellar disks surrounding young stars are poorly understood, yet vital to constrain theories of planet formation. We consider basic structural models for the disks around two ~10 Myr-old members of the nearby RCrA association, RX J1842.9-3532 and RX J1852.3-3700. We present new arcsecond-resolution maps of their 230 GHz continuum emission from the Submillimeter Array and unresolved CO(3-2) spectra from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. By combining these data with broadband fluxes from the literature and infrared fluxes and spectra from the catalog of the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we assemble a multiwavelength data set probing the gas and dust disks. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC to model simultaneously the SED and millimeter continuum visibilities, we derive basic dust disk properties and identify an inner cavity of radius 16 AU in the disk around R...

  4. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    CERN Document Server

    Budaj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, ufo, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. $\\epsilon$ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed dark, inclined, disk of dust with the central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks. Internal optically thi...

  5. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD~76582's circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J P; Holland, W S; Matthews, B C; Greaves, J S; Zuckerman, B

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disk legacy survey 'SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD~76582, for evidence of such material. Here we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and \\textit{Herschel}/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disk providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850~$\\mu$m reveal a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disk dominated by moderately-sized dust grains ($a_{\\rm min}~=~36~\\mu$m), ...

  6. Modeling Transiting Circumstellar Disks: Characterizing the Newly Discovered Eclipsing Disk System OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Erin L; Pecaut, Mark J; Quillen, Alice C; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. 2014. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ~1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ~0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ~150 Myr and mass of ~4 solar masses. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ~0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ~1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  7. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  8. Observational constraints for the circumstellar disk of the B[e] star CPD-52 9243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidale, L. S.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Andruchow, I.; Arias, M. L.; Kraus, M.; Chesneau, O.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; de Wit, W. J.; Muratore, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of gas and dust environments around B[e] supergiants are still open issues. Aims: We intend to study the geometry, kinematics and physical structure of the circumstellar environment (CE) of the B[e] supergiant CPD-52 9243 to provide further insights into the underlying mechanism causing the B[e] phenomenon. Methods: The influence of the different physical mechanisms acting on the CE (radiation pressure, rotation, bi-stability or tidal forces) is somehow reflected in the shape and kinematic properties of the gas and dust regions (flaring, Keplerian, accretion or outflowing disks). To investigate these processes we mainly used quasi-simultaneous observations taken with high spatial resolution optical long-baseline interferometry (VLTI/MIDI), near-IR spectroscopy of CO bandhead features (Gemini/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES) and optical spectra (CASLEO/REOSC). Results: High angular resolution interferometric measurements obtained with VLTI/MIDI provide strong support for the presence of a dusty disk(ring)-like structure around CPD-52 9243, with an upper limit for its inner edge of ~8 mas (~27.5 AU, considering a distance of 3.44 kpc to the star). The disk has an inclination angle with respect to the line of sight of 46 ± 7°. The study of CO first overtone bandhead evidences a disk structure in Keplerian rotation. The optical spectrum indicates a rapid outflow in the polar direction. Conclusions: The IR emission (CO and warm dust) indicates Keplerian rotation in a circumstellar disk while the optical line transitions of various species are consistent with a polar wind. Both structures appear simultaneously and provide further evidence for the proposed paradigms of the mass-loss in supergiant B[e] stars. The presence of a detached cold CO ring around CPD-52 9243 could be due to a truncation of the inner disk caused by a companion, located possibly interior to the disk rim, clearing the center of the system. More spectroscopic and

  9. Non-silica aerogels as hypervelocity particle capture materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The Stardust sample return mission to the comet Wild 2 used silica aerogel as the principal cometary and interstellar particle capture and return medium. However, since both cometary dust and interstellar grains are composed largely of silica, using a silica collector complicates the science that can be accomplished with these particles. The use of non-silica aerogel in future extra-terrestrial particle capture and return missions would expand the scientific value of these missions. Alumina, titania, germania, zirconia, tin oxide, and resorcinol/formaldehyde aerogels were produced and impact tested with 20, 50, and 100μm glass microspheres to determine the suitability of different non-silica aerogels as hypervelocity particle capture mediums. It was found that non-silica aerogels do perform as efficient hypervelocity capture mediums, with alumina, zirconia, and resorcinol/formaldehyde aerogels proving to be the best of the materials tested.

  10. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merget, R; Bauer, T; Küpper, H U; Philippou, S; Bauer, H D; Breitstadt, R; Bruening, T

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic ("thermal" or "fumed") silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physicochemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or emphysema cannot be excluded. There is no study

  11. The circumstellar environment of IRAS 16293-2422. ISO-LWS and SCUBA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J. C.; Griffin, M.; Saraceno, P.

    2004-05-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of the deeply embedded source IRAS 16293-2422 performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on-board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We also report 450 and 850 μm mapping observations done with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We combined these observations with IRAS and other JCMT data available in the literature to construct a complete spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. A spherically symmetric dusty envelope model was used to reproduce the SED and to characterize the circumstellar matter around the object. We call attention to the fact that when using models such as the one presented here, one needs spatial information about the object to distinguish between different possible fits to the SED. A comparison between the intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm obtained from the SCUBA observations and the profiles predicted by the model allowed us to constrain the size of the envelope and its density distribution. The SED and the 850 μm intensity profile of the source are consistent with a centrally peaked power law dust density distribution of the form ρ(r) ∝ r-p with p = 1.5-2, with a radius Renv = 3000-3250 AU, defining a very compact circumstellar envelope. We estimate a bolometric luminosity Lbol = 36 L⊙, an envelope mass Menv = 3.4 M⊙, and a submillimetre to bolometric luminosity ratio Lsubmm/Lbol = 1.9%, confirming that the source shows a submillimetre excess characteristic of Class 0 sources.

  12. A SYMMETRIC INNER CAVITY IN THE HD 141569A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazoyer, J.; Choquet, É.; Perrin, M. D.; Pueyo, L.; Debes, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Boccaletti, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC and Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Augereau, J.-C.; Lagrange, A.-M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Planétologie et d´Astrophysique (IPAG) F-38000 Grenoble (France); Wolff, S. G., E-mail: jmazoyer@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Some circumstellar disks, called transitional or hybrid disks, present characteristics of both protoplanetary disks (significant amount of gas) and debris disks (evolved structures around young main-sequence stars, composed of second generation dust, from collisions between planetesimals). Therefore, they are ideal astrophysical laboratories to witness the last stages of planet formation. The circumstellar disk around HD 141569A was intensively observed and resolved in the past from space, but also from the ground. However, the recent implementation of high contrast imaging systems has opened up new opportunities to re-analyze this object. We analyzed Gemini archival data from the Near-infrared Coronagraphic Imager obtained in 2011 in the H band, using several angular differential imaging techniques (classical ADI, LOCI, KLIP). These images reveal the complex structures of this disk with an unprecedented resolution. We also include archival Hubble Space Telescope images as an independent data set to confirm these findings. Using an analysis of the inner edge of the disk, we show that the inner disk is almost axisymmetrical. The measurement of an offset toward the east observed by previous authors is likely due to the fact that the eastern part of this disk is wider and more complex in substructure. Our precise reanalysis of the eastern side shows several structures, including a splitting of the disk and a small finger detached from the inner edge to the southeast. Finally, we find that the arc at 250 AU is unlikely to be a spiral, at least not at the inclination derived from the first ring, but instead could be interpreted as a third belt at a different inclination. If the very symmetrical inner disk edge is carved by a companion, the data presented here put additional constraints on its position. The observed very complex structures will be confirmed by the new generation of coronagraphic instrument (GPI, SPHERE). However, a full understanding of this system will

  13. Monte Carlo models of dust coagulation

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the first stage of planet formation, namely dust coagulation from micron to millimeter sizes in circumstellar disks. For the first time, we collect and compile the recent laboratory experiments on dust aggregates into a collision model that can be implemented into dust coagulation models. We put this model into a Monte Carlo code that uses representative particles to simulate dust evolution. Simulations are performed using three different disk models in a local box (0D) located at 1 AU distance from the central star. We find that the dust evolution does not follow the previously assumed growth-fragmentation cycle, but growth is halted by bouncing before the fragmentation regime is reached. We call this the bouncing barrier which is an additional obstacle during the already complex formation process of planetesimals. The absence of the growth-fragmentation cycle and the halted growth has two important consequences for planet formation. 1) It is observed that disk atmospheres are dusty thr...

  14. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, Ján

    2012-04-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. The Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently, a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. ɛ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed a dark, inclined, disk of dust with a central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks: an internal optically thick disk and an external optically thin disk which absorbs and scatters radiation. Shallow mid-eclipse brightening may result from eclipses by nearly edge-on flared (dusty or gaseous) disks. Mid-eclipse brightening may also be due to strong forward scattering and optical properties of the dust which can have an important effect on the light-curves. There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and transiting extrasolar planets. The reflection effect which is briefly reviewed is one of them. The exact Roche shape and temperature distributions over the surface of all currently known transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. In some cases (HAT-P-32b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b), departures from the spherical shape can reach 7-15%.

  15. Chemical history of molecules in circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Ruud; Doty, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of a protoplanetary disk is determined not only by in situ chemical processes during the disk phase, but also by the history of the gas and dust before it accreted from the natal envelope. In order to understand the disk's chemical composition at the time of planet formation, especially in the midplane, one has to go back in time and retrace the chemistry to the molecular cloud that collapsed to form the disk and the central star. Here we present a new astrochemical model that aims to do just that. The model follows the core collapse and disk formation in two dimensions, which turns out to be a critical upgrade over older collapse models. We predict chemical stratification in the disk due to different physical conditions encountered along different streamlines. We argue that the disk-envelope accretion shock does not play a significant role for the material in the disk at the end of the collapse phase. Finally, our model suggests that complex organic species are formed on the grain su...

  16. On the Source of the Dust Extinction in Type Ia Supernovae and the Discovery of Anomalously Strong Na I Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, M M; Morrell, Nidia; Burns, Christopher R; Cox, Nick L J; Foley, Ryan J; Karakas, Amanda I; Patat, F; Sternberg, A; Williams, R E; Gal-Yam, A; Hsiao, E Y; Leonard, D C; Persson, Sven E; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Thompson, I B; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Folatelli, Gastón; Freedman, Wendy L; Hamuy, Mario; Roth, Miguel; Shields, Gregory A; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Chomiuk, Laura; Ivans, Inese I; Madore, Barry F; Penprase, B E; Perley, Daniel; Preston, G Pignata G; Soderberg, Alicia M

    2013-01-01

    High-dispersion observations of the Na I D 5890, 5896 and K I 7665, 7699 interstellar lines, and the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Angstroms in the spectra of 32 Type Ia supernovae are used as an independent means of probing dust extinction. We show that the dust extinction of the objects where the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Angstroms is detected is consistent with the visual extinction derived from the supernova colors. This strongly suggests that the dust producing the extinction is predominantly located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxies and not in circumstellar material associated with the progenitor system. One quarter of the supernovae display anomalously large Na I column densities in comparison to the amount of dust extinction derived from their colors. Remarkably, all of the cases of unusually strong Na I D absorption correspond to "Blueshifted" profiles in the classification scheme of Sternberg et al. (2011). This coincidence suggests that outflowing circumstellar gas is resp...

  17. Resolving the inner regions of the HD 97048 circumstellar disk with VLT/NACO polarimetric differential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanz, S. P.; Birkmann, S. M.; Apai, D.; Wolf, S.; Henning, T.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are the cradles of planetary systems and their physical and chemical properties directly influence the planet formation process. Because most planets supposedly form in the inner disk regions, i.e., within a few tens of AU, it is crucial to study circumstellar disks on these scales to constrain the conditions for planet formation. Aims: Our aims are to characterize the inner regions of the circumstellar disk around the young Herbig Ae/Be star HD 97048 in polarized light. Methods: We used VLT/NACO to observe HD 97048 in polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) mode in the H and Ks band. This technique offers high-contrast capabilities at very small inner working angles and probes the dust grains on the surface layer of the disk that act as the scattering surface. Results: We spatially resolve the disk around HD 97048 in polarized flux in both filters on scales between ~0.1″-1.0″ corresponding to the inner ~16-160 AU. Fitting isophots to the flux calibrated H-band image between 13-14 mag/arcsec2 and 14-15 mag/arcsec2, we derive an apparent disk inclination angle of 34° ± 5° and 47° ± 2°, respectively. The disk position angle in both brightness regimes is almost identical and roughly 80°. Along the disk major axis the surface brightness of the polarized flux drops from ~11 mag/arcsec2 at ~0.1″ (~16 AU) to ~15.3 mag/arcsec2 at ~ 1.0″ (~160 AU). The brightness profiles along the major axis are fitted with power-laws falling off as ∝ r - 1.78 ± 0.02 in H and ∝ r - 2.34 ± 0.04 in Ks. Because the surface brightness decreases more rapidly in Ks compared to H, the disks becomes relatively bluer at larger separations, possibly indicating changing dust grain properties as a function of radius. Conclusions: We imaged for the first time the inner ~0.1″-1.0″ (~16-160 AU) of the surface layer of the HD 97048 circumstellar disk in scattered light, which demonstrates the power of ground-based imaging polarimetry. Our data fill an

  18. Dust Scattering in Miras R Car and RR Sco resolved by optical interferometric polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, M J; Davis, J; Tango, W

    2005-01-01

    We present optical interferometric polarimetry measurements of the Mira-like variables R Car and RR Sco, using the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer. By making visibility measurements in two perpendicular polarisations, the relatively low-surface brightness light scattered by atmospheric dust could be spatially separated from the bright Mira photospheric flux. This is the first reported successful use of long-baseline optical interferometric polarimetry. Observations were able to place constraints on the distribution of circumstellar material in R Car and RR Sco. The inner radius of dust formation for both stars was found to be less than 3 stellar radii: much closer than the expected innermost stable location for commonly-assumed astrophysical ``dirty silicate'' dust in these systems (silicate dust with a significant iron content). A model with the dust distributed over a shell which is geometrically thin compared to the stellar radius was preferred over an outflow. We propose dust components whose che...

  19. Detectability of dirty dust grains in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, C H; Thi, W F; Woitke, P; Helling, CH.

    2006-01-01

    Dust clouds influence the atmospheric structure of brown dwarfs, and they affect the heat transfer and change the gas-phase chemistry. However, the physics of their formation and evolution is not well understood. In this letter, we predict dust signatures and propose a potential observational test of the physics of dust formation in brown dwarf atmosphere based on the spectral features of the different solid components predicted by dust formation theory. A momentum method for the formation of dirty dust grains (nucleation, growth, evaporation, drift) is used in application to a static brown dwarf atmosphere structure to compute the dust grain properties, in particular the heterogeneous grain composition and the grain size. Effective medium and Mie theory are used to compute the extinction of these spherical grains. Dust formation results in grains whose composition differs from that of grains formed at equilibrium. Our kinetic model predicts that solid amorphous SiO2[s] (silica) is one of the most abundant so...

  20. Rapid Circumstellar Disk Evolution and an Accelerating Star Formation Rate in the Infrared Dark Cloud M17 SWex

    CERN Document Server

    Povich, Matthew S; Robitaille, Thomas P; Broos, Patrick S; Orbin, Wesley T; King, Robert R; Naylor, Tim; Whitney, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    We present a catalog of 840 X-ray sources and first results from a 100 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging study of the filamentary infrared dark cloud G014.225$-$00.506, which forms the central regions of a larger cloud complex known as the M17 southwest extension (M17 SWex). In addition to the rich population of protostars and young stellar objects with dusty circumstellar disks revealed by Spitzer Space Telescope archival data, we discover a population of X-ray-emitting, intermediate-mass pre--main-sequence stars (IMPS) that lack infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks. We model the infrared spectral energy distributions of this source population to measure its mass function and place new constraints on the inner dust disk destruction timescales for 2-8 $M_{\\odot}$ stars. We also place a lower limit on the star formation rate (SFR) and find that it is quite high ($\\dot{M}\\ge 0.007~M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$), equivalent to several Orion Nebula Clusters in G14.225$-$0.506 alone, and likely accelerating...

  1. CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ken J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guillochon, James [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  2. Circumstellar Shells in Absorption in Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, K J; Reynolds, S P

    2009-01-01

    Progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have been predicted to modify their ambient circumstellar (CSM) and interstellar environments through the action of their powerful winds. While there is X-ray and optical evidence for circumstellar interaction in several remnants of Type Ia SNe, widespread evidence for such interaction in Type Ia SNe themselves has been lacking. We consider prospects for detection of CSM shells that have been predicted to be common around Type Ia SNe. Such shells are most easily detected in Na I absorption lines. Variable (declining) absorption is expected to occur soon after the explosion, primarily during the SN rise time, for shells located within 1 - 10 pc of a SN. The distance of the shell from the SN can be determined by measuring the time scale for line variability.

  3. Proper Motions of Water Masers in Circumstellar Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, K. B.; Diamond, P. J.; Kemball, A. J.

    We present proper motion measurements of circumstellar water masers obtained with the VLBA. The objects observed include S Persei, VX Sagittarii, U Herculis, VY Canis Majoris, NML Cygni, IK Tauri and RX Bootis. Results of the observations and modeling indicate that the water masers exist in a kinematically complex region of the circumstellar envelope, which is not well fit by the standard model of a uniformly expanding spherical wind. Attempts at fitting an ellipsoidal geometric distribution with a variety of kinematic models are presented. Estimates for the distances of the stars are also discussed. A change in position of the maser spots as a function of velocity has been measured. This effect may be used to place limits on accelerations in the masing gas.

  4. Optical Evidence for Circumstellar Interaction Around SN 1993J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Tian-Meng; ZHOU Xu; LI Zong-Wei

    2004-01-01

    We study the circumstellar interaction around SN 1993J by its intermediate-band light curves obtained by the 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope at Xinglong station. The optical emission showed a slow decay of 0.05±0.02 mag/100 d in the period from 1995 to 2003, invoking a main energy contribution from SN-circumstellar interaction at late times. The relatively flat power law SN density model fits better with the observations. In particular, the line ratio of [O Ⅲ]λλ4959, 5007 and Na I D relative to Hα are well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the Hα light curve displayed obvious bump structures at some epochs, which is probably attributed to the density fluctuations in the ambient material that surrounds the reverse shockwave.

  5. Revealing the inner circumstellar disk of the T Tauri star S CrA N using the VLTI

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, J; Kraus, S; Weigelt, G; Driebe, T; Benisty, M; Dugué, M; Massi, F; Monin, J -L; Vannier, M

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the structure of the circumstellar disk of the T Tauri star S CrA N and test whether the observations agree with the standard picture proposed for Herbig Ae stars. Methods: Our observations were carried out with the VLTI/AMBER instrument in the H and K bands with the low spectral resolution mode. For the interpretation of our near-infrared AMBER and archival mid-infrared MIDI visibilities, we employed both geometric and temperature-gradient models. Results: To characterize the disk size, we first fitted geometric models consisting of a stellar point source, a ring-shaped disk, and a halo structure to the visibilities. In the H and K bands, we measured ring-fit radii of 0.73 +- 0.03 mas (corresponding to 0.095 +- 0.018 AU for a distance of 130 pc) and 0.85 +- 0.07 mas (0.111 +- 0.026 AU), respectively. This K-band radius is approximately two times larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.05 AU expected for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K and gray dust opacities, but approxima...

  6. The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - III. SPHERE/ZIMPOL visible polarimetry of the inner envelope and photosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P; Montargès, M; Ridgway, S T; Chiavassa, A; Haubois, X; Schmid, H -M; Langlois, M; Gallenne, A; Perrin, G

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanism through which the outgoing material of massive red supergiants is accelerated above the escape velocity is unclear. Thanks to the transparency of its circumstellar envelope, the nearby red supergiant Betelgeuse gives the opportunity to probe the innermost layers of the envelope of a typical red supergiant down to the photosphere, i.e. where the acceleration of the wind is expected to occur. We took advantage of the SPHERE/ZIMPOL adaptive optics imaging polarimeter to resolve the visible photosphere and close envelope of Betelgeuse. We detect an asymmetric gaseous envelope inside a radius of 2 to 3 times the near-infrared photospheric radius of the star (R*), and a significant Halpha emission mostly contained within 3 R*. From the polarimetric signal, we also identify the signature of dust scattering in an asymmetric and incomplete dust shell located at a similar radius. The presence of dust so close to the star may have a significant impact on the wind acceleration through radiative pre...

  7. Observations of Circumstellar Thermochemical Equilibrium: The Case of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    We will present observations of phosphorus-bearing species in circumstellar envelopes, including carbon- and oxygen-rich shells 1. New models of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry have been developed to interpret, and constrained by these data. These calculations will also be presented and compared to the numerous P-bearing species already observed in evolved stars. Predictions for other viable species will be made for observations with Herschel and ALMA.

  8. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Akimkin, V. V.; Caselli, P.

    2016-12-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  9. How to Detect the Signatures of Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Dipierro, Giovanni; Testi, Leonardo; Monsalvo, Itziar de Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present simulated Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) observations of self-gravitating circumstellar discs with different properties in size, mass and inclination, located in four of the most extensively studied and surveyed star-forming regions. Starting from a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation and representative dust opacities, we have initially constructed maps of the expected emission at sub-mm wavelengths of a large sample of discs with different properties. We have then simulated realistic observations of discs as they may appear with ALMA using the Common Astronomy Software Application ALMA simulator. We find that, with a proper combination of antenna configuration and integration time, the spiral structure characteristic of self-gravitating discs is readily detectable by ALMA over a wide range of wavelengths at distances comparable to TW Hydrae ($\\sim 50 \\,$pc), Taurus - Auriga and Ophiucus ($\\sim 140 \\,$pc) star-forming regions. However, for discs loca...

  10. [Effect of lunar dust on humans: -lunar dust: regolith-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Miki, Takeo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Horie, Seichi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki

    2010-09-01

    We reviewed the effect of lunar dust (regolith) on humans by the combination of the hazard/exposure of regolith and microgravity of the moon. With regard to the physicochemical properties of lunar dust, the hazard-related factors are its components, fibrous materials and nanoparticles. Animal exposure studies have been performed using a simulant of lunar dust, and it was speculated that the harmful effects of the simulant lies between those of crystalline silica and titanium dioxide. Fibrous materials may not have a low solubility judging from their components. The nanoparticles in lunar dust may have harmful potentials from the view of the components. As for exposure to regolith, there is a possibility that particles larger than ones in earth (1 gravity) are respirable. In microgravity, 1) the deposition of particles of less than 1 µm in diameter in the human lung did not decrease, 2) the functions of macrophages including phagocytosis were suppressed, 3) pulmonary inflammation was changed. These data on hazard/exposure and microgravity suggest that fine and ultrafine particles in regolith may have potential hazards and risks for humans.

  11. Dispersal of Gaseous Circumstellar Discs around High-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y; Shen, Yue; Lou, Yu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    We study the dispersal of a gaseous disc surrounding a central high-mass stellar core once this circumstellar disc becomes fully ionized. If the stellar and surrounding EUV and X-ray radiations are so strong as to rapidly heat up and ionize the entire circumstellar disc as further facilitated by disc magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, a shock can be driven to travel outward in the fully ionized disc, behind which the disc expands and thins. For an extremely massive and powerful stellar core, the ionized gas pressure overwhelms the centrifugal and gravitational forces in the disc. In this limit, we construct self-similar shock solutions for such an expansion and depletion phase. As a significant amount of circumstellar gas being removed, the relic disc becomes vulnerable to strong stellar winds and fragments into clumps. We speculate that disc disappearance happens rapidly, perhaps on a timescale of $\\sim 10^3-10^4\\hbox{yr}$ once the disc becomes entirely ionized sometime after the onset of thermal nuclear ...

  12. Grand Design Spiral Arms in A Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Tomida, Kengo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Lin, Chia Hui

    2016-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues and its radius becomes as large as 200 AUs toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk soon becomes unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phase. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2-27, whose circumstellar disk has grand design spiral arms. We find an excellent agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests tha...

  13. The Circumstellar Environments of NML Cyg and the Cool Hypergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, M T; Marengo, M; Schuster, Michael T.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    We present high-resolution HST WFPC2 images of compact nebulosity surrounding the cool M-type hypergiants NML Cyg, VX Sgr and S Per. The powerful OH/IR source NML Cyg exhibits a peculiar bean-shaped asymmetric nebula that is coincident with the distribution of its H2O vapor masers. We show that NML Cyg's circumstellar envelope is likely shaped by photo-dissociation from the powerful, nearby association Cyg OB2 inside the Cygnus X superbubble. The OH/IR sources VX Sgr and S Per have marginally resolved envelopes. S Per's circumstellar nebula appears elongated in a NE/SW orientation similar to that for its OH and H2O masers, while VX Sgr is embedded in a spheroidal envelope. We find no evidence for circumstellar nebulosity around the intermediate-type hypergiants rho Cas, HR 8752, HR 5171a, nor the normal M-type supergiant mu Cep. We conclude that there is no evidence for high mass loss events prior to 500-1000 yrs ago for these four stars.

  14. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, D. W.; Debes, John H.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2013-06-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf (WD) photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known WDs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit WD models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known WDs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of WDs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The WD dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  15. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, D.W.; Debes, John H.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of white dwarfs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The white dwarf dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  16. Biological effects of desert dust in respiratory epithelial cells and a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Andrew J.; Kummarapurugu, Suryanaren T.; Tong, Haiyan; Soukup, Joleen M.; Dailey, Lisa A.; Boykin, Elizabeth; Gilmour, M. Ian; Ingram, Peter; Roggli, Victor L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the challenge of recent dust storms to public health, we tested the postulate that desert dust collected in the southwestern United States imparts a biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells and an animal model. Two samples of surface sediment were collected from separate dust sources in northeastern Arizona. Analysis of the PM20 fraction demonstrated that the majority of both dust samples were quartz and clay minerals (total SiO2 of 52 and 57%). Using respiratory epithelial and monocytic cell lines, the two desert dusts increased oxidant generation, measured by Amplex Red fluorescence, along with carbon black (a control particle), silica, and NIST 1649 (an ambient air pollution particle). Cell oxidant generation was greatest following exposures to silica and the desert dusts. Similarly, changes in RNA for superoxide dismutase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were also greatest after silica and the desert dusts supporting an oxidative stress after cell exposure. Silica, desert dusts, and the ambient air pollution particle NIST 1649 demonstrated a capacity to activate the p38 and ERK1/2 pathways and release pro-inflammatory mediators. Mice, instilled with the same particles, showed the greatest lavage concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators, neutrophils, and lung injury following silica and desert dusts. We conclude that, comparable to other particles, desert dusts have a capacity to (1) influence oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory mediators in respiratory epithelial cells and (2) provoke an inflammatory injury in the lower respiratory tract of an animal model. The biological effects of desert dusts approximated those of silica.

  17. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchio, M.; Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Bianchi, S.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.

    2016-03-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows following the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and computing the time evolution of the mass, composition, and size distribution of the grains. We considered four well-studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN 1987A, CasA, the Crab nebula, and N49. These sources have been observed with both Spitzer and Herschel, and the multiwavelength data allow a better assessment the mass of warm and cold dust associated with the ejecta. For each SN, we first identified the best explosion model, using the mass and metallicity of the progenitor star, the mass of 56Ni, the explosion energy, and the circumstellar medium density inferred from the data. We then ran a recently developed dust formation model to compute the properties of freshly formed dust. Starting from these input models, GRASH_Rev self-consistently follows the dynamics of the grains, considering the effects of the forward and reverse shock, and allows predicting the time evolution of the dust mass, composition, and size distribution in the shocked and unshocked regions of the ejecta. All the simulated models aagree well with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Hence the observed dust mass of 0.7-0.9 M⊙ in this source can be safely considered as indicative of the mass of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10-40% of the

  18. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfría, J. P.; Hinkle, K. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Richter, M. J.; Agúndez, M.

    2017-01-01

    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene (C2H4) towards the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Eighty ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 µm vibrational mode ν7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ −14 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20R⋆. The hot lines are centered at −10 km s−1 indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20R⋆. 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveal that the C2H4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5 − 20R⋆ is 6.9 × 10−8 in average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10−7. Beyond 20R⋆, it is 8.2 × 10−8. The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 1015 cm−2. C2H4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the C2H4 molecules at 20R⋆ could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not influence significantly the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains. PMID:28184097

  19. Circumbinary ring, circumstellar disks, and accretion in the binary system UY Aurigae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dutrey, Anne; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Di Folco, Emmanuel [Université de Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l' Univers, CNRS, UMR 5804, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, 2 rue de l' Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France); Piétu, Vincent; Gueth, Fréderic [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères Cedex (France); Beck, Tracy [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boehler, Yann [Centro de Radioastronomìa y Astrofìsica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacàn (Mexico); Bary, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Simon, Michal, E-mail: ywtang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Recent exo-planetary surveys reveal that planets can orbit and survive around binary stars. This suggests that some fraction of young binary systems which possess massive circumbinary (CB) disks may be in the midst of planet formation. However, there are very few CB disks detected. We revisit one of the known CB disks, the UY Aurigae system, and probe {sup 13}CO 2-1, C{sup 18}O 2-1, SO 5(6)-4(5) and {sup 12}CO 3-2 line emission and the thermal dust continuum. Our new results confirm the existence of the CB disk. In addition, the circumstellar (CS) disks are clearly resolved in dust continuum at 1.4 mm. The spectral indices between the wavelengths of 0.85 mm and 6 cm are found to be surprisingly low, being 1.6 for both CS disks. The deprojected separation of the binary is 1.''26 based on our 1.4 mm continuum data. This is 0.''07 (10 AU) larger than in earlier studies. Combining the fact of the variation of UY Aur B in R band, we propose that the CS disk of an undetected companion UY Aur Bb obscures UY Aur Ba. A very complex kinematical pattern inside the CB disk is observed due to a mixing of Keplerian rotation of the CB disk, the infall and outflow gas. The streaming gas accreting from the CB ring toward the CS disks and possible outflows are also identified and resolved. The SO emission is found to be at the bases of the streaming shocks. Our results suggest that the UY Aur system is undergoing an active accretion phase from the CB disk to the CS disks. The UY Aur B might also be a binary system, making the UY Aur a triple system.

  20. Mid-Infrared Signatures from Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with a Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori

    2016-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use as precise cosmological distance indicators due to a standardizable peak luminosity resulting from a thermonuclear explosion. A growing subset of SNe Ia, however, show evidence for interaction with a dense circumstellar medium during the first year post-explosion, and sometimes longer (SNe Ia-CSM). The origin of this dense CSM is unknown and suggests either a) the less typical single-degenerate progenitor scenario must be considered or b) the exploding star was not a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf at all (i.e., core-collapse). Mid-infrared (IR) observations, in particular, are critical for tracing the density profile of dust (and hence gas) in the surrounding CSM. Yet no Spitzer light curve exists for this subclass within the first year post-expolosion. Here we propose a 'low-impact' (>8 weeks) ToO to obtain 3 epochs of Spitzer imaging of a SN Ia-CSM within 100 Mpc over 1 year post-explosion. The strength of this program is that it will be in conjunction with pre-approved multi-wavelength programs on HST/STIS/UV (GO 13649), Chandra/ASIS-S (17500672), the Keck/LRIS optical spectrograph (U037LA), and the RATIR visible/infrared robotic imager. Requiring only 2.1 hours of observation total, this program will not only distinguish between the SN explosion mechanisms, but also trace CSM interaction, constrain the progenitor mass loss history, and identify late-time heating mechanisms of warm dust.

  1. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfría, J. P.; Hinkle, K. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Richter, M. J.; Agúndez, M.; Wallace, L.

    2017-02-01

    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene ({{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4) toward the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). 80 ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 μm vibrational mode {ν }7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ ‑14 km s‑1 with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20{R}\\star . The hot lines are centered at ‑10 km s‑1 indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20{\\text{}}{R}\\star . 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveals that the {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5‑20R⋆ is 6.9× {10}-8 on average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10‑7. Beyond 20{\\text{}}{R}\\star , it is 8.2 × 10‑8. The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 1015 cm‑2. {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 molecules at 20{\\text{}}{R}\\star could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not significantly influence the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains.

  2. A Novel Approach to Constraining the Lifetime of Primordial Gas in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dana; Bergin, Edwin A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Zhang, Ke; Carpenter, John M.; Schwarz, Kamber R.

    2016-10-01

    The lifetime of primordial gas in circumstellar disks limits the timescale for gas-giant planet formation, determines the impact of gas-particle dynamics throughout disk evolution, and therefore influences the composition and architecture of planetary systems forming from these disks. Current estimates of the gas lifetime are based mainly on indirect tracers of the primordial gas, predominately IR through sub-mm dust and CO emission, in systems of different ages. However, these conventional gas tracers may be less reliable in older systems where the gas-to-dust ratio is highly uncertain and observations suggest that carbon may be severely depleted from the gas relative to interstellar abundances. Here we investigate the evolution of primordial disk gas using a novel approach based on evidence from our own solar system. The enhanced carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios in meteorites and comets relative to the solar value suggest that N is less likely than C to be sequestered into the solid phase as the disk evolves. Therefore, observable N-bearing volatile species such as N2H+ may be more accurate tracers of the gas than CO in older disks. N2H+ was detected in two mature, ˜5-11 Myr old, disks in the Upper Scorpious OB Association using ALMA. Comparison with previous CO measurements of these sources by Barenfeld et al. (2016) result in high N2H+/CO flux ratios relative to estimates of comparable measurements for younger, gas-rich disks based on a survey by Öberg et al. (2010, 2011). These preliminary results demonstrate that the mature disks retain primordial gas and may suggest a greater depletion of C relative to N from the gas as the disk evolves. Chemical modeling of these systems will aid in determining molecular column densities and relating the observed emission to the total molecular hydrogen mass.

  3. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates through Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J; Bans, Alissa S; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J; Debes, John H; Currie, Thayne; Garcia, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L; Rebull, Luisa M; Wisniewski, John P; Nesvold, Erika; Schawinski, Kevin; Thaller, Michelle L; Grady, Carol A; Biggs, Joseph; Bosch, Milton; Cernohous, Tadeás; Luca, Hugo A Durantini; Hyogo, Michiharu; Wah, Lily Lau Wan; Piipuu, Art; Piñeiro, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 micron excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA's WISE mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false-positives (galaxies, background stars, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection o...

  4. Similarities in the structure of the circumstellar environments of B[e] supergiants and yellow hypergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Aret, Anna; Kraus, Michaela; Maravelias, Grigoris

    2016-01-01

    Yellow Hypergiants (YHGs) and B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs), though in different phases in their evolution, display many features in common. This is partly due to the fact that both types of objects undergo strong, often asymmetric mass loss, and the ejected material accumulates in shells, rings, or disk-like structures, giving rise to emission from warm molecules and dust. We performed an optical spectroscopic survey of northern Galactic emission-line stars aimed at identifying tracers for the structure and kinematics of circumstellar environments. We identified two sets of lines, [O I] and [Ca II], which originate from the discs of B[e]SGs. The same set of lines is observed in V1302 Aql and V509 Cas, which are both hot YHGs. While V1302 Aql is known to have a disc-like structure, the kinematical broadening of the lines in V509 Cas suggest a Keplerian disk or ring around this star alike their hotter B[e]SG counterparts.

  5. Exploring the multifaceted circumstellar environment of the luminous blue variable HR Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Cavallaro, F.; Cerrigone, L.; Agliozzo, C.; Bufano, F.; Riggi, S.; Molinari, S.; Schillirò, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic luminous blue variable HR Carinae, based on new high-resolution mid-infrared (IR) and radio images obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which have been complemented by far-infrared Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations and ATCA archive data. The Herschel images reveal the large-scale distribution of the dusty emitting nebula, which extends mainly to the north-east direction, up to 70 arcsec from the central star, and is oriented along the direction of the space motion of the star. In the mid-infrared images, the brightness distribution is characterized by two arc-shaped structures, tracing an inner envelope surrounding the central star more closely. At radio wavelengths, the ionized gas emission lies on the opposite side of the cold dust with respect to the position of the star, as if the ionized front were confined by the surrounding medium in the north-south direction. Comparison with previous data indicates significant changes in the radio nebula morphology and in the mass-loss rate from the central star, which has increased from 6.1 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 in 1994-1995 to 1.17 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 in 2014. We investigate possible scenarios that could have generated the complex circumstellar environment revealed by our multiwavelength data.

  6. The circumstellar disc around the Herbig AeBe star HD169142

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, W R F; Osorio, M; Calvet, N; Anglada, G

    2006-01-01

    We present 7 mm and 3.5 cm wavelength continuum observations toward the Herbig AeBe star HD169142 performed with the Very Large Array (VLA) with an angular resolution of ~1". We find that this object exhibits strong (~4.4 mJy), unresolved (~1") 7 mm continuum emission, being one of the brightest isolated Herbig AeBe stars ever detected with the VLA at this wavelength. No emission is detected at 3.5 cm continuum, with a 3 sigma upper limit of ~0.08 mJy. From these values, we obtain a spectral index of ~2.5 in the 3.5 cm to 7 mm wavelength range, indicating that the observed flux density at 7mm is most likely dominated by thermal dust emission coming from a circumstellar disc. We use available photometric data from the literature to model the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object from radio to near-ultraviolet frequencies. The observed SED can be understood in terms of an irradiated accretion disc with low mass accretion rate, 10^{-8} solar masses per year, surrounding a star with an age of ~10 Myr....

  7. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; García, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Nesvold, Erika; Schawinski, Kevin; Thaller, Michelle L.; Grady, Carol A.; Biggs, Joseph; Bosch, Milton; C̆ernohous, Tadeás̆; Durantini Luca, Hugo A.; Hyogo, Michiharu; Wah, Lily Lau Wan; Piipuu, Art; Piñeiro, Fernanda; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 μm excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 μm excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  8. Hubble imaging of V1331 Cygni: Proper motion study of its circumstellar structures

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Arpita; Linz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The young star V1331 Cyg received previous attention because it is surrounded by an optical, arc-like reflection nebula. V1331 Cyg is commonly considered to be a candidate for an object that has undergone an FU-Ori (FUOR) the outbreak in the past. This in turn could lead to a time-varying appearance of the dusty arcs that may be revealed by multi-epoch imaging. In particular, a radial colour analysis of the dust arcs can then be attempted to check whether radial grain size distribution was modified by a previous FUOR wind. Second-epoch imaging of V1331 Cyg was obtained by us in 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing this to archival HST data from 2000, we studied the time evolution of the circumstellar nebulae. After a point spread function subtraction using model point spread functions, we used customised routines to perform a proper motion analysis. The nebula expansion was first derived by deconvolving and correlating the two-epoch radial brightness profiles. Additional data from other f...

  9. The inner circumstellar disk of the UX Ori star V1026 Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, J; Kishimoto, M; Weigelt, G; Hofmann, K -H; Kraus, S; Schertl, D; Dugué, M; Duvert, G; Lagarde, S; Massi, F

    2014-01-01

    The UX Ori type variables (named after the prototype of their class) are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence objects. One of the most likely causes of their variability is the obscuration of the central star by orbiting dust clouds. We investigate the structure of the circumstellar environment of the UX~Ori star V1026 Sco (HD 142666) and test whether the disk inclination is large enough to explain the UX Ori variability. We observed the object in the low-resolution mode of the near-infrared interferometric VLTI/AMBER instrument and derived H- and K-band visibilities and closure phases. We modeled our AMBER observations, published Keck Interferometer observations, archival MIDI/VLTI visibilities, and the spectral energy distribution using geometric and temperature-gradient models. Employing a geometric inclined-ring disk model, we find a ring radius of 0.15 +- 0.06 AU in the H band and 0.18 +- 0.06 AU in the K band. The best-fit temperature-gradient model consists of a star and two concentric, ring-shaped disk...

  10. Molecular content of the circumstellar disk in AB Aur: First detection of SO in a circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente, A; Agundez, M; Berne, O; Goicoechea, J R; Alonso-Albi, T; Marcelino, N

    2010-01-01

    Very few molecular species have been detected in circumstellar disks surrounding young stellar objects. We are carrying out an observational study of the chemistry of circumstellar disks surrounding T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. First results of this study are presented in this note. We used the EMIR receivers recently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope to carry a sensitive search for molecular lines in the disks surrounding AB Aur, DM Tau, and LkCa 15. We detected lines of the molecules HCO+, CN, H2CO, SO, CS, and HCN toward AB Aur. In addition, we tentatively detected DCO+ and H2S lines. The line profiles suggest that the CN, HCN, H2CO, CS and SO lines arise in the disk. This makes it the first detection of SO in a circumstellar disk. We have unsuccessfully searched for SO toward DM Tau and LkCa 15, and for c-C3H2 toward AB Aur, DM Tau, and LkCa 15. Our upper limits show that contrary to all the molecular species observed so far, SO is not as abundant in DM Tau as it is in AB Aur. Our results demonstrate th...

  11. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

    2013-01-01

    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass

  12. Multifunctional mesoporous silica catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Victor Shang-Yi; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Pruski, Marek; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-03-31

    The present invention provides bifunctional silica mesoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles ("MSN"), having pores modified with diarylammonium triflate and perfluoroaryl moieties, that are useful for the acid-catalyzed esterification of organic acids with organic alcohols.

  13. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  14. The effects of circumstellar gas on terrestrial planet formation: Theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram M.

    Our understanding of the evolution of circumstellar material from dust and gas to fully-formed planets has taken dramatic steps forward in the last decade, driven by rapid improvements in our ability to study gas- and dust-rich disks around young stars and the discovery of more than 200 extra-solar planetary systems around other stars. In addition, our ability to model the formation of both terrestrial and giant planets has improved significantly due to new computing techniques and the continued exponential increase in computing power. In this dissertation I expand on existing theories of terrestrial planet formation to include systems similar to those currently being detected around nearby stars, and I develop new observational techniques to probe the chemistry of gas-rich circumstellar disks where such planetary systems may be forming. One of the most significant characteristics of observed extrasolar planetary systems is the presence of giant planets located much closer to their parent star than was thought to be possible. The presence of "Hot Jupiters", Jovian-mass planets with very short orbital periods detected around nearby main sequence stars, has been proposed to be primarily due to the inward migration of planets formed in orbits initially much further from the parent star. Close-in giant planets are thought to have formed in the cold outer regions of planetary systems and migrated inward, passing through the orbital parameter space occupied by the terrestrial planets in our own Solar System; the migration of these planets would have profound effects on the evolution of inner terrestrial planets in these systems. I first explore this scenario with numerical simulations showing that a significant fraction of terrestrial planets could survive the migration process; damping forces could then eventually re-circularize the orbits at distances relatively close to their original positions. Calculations suggest that the final orbits of a significant fraction of

  15. 不同方式移植骨髓间充质干细胞在染矽尘大鼠体内的归巢%In vivo homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted through different ways in rats exposed to silica dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 周永梅; 燕玲; 李斌; 吴奇峰; 梁伟辉

    2015-01-01

    背景:骨髓间充质干细胞植入染矽尘大鼠体内能归巢到受损肺部,但何种植入途径在体内的归巢效果更好尚不清楚。  目的:动态比较观察不同途径移植骨髓间充质干细胞在染矽尘大鼠体内的分布情况。  方法:全骨髓贴壁法分离、培养供体大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,用携带增强型绿色荧光蛋白基因的慢病毒(Lv-eGFP)转染骨髓间充质干细胞。受体大鼠用气管内注入法染尘,再随机分为经静脉组和经气管组,将转染Lv-eGFP的骨髓间充质干细胞分别经静脉、气管途径注入大鼠体内,在移植后的第1,2,3,4周处死大鼠,取心、肝、脾、肺、肾、脑组织进行冰冻切片,荧光显微镜下观察荧光,图文分析软件计算荧光强度。  结果与结论:两组大鼠肺组织均可见强烈、分布广泛且持续的绿色荧光,尤以气管、血管周围明显;两组荧光强度均随时间延长呈轻度减低趋势,但两组每周的荧光强度差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。两组大鼠其余各脏器早期也均可见荧光,其中肝、脾、心脏组织荧光强、分布广,肾、脑组织荧光相对较弱、分布较稀疏;随时间推移,各组织荧光均逐渐减弱,面积逐渐减少,到后期仅肝、脾组织可见到较弱、散在荧光分布,脑组织荧光几乎不可见。在同一时间点,两组除第1周脑组织荧光强度差异有显著性意义(P0.05)。提示骨髓间充质干细胞经静脉和气管两种途径植入染矽尘大鼠体内归巢至受损肺部的效率相当。%BACKGROUND:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s transplanted into rats exposed to silica dust can home to the injured lung, but the homing effects via different ways are stil unclear. OBJECTIVE:To comparatively observe the distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s transplanted via different ways into rats exposed to silica dust. METHODS:Bone marrow

  16. Exploring wind-driving dust species in cool luminous giants I. Basic criteria and dynamical models of M-type AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bladh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing effort aiming at identifying the actual wind-drivers among the dust species observed in circumstellar envelopes. In particular, we focus on the interplay between a strong stellar radiation field and the dust formation process. To identify critical properties of potential wind-driving dust species we use detailed radiation-hydrodynamical models which include a parameterized dust description, complemented by simple analytical estimates to help with the physical interpretation of the numerical results. The adopted dust description is constructed to mimic different chemical and optical dust properties in order to systematically study the effects of a realistic radiation field on the second stage of the mass loss mechanism. We see distinct trends in which combinations of optical and chemical dust properties are needed to trigger an outflow. Dust species with a low condensation temperature and a NIR absorption coefficient that decreases strongly with wavelength will not condense clos...

  17. Life Cycle of Dust in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    To a great extent, our understanding of the life cycle of dust is based on the observational and theoretical studies of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, which will be the topic of this contribution. Over past years, a large volume of observations with unprecedented spatial resolution has been accumulated for the Milky Way. It permits investigations of different stages of the life cycle of dust, from its formation in stellar sources to destruction in star-forming regions and supernovae shocks. Observations of dust emission, extinction, polarisation of light, and interstellar element depletions in the solar neighbourhood provide the most accurate constraints for the reference dust models applied to study extragalactic systems. However, global spatial studies of the circumstellar and interstellar dust are complicated in the Milky Way disk because of high extinction, confusion along the line of sight and large uncertainties in distances. In contrast, the favourable location in the sky and the proximity of...

  18. Total and respirable dust exposures among carpenters and demolition workers during indoor work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    or the variation between the different work tasks. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess if there were differences in dust exposure between carpenters and demolition workers who were expected to have low and high dust exposure, respectively. METHODS: Through interviews of key persons...... out for carpenters and 20 measurements of total dust, 11 of respirable dust and 11 of respirable crystalline silica dust on four different works tasks for demolition workers. Dust measurements were tested for differences using linear regression, t-test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: For carpenters...... deviation 11.6) and the respirable dust was 1.06 mg/m(3) (geometric standard deviation 5.64). The mean difference between total dust for demolition workers and carpenters was 11.4 (95 % confidence interval 3.46-37.1) mg/m(3). The mean difference between respirable dust for demolition workers and carpenters...

  19. HIGH-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: THE FIRST 1100 DAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Claes; Ergon, Mattias; Sollerman, Jesper [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Challis, Peter J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Marion, G. H.; Milisavljevic, Dan; Friedman, Andrew S.; Chornock, Ryan; Czekala, Ian; Soderberg, Alicia [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); France, Kevin [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bufano, Filomena [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Kangas, Tuomas [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20 FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Larsson, Josefin [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Mattila, Seppo [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20 FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Benetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2010jl are analyzed, including photometry and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-IR bands, 26-1128 days after first detection. At maximum, the bolometric luminosity was ∼3 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1} and even at 850 days exceeds 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. A near-IR excess, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the circumstellar medium (CSM). The total radiated energy is ≳ 6.5 × 10{sup 50} erg, excluding the dust component. The spectral lines can be separated into one broad component that is due to electron scattering and one narrow with expansion velocity ∼100 km s{sup –1} from the CSM. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity but becomes blueshifted after ∼50 days, while remaining symmetric about a shifted centroid velocity. Dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and we attribute the shift instead to acceleration by the SN radiation. From the optical lines and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large-scale asymmetries in the CSM. The ultraviolet lines indicate CNO processing in the progenitor, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. The bolometric light curve is consistent with a radiative shock in an r {sup –2} CSM with a mass-loss rate of M-dot ∼0.1  M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The total mass lost is ≳ 3 M {sub ☉}. These properties are consistent with the SN expanding into a CSM characteristic of a luminous blue variable progenitor with a bipolar geometry. The apparent absence of nuclear processing is attributed to a CSM that is still opaque to electron scattering.

  20. The Velocity Structure of SN 1987A's Outer Circumstellar Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A. P. S.; Heathcote, S. R.

    1997-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical spectroscopy, (obtained with the CTIO 4-meter/echelle spectrograph over many epochs between 1989 and 1997) of the circumstellar nebula of SN 1987A, including the outer rings (within 3 arcsec of the SN), the inner (equatorial) ring, and fainter features at larger radii never studied before spectroscopically. We report velocity displacements for portions of the outer rings, up to 26 km s(-1) with respect the SN centroid velocity, with blueshifted components in the location of the southern outer ring and the redshifted portions of the northern outer ring. The largest shifts are near the SN, as predicted by a model in which the outer rings are the crowns of an expanding, bipolar nebula with the inner ring at its waist. We also confirm that the inner ring shows a velocity full-width of about 13 km s(-1) , which, along with the geometry of the rings and our outer ring velocity measurements, allows us to estimate a characteristic timescale of about 20,000 y for each of the three rings, implying that all are coeval. This contrasts with measurements by others of compositional ratios in the inner versus outer rings indicating that they were, perhaps, ejected at different times from the progenitor's star's outer envelope. Additionally, we measure the velocity of low surface brightness features at larger radii indicating that circumstellar material even farther from the SN was ejected up to 400,000 y before the explosion. Finally, we note the presence of transient emission features within the circumstellar nebula and describe their behaviour, and consider what implications our observations may have for the coming transformation of this nebula into Supernova Remnant 1987A.

  1. Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out a statistical study of the speckle noise and inspect a possible asymmetry. Secondly, I analysed VISIR data to study the spectral energy distribution of a sample of Cepheids. These diffraction-limited images enabled me to carry out an accurate photometry in the N band and to detect an IR excess linked to the presence of a circumstellar component. On the other hand, applying a Fourier analysis I showed that some components are resolved. I then explored the K' band with the recombination instrument FLUOR for some bright Cepheids. Thanks to new set of data of Y Oph, I improved the study of its circumstellar envelope, using a ring-like model for the CSE. For two other Cepheids, U Vul and S Sge, I applied the interferometric Baade-Wesselink method in order to estimate their distance.

  2. The circumstellar medium of the peculiar supernova SN1997ab

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanca, I M; Tenorio-Tagle, G; Telles, E; Terlevich, R J; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Salamanca, Isabel; Cid-Fernandes, Roberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    1998-01-01

    We report the detection of the slow moving wind into which the compact supernova remnant SN 1997ab is expanding. Echelle spectroscopy provides clear evidence for a well resolved narrow (Full Width at Zero Intensity, FWZI ~ 180 km/s) P-Cygni profile, both in Ha and Hb, superimposed on the broad emission lines of this compact supernova remnant. From theoretical arguments we know that the broad and strong emission lines imply a circumstellar density (n ~ 10^7 cm^-3). This, together with our detection, implies a massive and slow stellar wind experienced by the progenitor star shortly prior to the explosion.

  3. Circumstellar Environments of MYSOs Revealed by IFU Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarete, F.; Damineli, A.; Barbosa, C. L.; Blum, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of massive stars (M > 8 M ⊙) is still not well understood and lacks of observational constraints. We observed 7 MYSO candidates using the NIFS spectrometer at Gemini North Telescope to study the accretion process at high angular resolution (~ 50 mas) and very closer to the central star. Preliminary results for 2 sources have revealed circumstellar structures traced by Brackett-Gamma, CO lines and extended H2 emission. Both sources present kinematics in the CO absorption lines, suggesting rotating structures. The next step will derive the central mass of each source by applying a keplerian model for these CO features.

  4. Protonated acetylene - An important circumstellar and interstellar ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Omont, A.; Guelin, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a circumstellar envelope, a substantial amount of acetylene is transported in a wind to the outer envelope, where it can be photoionized by interstellar radiation and then converted into C2H3(+) by a low-temperature reaction with H2. New chemical modeling calculations indicate that sufficient C2H3(+) may be produced in the outer envelope of IRC + 10216 to be observable. Similar considerations suggest that C2H3(+) should also be detectable in interstellar clouds, provided its rotational spectrum has been measured accurately in the laboratory.

  5. BF Orionis - Evidence for an infalling circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Alan D.; Barden, Samuel C.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the optical magnitudes and Balmer lines of the Herbig Ae/Be star BF Orionis confirm that the object is an early to mid A-type star, but appears to be below the zero-age main sequence. Enhanced metal-line strengths (once thought to link BF Ori with the Am stars), line asymmetries, and radial velocities are shown to be signatures of an infalling circumstellar envelope. The possibility that BF Ori has a late-type companion is examined, and it is concluded that it does not.

  6. The Circumstellar Environment of Evolved Stars as Revealed by Studies of Circumstellar Water Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, K.

    1997-11-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a multi-epoch very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) study of water masers located in the extended atmospheres of seven evolved stars. The research was performed using the Very Long Baseline Array and Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Water masers are found to exist in the atmospheres of evolved, oxygen-rich stars where a population inversion of the rotational transition at 22 GHz can be maintained by collisional pumping. The masers are identified as individual pockets or filaments of gas, which have good velocity coherence and may be imaged using radio interferometry. Stellar winds are initiated in these sources by dust formation and acceleration of the gas through momentum coupling. The typical wind speeds in the region of the water masers are 10 to 20 \\kms. The water masers in several evolved stars (VY CMa, VX Sgr, S Per, U Her, IK Tau, RX Boo and NML Cyg) have been observed at three epochs and exhibit proper motions consistent with the assumed source distances and the measured outflow velocity in the water maser region. Estimates of the distance to the sources using statistical approximation are in agreement with the currently accepted distances to the stars. The following stars had reliable distances determined using proper motion data: S Per (2.3 +/- 0.5 kpc), VY CMa (1.4 +/- 0.2 kpc), VX Sgr (1.4 +/- 0.3 kpc). An upper limit for the distance of NML Cyg was obtained ( 3.5 kpc). The remaining stars had too few maser detections (RX BOO, IK Tau) or were not strong enough at all epochs (U Her) to self-calibrate using the VLBA. A detailed kinematic model was used to describe the flow motions of the gas in the maser region. The regions are found to be complex and not well modeled by uniform radial outflow, radial outflow with rotation, or radial outflow with acceleration. The reasons for this are explored and include the probable presence of anisotropic velocity fields induced through non

  7. Comparative effects of different transplantation ways of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damage repair of lung injury in rats exposed to silica dust%骨髓间充质干细胞移植方式对染矽尘大鼠肺损伤修复作用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 周永梅; 程樱; 王艳艳; 陈铿铿; 燕玲; 赖关朝; 梁伟辉

    2015-01-01

    数、血红蛋白水平、红细胞压积均分别高于对照组(P<0.05)。气管组大鼠血清尿素氮水平高于静脉组(P<0.05),染尘组大鼠血清铜蓝蛋白水平高于其余3组(P<0.05)。4组大鼠周围血血小板和血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶、肌酸激酶、总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、肌酐等指标的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论经静脉和经气管2种BMMSCs移植方式对矽尘所致大鼠肺损伤均具有修复作用,2种移植方式的修复作用没有显著性差异。%Objective To compare different effects of intravenous injection and trachea transplantation ways of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell ( BMMSC) on the damage repair of lung injury in rats exposed to silica dust. Methods BMMSCs were isolated from 14 specific pathogen free healthy male SD rats, cultured and amplified in vitro, while 48 rats of the same kind were randomly divided into control group, silica-exposed group, intravenous injection way group, and trachea way group, 12 rats in each group.The latter 3 groups were injected intratracheally with 1.0 mL of 40 g/L sterile silica dust suspension while control group was given 1.0 mL of sterile physiological sodium chloride solution. Then, intravenous injection way group and trachea way group were injected with 0.5 mL of BMMSCs ( cell density, 5 ×109/L) through the tail intravenous injection and trachea respectively.Rats were weighted and executed on day 28, and lung organ coefficients were calculated.The pathomorphological changes in lung tissues were observed and alveolar inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis were scored, while hydroxyproline ( HYP ) , transforming growth factor-beta 1 ( TGF-β1 ) and tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) concentration of lung, routine blood test and some biochemical indices of peripheral blood were also detected.Results The lung organ coefficients of silica-exposed group, intravenous injection

  8. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  9. First Evidence of Circumstellar Disks around Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, O; Ouellette, J A; Zurek, D R; Shara, M M; Marco, Orsola De; Lanz, Thierry; Ouellette, John A.; Zurek, David; Shara, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of optical HST/STIS and HST/FOS spectroscopy of 6 blue stragglers found in the globular clusters M3, NGC6752 and NGC6397. These stars are a subsample of a set of ~50 blue stragglers and stars above the main sequence turn-off in four globular clusters which will be presented in an forthcoming paper. All but the 6 stars presented here can be well fitted with non-LTE model atmospheres. The 6 misfits, on the other hand, possess Balmer jumps which are too large for the effective temperatures implied by their Paschen continua. We find that our data for these stars are consistent with models only if we account for extra absorption of stellar Balmer photons by an ionized circumstellar disk. Column densities of HI and CaII are derived as are the the disks' thicknesses. This is the first time that a circumstellar disk is detected around blue stragglers. The presence of magnetically-locked disks attached to the stars has been suggested as a mechanism to lose the large angular momentum imparted by ...

  10. The Circumstellar Disk of the Be Star $o$~Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Sigut, T A A; Jansen, B; Zavala, R T

    2015-01-01

    Omicron Aquarii is late-type, Be shell star with a stable and nearly symmetric H$\\alpha$ emission line. We combine H$\\alpha$ interferometric observations obtained with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) covering 2007 through 2014 with H$\\alpha$ spectroscopic observations over the same period and a 2008 observation of the system's near-infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the properties of $o$~Aqr's circumstellar disk. All observations are consistent with a circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of $75\\pm\\,3^{\\circ}$ with a position angle on the sky of $110\\pm\\,8^{\\circ}$ measured E from N. From the best-fit disk density model, we find that 90\\% of the H$\\alpha$ emission arises from within $9.5$ stellar radii, and the mass associated with this H$\\alpha$ disk is $\\sim 1.8\\times10^{-10}$ of the stellar mass and the associated angular momentum, assuming Keplerian rotation for the disk, is $\\sim 1.6\\times10^{-8}$ of the total stellar angular momentum. The occurrence of a central quas...

  11. The Three-Dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    We present the detailed construction and analysis of the most complete map to date of the circumstellar environment around SN 1987A, using ground and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 ly from the SN. Careful analyses allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41\\degr south and 8\\degr east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in...

  12. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, Andrew; Lomax, Jamie R.; Malatesta, Michael A.; Babler, Brian L.; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Carciofi, Alex C.; Davidson, James W.; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr is a particularly exciting object for analysis due to its probable nonconservative mass loss and the possible progenitor link between Roche-lobe overflow systems and core-collapse supernovae. We present the results of 45 spectropolarimetric observations of V356 Sgr taken over 21 years, which we used to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. We find that V356 Sgr exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. The lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk, or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows.We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases. These may indicate a mass transfer or mass loss rate that varies on the time-scale of the system's orbital period. Finally, we present a comparison of V356 Sgr with the well studied beta Lyr system; the significant differences observed between the two systems suggests diversity in the basic circumstellar geometry of Roche-lobe overflow binaries.

  13. Infrared and X-Ray Evidence for Circumstellar Grain Destruction by the Blast Wave of Supernova 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Dwek, E; Bouchet, P; Burrows, D N; Challis, P; Danziger, I J; De Buizer, J M; Gehrz, R D; Kirshner, R P; McCray, R; Park, S; Polomski, E F; Woodward, C E

    2007-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A show that its morphology and luminosity are rapidly changing at X-ray, optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths as the blast wave from the explosion expands into the circumstellar equatorial ring, produced by mass loss from the progenitor star. The observed infrared (IR) radiation arises from the interaction of dust grains that formed in mass outflow with the soft X-ray emitting plasma component of the shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectra at 5 - 30 microns taken on day 6190 since the explosion show that the emission arises from ~ 1.1E-6 Msun of silicate grains radiating at a temperature of ~180+20-15 K. Subsequent observations on day 7137 show that the IR flux had increased by a factor of 2 while maintaining an almost identical spectral shape. The observed IR-to-X-ray flux ratio (IRX) is consistent with that of a dusty plasma with standard Large Magellanic Cloud dust abundances. IRX has decreased by a factor of ~ 2 between days 6190 and 7137, providing...

  14. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  15. Evidence for Pre-Existing Dust in the Bright Type IIn SN 2010jl

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, J E; Wesson, R; Sugerman, B E K; Barlow, M J; Clem, J; Ercolano, B; Fabbri, J; Gallagher, J S; Landolt, A; Meixner, M; Otsuka, M; Riebel, D; Welch, D L

    2011-01-01

    SN 2010jl was an extremely bright, Type IIn SNe which showed a significant IR excess no later than 90 days after explosion. We have obtained Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 \\mum and JHK observations of SN 2010jl \\sim90 days post explosion. Little to no reddening in the host galaxy indicated that the circumstellar material lost from the progenitor must lie in a torus inclined out of the plane of the sky. The likely cause of the high mid-IR flux is the reprocessing of the initial flash of the SN by pre-existing circumstellar dust. Using a 3D Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer code, we have estimated that between 0.03-0.35 Msun of dust exists in a circumstellar torus around the SN located 6 \\times 10 ^17 cm away from the SN and inclined between 60-80\\cdot to the plane of the sky. On day 90, we are only seeing the illumination of approximately 5% of this torus, and expect to see an elevated IR flux from this material up until day \\sim 450. It is likely this dust was created in an LBV-like mass loss event of more than 3 Msun, whi...

  16. THE WIRED SURVEY. IV. NEW DUST DISKS FROM THE McCOOK and SION WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Leisawitz, David T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cohen, Martin, E-mail: hoard@mpia.de [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook and Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf (WD) photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known WDs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit WD models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known WDs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of WDs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The WD dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  17. SILICA SURFACED CARBON FIBERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    carbon fibers . Several economical and simple processes were developed for obtaining research quantities of silica surfaced carbon filaments. Vat dipping processes were utilized to deposit an oxide such as silica onto the surface and into the micropores of available carbon or graphite base fibers. High performance composite materials were prepared with the surface treated carbon fibers and various resin matrices. The ablative characteristics of these composites were very promising and exhibited fewer limitations than either silica or...treated

  18. Regulatory effect of miR-149 on interleukin-6 expression in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晶晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of miR-149 on interleukin-6(IL-6)expression in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.Methods A mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis was established using silica dust;the level of miR-149 in the lung tissues of mice with silicainduced pulmonary fibrosis was measured by quantitative

  19. Silica in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, A G; Hodson, M J

    1986-01-01

    Opaline silica deposits are formed by many vascular (higher) plants. The capacity of these plants for silica absorption varies considerably according to genotype and environment. Plant communities exchange silica between soil and vegetation, especially in warmer climates. Silica deposition in epidermal cell walls offers mechanical and protective advantages. Biogenic silica particles from plants are also implicated in the causation of cancer. Recent techniques are reviewed which may aid in the identification of plant pathways for soluble silica movement to deposition sites and in the determination of ionic environments. Botanical investigations have focused on silicification of cell walls in relation to plant development, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. Silica deposition in macrohair walls of the lemma of canary grass (Phalaris) begins at inflorescence emergence and closely follows wall thickening. The structure of the deposited silica may be determined by specific organic polymers present at successive stages of wall development. Lowering of transpiration by enclosure of Phalaris inflorescences in plastic bags reduced silica deposition in macrohairs. Preliminary freeze-substitution studies have located silicon, as well as potassium and chloride, in the cell vacuole and wall deposition sites during initial silicification.

  20. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R.; Bruening, T. [Research Institute for Occupational Medicine (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Bauer, T. [Bergmannsheil, University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pneumonology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Kuepper, H.U.; Breitstadt, R. [Degussa-Huels Corp., Wesseling (Germany); Philippou, S. [Department of Pathology, Augusta Krankenanstalten, Bochum (Germany); Bauer, H.D. [Research Institute for Hazardous Substances (IGF), Bochum (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic (''thermal'' or ''fumed'') silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physico-chemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or

  1. A SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS CREATED BY A GIANT HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT IN THE HD 172555 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Thebault, P. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Henning, W. G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gaidos, E. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Elkins-Tanton, L. T. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Bridges, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Morlok, A., E-mail: johns477@purdue.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-10

    Spectral modeling of the large infrared excess in the Spitzer IRS spectra of HD 172555 suggests that there is more than 10{sup 19} kg of submicron dust in the system. Using physical arguments and constraints from observations, we rule out the possibility of the infrared excess being created by a magma ocean planet or a circumplanetary disk or torus. We show that the infrared excess is consistent with a circumstellar debris disk or torus, located at {approx}6 AU, that was created by a planetary scale hypervelocity impact. We find that radiation pressure should remove submicron dust from the debris disk in less than one year. However, the system's mid-infrared photometric flux, dominated by submicron grains, has been stable within 4% over the last 27 years, from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (1983) to WISE (2010). Our new spectral modeling work and calculations of the radiation pressure on fine dust in HD 172555 provide a self-consistent explanation for this apparent contradiction. We also explore the unconfirmed claim that {approx}10{sup 47} molecules of SiO vapor are needed to explain an emission feature at {approx}8 {mu}m in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of HD 172555. We find that unless there are {approx}10{sup 48} atoms or 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus} of atomic Si and O vapor in the system, SiO vapor should be destroyed by photo-dissociation in less than 0.2 years. We argue that a second plausible explanation for the {approx}8 {mu}m feature can be emission from solid SiO, which naturally occurs in submicron silicate ''smokes'' created by quickly condensing vaporized silicate.

  2. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Jamie R; Malatesta, Michael A; Babler, Brian; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi R; Bjorkman, Karen S; Bjorkman, Jon E; Carciofi, Alex C; Davidson, James W; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn R; Nordsieck, Kenneth; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Wisniewski, John P

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 45 spectropolarimetric observations of the eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr, obtained over a period of 21 years, to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. After removing interstellar polarization from these data, we find the system exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. In addition, the lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows. We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases, which we interpret as evidence of variability in the amount of scattering material present within and around the system. This may indicate a mass transfer ...

  3. Circumstellar Debris and Pollution at White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar disks of planetary debris are now known or suspected to closely orbit hundreds of white dwarf stars. To date, both data and theory support disks that are entirely contained within the preceding giant stellar radii, and hence must have been produced during the white dwarf phase. This picture is strengthened by the signature of material falling onto the pristine stellar surfaces; disks are always detected together with atmospheric heavy elements. The physical link between this debris and the white dwarf host abundances enables unique insight into the bulk chemistry of extrasolar planetary systems via their remnants. This review summarizes the body of evidence supporting dynamically active planetary systems at a large fraction of all white dwarfs, the remnants of first generation, main-sequence planetary systems, and hence provide insight into initial conditions as well as long-term dynamics and evolution.

  4. Infrared observations of circumstellar ammonia in OH/IR supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaren, R. A.; Betz, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarii, and IRC +10420 by means of several absorption lines in the nu-2 vibration-rotation band near 950 kaysers. The line profiles are well resolved (0.2 km/sec resolution) and show the gas being accelerated to terminal expansion velocities near 30 km/sec. The observations reveal a method for determining the position of the central star on VLBI maps of OH maser emission to an accuracy of approximately 0.2 arcsec. A firm lower limit of 2 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm is obtained for the NH3 column density in VY Canis Majoris.

  5. Magnetic field and early evolution of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field plays a central role in the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks. The magnetic field connects the rapidly rotating central region with the outer envelope and extracts angular momentum from the central region during gravitational collapse of the cloud core. This process is known as magnetic braking. Both analytical and multidimensional simulations have shown that disk formation is strongly suppressed by magnetic braking in moderately magnetized cloud cores in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit. On the other hand, recent observations have provided growing evidence of a relatively large disk several tens of astronomical units in size existing in some Class 0 young stellar objects. This introduces a serious discrepancy between the theoretical study and observations. Various physical mechanisms have been proposed to solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking, such as misalignment between the magnetic field and the rotation axis, turbulence, and non-ideal effect. In this paper,...

  6. Variable Circumstellar Disks: Prevalence, Timescales, and Physical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Anthony; Wisniewski, John P.; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Covey, Kevin R.; Gerhartz, Cody; Richardson, Noel; Thao, Pa

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly rotating B-type stars often experience mass ejection that leads to the formation of a circumstellar gas disk, as diagnosed by distinct emission lines present in their spectra. The mass ejection from these stars, known as classical Be stars, sometimes slows or stops, leading to the mass falling back onto the central star and the disk dissipating. The prevalence and time-scale of such disk-loss and disk-replenishment episodes, as well as the underlying physical processes that cause the underlying mass ejection, remain unknown. We are using multi-epoch broad- and narrow-band photometric observations of 12 young open clusters to characterize the prevalence and time-scale of disk-loss and disk-replenishment episodes. We use our observations to gauge which cluster objects exhibit H-alpha emission, which is a primary indicator of Be stars in our clusters. This program is supported by NSF-AST 1411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  7. Polarization and SEDs from Microlensing of Circumstellar Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ignace, R; Bunker, C

    2008-01-01

    Microlensing surveys have proven to be tremendously fruitful in providing valuable data products for many fields of astrophysics, from eclipse lightcurves for substellar candidates to limb darkening in stellar atmospheres. We report on a program of modeling observables from microlensing of circumstellar envelopes, particularly those of red giant stars that are the most likely to show finite source effects. We will summarize work for how polarization light curves can be used to infer envelope properties and will describe recent modeling of the time dependent spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for microlensing of dusty winds. One of the most exciting developments is the possibility of measuring variable polarization from microlensing in a suitable source using the RINGO polarimeter at La Palma. Also quite interesting is the possibility of probing a dusty wind using IRAC data for a suitable source in the event that Spitzer has a ``warm'' cycle.

  8. The progenitor of SN 2011ja: Clues from circumstellar interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Yadav, Naveen; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until the time of core collapse produce Type IIP (Plateau) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shock the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the ATCA to study the relative importance of particle acceleration and magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the ...

  9. Why all stars should possess circumstellar temperature inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper shows that the circumstellar temperature inversions possessed by all stars are the consequence of the 'velocity filtration' process described by Scudder (1992), according to which a stellar envelope is hotter than its underlying layers. The filtration scenario relies on the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined non-Maxwellian velocity distributions of ions and/or electrons in other sampled astrophysical plasmas and the transition region. The most immediate consequence is that the temperature and quasi-neutral plasma density become anticorrelated with increasing radius in a thin transition region, leaving the temperature profile inverted in excess of 10 exp 6 K up into a corona, without depositing a wave of magnetic field energy into the gas above the base of the transition region.

  10. Coupling Dynamical And Collisional Evolution Of Dust In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, Sebastien

    2010-10-01

    Gaseous circumstellar disks are rich in dust and are thought to be both accretionaly and dynamically active. Unfortunately large bodies that could be embedded in these disks are still difficult to observe and their putative properties are indirectly inferred from the observable small dust content. It is why constraining the size distribution coupled with dust-dynamics is so critical. Unfortunately, coupling effects such as a realistic time-dependant dynamics, fragmentation and coagulation, has been recognized as numerically challenging and almost no attempt really succeeded with a generic approach. In these disks, the dust dynamics is driven by a variety of processes (gravity, gas drag, radiation pressure..) inducing a size-dependant dynamics, and, at the same time collisional evolution changes the local size distributions. These two effects are intimately coupled because the local dynamics and size-distribution determines the local collision rates, that, in-turn, determines the size-distribution and modifies the particle's dynamics. Here we report on a new algorithm that overcomes these difficulties by using a hybrid approach extending the work of Charnoz & Morbidelli (Icarus, 2004, 2007). We will briefly present the method and focus on gaseous protoplanetary disks either laminar or turbulent (the time dependant transport and dust evolution will be shown) . We will show how the taking into account of a 3D dynamics helps to determine disantengle the dust size-distribution in the disk's photosphere and in the midplane and thus may provide observational signatures of accretion. We will show how the coupling of turbulence with fragmentation may significantly affect the dust/ratio for the smallest bodies. Finally, we will show that an accurate description of the time dependant dynamics of larger dusts (those with Stokes numbers >= 1) may provide a possible path to the formation of bodies larger than the accretion barrier, through accretion in a transitory regime.

  11. The inner circumstellar disk of the UX Orionis star V1026 Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, J.; Kreplin, A.; Kishimoto, M.; Weigelt, G.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kraus, S.; Schertl, D.; Dugué, M.; Duvert, G.; Lagarde, S.; Massi, F.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The UX Ori type variables (named after the prototype of their class) are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence objects. One of the most likely causes of their variability is the obscuration of the central star by orbiting dust clouds. Aims: We investigate the structure of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori star V1026 Sco (HD 142666) and test whether the disk inclination is large enough to explain the UX Ori variability. Methods: We observed the object in the low-resolution mode of the near-infrared interferometric VLTI/AMBER instrument and derived H- and K-band visibilities and closure phases. We modeled our AMBER observations, published Keck Interferometer observations, archival MIDI/VLTI visibilities, and the spectral energy distribution using geometric and temperature-gradient models. Results: Employing a geometric inclined-ring disk model, we find a ring radius of 0.15 ± 0.06 AU in the H band and 0.18 ± 0.06 AU in the K band. The best-fit temperature-gradient model consists of a star and two concentric, ring-shaped disks. The inner disk has a temperature of 1257+133-53 K at the inner rim and extends from 0.19 ± 0.01 AU to 0.23 ± 0.02 AU. The outer disk begins at 1.35+0.19-0.20 AU and has an inner temperature of 334+35-17 K. The derived inclination of 48.6+2.9-3.6° approximately agrees with the inclination derived with the geometric model (49 ± 5° in the K band and 50 ± 11° in the H band). The position angle of the fitted geometric and temperature-gradient models are 163 ± 9° (K band; 179 ± 17° in the H band) and 169.3+4.2-6.7°, respectively. Conclusions: The narrow width of the inner ring-shaped model disk and the disk gap might be an indication for a puffed-up inner rim shadowing outer parts of the disk. The intermediate inclination of ~50° is consistent with models of UX Ori objects where dust clouds in the inclined disk obscure the central star. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory

  12. Mid-Infrared interferometry of dust around massive evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Jayadev; Wallace, D; Danchi, W C; Chesneau, O; López, B; Monnier, J D; Ireland, M; Tuthill, P G

    2007-01-01

    We report long-baseline interferometric measurements of circumstellar dust around massive evolved stars with the MIDI instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and provide spectrally dispersed visibilities in the 8-13 micron wavelength band. We also present diffraction-limited observations at 10.7 micron on the Keck Telescope with baselines up to 8.7 m which explore larger scale structure. We have resolved the dust shells around the late type WC stars WR 106 and WR 95, and the enigmatic NaSt1 (formerly WR 122), suspected to have recently evolved from a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stage. For AG Car, the protoypical LBV in our sample, we marginally resolve structure close to the star, distinct from the well-studied detached nebula. The dust shells around the two WC stars show fairly constant size in the 8-13 micron MIDI band, with gaussian half-widths of ~ 25 to 40 mas. The compact dust we detect around NaSt1 and AG Car favors recent or ongoing dust formation. Using the measured visibilities, we bu...

  13. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  14. AN EXAMINATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF SILICA ON MACROPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A. C.; Harington, J. S.; Birbeck, M.

    1966-01-01

    Effects of silica, diamond dust, and carrageenan on mouse macrophages were studied by phase-contrast cine-micrography, electron microscopy, histochemical techniques for lysosomal enzymes and measurements of the release of lysosomal enzymes into the culture medium. All added materials were rapidly taken up into phagosomes, to which lysosomes became attached. In all cases lysosomal enzymes were discharged into the phagosomes to form secondary lysosomes. Within 24 hr most of the silica particles and enzyme had escaped from the secondary lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes were found in the culture media. Most macrophages were killed by this time. With nontoxic particles (diamond dust, aluminium-coated silica, or silica in the presence of the protective agent polyvinyl-pyridine-N-oxide, PVPNO) ingested particles and lysosomal enzymes were retained within the secondary lysosomes for a much longer time, and cytotoxic effects were considerably delayed or absent altogether. It is concluded that silica particles are toxic because they are efficiently taken up by macrophages and can then react relatively rapidly with the membranes surrounding the secondary lysosomes. The particles and lytic enzymes can then escape into the cytoplasm, producing general damage, and thence into the culture medium. It is suggested that hydrogen bonding of silicic acid with lipid and protein constituents of the membrane accounts for the induced permeability. Protective agents such as PVPNO are retamed in lysosomes and preferentially form hydrogen bonds with silicic acid. Carrageenan is demonstrable within macrophages by its metachromatic reaction. It brings about release of enzymes from secondary lysosomes, but much more slowly than does silica. Silica released from killed macrophages is as cytotoxic as the original preparation. It is suggested that repeated cycles of macrophage killing in vivo leads to the mobilization of fibroblasts and fibrogenesis characterizing the disease silicosis. PMID

  15. Imaging-based dust sensors: equipment and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Greco, Sonia

    2004-05-01

    Dust detection and control in real time, represent one of the most challenging problem in all those environments where fine and ultrafine airborne particulate solids products are present. The presence of such products can be linked to several factors, often directly related and influenced by the working-production actions performed. Independently from the causes generating dust, airborne contaminants are an occupational problem of increasing interest as they are related to a wide number of diseases. In particular, airborne dusts are well known to be associated with several classical occupational lung diseases, such as the pneumoconiosis, especially at high levels of exposure. Nowadays there is also an increasing interest in other dust related diseases, from the most serious as cancer and asthma, to those related with allergies or irritation and other illnesses, also occurring at lower levels of exposure. Among the different critical factors influencing health risk for airborne dust exposure, mainly four have to be considered, that is: i) nature of the dust resulting from working in terms of presence of specific poisoning material, i.e. free silica, and morphological and morphometrical attributes of particulates constituting airborne dust; ii) size of the particles, iii) duration of exposure time and, finally, iv) airborne dust concentration in the breathing zone where the worker performs his activity. A correct dust detection is not easy, especially if some of the previous mentioned factors, have to be detected and quantified in real time in order to define specific "on-line" control actions aimed to reduce the level of the exposure to dust of the workers, as for example: i) modification of aspirating devices operating condition, change of filtering cleaning sequence, etc. . The more severe are the environmental conditions, in terms of dust presence (in quantity and quality) more difficult is to utilize efficient sampling devices. Detection devices, in fact, tend

  16. Is acetylene essential for carbon dust formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanoa, Harpreet

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out an investigation of the chemical evolution of gas in different carbon-rich circumstellar environments. Previous studies have tended to invoke terrestrial flame chemistries, based on acetylene (C2H2) combustion to model the formation of carbon dust, via Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work we pay careful attention to the accurate calculation of the molecular photoreaction rate coefficients to ascertain whether there is a universal formation mechanism for carbon dust in strongly irradiated astrophysical environments. A large number of possible chemical channels may exist for the formation of PAHs, so we have concentrated on the viability of the formation of the smallest building block species, C2H2, in a variety of carbon-rich stellar outflows. C2H2 is very sensitive to dissociation by UV radiation. This sensitivity is tested, using models of the time-dependent chemistry. We find that C2H2 formation is sensitive to some of the physical parameters and that in some known sourc...

  17. Effective dust control systems on concrete dowel drilling machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echt, Alan S; Sanderson, Wayne T; Mead, Kenneth R; Feng, H Amy; Farwick, Daniel R; Farwick, Dawn Ramsey

    2016-09-01

    Rotary-type percussion dowel drilling machines, which drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement, have been documented to produce respirable crystalline silica concentrations above recommended exposure criteria. This places operators at potential risk for developing health effects from exposure. United States manufacturers of these machines offer optional dust control systems. The effectiveness of the dust control systems to reduce respirable dust concentrations on two types of drilling machines was evaluated under controlled conditions with the machines operating inside large tent structures in an effort to eliminate secondary exposure sources not related to the dowel-drilling operation. Area air samples were collected at breathing zone height at three locations around each machine. Through equal numbers of sampling rounds with the control systems randomly selected to be on or off, the control systems were found to significantly reduce respirable dust concentrations from a geometric mean of 54 mg per cubic meter to 3.0 mg per cubic meter on one machine and 57 mg per cubic meter to 5.3 mg per cubic meter on the other machine. This research shows that the dust control systems can dramatically reduce respirable dust concentrations by over 90% under controlled conditions. However, these systems need to be evaluated under actual work conditions to determine their effectiveness in reducing worker exposures to crystalline silica below hazardous levels.

  18. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre surveys of circumstellar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. M.

    2011-06-01

    near-infrared photometry. Debris discs were detected around 46 systems, 12 of which - including the system with the largest dust mass - are new discoveries. This survey adds to the results of previous studies which show that debris disc incidence is not correlated with host star metallicity, despite the well known giant planet - metallicity correlation. This is in accordance with what is predicted from the core accretion theory of planet formation. The most significant result from this survey is that, contrary to results reported in a previous work, debris discs are overall less common around binary stars. Further investigation shows that systems with separations of ˜3-150 AU are especially deficient of debris, whilst closer binaries and the primaries of wider binaries show debris detection rates consistent with those for single stars. A sample of circumstellar discs around 29 young stellar systems with ages of 5-30 Myr were observed with the LABOCA sub-millimetre instrument on the APEX telescope at 870 μm, to provide disc masses or mass upper limits in support of a large Herschel programme. These targets included the η Chamaeleontis cluster and four bright Herbig Ae/Be stars which have not previously been observed at this wavelength. All but the Herbig Ae/Be stars were not detected, and 3σ dust mass upper limits of ˜0.1-3M_⊙ are determined, with corresponding total disc masses of ˜0.03-1M_{Jup}. These mass limits indicate that there is insufficient remaining material in these discs to form gas giant planets, and add to the prevailing view that protoplanetary discs typically disperse within 10 Myr and that gas giant planet formation must be completed before this time. A search for cold dust emission from two of the Solar System's nearest neighbours - α Centauri AB and ɛ Indi - was also performed with LABOCA. In both cases no debris disc emission was detected. A bright resolved feature was detected near α Centauri AB, however, follow-up observations at a

  19. TW Hya Association Membership and New WISE-detected Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok

    2012-01-01

    We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae Association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 \\mum providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, ~8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting from circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE, and determine a 22 \\mum excess fraction of 42+/- 9% based on our results.

  20. Comparative in vitro toxicity of grape- and citrus-farm dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallyathan, Val; Pack, Donna; Leonard, Steve; Lawson, Robert; Schenker, Marc; Castranova, Vince

    2007-01-15

    Agricultural workers are exposed to a variety of airborne dusts, including crystalline silica and other inorganic minerals. This study was designed to characterize the organic and inorganic components of agricultural dusts in California grape- and citrus-farm fields and to compare their cytotoxicity using in vitro toxicity bioassays as predictors of pathogenicity. Aerosolized dusts collected from farm fields were characterized by scanning-electron-microscopic energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, trace metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. As indicators of cytotoxicity, cell viability, release of alveolar enzymes activities (lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (OH), and lipid peroxidation were monitored after exposure of cells to grape- and citrus-farm dusts or inorganic components of these dusts. In addition, activation of nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein-1 were evaluated at the peak time for response of 36 h postexposure. All toxicity studies were done in comparison with crystalline silica of similar particle size and diameter using the same mass concentrations as farm dusts. The results showed that inorganic minerals in the aerosolized farm dust fractions were mostly composed of aluminum silicates, crystalline silica, and free iron. Crystalline silica used in these studies was more cytotoxic than grape- and citrus-farm dusts. However, in general, citrus farm dust exhibited the greatest ability to generate ROS and induce lipid peroxidation. These results support human epidemiologic studies, reporting an increased incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in farm workers, by documenting the potential of farm dusts to induce oxidative stress and initiate disease development.

  1. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Renton, Kevin [National Institute for Occupational Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kromhout, Hans, E-mail: andrew.swanepoel@wits.ac.z [Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  2. Dust in the SN1987A-analog SBW1 in Carina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2009-02-01

    Last year Smith et al. (2007) reported the discovery of a new equatorial ring nebula, called SBW1, around a blue supergiant seen in the Carina Nebula. It has morphology and physical dimensions almost identical to the ring around SN1987A and it surrounds an early B supergiant that is a virtual twin ofthe progenitor of SN1987A. However, it is more than 20 times closer than SN1987A, and therefore shows the detailed structure of this unusual type of ring nebula in much greater detail, before the star explodes. Resolving the structure in this nebula will inform our understanding of non-spherical mass loss from supernova progenitor stars in general, and will constrain models of SN1987A as its blast wave continues to interact with its circumstellar ring. This proposal aims to obtain mid-IR images and spectroscopy of SBW1 with T-ReCS on Gemini South in order to determine the dust properties in the nebula, such as its physical location, temperature, mass, and composition, for comparison with the dust properties of SN1987A's ring and also with the circumstellar dust properties of other blue supergiants like B[e] stars. These IR data are also needed to understand the relationship between warm dust and the ionized gas structures that will be resolved in our accepted program to obtain WFC3 and STIS data with HST.

  3. Influence of mineral dusts on metabolism of arachidonic acid by alveolar macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, L.M.; Kuhn, D.C. [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    1994-12-01

    The alveolar macrophage (AM) responds to stimuli such as coal mine dust by releasing inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and eicosanoids. In this report, the authors examined the effects of an antioxidant, vitamin E, on dust-induced synthesis of PGE(2) and TXB(2) in vitro and in vivo by AM obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from rats. They also looked at the effects of the surface of silica particles on AM eicosanoid biosynthesis under conditions of calcination, a process that removes exposed hydroxyl groups from the surface of silica particles, thus reducing the likelihood of soluble hydroxyl radical formation. Treatment of AM with vitamin E in vivo and in vitro reduced the augmentation in eicosanoid production usually observed when AM are exposed to mine dusts. These results suggest that vitamin E may effectively reduce the inflammatory and fibrotic response produced by inhalation of mineral dust through an antioxidant mechanism. Silica that has been chemically altered by calcination was unable to activate AM eicosanoid production in vitro when compared to untreated, freshly fractured silica. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which dust particles can activate AM eicosanoid release may involve interaction of surface and/or soluble factors with the cell membrane. Taken together, these studies point to the involvement of Am eicosanoid production as part of the proinflammatory response of this cell to occupational inhalation of mineral dust.

  4. An interferometric study of the post-AGB binary 89 Herculis I Spatially resolving the continuum circumstellar environment at optical and near-IR wavelengths with the VLTI, NPOI, IOTA, PTI, and the CHARA Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hillen, M; Van Winckel, H; Chesneau, O; Hummel, C A; Monnier, J D; Farrington, C; Tycner, C; Mourard, D; Brummelaar, T ten; Banerjee, D P K; Zavala, R T

    2013-01-01

    Binary post-AGB stars are interesting laboratories to study both the evolution of binaries as well as the structure of circumstellar disks. A multiwavelength high angular resolution study of the prototypical object 89 Herculis is performed with the aim of identifying and locating the different emission components seen in the SED. A large interferometric data set, collected over the past decade and covering optical and near-IR wavelengths, is analyzed with simple geometric models. Combining the interferometric constraints with the photometry and the optical spectra, we reassess the energy budget of the post-AGB star and its circumstellar environment. We report the first (direct) detection of a large (35-40%) optical circumstellar flux contribution and spatially resolve its emission region. Given this large amount of reprocessed and/or redistributed optical light, the fitted size of the emission region is rather compact and fits with(in) the inner rim of the circumbinary dust disk. This rim dominates our K band...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of the CIP 10 personal dust sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A; Tomb, T

    1988-06-01

    The "capteur individuel de poussiere" CIP 10 personal dust sampler--developed by the Centre d'Etudes et Recherches de Charbonnages de France (CERCHAR) research organization--is a small, quiet, lightweight unit which samples at a flow rate of 10 L/min. It is a three-stage sampler, using two stages to remove nonrespirable dust particles and one stage to collect the respirable fraction. Airflow through the sampler is induced by the third stage, which is a rotating collector cup that contains a fine grade sponge. Laboratory tests were conducted in a dust chamber using aerosols of Arizona road dust, coal dust and silica dust. Aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were compared to those measured with the coal mine dust personal sampler unit used in the United States. The results of this study showed that aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were linearly related to those obtained with the coal mine dust personal sampler. The relationship, however, was dependent on preselector configuration and aerosol characteristics. The collection medium allows some small particles (less than 3 microns) to pass through the sampler without being collected. As much as 13% (by weight) of the aerosol that penetrated through the preseparating stages was exhausted from the sampler.

  6. SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2014J IN M82: LARGE EXTINCTION FROM INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter J.; Smitka, Michael T.; Wang, Lifan; Krisciunas, Kevin [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Breeveld, Alice; Kuin, N. Paul; Page, Mat [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Pasquale, Massimiliano [Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo Via Ugo la Malfa 153 90146 Palermo (Italy); Hartmann, Dieter H. [Clemson University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Milne, Peter A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Siegel, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We present optical and ultraviolet (UV) photometry and spectra of the very nearby and highly reddened supernova (SN) 2014J in M82 obtained with the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Comparison of the UVOT grism spectra of SN 2014J with Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN2011fe or UVOT grism spectra of SN 2012fr are consistent with an extinction law with a low value of R{sub V} ∼1.4. The high reddening causes the detected photon distribution in the broadband UV filters to have a much longer effective wavelength than for an unreddened SN. The light curve evolution is consistent with this shift and does not show a flattening due to photons being scattered back into the line of sight (LOS). The light curve shapes and color evolution are inconsistent with a contribution scattered into the LOS by circumstellar dust. We conclude that most or all of the high reddening must come from interstellar dust. We show that even for a single dust composition, there is not a unique reddening law caused by circumstellar scattering. Rather, when considering scattering from a time-variable source, we confirm earlier studies that the reddening law is a function of the dust geometry, column density, and epoch. We also show how an assumed geometry of dust as a foreground sheet in mixed stellar/dust systems will lead to a higher inferred R{sub V}. Rather than assuming the dust around SNe is peculiar, SNe may be useful probes of the interstellar reddening laws in other galaxies.

  7. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  8. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  9. Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with Their Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Jeffrey M; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D Andrew; Filippenko, Alexei V; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Bloom, Joshua S; Cenko, S Bradley; Cao, Yi; Chornock, Ryan; Clubb, Kelsey I; Coil, Alison L; Foley, Ryan J; Graham, Melissa L; Griffith, Christopher V; Horesh, Assaf; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Leonard, Douglas C; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Miller, Adam A; Modjaz, Maryam; Ofek, Eran O; Pan, Yen-Chen; Perley, Daniel A; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Steele, Thea N; Sternberg, Assaf; Xu, Dong; Yaron, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia show evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well-studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in-depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{\\alpha} emission (with widths of ~2000 km/s) and exhibit large H{\\alpha}/H{\\beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They...

  10. The ionization structure of the circumstellar envelope of Alpha Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical processes which affect the ionization of the outer circumstellar envelope of Alpha Ori are analyzed and evaluated. The ultraviolet radiation fields of the chromosphere and the interstellar medium dominate the envelope, and the most common forms of all species are neutral atoms and first ions. Hydrogen recombines just outside the chromosphere, where atoms with smaller ionization potential are essentially fully ionized. The heavier ions gradually recombine with increasing distance from the star, until the interstellar radiation field reverses this trend. The electron fraction in the outer envelope is approximately equal to the abundance of all such heavy atoms, i.e., of the order of 0.0001. The analysis is applied to the case of neutral K, whose density in the envelope has been determined by scattering experiments. The theory predicts that the slope of the K I density distribution should decrease from -1.5 to -3.5 in the outer envelope. The mass loss rate of Alpha Ori implied by the K I scattering experiments is 4 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr.

  11. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  12. The Structure of the DoAr 25 Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, D J; Qi, Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution (< 0.3" = 40$ AU) Submillimeter Array observations of the 865 micron continuum emission from the circumstellar disk around the young star DoAr 25. Despite its bright millimeter emission, this source exhibits only a comparatively small infrared excess and low accretion rate, suggesting that the material and structural properties of the inner disk may be in an advanced state of evolution. A simple model of the physical conditions in the disk is derived from the submillimeter visibilities and the complete spectral energy distribution using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. For the standard assumption of a homogeneous grain size distribution at all disk radii, the results indicate a shallow surface density profile, $\\Sigma \\propto r^{-p}$ with p = 0.34, significantly less steep than a steady-state accretion disk (p = 1) or the often adopted minimum mass solar nebula (p = 1.5). Even though the total mass of material is large (M_d = 0.10 M_sun), the densities inferred in t...

  13. Numerical models for the circumstellar medium around Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Neilson, Hilding R; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M -A

    2013-01-01

    The nearby red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse has a complex circumstellar medium out to at least 0.5 parsecs from its surface, shaped by its mass-loss history within the past 0.1 Myr, its environment, and its motion through the interstellar medium (ISM). In principle its mass-loss history can be constrained by comparing hydrodynamic models with observations. Observations and numerical simulations indicate that Betelgeuse has a very young bow shock, hence the star may have only recently become a RSG. To test this possibility we calculated a stellar evolution model for a single star with properties consistent with Betelgeuse. We incorporated the resulting evolving stellar wind into 2D hydrodynamic simulations to model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) undergoing the transition to a RSG near the end of its life. The collapsing BSG wind bubble induces a bow shock-shaped inner shell which at least superficially resembles Betelgeuse's bow shock, and has a similar mass. Surrounding this is the larger-scale retreating bow...

  14. Chemical composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S; Agúndez, M; Pinte, C; Alonso-Albi, T; Neri, R; Cernicharo, J; Goicoechea, J R; Berné, O; Wiesenfeld, L; Bachiller, R; Lefloch, B

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is of paramount importance to understand the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (A Chemical Survey of Sun-like Star-forming Regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1-0 and C17O 1-0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results. Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54-33 and 56-45 lines, confirming the previous tentative detection. Comparing to other T Tauri's and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3-2/HCO+ 3-2 ...

  15. A dynamical study of the circumstellar gas in UX Orionis

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Eiroa, C; Grady, C A; De Winter, D; Davies, J K; Ferlet, R; Harris, A W; Montesinos, B; Oudmaijer, R D; Palacios, J; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Rauer, H; Alberdi, A; Cameron, A; Deeg, H J; Garzón, F; Horne, K; Merin, B; Penny, A; Schneider, J; Solano, E; Tsapras, Y; Wesselius, P R

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a high spectral resolution study of the circumstellar (CS) gas around the intermediate mass, pre-main sequence star UX Ori. The results are based on a set of 10 echelle spectra, monitoring the star on time scales of months, days and hours. A large number of transient blueshifted and redshifted absorption features are detected in the Balmer and in many metallic lines. A multigaussian fit is applied to determine for each transient absorption the velocity, v, dispersion velocity, Delta v, and the parameter R, which provides a measure of the absorption strength of the CS gas. The time evolution of those parameters is presented and discussed. A comparison of intensity ratios among the transient absorptions suggests a solar-like composition of the CS gas. This confirms previous results and excludes a very metal-rich environment as the cause of the transient features in UX Ori. The features can be grouped by their similar velocities into 24 groups, of which 17 are redshifted and 7 blueshift...

  16. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution is typically ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amoun...

  17. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in evolved circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the circumstellar outflows of evolved stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on carbon stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. Evidence for PAHs present in their winds is provided by meteoritic studies and recent observations of the Unidentified Infrared bands. We detail the chemical processes leading to the closure of the first aromatic ring as well as the growth mechanisms leading to amorphous carbon grains. Existing studies on PAH formation in evolved stellar envelopes are reviewed and new results for the modelling of the inner wind of the archetype carbon star IRC+10216 are presented. Benzene, C6H6, forms close to the star, as well as water, H2O, as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry induced by the periodic passage of shocks. The growth process of aromatic rings may thus resemble that active in sooting flames due to the presence of radicals like hydroxyl, OH. Finally, we discuss possible formation processes for PAHs and aromatic compounds in the hydrogen-...

  18. Observation of Circumstellar Gas in the Neighborhood of RZ Psc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potravnov, I. S.; Grinin, V. P.; Ilyin, I. V.

    2013-12-01

    The first evidence is found of the existence of circumstellar gas in the nearest surroundings of the UX Ori star RZ Psc. Spectra obtained at the Terskol Observatory, Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) reveal a strong variability in the sodium doublet lines that is indicative of a sporadic outflow of matter. Weak variability was also observed in the core of the Hα line. One nontrivial feature of this discovery is that RZ Psc is of spectral class K0 IV. This means that the star has no intrinsic energy resources for creating the observed outflow of matter. There are no emission lines in the star's spectrum which might indicate that matter is falling into the star so that the observed outflow could be related to an accretion process. We suggest, nevertheless, that the ejection of gas is related to residual (slow) accretion and is driven by a propeller mechanism. The latter is possible if the star has a sufficiently high (on the order of 103 G) magnetic field.

  19. Unifying Type II Supernova Light Curves with Dense Circumstellar Material

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of supernovae (SNe) has been the relationship between the Type IIP and Type IIL subclasses. Whether they come from distinct progenitors or they are from similar stars with some property that smoothly transitions from one class to another has been the subject of much debate. Here we show using one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic SN models that the multi-band light curves of SNe IIL are well fit by ordinary red supergiants surrounded by dense circumstellar material (CSM). The inferred extent of this material, coupled with a typical wind velocity of ~10-100 km/s, suggests enhanced activity by these stars during the last ~months to ~years of their lives, which may be connected with advanced stages of nuclear burning. Furthermore, we find that even for more plateau-like SNe that dense CSM provides a better fit to the first ~20 days of their light curves, indicating that the presence of such material may be more widespread than previously appreciated. Here we choose to model t...

  20. Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out ...

  1. Optical Signatures of Circumstellar Interaction in Type IIP Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chugai, N N; Utrobin, V P; Chugai, Nikolai N.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Utrobin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new diagnostics for circumstellar interaction in Type IIP supernovae by the detection of high velocity (HV) absorption features in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines during the photospheric stage. To demonstrate the method, we compute the ionization and excitation of H and He in supernova ejecta taking into account time-dependent effects and X-ray irradiation. We find that the interaction with a typical red supergiant wind should result in the enhanced excitation of the outer layers of unshocked ejecta and the emergence of corresponding HV absorption, i.e. a depression in the blue absorption wing of Halpha and a pronounced absorption of He I 10830 A at a radial velocity of about -10,000 km/s. We identify HV absorption in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines of SN 1999em and in Halpha of SN 2004dj as being due to this effect. The derived mass loss rate is close to 10^{-6} Msun/yr for both supernovae, assuming a wind velocity 10 km/s. We argue that, in addition to the HV absorption formed in the unshocked ejecta...

  2. Supplementary Information for ``Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs''

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This document contains refereed supplementary information for the paper ``Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs''. It contains 15 sections (\\S1.1 -- \\S1.15) that address a number of subjects related to the main paper. We describe in detail the Poisson solver used to find the self-potential of the solid particles, including a linear and a non-linear test problem (\\S1.3). Dissipative collisions remove energy from the motion of the particles by collisional cooling (\\S1.4), an effect that allows gravitational collapse to occur in somewhat less massive discs (\\S1.7). A resolution study of the gravitational collapse of the boulders is presented in \\S1.6. We find that gravitational collapse can occur in progressively less massive discs as the grid resolution is increased, likely due to the decreased smoothing of the particle-mesh self-gravity solver with increasing resolution. In \\S1.10 we show that it is in good agreement with the Goldreich & Ward (1973) stability analysis to form severa...

  3. Dust in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  4. Evidence for dust clearing through resolved submillimeter imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J M; Qi, C; Dullemond, C P; Wilner, D J; Williams, J P

    2009-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations have revealed a small sub-class of circumstellar disks with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of large inner gaps with low dust content. However, such data provide only an indirect and model-dependent method of finding central holes. Imaging of protoplanetry disks provides an independent check of SED modeling. We present here the direct characterization of three 33-47 AU radii inner gaps, in the disks around LkHa 330, SR 21N and HD 135344B, via 340 GHz (880 micron) dust continuum aperture synthesis observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The large gaps are fully resolved at ~0\\farcs3 by the SMA observations and mostly empty of dust, with less than 1 - 7.5 x 10^-6 Msolar of fine grained solids inside the holes. Gas (as traced by atomic accretion markers and CO 4.7 micron rovibrational emission) is still present in the inner regions of all three disks. For each, the inner hole exhibits a relatively steep rise in dust emission to the ou...

  5. From Nuclei to Dust Grains: How the AGB Machinery Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrecht, D.; Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.

    2015-12-01

    With their circumstellar envelopes AGB stars are marvelous laboratories to test our knowledge of microphysics (opacities, equation of state), macrophysics (convection, rotation, stellar pulsations, magnetic fields) and nucleosynthesis (nuclear burnings, slow neutron capture processes, molecules and dust formation). Due to the completely different environments those processes occur, the interplay between stellar interiors (dominated by mixing events like convection and dredge-up episodes) and stellar winds (characterized by dust formation and wind acceleration) is often ignored. We intend to develop a new approach involving a transition region, taking into consideration hydrodynamic processes which may drive AGB mass-loss. Our aim is to describe the process triggering the mass-loss in AGB stars with different masses, metallicities and chemical enrichments, possibly deriving a velocity field of the outflowing matter. Moreover, we intend to construct an homogeneous theoretical database containing detailed abundances of atomic and molecular species produced by these objects. As a long term goal, we will derive dust production rates for silicates, alumina and silicon carbides, in order to explain laboratory measurements of isotopic ratios in AGB dust grains.

  6. The Role of Dust in Models of Population Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cassarà, L P; Weiss, A; Salaris, M; Chiosi, C

    2013-01-01

    We have employed state-of-the-art evolutionary models of low and intermediate-mass AGB stars, and included the effect of circumstellar dust shells on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of AGB stars, to revise the Padua library of isochrones (Bertelli et al. 1994). The major revision involves the thermally pulsing AGB phase, that is now taken from fully evolutionary calculations by Weiss & Ferguson (2009). Two libraries of about 600 AGB dust-enshrouded SEDs each have also been calculated, one for oxygen-rich M-stars and one for carbon-rich C-stars. Each library accounts for different values of input parameters like the optical depth {\\tau}, dust composition, and temperature of the inner boundary of the dust shell. These libraries of dusty AGB spectra have been implemented into a large composite library of theoretical stellar spectra, to cover all regions of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) crossed by the isochrones. With the aid of the above isochrones and libraries of stellar SEDs, we have calcul...

  7. Radial Distribution of Dust Grains Around HR 4796A

    CERN Document Server

    Wahhaj, Z; Backman, D E; Werner, M W; Serabyn, E; Ressler, M E; Lis, D C

    2004-01-01

    We present high-dynamic-range images of circumstellar dust around HR 4796A that were obtained with MIRLIN at the Keck II telescope at lambda = 7.9, 10.3, 12.5 and 24.5 um. We also present a new continuum measurement at 350 um obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Emission is resolved in Keck images at 12.5 and 24.5 um with PSF FWHM's of 0.37" and 0.55", respectively, and confirms the presence of an outer ring centered at 70 AU. Unresolved excess infrared emission is also detected at the stellar position and must originate well within 13 AU of the star. A model of dust emission fit to flux densities at 12.5, 20.8, and 24.5 um indicates dust grains are located 4(+3/-2) AU from the star with effective size, 28+/-6 um, and an associated temperature of 260+/-40 K. We simulate all extant data with a simple model of exozodiacal dust and an outer exo-Kuiper ring. A two-component outer ring is necessary to fit both Keck thermal infrared and HST scattered-light images. Bayesian parameter estimates yield a ...

  8. Superaromatics: The key to a unified cosmic dust theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Lawrence R.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of Superaromatics, the key to a unified cosmic dust theory, was constructed by analyzing several thousand astronomical features covering every major aspect of astrophysics and astrochemistry relating to dust. To insure consistency between disciplines, the logical structure of the conclusions in each field was checked rather than accepting the current consensus. No substantial contradictory features are known to the author. The analysis falls into seven major parts: (1) kinetics of grain formation and destruction; (2) optical spectra of the interstellar medium (ISM); (3) meteorite interplanetary dust particle (IPD) chemistry; (4) structure and chemistry of the interstellar medium arising from surface catalysis; (6) dynamics of circumstellar and interstellar dust clouds, including galactic morphology; and (7) the chemistry and physics of previously unidentified compounds. Only tentative conclusions are presented here. The principle conclusion is that quantum mechanics as it is normally formulated is incomplete. The probable cause is that it is formulated with complex numbers rather than the more fundamental quaternion system. The manifestation in astrochemistry is that the most stable compounds are superaromatic and exotic enough to confound most classical analysis.

  9. Debris disks: seeing dust, thinking of planetesimals and planets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander V.Krivov

    2010-01-01

    Debris disks are optically thin, almost gas-free dusty disks observed around a significant fraction of main-sequence stars older than about 10Myr. Since the circumstellar dust is short-lived, the very existence of these disks is considered as evidence that dust-producing planetesimals are still present in mature systems, in which planets have formed-or failed to form-a long time ago. It is inferred that these planetesimals orbit their host stars at asteroid to Kuiper-belt distances and continually supply fresh dust through mutual collisions. This review outlines observational techniques and results on debris disks, summarizes their essential physics and theoretical models, and then places them into the general context of planetary systems, uncovering interrelations between the disks, dust parent bodies, and planets. It is shown that debris disks can serve as tracers of planetesimals and planets and shed light on the planetesimal and planet formation processes that operated in these systems in the past.

  10. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  11. CONCURRENT FORMATION OF CARBON AND SILICATE DUST IN NOVA V1280 SCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate Schools of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sako, Shigeyuki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ohsawa, Ryou [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Nozawa, Takaya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kimura, Yuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, Takuya [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Arai, Akira [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University , 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: isakon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We present infrared multi-epoch observations of the dust-forming nova V1280 Sco over ∼2000 days from the outburst. The temporal evolution of the infrared spectral energy distributions at 1272, 1616, and 1947 days can be explained by the emissions produced by amorphous carbon dust of mass (6.6–8.7) × 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} with a representative grain size of 0.01 μm and astronomical silicate dust of mass (3.4–4.3) × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} with a representative grain size of 0.3–0.5 μm. Both of these dust species travel farther away from the white dwarf without apparent mass evolution throughout those later epochs. The dust formation scenario around V1280 Sco suggested from our analyses is that the amorphous carbon dust is formed in the nova ejecta followed by the formation of silicate dust either in the expanding nova ejecta or as a result of the interaction between the nova wind and the circumstellar medium.

  12. Light Scattering and Thermal Emission by Primitive Dust Particles in Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Li, Aigen; Lebreton, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on numerical approaches to deducing the light-scattering and thermal-emission properties of primitive dust particles in planetary systems from astronomical observations. The particles are agglomerates of small grains with sizes comparable to visible wavelength and compositions being mainly magnesium-rich silicates, iron-bearing metals, and organic refractory materials in pristine phases. These unique characteristics of primitive dust particles reflect their formation and evolution around main-sequence stars of essentially solar composition. The development of light-scattering theories has been offering powerful tools to make a thorough investigation of light scattering and thermal emission by primitive dust agglomerates in such a circumstellar environment. In particular, the discrete dipole approximation, the T-matrix method, and effective medium approximations are the most popular techniques for practical use in astronomy. Numerical simulations of light scattering and thermal emission by ...

  13. Observations of X-rays and Thermal Dust Emission from the Supernova Remnant Kes 75

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, T D; Borkowski, K J; Reynolds, S P; Helfand, D J; Gaensler, B M; Hughes, J P

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the composite Galactic supernova remnant Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). We use the detected flux at 24 microns and hot gas parameters from fitting spectra from new, deep X-ray observations to constrain models of dust emission, obtaining a dust-to-gas mass ratio M_dust/M_gas ~0.001. We find that a two-component thermal model, nominally representing shocked swept-up interstellar or circumstellar material and reverse-shocked ejecta, adequately fits the X-ray spectrum, albeit with somewhat high implied densities for both components. We surmise that this model implies a Wolf-Rayet progenitor for the remnant. We also present infrared flux upper limits for the central pulsar wind nebula.

  14. EVOLUTION OF THE DUST IN V4332 SAGITTARII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dipankar P. K.; Ashok, N. M. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Nuth, Joseph A. III [NASA/GSFC, Mail Code: 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Misselt, Karl A.; Su, K. Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Varricatt, Watson P. [United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, 660 N. Aohoku Place, University Park Hilo, Hawaii-96720 (United States); Sand, David [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Marion, G. H. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An eruptive nova-like event took place in 1994 in the stellar-merger candidate V4332 Sgr. Following the eruption, dust consisting of refractory silicate-rich dust grains containing a significant component of AlO bonding was formed sometime between 1998 and 2003. Observations using Spitzer between 2005 and 2009 show significant changes in the 10 μm silicate stretch feature. There is a deepening of the 10 μm silicate stretch as well as the development of a feature between about 13 and 20 μm consistent with a blend of the MgO and FeO stretching features and the O–Si–O bending mode of increasingly ordered silicate dust. Near-infrared observations show the presence of AlO and water vapor in the outflow in 2003, 2004, and 2005: the AlO has significantly decreased in spectra obtained in 2014 while the water vapor remains largely unchanged. An attempt is made to correlate these observations and understand the significance of these changes using DUSTY modeling. The observations appear consistent with the kinetically controlled condensation of highly underoxidized SiO/AlO/Fe/Mg dust grains in the outflow followed by the continuous evolution of the initial condensate due to thermal annealing and oxidation of the dust via reaction with ambient O, OH, and H{sub 2}O in the expanding, cooling shell. Periodic monitoring of this dust shell over the mid-infrared spectral range could yield useful information on the evolution of underoxidized silicate condensates exposed to hot water vapor in more conventional circumstellar environments.

  15. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.

    1980-05-01

    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  16. Ceramics manufacturing contributes to ambient silica air pollution and burden of lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Wu, Bo-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; You, Shu-Han; Lin, Yi-Jun; Hsieh, Nan-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Inhalation of silica (SiO2) in occupational exposures can cause pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), lung function deficits, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. Current risk assessment models, however, cannot fully explain the magnitude of silica-induced pulmonary disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess human health risk exposed to airborne silica dust in Taiwan ceramics manufacturing. We conducted measurements to characterize workplace-specific airborne silica dust in tile and commodity ceramic factories and used physiologically based alveolar exposure model to estimate exposure dose. We constructed dose-response models for describing relationships between exposure dose and inflammatory responses, by which health risks among workers can be assessed. We found that silica contents were 0.22-33.04 % with mean concentration ranges of 0.11-5.48 and 0.46-1763.30 μg m(-3), respectively, in commodity and tile ceramic factories. We showed that granulation workers in tile ceramic factory had the highest total SiO2 lung burden (∼1000 mg) with cumulative SiO2 lung burden of ∼4 × 10(4) mg-year. The threshold estimates with an effect on human lung inflammation and fibrosis are 407.31 ± 277.10 (mean ± sd) and 505.91 ± 231.69 mg, respectively. For granulation workers, long-term exposure to airborne silica dust for 30-45 years was likely to pose severe adverse health risks of inflammation and fibrosis. We provide integrated assessment algorithms required to implement the analyses and maintain resulting concentration of silica dust at safety threshold level in the hope that they will stimulate further analyses and interpretation. We suggest that decision-makers take action to implement platforms for effective risk management to prevent the related long-term occupational disease in ceramics manufacturing.

  17. [Dust exposure in a pottery plant assessed by using GRIMM dust monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Helena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna; Kita, Natalia

    2002-01-01

    In one of the pottery plants in which pneumoconiosis was the only certified occupational disease (16 cases during the years 1984-1997), the concentrations of dust in inhalable, thoracic and respirable fractions were measured at most characteristic workplaces. The highest concentrations in all the three fractions was found in the slip house; the mean concentrations were as follows: inhalable dust-7231.8 mg/m3; thoracic fraction--4834.9 mg/m3; and respirable fraction 1402.2 mg/m3. High concentrations of all the dust fractions were also observed at the workplace of the intershop transport worker who removed the waste body from cast and throw shops. The largest number of pneumoconiosis (7) cases was found among the workers of the slip house (20 persons employed); this was followed by the intershop transport workers-4 cases (4 persons employed). At the other workplaces (cast shop, throw shop and firing), concentrations of inhalable dust ranged from 1175 to 3232 mg/m3; thoracic from 726 to 2001 mg/m3; and respirable from 146 to 549 mg/m3. The contents of free crystalline silica (SiO2) in the air dust ranged from 3% in firing to 50% in slip house, in the latter mostly in the form of quartz or cristobalite. The main fraction of inhalable dust was the tracheobronchial fraction, ranging from 43.1 to 48.2%, the extrathoracic fraction ranged from 32.8 to 42.3% and respirable fraction from 11.8 to 21.6%. On the basis of the graphic record, such activities as pouring of raw materials into grinding mill and reloading of the waste body were identified at the workplaces of slip making and internship transport as those associated with the highest dust emission.

  18. Herschel Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Dent, W. R. F.; Meeus, G.; Donaldson, J. K.; Olofsson, J.; Moor, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Howard, C.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Ardila, D. R.; Sandell, G.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the “Gas in Protoplanetary Systems” (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 micron image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [O i] 63 micron and [C ii] 158 micron. The C ii line was detected at the 5 sigma level—the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the Oi line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra. We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the C ii emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.

  19. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN THE UNUSUAL 49 Ceti DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kamp, I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Montesinos, B. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, PO Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA, Avda Apoquindo 3846, Piso 19, Edificio Alsacia, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Meeus, G.; Eiroa, C. [Departmento Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Donaldson, J. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Olofsson, J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Moor, A. [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Augereau, J.-C.; Thi, W.-F. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble, UMR 5274, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Howard, C.; Sandell, G. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Building N232, PO Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ardila, D. R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Woitke, P., E-mail: Aki.Roberge@nasa.gov [University of Vienna, Department of Astronomy, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the ''Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'' (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 {mu}m image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [O I] 63 {mu}m and [C II] 158 {mu}m. The C II line was detected at the 5{sigma} level-the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the O I line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra. We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the C II emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.

  20. Analysis of Inhalable Dust Produced in Manufacturing of Wooden Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxin Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide an in-depth understanding of preventing occupational diseases and improving working conditions, characteristics of inhalable dust were studied. The results showed that total dust concentration (TDC from mechanical sanding, portable planning and sanding, putty sanding, and painting sanding with inadequate exhaust ventilation were higher than occupational exposure limits (OELs. The more the furniture material was sanded and the worse the dust exhaust apparatus, the higher the TDC was. The TDC from portable planer sanding and dry sanding and putty sanding was in the range from 8.4 mg/m3 to 8.7 mg/m3 and from 5.3 mg/m3 to 8.4 mg/m3, respectively. The TDC from mechanical sanding and painting sanding was in the range from 4.4 to 6.4 mg/m3 and from 3.4 mg/m3 to 4.9 mg/m3, respectively. More than 90% suspended particulate matter in their TDC had a PM10 in all aforementioned results. The sanding procedure produced 6.7% to 8.2% free silica in the total particulate matter, in addition to wood dust, putty dust, or painting dust. Heavy metals in dust from putty sanding and painting exceeding the OELs were lead (Pb; > 0.3 mg/m3 and cadmium (Cd; > 0.01 mg/m3. There was a large amount of granular grinding material, cluster putty, planar painting dust, and a small amount fibroid wood dust in the dust from putty sanding and painting sanding.

  1. Treated and untreated rock dust: Quartz content and physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Farcas, Daniel; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Harper, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Rock dusting is used to prevent secondary explosions in coal mines, but inhalation of rock dusts can be hazardous if the crystalline silica (e.g., quartz) content in the respirable fraction is high. The objective of this study is to assess the quartz content and physical characteristics of four selected rock dusts, consisting of limestone or marble in both treated (such as treatment with stearic acid or stearates) and untreated forms. Four selected rock dusts (an untreated and treated limestone and an untreated and treated marble) were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber. Respirable size-selective sampling was conducted along with particle size-segregated sampling using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were used to determine quartz mass and particle morphology, respectively. Quartz percentage in the respirable dust fraction of untreated and treated forms of the limestone dust was significantly higher than in bulk samples, but since the bulk percentage was low the enrichment factor would not have resulted in any major change to conclusions regarding the contribution of respirable rock dust to the overall airborne quartz concentration. The quartz percentage in the marble dust (untreated and treated) was very low and the respirable fractions showed no enrichment. The spectra from SEM-EDX analysis for all materials were predominantly from calcium carbonate, clay, and gypsum particles. No free quartz particles were observed. The four rock dusts used in this study are representative of those presented for use in rock dusting, but the conclusions may not be applicable to all available materials.

  2. On the source of the dust extinction in type Ia supernovae and the discovery of anomalously strong Na I absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Hsiao, E. Y.; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, Sven E.; Thompson, I. B.; Freedman, Wendy L. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cox, Nick L. J. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D bus 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Patat, F. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl Schwarschild Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Sternberg, A. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Williams, R. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Leonard, D. C. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: mmp@lco.cl [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-10

    High-dispersion observations of the Na I D λλ5890, 5896 and K I λλ7665, 7699 interstellar lines, and the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Å in the spectra of 32 Type Ia supernovae are used as an independent means of probing dust extinction. We show that the dust extinction of the objects where the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Å is detected is consistent with the visual extinction derived from the supernova colors. This strongly suggests that the dust producing the extinction is predominantly located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxies and not in circumstellar material associated with the progenitor system. One quarter of the supernovae display anomalously large Na I column densities in comparison to the amount of dust extinction derived from their colors. Remarkably, all of the cases of unusually strong Na I D absorption correspond to 'Blueshifted' profiles in the classification scheme of Sternberg et al. This coincidence suggests that outflowing circumstellar gas is responsible for at least some of the cases of anomalously large Na I column densities. Two supernovae with unusually strong Na I D absorption showed essentially normal K I column densities for the dust extinction implied by their colors, but this does not appear to be a universal characteristic. Overall, we find the most accurate predictor of individual supernova extinction to be the equivalent width of the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Å, and provide an empirical relation for its use. Finally, we identify ways of producing significant enhancements of the Na abundance of circumstellar material in both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate scenarios for the progenitor system.

  3. ALMA Measurements of Circumstellar Material in the GQ Lup System

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Ricci, Luca; Testi, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar-mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 μm continuum and CO J = 3–2 line emission with beam size ∼0.″3 (∼45 au) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The circumprimary dust disk is compact with an FWHM of 59 ± 12 au, while the gas has a larger extent with a characteristic radius of 46.5 ± 1.8 au. By forward-modeling the velocity field of the circumprimary disk based on the CO emission, we constrain the mass of GQ Lup A to be M* = (1.03 ± 0.05) ∗ (d/156 pc) M⊙, where d is a known distance, and determine that we view the disk at an inclination angle of 60.°5 ± 0.°5 and a position angle of 346° ± 1°. The 3σ upper limit on the 870 μm flux density of any circumplanetary disk associated with GQ Lup b of <0.15 mJy implies an upper limit on the dust disk mass of <0.04 M⊕ for standard assumptions about optically thin emission. We discuss proposed mechanisms for the formation of wide-separation substellar companions given the non-detection of circumplanetary disks around GQ Lup b and other similar systems.

  4. Fractals of Silica Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhinhongLi; DongWu; Yuhansun; JunWang; YiLiu; BaozhongDong; Zhinhong

    2001-01-01

    Silica aggregates were prepared by base-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol.Polyethylene glycol(PEG) was used as organic modifier.The sols were characterized using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation as X-ray source.The structure evolution during the sol-gel process was determined and described in terms of the fractal geometry.As-produced silica aggregates were found to be mass fractals.The fractl dimensions spanned the regime 2.1-2.6 corresponding to more branched and compact structures.Both RLCA and Eden models dominated the kinetic growth under base-catalyzed condition.

  5. PROPERTIES OF NEWLY FORMED DUST GRAINS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Nozawa, T.; Folatelli, G.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Bersten, M.; Quimby, R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Minowa, Y.; Pyo, T.-S. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Motohara, K.; Kitagawa, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ueno, I.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kozasa, T. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Iye, M., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the universe. However, our knowledge of their importance to dust production is limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova 2010jl around one and a half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ∼1350-1450 K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ∼(7.5-8.5) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate of the typical size of the newly formed dust grains (∼< 0.1 μm, and most likely ∼< 0.01 μm). We believe the dust grains were formed in a dense cooling shell as a result of a strong SN-circumstellar media (CSM) interaction. The dust grains occupy ∼10% of the emitting volume, suggesting an inhomogeneous, clumpy structure. The average CSM density must be ∼> 3 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, corresponding to a mass loss rate of ∼> 0.02 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a mass loss wind velocity of ∼100 km s{sup –1}). This strongly supports a scenario in which SN 2010jl and probably other luminous SNe IIn are powered by strong interactions within very dense CSM, perhaps created by Luminous-Blue-Variable-like eruptions within the last century before the explosion.

  6. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars - III. Dust production at supersolar metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ambra; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2014-03-01

    We extend the formalism presented in our recent calculations of dust ejecta from the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase to the case of super-solar metallicity stars. The TP-AGB evolutionary models are computed with the COLIBRI code. We adopt our preferred scheme for dust growth. For M-giants, we neglect chemisputtering by H2 molecules and for C-stars we assume a homogeneous growth scheme which is primarily controlled by the carbon over oxygen excess. At super-solar metallicities, dust forms more efficiently and silicates tend to condense significantly closer to the photosphere (r ˜ 1.5R*) - and thus at higher temperatures and densities - than at solar and sub-solar metallicities (r ˜ 2-3R*). In such conditions, the hypothesis of thermal decoupling between gas and dust becomes questionable, while dust heating due to collisions plays an important role. The heating mechanism delays dust condensation to slightly outer regions in the circumstellar envelope. We find that the same mechanism is not significant at solar and sub-solar metallicities. The main dust products at super-solar metallicities are silicates. We calculate the total dust ejecta and dust-to-gas ejecta, for various values of the stellar initial masses and initial metallicities Z = 0.04, 0.06. Merging these new calculations with those for lower metallicities it turns out that, contrary to what is often assumed, the total dust-to-gas ejecta of intermediate-mass stars exhibit only a weak dependence on the initial metal content.

  7. Dust concentrations and respiratory risks in coalminers: key risk estimates from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research

    OpenAIRE

    Soutar, C; Hurley, j; Miller, B.; Cowie, H; Buchanan, D.

    2004-01-01

    To help inform the setting of dust control standards in coalmines, this brief review summarises the most recent and reliable exposure-response relations, for damaging respiratory effects, derived from the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR). Collecting data over 38 years in the British coal industry, this was a programme of prospective research on the respiratory health of coal miners, characterised by regular health surveys and detailed measurements of dust and silica concentrations in the w...

  8. The detection of heavy metals in the circumstellar envelopes of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkova, V G

    2015-01-01

    A new type of peculiarity -- a splitting or asymmetry of strong absorption lines, is found in the optical spectra of selected post-AGB stars with C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The effect is maximal in BaII lines whose profile is split into two-three components. The particular components of the split absorption lines are shown to be formed in a structured circumstellar envelope, suggesting an efficient dredge-up of the heavy metals produced during the preceding evolution of this star into the envelope. We suspect that the splitting (or asymmetry) of the profiles of strongest absorptions with low excitation potential of the low level can be associated with the kinematic and chemical properties of the circumstellar environment and with type of its morphology.

  9. Tidal Truncation of Inclined Circumstellar and Circumbinary Discs in Young Stellar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that circumstellar and circumbinary discs in young stellar binaries are often misaligned with respect to the binary orbital plane. We analyze the tidal truncation of such misaligned discs due to torques applied to the disc at the Lindblad resonances from the tidal forcings of the binary. We consider eccentric binaries with arbitrary binary-disc inclination angles. We determine the dependence of the tidal forcing strengths on the binary parameters and show that they are complicated non-monotonic functions of eccentricity and inclination. We adopt a truncation criterion determined by the balance between resonant torque and viscous torque, and use it to calculate the outer radii of circumstellar discs and the inner radii of circumbinary discs. Misaligned circumstellar discs have systematically larger outer radii than aligned discs, and are likely to fill their Roche lobes if inclined by more than $45^\\circ - 90^\\circ$, depending on the binary mass ratio and disc viscosity parameter...

  10. ALMA Measurements of Circumstellar Material in the GQ Lup System

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M; Dai, Y Sophia; Herczeg, Gregory J; Kratter, Kaitlin M; Kraus, Adam L; Ricci, Luca; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 $\\mu$m continuum and CO J=3-2 line emission with beam size $\\sim0.3''$ ($\\sim45$ AU) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The circumprimary dust disk is compact with a FWHM of $59\\pm12$ AU, while the gas has a larger extent with a characteristic radius of $46.5\\pm1.8$ AU. By forward-modeling the velocity field of the circumprimary disk based on the CO emission, we constrain the mass of GQ Lup A to be $M_* = (1.03\\pm0.05)*(d/156\\text{ pc})$ $M_\\odot$, where $d$ is a known distance, and determine that we view the disk at an inclination angle of $60.5^\\circ\\pm0.5^\\circ$ and a position angle of $346^\\circ \\pm1^\\circ$. The $3\\sigma$ upper limit on the 870 $\\mu$m flux density of any circumplanetary disk associated with GQ Lup b of $<...

  11. Chemical composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S.; Fuente, A.; Agúndez, M.; Pinte, C.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Neri, R.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Berné, O.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Bachiller, R.; Lefloch, B.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is paramount for understanding the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (a chemical survey of Sun-like star-forming regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1→0 and C17O 1→0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results: Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN, and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54→33 and 56→45 lines, confirming the previously tentative detection. Compared to other T Tauri and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3→2/HCO+ 3→2 and CN 2→1/HCN 3→2 line intensity ratios, similar to other transition disks. AB Aur is the only protoplanetary disk detected in SO thus far, and its detection is consistent with interpretation of this disk being younger than those associated with T Tauri stars. Conclusions: We modeled the line profiles using a chemical model and a radiative transfer 3D code. Our model assumes a flared disk in hydrostatic equilibrium. The best agreement with observations was obtained for a disk with a mass of 0.01 M⊙, Rin = 110 AU, Rout = 550 AU, a surface density radial index of 1.5, and an inclination of 27°. The intensities and line profiles were reproduced within a factor of ˜2 for most lines. This agreement is reasonable considering the simplicity of our model that neglects any structure within the disk. However, the HCN 3→2 and CN 2→1 line intensities were predicted to be more intense by a factor of >10. We discuss several scenarios to explain this

  12. Illuminating the Role of Spiral Waves in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee W.

    2017-01-01

    The transport of angular momentum and mass, and the generation of turbulence, play a crucial role in the evolution of a variety of astrophysical disks. Spiral waves, driven for instance by companion bodies or instabilities, have long been recognized as an important means for the aforementioned two processes. In this dissertation talk, I will discuss an instability of spiral waves that I have recently come across. I will begin by presenting the results from a three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulation which described the growth and saturation of the instability. The spiral wave instability (SWI) arises as inertial modes, natural oscillations in rotating systems, amplify when they resonantly couple to and extract energy from the background spiral waves. This leads to break down of the spiral waves into turbulence when the velocity perturbations caused by unstable inertial modes reach a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral waves. As an implication of the instability, I will present numerical results and discuss the consequence of the SWI when it acts on the spiral waves driven by a Jupiter-mass planet in a protoplanetary disk. I find that the planet-driven spiral arms are destabilized via the SWI, generating hydrodynamic turbulence and sustained vertical flows that are associated with long wavelength inertial modes. The associated vertical diffusion rate measured from the simulations is such that solid particles with sizes up to a few centimeters are vertically mixed within the first scale height in a protosolar nebula-like disk. Since circumstellar disks are believed to remain laminar, and thus to induce no or very little particle stirring as suggested by recent magnetocentrifugal wind models, the results imply that the SWI can be the mechanism controlling the degree of vertical settling of solid particles in planet-hosting disks. In particular, if accretion of mm- to cm-sized pebbles dominates the growth of terrestrial bodies, the stirring of solid

  13. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  14. Thin supported silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Tijana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses several transport-related aspects relevant for the application of thin supported silica membranes for gas separation and nanofiltration. The influence of support geometry on overall membrane performance is investigated. Planar (i.e., flat plate), tubular, and multichannel suppo

  15. Hot Exozodiacal Dust Disks, their Detection and Variability, as Measured with Long-Baseline Optical Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas Jon

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared long-baseline optical interferometry has provided the first unambiguous resolved detections of hot dust around main sequence stars (Absil et al. 2006). This showed that an unexpectedly dense population of (sub)micrometer dust grains close exists to their sublimation temperature of approximately 1400K. A later survey (Absil et al. 2013) revealed that these "hot exozodiacal disks" are relatively common around spectral type A-K stars. Current models of circumstellar debris disks suggest that in the inner region, within 1 AU, of the disk the timescale for complete removal of submicron dust is on the order of a few years (Wyatt 2008). The presence of dust close to the star is surprising because most cold debris belts detected are collisionally dominated. Mutual collisions grind the dust down to the size where radiation pressure pushes the dust out before Poynting-Robertson drag has a chance to pull the dust inward. Competing models exist to explain the persistence of this dust; some of which suggest that dust production is a punctuated and chaotic process fueled by asteroid collisions and comet infall that would show variability on timescales of a few years.High precision long-baseline interferometry observations in the K-band with the FLUOR (Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination) beam combiner at the CHARA (Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy) Array provided the data for these exozodiacal dust detections. This original instrument has undergone upgrades as part of JouFLU (Jouvence of FLUOR) project. The new instrument has been used to expand the original survey and to re-observe stars from the previous exozodiacal disk survey to search for predicted variations in the detected disks. We have found evidence that for some systems the amount of circumstellar flux from these previously detected exozodiacal disks, or exozodis, has varied greatly. The flux from some exozodis has increased, others decreased, and for a few the amount has remained

  16. Dust concentrations and respiratory risks in coalminers: key risk estimates from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soutar, C.A.; Hurley, J.F.; Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.A.; Buchanan, D. [Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    To help inform the setting of dust control standards in coal mines, this brief review summarises the most recent and reliable exposure-response relations, for damaging respiratory effects, derived from the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR). Collecting data over 38 years in the British coal industry, this was a programme of prospective research on the respiratory health of coal miners, characterised by regular health surveys and detailed measurements of dust and silica concentrations in the workplace. Exposure-response relations are presented for coal workers' simple pneumoconiosis category II, progressive massive fibrosis, defined deficits of lung function (FEV1), and category II silicosis. This simplified overview provides a guide to the most recent and most reliable estimates from the PFR of dust-related risks of substantial pulmonary disease, and to the magnitude of the effects. Control of dust sufficient to prevent category II simple pneumoconiosis should prevent most cases of progressive massive fibrosis and most dust related large lung function deficits. Where the dust contains high proportions of silica, control to low levels is essential, and even quite brief excursions of silica to high levels must be avoided.

  17. Radio Supernovae: Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    ar X iv :0 90 2. 40 59 v1 [ as tr o- ph .H E ] 2 4 Fe b 20 09 Radio Supernovae : Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor...FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radio Supernovae : Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I...of Supernova Progenitor Stars 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  18. Calibration of impact ionization cosmic dust detectors: first tests to investigate how the dust density influences the signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin Sterken, Veerle; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Hillier, Jon; Fielding, Lee; Lovett, Joseph; Armes, Steven; Fechler, Nina; Srama, Ralf; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hornung, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Impact ionization experiments have been performed since more than 40 years for calibrating cosmic dust detectors. A linear Van de Graaff dust accelerator was used to accelerate the cosmic dust analogues of submicron to micron-size to speeds up to 80 km s^-1. Different materials have been used for calibration: iron, carbon, metal-coated minerals and most recently, minerals coated with conductive polymers. While different materials with different densities have been used for instrument calibration, a comparative analysis of dust impacts of equal material but different density is necessary: porous or aggregate-like particles are increasingly found to be present in the solar system: e.g. dust from comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko [Fulle et al 2015], aggregate particles from the plumes of Enceladus [Gao et al 2016], and low-density interstellar dust [Westphal 2014 et al, Sterken et al 2015]. These recalibrations are relevant for measuring the size distributions of interplanetary and interstellar dust and thus mass budgets like the gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud.We report about the calibrations that have been performed at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility for investigating the influence of particle density on the impact ionization charge. We used the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer for the target, and compared hollow versus compact silica particles in our study as a first attempt to investigate experimentally the influence of dust density on the signals obtained. Also, preliminary tests with carbon aerogel were performed, and (unsuccessful) attempts to accelerate silica aerogel. In this talk we explain the motivation of the study, the experiment set-up, the preparation of — and the materials used, the results and plans and recommendations for future tests.Fulle, M. et al 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 802, Issue 1, article id. L12, 5 pp. (2015)Gao, P. et al 2016, Icarus, Volume 264, p. 227-238Westphal, A. et al 2014, Science

  19. Evolution of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars III. Dust production at supersolar metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2013-01-01

    We extend the formalism presented in our recent calculations of dust ejecta from the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase, to the case of super-solar metallicity stars. The TP-AGB evolutionary models are computed with the COLIBRI code. We adopt our preferred scheme for dust growth. For M-giants, we neglect chemisputtering by H$_2$ molecules and, for C-stars we assume a homogeneous growth scheme which is primarily controlled by the carbon over oxygen excess. At super-solar metallicities, dust forms more efficiently and silicates tend to condense significantly closer to the photosphere (r~1.5 R$_*$) - and thus at higher temperatures and densities - than at solar and sub-solar metallicities (r~2-3 R$_*$). In such conditions, the hypothesis of thermal decoupling between gas and dust becomes questionable, while dust heating due to collisions plays an important role. The heating mechanism delays dust condensation to slightly outer regions in the circumstellar envelope. We find that the same mech...

  20. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  1. Carrying a Torch for Dust in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cotton, Daniel V; Bott, Kimberly; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Young stars are frequently observed to host circumstellar disks, within which their attendant planetary systems are formed. Scattered light imaging of these proto-planetary disks reveals a rich variety of structures including spirals, gaps and clumps. Self-consistent modelling of both imaging and multi-wavelength photometry enables the best interpretation of the location and size distribution of disks' dust. Epsilon Sagittarii is an unusual star system. It is a binary system with a B9.5III primary that is also believed to host a debris disk in an unstable configuration. Recent polarimetric measurements of the system with the High Precision Polarimetric Instrument (HIPPI) revealed an unexpectedly high fractional linear polarisation, one greater than the fractional infrared excess of the system. Here we develop a spectral energy distribution model for the system and use this as a basis for radiative transfer modelling of its polarisation with the RADMC-3D software package. The measured polarisation can be repro...

  2. Aeolian Dust and Forest Fire Smoke in Urban Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2006-12-01

    Particles of aeolian dust and forest fire smoke are now regularly detected in urban air. Although dusts are common on the Asian Pacific Rim and forest fire smoke characteristic of South East Asia they also frequently detected elsewhere. In the past dust was treated as though it was fairly inert and reactions on the surface limited to the neutralizing ability of alkaline minerals. More recent work shows that that dust has a complex organic chemistry. Observations in China found fatty acids from urban areas (oleic acid and linoleic acid from cooking) on dust derived aerosols. The fatty acids and PAHs decreased sharply after dust storms, suggesting a role for dust in removal processes. When silica particles absorb unsaturated compounds they can react with ozone and release compounds such as formaldehyde. Particles from forest fires have a similarly complex chemistry and the acid-alkaline balance may vary depend on the balance of removal rates of alkaline materials (ammonia, potassium carbonate) and inorganic and organic acids. Airborne dust and forest fire soot can contain humic like substances (HULIS) either as primary material or as secondary oxidation products of the surface of soot. This paper will report on the role polluted air masses in the generation humic materials, particularly those that are surface active. These materials of high molecular weight oxygen rich organic compounds, which exhibit a range of properties of importance in aerosols: they can form complexes with metal ions and thus enhance their solubility, photosensitize the oxidation of organic compounds and lower the surface tension of aqueous aerosols. HULIS can be oxidized to form a range of simpler acids such as formic, acetic and oxalic acid. Dust and forest fire smoke particles have a different composition and size range to that of typical urban combustion particles, so it is likely that the health impacts will be different, yet current regulation often does not recognize any significant

  3. Photon Bubbles in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Young Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Yorke, H W

    2007-01-01

    We show that the optically-thick dusty envelopes surrounding young high-mass stars are subject to the photon bubble instability. The infrared radiation passing through the envelope amplifies magnetosonic disturbances, with growth rates in our local numerical radiation MHD calculations that are consistent with a linear analysis. Modes with wavelengths comparable to the gas pressure scale height grow by more than two orders of magnitude in a thousand years, reaching non-linear amplitudes within the envelope lifetime. If the magnetic pressure in the envelope exceeds the gas pressure, the instability develops into trains of propagating shocks. Radiation escapes readily through the low-density material between the shocks, enabling accretion to continue despite the Eddington limit imposed by the dust opacity. The supersonic motions arising from the photon bubble instability can help explain the large velocity dispersions of hot molecular cores, while conditions in the shocked gas are suitable for maser emission. We...

  4. First results of the Herschel Key Program 'Dust, Ice and Gas in Time': Dust and Gas Spectroscopy of HD 100546

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, B; Henning, Th; Evans, N J; Acke, B; Mulders, G D; Waters, L B F M; van Dishoeck, E F; Meeus, G; Green, J D; Augereau, J C; Olofsson, J; Salyk, C; Najita, J; Herczeg, G J; van Kempen, T A; Kristensen, L E; Dominik, C; Carr, J S; Waelkens, C; Bergin, E; Blake, G A; Brown, J M; Chen, J -H; Cieza, L; Dunham, M M; Glassgold, A; Güdel, M; Harvey, P M; Hogerheijde, M R; Jaffe, D; Jørgensen, J K; Kim, H J; Knez, C; Lacy, J H; Lee, J -E; Maret, S; Meijerink, R; Merín, B; Mundy, L; Pontoppidan, K M; Visser, R; Yíldíz, U A

    2010-01-01

    We present far-infrared spectroscopic observations, taken with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory, of the protoplanetary disk around the pre-main-sequence star HD 100546. These observations are the first within the DIGIT Herschel key program, which aims to follow the evolution of dust, ice, and gas from young stellar objects still embedded in their parental molecular cloud core, through the final pre-main-sequence phases when the circumstellar disks are dissipated. Our aim is to improve the constraints on temperature and chemical composition of the crystalline olivines in the disk of HD 100546 and to give an inventory of the gas lines present in its far-infrared spectrum. The 69 \\mu\\m feature is analyzed in terms of position and shape to derive the dust temperature and composition. Furthermore, we detected 32 emission lines from five gaseous species and measured their line fluxes. The 69 \\mu\\m emission comes either from dust grains with ~70 K at radii larg...

  5. The Cold Dust Content of the Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.

    2016-11-01

    We present far-infrared images of the Galactic oxygen-rich supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8, acquired with the PACS and SPIRE instruments of the Herschel Space Observatory. We find that the SNR shell is detected in the PACS blue (100 μm) band, but not in the red (160 μm) band, broadly consistent with results from AKARI observations. There is no discernible emission from G292.0+1.8 in SPIRE imagery at 250, 350 and 500 μm. Comparing the 100 μm emission to that observed with Spitzer at 24 and 70 μm, we find a very similar appearance for G292.0+1.8 at all three wavelengths. The infrared emission is dominated by dust from non-radiative circumstellar shocks. In addition, the radiatively shocked O-rich clump known as the “Spur” on the eastern side of G292.0+1.8 is clearly detected in the PACS blue images, with marginal detection in the red. Fitting the existing 14-40 μm IRS spectra of the Spur together with photometric measurements from 70 μm MIPS and 100 μm PACS photometry, we place an upper limit of ≲ 0.04 M ⊙ of ejecta dust mass in the Spur, under the most conservative assumption that the ejecta dust has a temperature of 15 K. Modeling the dust continuum in the IRS spectra at four positions around the rim, we estimate post-shock densities ranging from {n}p=3.5 cm-3 to 11 cm-3. The integrated spectrum of the entire SNR, dominated by swept-up circumstellar dust, can be fitted with a two-component dust model with a silicate component at 62 K and graphite component at 40 K for a total dust mass of 0.023 M ⊙.

  6. Galactic dust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence for variations in the dust emissivity law with temperature and wavelength. A recent dust emission model, called TLS model (for two-level systems), based on the description of the disordered internal structure of the amorphous dust grains has been developped to interpret observations in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/submm) domain. A recent work focusing on the comparison between data of the diffuse interstellar medium seen by FIRAS-WMAP, as well as Archeops compact sources, with the TLS model allowed us to constrain the model parameters characterizing the general Galactic dust properties. Using the newly available Herschel/Hi-GAL data of the inner Galactic plane, we report a 500 μm emissivity excess in the peripheral parts of the Galactic plane, that can reach up to 20% of the emissivity. Results of the TLS modeling indicate significant changes in the dust properties from the central to peripheral parts of the Galactic plane.

  7. Biological effects induced by BSA-stabilized silica nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Wang, Jing; Beer, Christiane; Thorsen, Kasper; Sutherland, Duncan S; Autrup, Herman

    2013-06-25

    Much of the concerns regarding engineered nanoparticle (NP) toxicity are based on knowledge from previous studies on particles in ambient air or occupational situations. E.g., the effects of exposure to silica dust particles have been studied intensely due to the carcinogenicity of crystalline silica. However, the increasing usage of engineered amorphous silica NPs has emphasized the need for further mechanistic insight to predict the consequences of exposure to the amorphous type of silica NPs. The present study focused on the in vitro biological effects following exposure to well-dispersed, BSA-stabilized, amorphous silica NPs whereas unmodified silica NPs where included for reasons of comparison. The cytotoxicity of the silica NPs was investigated in six different cell lines (A549, THP-1, CaCo-2, ASB-XIV, J-774A.1, and Colon-26) selected to explore the significance of organ and species sensitivity in vitro. Viability data demonstrated that macrophages were most sensitive to silica NP and interestingly, murine cell lines were generally found to be more sensitive than comparable human cell lines. Further studies were conducted in the human epithelial lung cell line, A549, to explore the molecular mechanism of silica toxicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species, one of the proposed toxicological mechanisms of NPs, was investigated in A549 cells by the dichlorofluorescin (DCF) assay to be significantly induced at NP concentrations above 113 μg/mL. However, induction of oxidative stress related pathways was not found after silica NP exposure for 24 h in gene array studies conducted in A549 cells at a relatively low NP concentration (EC20). Up-regulated genes (more than 2-fold) were primarily related to lipid metabolism and biosynthesis whereas down-regulated genes included several processes such as transcription, cell junction, extra cellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and others. Thus, gene expression data proposes that several cellular processes other

  8. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  9. Attenuation of super-soft X-ray sources by circumstellar material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel; Gilfanov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    of the circumbinary material photo-ionised by the radiation of the central source. Our results show that the circumstellar mass-loss rates required for obcuration of super-soft X-ray sources is about an order of magnitude larger than those reported in earlier studies, for comparable model parameters. While this does...

  10. Daughter Fragmentation is Unlikely To Occur in Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar discs are thought to be self-gravitating at very early times. If the disc is relatively cool, extended and accreting sufficiently rapidly, it can fragment into bound objects of order a few Jupiter masses and upwards. Given that the fragment's initial angular momentum is non-zero, and it will continue to accrete angular momentum from the surrounding circumstellar disc, we should expect that the fragment will also possess a relatively massive disc at early times. Therefore, we can ask: is disc fragmentation a hierarchical process? Or, can a disc fragment go on to produce its own self-gravitating circumfragmentary disc that produces daughter fragments? We investigate this using a set of nested 1D self-gravitating disc models. We calculate the radial structure of a marginally stable, self-gravitating circumstellar disc, and compute its propensity to fragmentation. We use this data to construct the local fragment properties at this radius. For each circumstellar disc model that results in fragmentati...

  11. Aniline incorporated silica nanobubbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Rosemary; V Suryanarayanan; Ian Maclaren; T Pradeep

    2006-09-01

    We report the synthesis of stearate functionalized nanobubbles of SiO2 with a few aniline molecules inside, represented as C6H5NH2@SiO2@stearate, exhibiting fluorescence with red-shifted emission. Stearic acid functionalization allows the materials to be handled just as free molecules, for dissolution, precipitation, storage etc. The methodology adopted involves adsorption of aniline on the surface of gold nanoparticles with subsequent growth of a silica shell through monolayers, followed by the selective removal of the metal core either using sodium cyanide or by a new reaction involving halocarbons. The material is stable and can be stored for extended periods without loss of fluorescence. Spectroscopic and voltammetric properties of the system were studied in order to understand the interaction of aniline with the shell as well as the monolayer, whilst transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the silica shell.

  12. Probing Gas and Dust around B[e] Stars at the Highest Angular Resolution: A Decade of Interferometric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilland, A.

    2017-02-01

    Long-baseline interferometry is the one and only technique offering the sub-milliarcsecond resolution needed to spatially resolve the close environment of stars. Since the construction of modern facilities such as the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in Chile, and the Center for High Resolution Array (CHARA) in California, it became a key technique to probe massive stars and their often complex circumstellar environments. The more recent generation of instruments even combines the power of interferometry and spectroscopy allowing to put more constraints on chemical, physical, and dynamical properties of circumstellar gas and dust. Here I briefly present the technique and the current generation of instruments, I review the main results obtained in the last decade on B[e] stars, and, I present the upcoming second generation of instruments at VLTI and the current plan to upgrade CHARA.

  13. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...... to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong...... a viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. In Search of Circumstellar Disks Around Young Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, L; Ho, P; Beuther, H; Zhang, Q; Zapata, Luis; Rodriguez, Luis; Ho, Paul; Beuther, Henrik; Zhang, Qizhou

    2005-01-01

    We present 7 mm, 1.3 cm and 3.6 cm continuum observations made with the Very Large Array toward a sample of ten luminous IRAS sources that are believed to be regions of massive star formation. We detect compact 7 mm emission in four of these objects: IRAS 18089-1732(1), IRAS 18182-1433, IRAS 18264-1152 and IRAS 18308-0841 and for the first time find that these IRAS sources are associated with double or triple radio sources separated by a few arcseconds. We discuss the characteristics of these sources based mostly on their spectral indices and find that their nature is diverse. Some features indicate that the 7 mm emission is dominated by dust from disks or envelopes. Toward other components the 7 mm emission appears to be dominated by free-free radiation, both from ionized outflows or from optically thick H II regions. Furthermore, there is evidence of synchrotron contamination in some of these sources. Finally, we found that the sources associated with ionized outflows, or thermal jets are correlated with CH...

  15. Time resolved collection and characterization of dust particles moving in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, I.; Bergsåker, H.; Ratynskaia, S.; Litnovsky, A.; Petersson, P.; Possnert, G.

    2013-07-01

    Moving dust has been collected in the SOL of TEXTOR in a time-resolved way with silica aerogel collectors [1-3]. The collectors were exposed to the toroidal particle flux in NBI heated discharges during the start-up and flat top phase. Intrinsic dust was collected in several discharges. Other discharges were accompanied with injection of known amounts of pre-characterized dust (W, C flakes and C microspheres) from a position toroidally 120° away from the collector. Particle flux, composition and dust size distribution have been determined with SEM and EDX. Calibration allowed particle velocity estimates to be made. Upper limits for the deuterium content of individual dust grains have been determined by NRA.

  16. Time resolved collection and characterization of dust particles moving in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, I., E-mail: bykov@kth.se [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-VR, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10405 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergsåker, H. [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-VR, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10405 Stockholm (Sweden); Ratynskaia, S. [Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Association EURATOM-VR, Div Space and Plasma Phys, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Litnovsky, A. [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Association EURATOM-FZ Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Petersson, P. [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-VR, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10405 Stockholm (Sweden); Possnert, G. [Uppsala Universitet, Tandem Laboratory, Association EURATOM-VR, S-75105 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    Moving dust has been collected in the SOL of TEXTOR in a time-resolved way with silica aerogel collectors [1–3]. The collectors were exposed to the toroidal particle flux in NBI heated discharges during the start-up and flat top phase. Intrinsic dust was collected in several discharges. Other discharges were accompanied with injection of known amounts of pre-characterized dust (W, C flakes and C microspheres) from a position toroidally 120° away from the collector. Particle flux, composition and dust size distribution have been determined with SEM and EDX. Calibration allowed particle velocity estimates to be made. Upper limits for the deuterium content of individual dust grains have been determined by NRA.

  17. The formation and evolution of planetary systems: Grain growth and chemical processing of dust in T Tauri systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwman, J; Hillenbrand, L A; Meyer, M R; Pascucci, I; Carpenter, J; Hines, D; Kim, J S; Silverstone, M D; Hollenbach, D; Wolf, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper is one in a series presenting results obtained within the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Legacy Science Program on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Here we present a study of dust processing and growth in seven protoplanetary disks. Our spectra indicate that the circumstellar silicate dust grains have grown to sizes at least 10 times larger than observed in the interstellar medium, and show evidence for a non-negligible (~5 % in mass fractions) contribution from crystalline species. These results are similar to those of other studies of protoplanetary disks. In addition, we find a correlation between the strength of the amorphous silicate feature and the shape of the spectral energy distribution. This latter result is consistent with the growth and subsequent gravitational settling of dust grains towards the disk mid-plane. Further, we find a change in the relative abundance of the different crystalline species: more enstatite relative to forsterite is observed in the inner warm du...

  18. A Significant Amount of Crystalline Silica in Returned Cometary Samples: Bridging the Gap between Astrophysical and Meteoritical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Leroux, Hugues

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline silica (SiO2) is recurrently identified at the percent level in the infrared spectra of protoplanetary disks. By contrast, reports of crystalline silica in primitive meteorites are very unusual. This dichotomy illustrates the typical gap existing between astrophysical observations and meteoritical records of the first solids formed around young stars. The cometary samples returned by the Stardust mission in 2006 offer an opportunity to have a closer look at a silicate dust that experienced a very limited reprocessing since the accretion of the dust. Here, we provide the first extended study of silica materials in a large range of Stardust samples. We show that cristobalite is the dominant form. It was detected in 5 out of 25 samples. Crystalline silica is thus a common minor phase in Stardust samples. Furthermore, olivine is generally associated with this cristobalite, which put constraints on possible formation mechanisms. A low-temperature subsolidus solid-solid transformation of an amorphous precursor is most likely. This crystallization route favors the formation of olivine (at the expense of pyroxenes), and crystalline silica is the natural byproduct of this transformation. Conversely, direct condensation and partial melting are not expected to produce the observed mineral assemblages. Silica is preserved in cometary materials because they were less affected by thermal and aqueous alterations than their chondritic counterparts. The common occurrence of crystalline silica therefore makes the cometary material an important bridge between the IR-based mineralogy of distant protoplanetary disks and the mineralogy of the early solar system.

  19. A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF CRYSTALLINE SILICA IN RETURNED COMETARY SAMPLES: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ASTROPHYSICAL AND METEORITICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Leroux, Hugues [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, Université Lille 1, CNRS, UMR 8207, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline silica (SiO{sub 2}) is recurrently identified at the percent level in the infrared spectra of protoplanetary disks. By contrast, reports of crystalline silica in primitive meteorites are very unusual. This dichotomy illustrates the typical gap existing between astrophysical observations and meteoritical records of the first solids formed around young stars. The cometary samples returned by the Stardust mission in 2006 offer an opportunity to have a closer look at a silicate dust that experienced a very limited reprocessing since the accretion of the dust. Here, we provide the first extended study of silica materials in a large range of Stardust samples. We show that cristobalite is the dominant form. It was detected in 5 out of 25 samples. Crystalline silica is thus a common minor phase in Stardust samples. Furthermore, olivine is generally associated with this cristobalite, which put constraints on possible formation mechanisms. A low-temperature subsolidus solid–solid transformation of an amorphous precursor is most likely. This crystallization route favors the formation of olivine (at the expense of pyroxenes), and crystalline silica is the natural byproduct of this transformation. Conversely, direct condensation and partial melting are not expected to produce the observed mineral assemblages. Silica is preserved in cometary materials because they were less affected by thermal and aqueous alterations than their chondritic counterparts. The common occurrence of crystalline silica therefore makes the cometary material an important bridge between the IR-based mineralogy of distant protoplanetary disks and the mineralogy of the early solar system.

  20. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  1. Diesel and silica monitoring at two sites following hurricane sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Luo, Honghong; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Lucchini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy, which hit New York City and New Jersey in October 2012, industrial hygienists from the Mount Sinai and Belleview/New York University occupational medicine clinics conducted monitoring for diesel exhaust and silica in lower Manhattan and Rockaway Peninsula. Average daytime elemental carbon levels at three stations in lower Manhattan on December 4, 2012, ranged from 9 to18 μg/m(3). Sub-micron particle counts at various times on the same day were over 200,000 particles per cubic centimeter on many streets in lower Manhattan. In Rockaway Peninsula on December 12, 2012, all average daytime elemental carbon levels were below a detection limit of approximately 7 μg/m(3). The average daytime crystalline silica dust concentration was below detection at two sites on Rockaway Peninsula, and was 0.015 mg/m(3) quartz where sand was being replaced on the beach. The daily average levels of elemental carbon and airborne particulates that we measured are in the range of levels that have been found to cause respiratory effects in sensitive subpopulations like asthmatic patients after 2 hr of exposure. Control of exposure to diesel exhaust must be considered following natural disasters where diesel-powered equipment is used in cleanup and recovery. Although peak silica exposures were not likely captured in this study, but were reported by a government agency to have exceeded recommended guidelines for at least one cleanup worker, we recommend further study of silica exposures when debris removal operations or traffic create visible levels of suspended dust from soil or sand.

  2. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  3. Dust Production and Mass Loss in the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 362

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gordon, Karl D; Babler, Brian; Block, Miwa; Bracker, Steve; Engelbracht, Charles; Hora, Joe; Indebetouw, Remy; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Oliveira, Joana M; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Whitney, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dust production and stellar mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. Due to its close proximity to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), NGC 362 was imaged with the IRAC and MIPS cameras onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy program. We detect several cluster members near the tip of the Red Giant Branch that exhibit infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar dust and find that dust is not present in measurable quantities in stars below the tip of the Red Giant Branch. We modeled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the stars with the strongest IR excess and find a total cluster dust mass-loss rate of 3.0(+2.0/-1.2) x 10^-9 solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 8.6(+5.6/-3.4) x 10^-6 solar masses per year, assuming [Fe/H] = -1.16. This mass loss is in addition to any dust-less mass loss that is certainly occurring within the cluster. The two most extreme stars, variables V2 an...

  4. A dense disk of dust around the born-again Sakurai's object

    CERN Document Server

    Chesneau, Olivier; Lykou, F; De Marco, O; Hummel, Ch; Kerber, F; Lagadec, E; Nordhaus, J; Zijlstra, A A; Evans, A

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr) suddenly brightened in the centre of a faint Planetary Nebula (PN). This very rare event was interpreted as the reignition of a hot white dwarf that caused a rapid evolution back to the cool giant phase. From 1998 on, a copious amount of dust has formed continuously, screening out the star which has remained embedded in this expanding high optical depth envelope. The new observations, reported here, are used to study the morphology of the circumstellar dust in order to investigate the hypothesis that Sakurai's Object is surrounded by a thick spherical envelope of dust. We have obtained unprecedented, high-angular resolution spectro-interferometric observations, taken with the mid-IR interferometer MIDI/VLTI, which resolve the dust envelope of Sakurai's object. We report the discovery of a unexpectedly compact (30 x 40 milliarcsec, 105 x 140 AU assuming a distance of 3.5 kpc), highly inclined, dust disk. We used Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations of a stratified di...

  5. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars - II. Dust production at varying metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ambra; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2013-09-01

    We present the dust ejecta of the new stellar models for the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase computed with the COLIBRI code. We use a formalism of dust growth coupled with a stationary wind for both M- and C-stars. In the original version of this formalism, the most efficient destruction process of silicate dust in M-giants is chemisputtering by H2 molecules. For these stars, we find that dust grains can only form at relatively large radial distances (r ˜ 5R*), where they cannot be efficiently accelerated, in agreement with other investigations. In the light of recent laboratory results, we also consider the alternative case that the condensation temperature of silicates is determined only by the competition between growth and free evaporation processes (i.e. no chemisputtering). With this latter approach we obtain dust condensation temperatures that are significantly higher (up to Tcond ˜ 1400 K) than those found when chemisputtering is included (Tcond ˜ 900 K), and in better agreement with condensation experiments. As a consequence, silicate grains can remain stable in inner regions of the circumstellar envelopes (r ˜ 2 R*), where they can rapidly grow and can be efficiently accelerated. With this modification, our models nicely reproduce the observed trend between terminal velocities and mass-loss rates of Galactic M-giants. For C-stars the formalism is based on the homogeneous growth scheme where the key role is played by the carbon over oxygen excess. The models reproduce fairly well the terminal velocities of Galactic stars and there is no need to invoke changes in the standard assumptions. At decreasing metallicity the carbon excess becomes more pronounced and the efficiency of dust formation increases. This trend could be in tension with recent observational evidence in favour of a decreasing efficiency, at decreasing metallicity. If confirmed by more observational data, it would indicate that either the amount of the carbon

  6. Tregs promote the differentiation of Th17 cells in silica-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyu Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of silica dust and characterized by lung inflammation and fibrosis. Previous study showed that Tregs regulate the process of silicosis by modulating the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the lung. Th17 cells share reciprocal developmental pathway with Tregs and play a pivotal role in the immunopathogenesis of many lung diseases by recruiting and activating neutrophils, but the regulatory function of Tregs on Th17 response in silica induced lung fibrosis remains to be explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the role of Th17 and IL-17 in the development of silicosis and their interaction with Tregs, Treg-depleted mice model was generated and exposed to silica to establish experimental model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Here we showed that silica increased Th17 response in lung fibrosis. Tregs depletion enhanced the neutrophils accumulation and attenuated Th17 response in silica induced lung fibrosis. Both mRNA and protein results showed that Tregs exerted its modulatory function on Th17 cells and IL-17 by regulating TGF-β1 and IL-1β. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggested that Tregs could promote Th17 cells differentiation by regulating TGF-β1 and IL-1β in silica induced lung fibrosis of mice, which further the understanding of the progress of silicosis and provide a new insight in the regulatory mechanism of Th17 by Tregs in lung inflammation.

  7. Respirable crystalline silica - a failure to control exposureexclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, J R, E-mail: john.cain@hse.gsi.gov.u [HM Regional Specialist Inspector (Occupational Hygiene), Health and Safety Executive, Marshalls Mill, Marshall Street, Leeds LS11 9YJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Several sites were visited to monitor stonemason exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS), inhalable dust and respirable dust. At all sites, exposure to RCS exceeded the Workplace Exposure Limit of 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} 8-hour TWA. There was therefore a continuing high risk of workers developing silicosis unless the appropriate measures were instigated to prevent or control exposure. Exposure control was ineffective at all sites e.g. water wall extraction systems were not well designed. There was evidence that foreign workers were at a greater exposure risk. But even with appropriate controls to mitigate exposure to RCS it may not be possible to sustain exposure to below 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} 8-hour TWA without on-going HSE intervention.

  8. Patty's toxicology. Volume 1: toxicology issues, inorganic particulates, dusts, products of biological origin and pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B; Powell, C.H. (eds.) [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (US). Kettering Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    This book discusses toxic agents and pathogens in the workplace and its adverse health effects on workers. This volume includes discussions on industrial toxicology, measuring exposure to toxic substances, occupational chemical carcinogenesis, non-cancer risk assessment, gene-environment interaction, regulations and guidelines in the workplace, toxic chemical information sources, chemical safety, silica and silica compounds, asbestos, talc, rock wool and refractory ceramic fibres, fibreglass, coal, wood dust, cotton and other textile dusts, bioaerosols and disease, bloodborne pathogens in the workplace, tuberculosis and other mycobacteria and petroleum, coal tar and its related products.

  9. Dust Versus Cosmic Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A N

    1999-01-01

    Two groups have recently discovered a statistically significant deviation in the fluxes of high-redshift type Ia supernovae from the predictions of a Friedmann model with zero cosmological constant. This letter argues that bright, dusty, starburst galaxies would preferentially eject a dust component with a shallower opacity curve (hence less reddening) and a higher opacity/mass than the observed galactic dust which is left behind. Such dust could cause the falloff in flux at high-z without violating constraints on reddening or metallicity. The specific model presented is of needle-like dust, which is expected from the theory of crystal growth and has been detected in samples of interstellar dust. Carbon needles with conservative properties can supply the necessary opacity, and would very likely be ejected from galaxies as required. The model is not subject to the arguments given in the literature against grey dust, but may be constrained by future data from supernova searches done at higher redshift, in clust...

  10. Silica Micro Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.; Whitbread-Jordan, M. [KEECO (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-01

    The article explains how Silica Micro Encapsulation (SME) water treatment technology may be transferred from metal mining to coal mining operations. KEECO has been developing a unique solution for treating acid rock drainage in the metal sulphide mining sector and following trials in metal mining operations (described in the article), is preparing to transfer the technology to the coal industry. SME technology comprises metal precipitation and encapsulation accomplished with proprietary chemical, KB-1, and a group of patented chemical dosing systems, the K-series, to dose KB-1 into contaminated liquid wastes as a dry powder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. ZBLAN, Silica Fiber Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This graph depicts the increased signal quality possible with optical fibers made from ZBLAN, a family of heavy-metal fluoride glasses (fluorine combined zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum, and sodium) as compared to silica fibers. NASA is conducting research on pulling ZBLAN fibers in the low-g environment of space to prevent crystallization that limits ZBLAN's usefulness in optical fiber-based communications. In the graph, a line closer to the black theoretical maximum line is better. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  12. A Case with Systemic Sclerosis Following Exposure To Silica and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Ürkmez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory, vascular and sclerotic changes in the internal organs. Although the etiology is not known with certainty; silica dust, which is one of the environmental risk factors, can lead to scleroderma by some immunological changes. In this case, a mine worker, who worked in a mercury mine during a 15-year period, developed systemic sclerosis due to exposure to chronic silica and vibration, is presented. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 45-7

  13. The circumstellar material around SN IIn 1997eg Another detection of Very Narrow P Cygni profile

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanca, I M; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2002-01-01

    We report the detection of a very narrow P Cygni profile on top of the broad emission Ha and Hb lines of the Type IIn Supernova 1997eg. A similar feature has been detected in SN 1997ab (Salamanca et al. 1998), SN 1998S (Meikle & Geballe 1998, Fassia et al. 2001) and SN 1995G (Filippenko & Schlegel 1995). The detection of the narrow P Cygni profile indicates the existence of a dense circumstellar material (CSM) into which the ejecta of the supernova is expanding. From the analysis of the spectra of SN 1997eg we deduce (a) that such CSM is very dense (n ~ 5x10^7 cm^-3), (b) that has a low expanding velocity of about 160 \\kms. The origin of such dense CSM can be either a very dense progenitor wind (dotM ~ 10^-2 solar masses per year) or a circumstellar shell product of the progenitor wind expanding into a high pressure environment.

  14. Wind Dynamics and Circumstellar Extinction Variations in the T Tauri Star RY Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Babina, Elena V; Petrov, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    The wind interaction with the dusty environment of the classical T Tauri star RY Tau has been investigated. During two seasons of 2013-2015 we carried out a spectroscopic and photometric (BVR) monitoring of the star. A correlation between the stellar brightness and the radial velocity of the wind determined from the H-alpha and Na D line profiles has been found for the first time. The irregular stellar brightness variations are shown to be caused by extinction in a dusty disk wind at a distance of about 0.2 AU from the star. We suppose, that variations of the circumstellar extinction results from cyclic rearrangements of the stellar magnetosphere and coronal mass ejections, which affect the dusty disk wind near the inner boundary of the circumstellar disk.

  15. Circumstellar Habitable Zones to Ecodynamic Domains: A Preliminary Review and Suggested Future Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the Circumstellar Habitable Zone has served the scientific community well for some decades. It slips easily off the tongue, and it would be hard to replace. Recently, however, several workers have postulated types of habitable bodies which might exist outside the classic circumstellar habitable zone (HZ). These include not only bodies which orbit at substantial distances from their parent stars, but also snowball worlds with geothermally-maintained internal oceans and even densely-atmosphered worlds with geothermally-maintained surface oceans, which have been ejected from unstable planetary systems into interstellar space. If habitability is not a unique and diagnostic property of the HZ, then the value of the term has been compromised in a fundamental way. At the same time, it has become evident that multiple environmental states, differing in important ways in their habitability, are possible even for geophysically similar planets subject to similar levels of insolation, within the classic HZ...

  16. Differential interferometric phases at high spectral resolution as a sensitive physical diagnostic of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faes, D M; Rivinius, Th; Štefl, S; Baade, D; de Souza, A Domiciano

    2013-01-01

    Context. The circumstellar disks ejected by many rapidly rotating B stars (so-called Be stars) offer the rare opportunity of studying the structure and dynamics of gaseous disks at high spectral as well as angular resolution. Aims. This paper explores a newly identified effect in spectro-interferometric phase that can be used for probing the inner regions of gaseous edge-on disks on a scale of a few stellar radii. Methods. The origin of this effect (dubbed central quasi-emission phase signature, CQE-PS) lies in the velocity-dependent line absorption of photospheric radiation by the circumstellar disk. At high spectral and marginal interferometric resolution, photocenter displacements between star and isovelocity regions in the Keplerian disk reveal themselves through small interferometric phase shifts. To investigate the diagnostic potential of this effect, a series of models are presented, based on detailed radiative transfer calculations in a viscous decretion disk. Results. Amplitude and detailed shape of ...

  17. The Circle of Dust: From Nanoparticles to Macromolecules and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micelotta, E.; Jones, A.; Bocchio, M.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    There is increasing observational evidence that a non-negligible fraction of the cosmic carbon is locked up into macromolecules and nanoparticles. Carbonaceous nanoparticles and Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (HAC) nanoparticles represent one of the main components of interstellar dust. HAC nanoparticles have been proposed as a viable carrier for the Unidentified InfraRed (UIR) bands, which dominate the mid-infrared spectrum of almost any astronomical object. Fullerene molecules C60 and C70 have been detected in various circumstellar and interstellar environments. We present some of our recent results about the evolution of such carbonaceous structures and the possible connections between each other. We show how photo-processing of HAC nanoparticles can lead to the formation of C60 and C70 in space. There the low density of the gas precludes the formation of fullerene materials following known vaporization or combustion synthesis routes, even on astronomical timescales. We then discuss the processing of small hydrocarbon dust by energetic ions and electrons under extreme conditions, e.g., in shocked regions. Finally, we derive the astrophysical implications of such processing in terms of the observed emission.

  18. Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin C. Lechner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Database of circumstellar OH masers (Engels+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, D.; Bunzel, F.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new database of circumstellar OH masers at 1612, 1665, and 1667MHz in the Milky Way galaxy in tabular form. The database (version 2.4) contains 13655 observations and 2341 different stars detected in at least one transition and includes published data until end of 2014. Interferometric follow-up observations and monitor programs are stored in two auxiliary tables. (3 data files).

  20. Lung cell toxicity experimentally induced by a mixed dust from Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osornio-Vargas, A R; Hernández-Rodríguez, N A; Yáñez-Buruel, A G; Ussler, W; Overby, L H; Brody, A R

    1991-10-01

    Lung disease caused by nonoccupational exposures to inorganic particles from the soil has been reported in several areas of the world. We tested the toxic potential of dust samples from a Mexican city (Mexicali) that is frequently affected by dust storms and is geographically related to the area of San Diego, CA, where constituents of the soil have been reported to be fibrogenic. We found that samples of Mexicali dust are a mixture of approximately 75% potassium aluminum silicates (illite) and approximately 20% silica. Respirable size particles were highly hemolytic and induced lactic dehydrogenase release from alveolar macrophages exposed in vitro. Animals instilled intratracheally with the dust developed a multifocal interstitial lung disease associated with deposits of the aluminum silicates, which were identified by X-ray microanalysis. Inhalation studies in rats demonstrated that the majority of particles were deposited preferentially at the first alveolar duct bifurcations. Twenty-four hours later, numerous particles had been ingested by alveolar macrophages that had migrated to those sites of deposition. It is proposed that alveolar macrophages are attracted to the deposited particles by complement fragments since Mexicali dust is capable of activating complement proteins from both serum and bronchoalveolar lavage. Activation resulted in alveolar macrophage chemotaxis. Mexicali dust induced biological activities and lung changes similar to those of asbestos and silica, suggesting that this material could be an etiologic agent of pulmonary fibrosis in exposed individuals.

  1. Oxygen Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelope of the Carbon-Rich Star IRC+10216

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Agundez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the oxygen chemistry in the C-rich circumstellar shells of IRC+10216. The recent discoveries of oxygen bearing species (water, hydroxyl radical and formaldehyde) toward this source challenge our current understanding of the chemistry in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The presence of icy comets surrounding the star or catalysis on iron grain surfaces have been invoked to explain the presence of such unexpected species. This detailed study aims at evaluating the chances of producing O-bearing species in the C-rich circumstellar envelope only by gas phase chemical reactions. For the inner hot envelope, it is shown that although most of the oxygen is locked in CO near the photosphere (as expected for a C/O ratio greater than 1), some stellar radii far away species such as H2O and CO2 have large abundances under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium. It is also shown how non-LTE chemistry makes very difficult the CO-->H2O,CO2 transformation predicted in LTE. Concerning the chemistry ...

  2. Observational Possibility of the "Snow Line" on the Surface of Circumstellar Disks with the Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Akio K; Nakamoto, Taishi; Oka, Akinori

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how we obtain the spatial distribution of ice on the surface of the circumstellar disk around young stars. Ice in the disks plays a very important role in various issues, for instance, on the disk structure, on the planet formation, on the isotopic anomaly in meteorites, and on the origin of the sea on the Earth. Therefore, the spatially resolved observation of the condensation/sublimation front of ice, so-called ``snow line'' is strongly required. Here, we propose a new method for obtaining the spatially resolved ``snow line'' on the circumstellar disks by observing 3 \\micron H$_2$O ice feature in the scattered light. Based on radiative transfer considerations, we show that the feature is clearly imprinted in the spectrum of the scattered light from both optically thick and thin circumstellar disks. We also show that the scattered light and the H$_2$O ice feature from protoplanetary disks are detectable and spatially resolvable with the current instruments through a $H_2O$ narrowband filter around...

  3. Imaging the circumstellar environment of the young T Tauri star SU Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffers, S V; Canovas, H; Rodenhuis, M; Keller, C U

    2013-01-01

    The circumstellar environments of classical T Tauri stars are challenging to directly image because of their high star-to-disk contrast ratio. One method to overcome this is by using imaging polarimetry where scattered and consequently polarised starlight from the star's circumstellar disk can be separated from the unpolarised light of the central star. We present images of the circumstellar environment of SU Aur, a classical T Tauri star at the transition of T Tauri to Herbig stars. The images directly show that the disk extends out to ~500 au with an inclination angle of $\\sim$ 50$^\\circ$. Using interpretive models, we derived very small grains in the surface layers of its disk, with a very steep size- and surface-density distribution. Additionally, we resolved a large and extended nebulosity in our images that is most likely a remnant of the prenatal molecular cloud. The position angle of the disk, determined directly from our images, rules out a polar outflow or jet as the cause of this large-scale nebulo...

  4. Sulphur molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, Taissa; Black, J H; Olofsson, H; Justtanont, K

    2016-01-01

    The sulphur compounds SO and SO$_2$ have not been widely studied in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. By presenting and modelling a large number of SO and SO$_2$ lines in the low mass-loss rate M-type AGB star R Dor, and modelling the available lines of those molecules in a further four M-type AGB stars, we aim to determine their circumstellar abundances and distributions. We use a detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model circumstellar SO and SO$_2$ line emission and molecular data files for both SO and SO$_2$ that are more extensive than those previously available. Using 17 SO lines and 98 SO2 lines to constrain our models for R Dor, we find an SO abundance of 6.7x10$^{-6}$ and an SO$_2$ abundance of 5x10$^{-6}$ with both species having high abundances close to the star. We also modelled $^{34}$SO and found an abundance of 3.1x10$^{-7}$, giving an $^{32}$SO/$^{34}$SO ratio of 21.6. We derive similar results for the circum...

  5. The magnetic field around late-type stars revealed by the circumstellar H2O masers

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; Diamond, P J

    2005-01-01

    Through polarization observations, circumstellar masers are excellent probes of the magnetic field in the envelopes of late-type stars. Whereas observations of the polarization of the SiO masers close to the star and on the OH masers much further out were fairly commonplace, observations of the magnetic field strength in the intermediate density and temperature region where the 22 GHz water masers occur have only recently become possible. Here we present the analysis of the circular polarization, due to Zeeman splitting, of the water masers around the Mira variable stars U Her and U Ori and the supergiant VX Sgr. We present an upper limit of the field around U Her that is lower but consistent with previous measurements, reflecting possible changes in the circumstellar envelope. The field strengths around U Ori and VX Sgr are shown to be of the order of several Gauss. Moreover, we show for the first time that large scale magnetic fields permeate the circumstellar envelopes of an evolved star; the polarization ...

  6. Oblique dust density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  7. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion-dust plasmas with dust size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Kai-Biao [Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong (China)

    2014-06-15

    Nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves which are described with a Kortweg-de vries (KdV) equation by using the reductive perturbation method, are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively-charged dust particles of different sizes and masses. The effects of the power-law distribution of dust and other plasma parameters on the dust-acoustic solitary waves are studied. Numerical results show that the dust size distribution has a significant influence on the propagation properties of dust-acoustic solitons. The amplitudes of solitary waves in the case of a power-law distribution is observed to be smaller, but the soliton velocity and width are observed to be larger, than those of mono-sized dust grains with an average dust size. Our results indicate that only compressed solitary waves exist in dusty plasma with different dust species. The relevance of the present investigation to interstellar clouds is discussed.

  8. Changes of cell factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats exposed to silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in rats exposed to silica dust.Methods Experimental rats were randomly divided into control group and three experimental groups(doses of dust:15,30,and 60mg/ml),with 42 rats in each group.Each rat in the control group was treated with 1 ml of normal saline by intratracheal instillation,while each rat in the experimental groups was exposed to 1

  9. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  10. Dust disks around old Pre Main-Sequence stars HST\\/NICMOS2 scattered light images and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J C; Mouillet, D; Ménard, F

    2000-01-01

    We present recent near-infrared detections of circumstellar disks around the two old PMS Herbig stars HD 141569 and HD 100546 obtained with the HST/NICMOS2 camera. They reveal extended structures larger than 350-400 AU in radius. While the HD 100546 disk appears as a continuous disk down to 40 AU, the HD 141569 environment seems more complex, splitted at least into two dust populations. As a convincing example, the full modeling of the disk surrounding HR 4796, another old PMS star, is detailed and confronted with more recent observations.

  11. Biogenic nanostructured silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon is by far the most abundant element in the earth crust and also is an essential element for higher plants, yet its biology and mechanisms in plant tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses are poorly understood. Based on the molecular mechanisms of the biosilicification in marine organisms such as diatoms and sponges, the cell wall template-mediated self-assembly of nanostructured silica in marine organisms and higher plants as well as the related organic molecules are discussed. Understanding of the templating and structure-directed effects of silicon-processing organic molecules not only offers the clue for synthesizing silicon-based materials, but also helps to recognize the anomaly of silicon in plant biology.

  12. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  13. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Fenton, Lori; Neakrase, Lynn; Zimmerman, Michael; Statella, Thiago; Whelley, Patrick; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Balme, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Dust devils that leave dark- or light-toned tracks are common on Mars and they can also be found on the Earth's surface. Dust devil tracks (hereinafter DDTs) are ephemeral surface features with mostly sub-annual lifetimes. Regarding their size, DDT widths can range between ˜1 m and ˜1 km, depending on the diameter of dust devil that created the track, and DDT lengths range from a few tens of meters to several kilometers, limited by the duration and horizontal ground speed of dust devils. DDTs can be classified into three main types based on their morphology and albedo in contrast to their surroundings; all are found on both planets: (a) dark continuous DDTs, (b) dark cycloidal DDTs, and (c) bright DDTs. Dark continuous DDTs are the most common type on Mars. They are characterized by their relatively homogenous and continuous low albedo surface tracks. Based on terrestrial and martian in situ studies, these DDTs most likely form when surficial dust layers are removed to expose larger-grained substrate material (coarse sands of ≥500 μm in diameter). The exposure of larger-grained materials changes the photometric properties of the surface; hence leading to lower albedo tracks because grain size is photometrically inversely proportional to the surface reflectance. However, although not observed so far, compositional differences (i.e., color differences) might also lead to albedo contrasts when dust is removed to expose substrate materials with mineralogical differences. For dark continuous DDTs, albedo drop measurements are around 2.5 % in the wavelength range of 550-850 nm on Mars and around 0.5 % in the wavelength range from 300-1100 nm on Earth. The removal of an equivalent layer thickness around 1 μm is sufficient for the formation of visible dark continuous DDTs on Mars and Earth. The next type of DDTs, dark cycloidal DDTs, are characterized by their low albedo pattern of overlapping scallops. Terrestrial in situ studies imply that they are formed when sand

  14. Dust during the Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Elfgren, E; Elfgren, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The possibility that population III stars have reionized the Universe at redshifts greater than 6 has recently gained momentum with WMAP polarization results. Here we analyse the role of early dust produced by these stars and ejected into the intergalactic medium. We show that this dust, heated by the radiation from the same population III stars, produces a submillimetre excess. The electromagnetic spectrum of this excess is compatible with the FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer) cosmic far infrared background. This spectrum, a Doppler spectrum times the $\

  15. Dust Devil Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 6 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Dust devils, small cyclonic wind storms, are common in the American Southwest and on Mars. As the dust devil moves across the surface it picks up the loose dust, leaving behind a dark track to mark its passage. These dust devil tracks are in the Argyre Basin. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -46.6, Longitude 317.5 East (42.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the

  16. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam...

  18. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  19. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  20. Dust formation in dense CSM behind the shock: A study based on SN2010jl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Arkaprabha; Dwek, Eli

    2016-06-01

    Dust is known to form in the quiescent outflows of AGB stars and in the explosively ejected matter of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Recent optical and near-infrared (IR) observations of the light curve of the ultraluminous CCSN SN2010jl has shown evidence for the rapid rise of a thermal IR emission component from newly forming dust in its spectrum. The UV-optical light curve from the SN cannot be powered by the radioactivities in the ejecta, and is powered by the interaction of the SN blast wave with the ambient dense circumstellar (CSM) shell. Observations of the evolution of the broad H and He lines in the spectra show that the dust could not have formed in the SN ejecta, but must have formed in the CSM instead. The supernova blast-wave traverses the CSM heating and ionizing the gas and destroying all pre-existing molecules and dust grains. The shocked CSM gas cools rapidly behind the shock to temperatures below the dust condensation temperatures. However, the radiation emanating from the shocked CSM plays a pivotal role in determining the earliest epoch after which seed nucleation centers can form and survive in the post-shock region. We use X-ray and UV-optical data from SN2010jl to follow the evolution of the shock through the CSM, and solve for the time-dependent temperature and density profile of the post-shock gas. Embedding a 10°. A seed nucleation center in the dense cooling shell, we calculate its temperature, and the earliest epoch beyond which such grain can survive evaporation and rapidly grow to large submicron grains. Thereafter, we study the formation of possible dust species through nucleation of condensable elements, and trace their evolution in time through accretion and coagulation. The final dust mass yield has been calculated and compared with other known dust sources in the galaxy. Detection of the IR excess as early as 67 days post-explosion poses new challenges to our understanding of the dust scenario behind shocks. Our model, first

  1. Dust-grain processing in circumbinary discs around evolved binaries. The RV Tauri spectral twins RU Cen and AC Her

    CERN Document Server

    Gielen, C; Waters, L B F M; Min, M; Dominik, C

    2007-01-01

    Context: We study the structure and evolution of circumstellar discs around evolved binaries and their impact on the evolution of the central system. Aims: To study in detail the binary nature of RUCen and ACHer, as well as the structure and mineralogy of the circumstellar environment. Methods: We combine multi-wavelength observations with a 2D radiative transfer study. Our radial velocity program studies the central stars, while our Spitzer spectra and broad-band SEDs are used to constrain mineralogy, grain sizes and physical structure of the circumstellar environment. Results: We determine the orbital elements of RUCen showing that the orbit is highly eccentric with a rather long period of 1500 days. The infrared spectra of both objects are very similar and the spectral dust features are dominated by Mg-rich crystalline silicates. The small peak-to-continuum ratios are interpreted as being due to large grains. Our model contains two components with a cold midplain dominated by large grains, and the near- an...

  2. Identification of the exploatation dust in road dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to determine models of explore dust from vehicle brake systems and the presentationof measurement results of the exploitation dust, which is separate from road dust. The following methods and measuring devices were used: T-01M device, screen analysis, analysis of chemical composition with the use of a scanning microscope with Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analyser. The measurements for identifying this type of dust were conducted on marked sections of roads: motorway, city road and mountain road. The explored dust was distinguished in the following car systems: brakes, clutch plates, tyres and catalytic converters.

  3. Field evaluation of an engineering control for respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Scott; Heitbrink, William A

    2007-11-01

    During mortar removal with a right angle grinder, a building renovation process known as "tuck pointing," worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica can be as high as 5 mg/m(3), 100 times the recommended exposure limit developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. To reduce the risk of silicosis among these workers, a vacuum cleaner can be used to exhaust 80 ft(3)/min (2.26 m(3)/min) from a hood mounted on the grinder. Field trials examined the ability of vacuum cleaners to maintain adequate exhaust ventilation rates and measure exposure outcomes when using this engineering control. These field trials involved task-based exposure measurement of respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal. These measurements were compared with published exposure data. Vacuum cleaner airflows were obtained by measuring and digitally logging vacuum cleaner static pressure at the inlet to the vacuum cleaner motor. Static pressures were converted to airflows based on experimentally determined fan curves. In two cases, video exposure monitoring was conducted to study the relationship between worker activities and dust exposure. Worker activities were video taped concurrent with aerosol photometer measurement of dust exposure and vacuum cleaner static pressure as a measure of airflow. During these field trials, respirable crystalline silica exposures for 22 samples had a geometric mean of 0.06 mg/m(3) and a range of less than 0.01 to 0.86 mg/m(3). For three other studies, respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal have a geometric means of 1.1 to 0.35. Although this field study documented noticeably less exposure to crystalline silica, video exposure monitoring found that the local exhaust ventilation provided incomplete dust control due to low exhaust flow rates, certain work practices, and missing mortar. Vacuum cleaner airflow decrease had a range of 3 to 0.4 ft(3)/min (0.08 to 0.01 m(3)/sec(2)) over a range

  4. Observation of dust acoustic multi-solitons in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H.

    2016-09-01

    The excitation and propagation of low frequency dust acoustic multi-solitons are investigated in an unmagnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma. A floating 2D dusty medium is produced in an RF discharge Ar plasma with silica micro-particles. Dust acoustic perturbations are excited by applying a negative sinusoidal pulse of frequency 1-2 Hz and amplitude 4-20 V to an exciter grid. An initial large amplitude dust density compression breaks into a number of solitary pulses which are identified as dust acoustic solitons. The observed multi-soliton evolution is compared with numerical simulations of modified Korteweg de Vries (KdV)-Burger equation. The characteristics of the generated solitons are in good agreement with the theory.

  5. Sintering-induced Dust Ring Formation in Protoplanetary Disks: Application to the HL Tau Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sirono, Sin-iti; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    The latest observation of HL Tau by ALMA revealed spectacular concentric dust rings in its circumstellar disk. We attempt to explain the multiple ring structure as a consequence of aggregate sintering. Sintering is a process that reduces the sticking efficiency of dust aggregates, and takes place where the temperature is slightly below the sublimation point of some constituent material. We here present a dust growth model that incorporates sintering, and use it to simulate global dust evolution in a modeled HL Tau disk taking into account coagulation, fragmentation, and radial inward drift. We show that the aggregates collisionally disrupt and pile up at multiple locations where different volatiles cause sintering. At wavelengths of 0.87--1.3 mm, these "sintering zones" appear as bright, optically thick rings with spectral slope $\\approx$ 2, whereas the non-sintering zones as darker, optically thinner rings of spectral slope $\\approx$ 2.3--2.5, consistent with major bright and dark rings found in the HL Tau d...

  6. Properties and alignment of interstellar dust grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with anomalous polarization curves

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2015-01-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratio ($R_{V}<2$) and wavelength of maximum polarization ($\\lambda_{max}<0.4\\mu m$) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use inversion technique to infer best-fit grain size distribution and alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SNe 1986G, 2006X, 2008fp, and 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of $R_{V}$, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius $a< 0.1\\mu m$ is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to observed extinction and polarization data is unsuccessful if the entire data is attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 200...

  7. Functionalized silica materials for electrocatalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vellaichamy Ganesan

    2015-02-01

    Electrocatalysis is an important phenomenon which is utilized in metal–air batteries, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, etc. To increase the efficiency of the electrocatalytic process and to increase the electrochemical accessibility of the immobilized electrocatalysts, functionalized and non-functionalized mesoporous organo-silica (MCM41-type-materials) are used in this study. These materials possess several suitable properties to be durable catalysts and/or catalyst supports. Owing to the uniform dispersion of electrocatalysts (metal complex and/or metal nanoparticles (NPs)) on the functionalized and non-functionalized silica, an enormous increase in the redox current is observed. Long range channels of silica materials with pore diameter of 15–100 Å allowed metal NPs to accommodate in a specified manner in addition to other catalysts. The usefulness of MCM-41-type silica in increasing the efficiency of electrocatalysisis demonstrated by selecting oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrite reduction reactions as examples

  8. Left in the Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft ended its seven-year voyage January 15 after a safe landing on earth, bringing back a capsule of comet particles and samples of interstellar dust that exceeded the loftiest of expectations of mission scientists. The ensuing studies of the cosmic treasure are expected to shed light on the origins of the solar system and earth itself.

  9. Cylindrically symmetric dust spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Senovilla, J M M; Senovilla, Jose M. M.; Vera, Raul

    2000-01-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of Einstein's equations for an inhomogeneous dust universe with cylindrical symmetry. The spacetime is extremely simple but nonetheless it has new surprising features. The universe is ``closed'' in the sense that the dust expands from a big-bang singularity but recollapses to a big-crunch singularity. In fact, both singularities are connected so that the whole spacetime is ``enclosed'' within a single singularity of general character. The big-bang is not simultaneous for the dust, and in fact the age of the universe as measured by the dust particles depends on the spatial position, an effect due to the inhomogeneity, and their total lifetime has no non-zero lower limit. Part of the big-crunch singularity is naked. The metric depends on a parameter and contains flat spacetime as a non-singular particular case. For appropriate values of the parameter the spacetime is a small perturbation of Minkowski spacetime. This seems to indicate that flat spacetime may be unstable agai...

  10. Cylindrically symmetric dust spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, José M. M.

    2000-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of Einstein's equations for an inhomogeneous dust universe with cylindrical symmetry. The spacetime is extremely simple but nonetheless it has surprising new features. The universe is `closed' in the sense that the dust expands from a big-bang singularity but recollapses to a big-crunch singularity. In fact, both singularities are connected so that the whole spacetime is `enclosed' within a single singularity of general character. The big-bang is not simultaneous for the dust, and in fact the age of the universe as measured by the dust particles depends on the spatial position, an effect due to the inhomogeneity, and their total lifetime has no non-zero lower limit. Part of the big-crunch singularity is naked. The metric depends on a parameter and contains flat spacetime as a non-singular particular case. For appropriate values of the parameter the spacetime is a small perturbation of Minkowski spacetime. This seems to indicate that flat spacetime may be unstable against some global non-vacuum perturbations.

  11. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  12. Silica exposure and systemic vasculitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulloy, Karen B

    2003-01-01

    Work in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities has exposed workers to multiple toxic agents leading to acute and chronic diseases. Many exposures were common to numerous work sites. Exposure to crystalline silica was primarily restricted to a few facilities. I present the case of a 63-year-old male who worked in DOE facilities for 30 years as a weapons testing technician. In addition to silica, other workplace exposures included beryllium, various solvents and heavy metals, depleted uranium, a...

  13. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  14. Reuyl Crater Dust Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 May 2002) The Science The rugged, arcuate rim of the 90 km crater Reuyl dominates this THEMIS image. Reuyl crater is at the southern edge of a region known to be blanketed in thick dust based on its high albedo (brightness) and low thermal inertia values. This thick mantle of dust creates the appearance of snow covered mountains in the image. Like snow accumulation on Earth, Martian dust can become so thick that it eventually slides down the face of steep slopes, creating runaway avalanches of dust. In the center of this image about 1/3 of the way down is evidence of this phenomenon. A few dozen dark streaks can be seen on the bright, sunlit slopes of the crater rim. The narrow streaks extend downslope following the local topography in a manner very similar to snow avalanches on Earth. But unlike their terrestrial counterparts, no accumulation occurs at the bottom. The dust particles are so small that they are easily launched into the thin atmosphere where they remain suspended and ultimately blow away. The apparent darkness of the avalanche scars is due to the presence of relatively dark underlying material that becomes exposed following the passage of the avalanche. Over time, new dust deposition occurs, brightening the scars until they fade into the background. Although dark slope streaks had been observed in Viking mission images, a clear understanding of this dynamic phenomenon wasn't possible until the much higher resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed the details. MOC images also showed that new avalanches have occurred during the time MGS has been in orbit. THEMIS images will allow additional mapping of their distribution and frequency, contributing new insights about Martian dust avalanches. The Story The stiff peaks in this image might remind you of the Alps here on Earth, but they really outline the choppy edge of a large Martian crater over 50 miles wide (seen in the context image at right). While these aren

  15. Cutting Silica Aerogel for Particle Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Glesias, R.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.; Weschler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The detailed laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial particles have revolutionized our knowledge of planetary bodies in the last three decades. This knowledge of chemical composition, morphology, mineralogy, and isotopics of particles cannot be provided by remote sensing. In order to acquire these detail information in the laboratories, the samples need be intact, unmelted. Such intact capture of hypervelocity particles has been developed in 1996. Subsequently silica aerogel was introduced as the preferred medium for intact capturing of hypervelocity particles and later showed it to be particularly suitable for the space environment. STARDUST, the 4th NASA Discovery mission to capture samples from 81P/Wild 2 and contemporary interstellar dust, is the culmination of these new technologies. In early laboratory experiments of launching hypervelocity projectiles into aerogel, there was the need to cut aerogel to isolate or extract captured particles/tracks. This is especially challenging for space captures, since there will be many particles/tracks of wide ranging scales closely located, even collocated. It is critical to isolate and extract one particle without compromising its neighbors since the full significance of a particle is not known until it is extracted and analyzed. To date, three basic techniques have been explored: mechanical cutting, lasers cutting and ion beam milling. We report the current findings.

  16. Hard Coal Fly Ash and Silica-Effect of Fine Particulate Matter Deposits on Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ulrichs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One focus in recent atmospheric pollution research is on fine Particle Matter (PM, especially as result of increasing traffic and anthropogenic activity in urban areas. Here, the impact on animal and human health has been in the center of many studies. Despite the fact that PM depositions can affect plants on the long term, there are only few studies about the impact on plants conducted. Approach: Therefore we studied the impact of PM on plants, using naturally occurring silica dusts (diatomaceous earth and hard Coal Fly Ash (CFA from burning processes. Dusts were applied onto Brassica chinensis L. using a simple duster (covering upper leaf surfaces or electrostatically (covering leaf upper and -underside. Results: Main components of the tested CFA are SO42-, K, Ca and NH4+. The pH value of eluates was found to be around 9.5 in CFA and 5.7 in silica. B. chinensis was insensitive towards the high pH and showed no growth reduction when grown in silica or CFA substrate. PM deposition on leaf surfaces results through shading in a reduced photosynthetic activity. The reduction is relatively higher at higher light intensities. Photosynthesis stays reduced after removal of silica PM from leaf surfaces. We assume that stomata get cloaked by small particles and that silica absorbs lipids from the epicuticle resulting in a general stress reaction. Smaller sized silica particles resulted in a higher reduction of CO2-absorption. Next to particle size is the photosynthesis negatively correlated with exposure time for silica PM. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicate that dust-covered leaves exhibited significantly lower quantum yield of PS II and a reduced quantum efficiency of PS II and therefore supported the gas exchange data. Conclusion: Reduced photosynthetic performance would be expected to reduce growth and productivity of B. chinensis. In contrast to silica hard coal fly ash

  17. Plasmonic smart dust for probing local chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, Andreas; Yin, Xinghui; Giessen, Harald; Tian, Xiang-Dong; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Kremers, Christian; Chigrin, Dmitry N; Liu, Na

    2013-04-10

    Locally probing chemical reactions or catalytic processes on surfaces under realistic reaction conditions has remained one of the main challenges in materials science and heterogeneous catalysis. Where conventional surface interrogation techniques usually require high-vacuum conditions or ensemble average measurements, plasmonic nanoparticles excel in extreme light focusing and can produce highly confined electromagnetic fields in subwavelength volumes without the need for complex near-field microscopes. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical probing technique based on plasmonic smart dust for monitoring local chemical reactions in real time. The silica shell-isolated gold nanoparticles that form the smart dust can work as strong light concentrators and optically report subtle environmental changes at their pinning sites on the probed surface during reaction processes. As a model system, we investigate the hydrogen dissociation and subsequent uptake trajectory in palladium with both "dust-on-film" and "film-on-dust" platforms. Using time-resolved single particle measurements, we demonstrate that our technique can in situ encode chemical reaction information as optical signals for a variety of surface morphologies. The presented technique offers a unique scheme for real-time, label-free, and high-resolution probing of local reaction kinetics in a plethora of important chemical reactions on surfaces, paving the way toward the development of inexpensive and high-output reaction sensors for real-world applications.

  18. Silica research in Glasgow

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, B W; Casey, M M; Clubley, D; Crooks, D R M; Danzmann, K; Elliffe, E J; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Grote, H; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Jennrich, O; Lück, H B; McIntosh, S A; Newton, G P; Palmer, D A; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Rowan, S; Skeldon, K D; Sneddon, P; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Winkler, W

    2002-01-01

    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R and D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 9 m Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R and D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented.

  19. Dust processing in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Villaume, Alexa; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the origin and processing of dust in elliptical galaxies. We theoretically formulate the evolution of grain size distribution, taking into account dust supply from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and dust destruction by sputtering in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), whose temperature evolution is treated by including two cooling paths: gas emission and dust emission (i.e. gas cooling and dust cooling). With our new full treatment of grain size distribution, we confirm that dust destruction by sputtering is too efficient to explain the observed dust abundance even if AGB stars continue to supply dust grains, and that, except for the case where the initial dust-to-gas ratio in the hot gas is as high as $\\sim 0.01$, dust cooling is negligible compared with gas cooling. However, we show that, contrary to previous expectations, cooling does not help to protect the dust; rather, the sputtering efficiency is raised by the gas compression as a result of cooling. We additionally consider grain grow...

  20. Silicosis mortality trends and new exposures to respirable crystalline silica - United States, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ki Moon; Mazurek, Jacek M; Wood, John M; White, Gretchen E; Hendricks, Scott A; Weston, Ainsley

    2015-02-13

    Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust and can progress to respiratory failure and death. No effective specific treatment for silicosis is available; patients are provided supportive care, and some patients may be considered for lung transplantation. Chronic silicosis can develop or progress even after occupational exposure has ceased. The number of deaths from silicosis declined from 1,065 in 1968 to 165 in 2004. Hazardous occupational exposures to silica dust have long been known to occur in a variety of industrial operations, including mining, quarrying, sandblasting, rock drilling, road construction, pottery making, stone masonry, and tunneling operations. Recently, hazardous silica exposures have been newly documented during hydraulic fracturing of gas and oil wells and during fabrication and installation of engineered stone countertops. To describe temporal trends in silicosis mortality in the United States, CDC analyzed annual multiple cause-of-death data for 2001-2010 for decedents aged ≥15 years. During 2001-2010, a total of 1,437 decedents had silicosis coded as an underlying or contributing cause of death. The annual number of silicosis deaths declined from 164 (death rate† = 0.74 per 1 million population) in 2001 to 101 (0.39 per 1 million) in 2010 (p = 0.002). Because of new operations and tasks placing workers at risk for silicosis, efforts to limit workplace exposure to crystalline silica need to be maintained.

  1. Dust in the Solar System - Properties and Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    Interplanetary dust pervades the inner Solar System, giving rise to a prominent glow above the horizon at sunrise and sunset known as the zodiacal light. This dust derives from the disintegration of comets as they approach the Sun and from collisions among main-belt asteroids. The Earth accretes roughly 4x10(exp 6) kg/year of 1 - 1,000 micron dust particles as they spiral into the Sun under the influence of Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag. Samples of these grains have been collected from deep sea sediments, Antarctic ice and by high-altitude aircraft and balloon flights. Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere have been classified by their IR spectra into olivine, pyroxene, and hydrated silicate-dominated classes. Most IDPs have bulk major and minor element abundances that are similar to carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Hydrated silicate-rich IDPs are thought to derive from asteroids based on their mineralogy and low atmospheric entry velocities estimated from peak temperatures reached during atmospheric entry. Anhydrous IDPs are typically aggregates of 0.1 - approx. 1 micron Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, amorphous silicates (GEMS), Fe, Nisulfides and rare spinel and oxides bound together by carbonaceous material. These IDPs are often argued to derive from comets based on compositional similarities and high atmospheric entry velocities that imply high eccentricity orbits. Infrared spectra obtained from anhydrous IDPs closely match remote IR spectra obtained from comets. The most primitive (anhydrous) IDPs appear to have escaped the parent-body thermal and aqueous alteration that has affected meteorites. These samples thus consist entirely of grains that formed in the ancient solar nebula and pre-solar interstellar and circumstellar environments. Isotopic studies of IDPs have identified silicate stardust grains that formed in the outflows of red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae]. These stardust grains

  2. Southern Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed

  3. Plentiful Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 8 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. These dust devil tracks occur on the northern plains of Mars. The majority of the surface seen in the image has been affected by the passage of dust devils. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.6, Longitude 79.3 East (280.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  4. Evidence of Dissipation of Circumstellar Disks from L-band Spectra of Bright Galactic Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal, B. E.; Ubaque, K. Y.; García-Varela, A.; Álvarez, M.; Salas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present L-band spectra of the Be stars γ Cas, ϕ Per, 28 Tau, θ CrB, 66 Oph, o Her, and 28 Cyg, obtained through use of the CID-InSb spectrograph with the 2.1-m telescope at OAN/UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory. This is the first report of L-band spectra of o Her and θ CrB, and of the data obtained with this spectrograph. We obtain flux ratios of hydrogen lines for these stars, finding that they have optically thin envelopes, except by 66 Oph and θ CrB, which do not show evidence of a circumstellar disk. γ Cas and ϕ Per have flux ratio values of hydrogen lines closer to the optically thick case than the other stars. We use the line flux ratio diagram and optical spectra reported in the literature to study the life cycles of the disks. We find clear evidence of the dissipating process of the envelopes of 66 Oph and 28 Cyg, i.e., they are decaying stars. 28 Tau seems to have passed by a similar process. γ Cas and ϕ Per are stable stars because their circumstellar disks do not show notorious changes for many years. Finally, the stars in a build-up phase, whose envelopes are generated after a decaying phase or for the first time, have not yet been observed in the L-band. It would be useful to monitor more Be stars to observe this class of stars that probably change from a very tenuous envelope to an optically thick circumstellar disk. The line flux ratio diagram seems to confirm that late Be stars have more tenuous disks than early-type Be stars, as they tend to be separated at the left bottom and the top right parts of the diagram, respectively. Larger samples of Be stars are needed to confirm this hypothesis through a statistical analysis.

  5. Simulation of compact circumstellar shells around Type Ia supernovae and the resulting high-velocity features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    For Type Ia supernovae that are observed prior to B-band maximum (approximately 18-20 days after the explosion) Ca absorption features are observed at velocities of order 10,000 km/s faster than the typical photospheric features. These high velocity features weaken in the first couple of weeks, disappearing entirely by a week after B-band maximum. The source of this high velocity material is uncertain: it may be the result of interaction between the supernova and circumstellar material or may be the result of plumes or bullets of material ejected during the course of the explosion. We simulate interaction between a supernova and several compact circumstellar shells, located within 0.03 solar radii of the progenitor white dwarf and having masses of 0.02 solar masses or less. We use FLASH to perform hydrodynamic simulations of the system to determine the structure of the ejecta and shell components after the interaction, then use these results to generate synthetic spectra with 1 day cadence for the first 25 days after the explosion. We compare the evolution of the velocity and pseudo-equivalent width of the Ca near-infrared triplet features in the synthetic spectra to observed values, demonstrating that these models are consistent with observations. Additionally, we fit the observed spectra of SN 2011fe (Parrent 2012, Pereira 2013) prior to B-band maximum using these models and synthetic spectra and provide an estimate for Ca abundance within the circumstellar material with implications for the mechanism by which the white dwarf explodes.

  6. DUST IN A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR: SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Long, Knox S. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sankrit, Ravi, E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [SOFIA/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Characterization of the relatively poorly understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's supernova remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 {mu}m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 {mu}m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally heated dust emission from fast shocks (>1000 km s{sup -1}) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are {approx}80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km s{sup -1}) into moderate density material (n{sub 0} {approx} 50-250 cm{sup -3}) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  7. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  8. An ALMA Continuum Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, John M; Isella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA 880 micron continuum observations of 20 K and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low mass stars (0.1-1.6 Msun) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 micron dust continuum at >3 sigma with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 Mearth. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ~ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ~ 1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3sigma. For stellar masses between 0.49 Msun and 1.6 Msun, the mean dust mass in disks...

  9. Gas phase chemical kinetics at high temperature of carbonaceous molecules: application to circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biennier, L.; Gardez, A.; Saidani, G.; Georges, R.; Rowe, B.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2011-05-01

    Circumstellar shells of evolved stars are a theater of extremely rich physical and chemical processes. More than seventy molecules of varied nature have been identified in the envelopes through their spectral fingerprints in the microwave or far infrared regions. Many of them are carbon chain molecules and radicals and a significant number are unique to the circumstellar medium. However, observational data remain scarce and more than half of the detected species have been observed in only one object, the nearby carbon star IRC + 10216. Chemical kinetic models are needed to describe the formation of molecules in evolved circumstellar outflows. Upcoming terrestrial telescopes such as ALMA will increase the spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude and provide a wealth of data. The determination of relevant laboratory kinetics data is critical to keep up with the development of the observations and of the refinement of chemical models. Today, the majority of reactions studied in the laboratory are the ones involved in combustion and concerning light hydrocarbons. Our objective is to provide the scientific community with rate coefficients of reactions between abundant species in these warm environments. Cyanopolyynes from HC_2N to HC_9N have all been detected in carbon rich circumstellar envelopes in up to 10 sources for HC_3N. Neutral-neutral reactions of the CN radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons could be a dominant route in the formation of cyanopolyynes, even at low temperatures. Our approach aims to bridge the temperature gap between resistively heated flow tubes and shock tubes. The present kinetic measurements are obtained using a new reactor combining a high enthalpy source (Moudens et al. 2011) with a flow tube and a pulsed laser photolysis and laser induced fluorescence system to probe the undergoing chemical reactions. The high enthalpy flow tube has been used to measure the rate constant of the reaction of the CN radical with propane, propene

  10. Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Statistical assessment of point source detections

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, É; Soummer, R; Perrin, M D; Hagan, J B; Gofas-Salas, E; Rajan, A; Aguilar, J

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE program, for Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environment, is currently conducting a virtual survey of about 400 stars, by re-analyzing the HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. We present here the strategy that we adopted to identify detections and potential candidates for follow-up observations, and we give a preliminary overview of our detections. We present a statistical analysis conducted to evaluate the confidence level on these detection and the completeness of our candidate search.

  11. HST Spectroscopy of Spot 1 on the Circumstellar Ring of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, E; Pun, C S J; Garnavich, P M; Challis, P M; Kirshner, R P; Raymond, J; Borkowski, K J; Chevalier, R A; Filippenko, A V; Fransson, C; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Phillips, M M; Sonneborn, G; Suntzeff, N B; Wang, L; Wheeler, J C; Michael, Eli; Cray, Richard Mc; Garnavich, Peter; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Raymond, John; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Chevalier, Roger; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Sonneborn, George; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Wang, Lifan

    2000-01-01

    We present ultraviolet and optical spectra of the first bright spot (PA = 29 degrees) on Supernova 1987A's equatorial circumstellar ring taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We interpret this spot as the emission produced by radiative shocks that occur where the supernova blast wave strikes an inward protrusion of the ring. The observed line widths and intensity ratios indicate the presence of radiative shocks with velocities ranging from 100 to 250 km s^-1 entering dense (> 10^4 cm^-3) gas. These observations, and future observations of the development of the spectra and line profiles, provide a unique opportunity to study the hydrodynamics of radiative shocks.

  12. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971-1995. The subjects' occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer.

  13. On the filtering and processing of dust by planetesimals 1. Derivation of collision probabilities for non-drifting planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, Tristan; Ormel, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are known to contain a significant mass in dust ranging from micron to centimeter size. Meteorites are evidence that individual grains of those sizes were collected and assembled into planetesimals in the young Solar System. Aims. We assess the efficiency of dust collection of a swarm of planetesimals with radii ranging from 1 to 10^3 km and beyond. Methods. We derive analytical expressions of the probability for drifting dust to collide with planetesimals. Results. For standard turbulence conditions (i.e. a turbulence parameter {\\alpha} = 10^-2), filtering is found to be inefficient, meaning that when crossing a minimum-mass solar nebula belt of planetesimals extending between 0.1 and 35 AU most dust particles are eventually accreted by the central star. However, if the disk is weakly turbulent ({\\alpha} = 10^-4) filtering becomes efficient in two regimes: (i) For planetesimals smaller than about 10km in size and dust of all sizes and (ii) for planetary embryos larger than about ...

  14. Dust Production from Sub-Solar to Super-Solar Metallicity in Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, A.; Bressan, A.; Marigo, P.; Girardi, L.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the dust chemistry and growth in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) star models, computed with the COLIBRI code, at varying initial mass and metallicity (Z = 0.001, 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06). A relevant result of our analysis deals with silicate production in M stars. We show that, in order to reproduce the observed trend between terminal velocities and mass-loss rates in Galactic M giants, one has to significantly reduce the efficiency of chemisputtering by H2 molecules, usually considered the most effective dust destruction mechanism. This conclusion is in agreement with the most recent laboratory results, which show that silicates may condense already at Tcond˜1400 K, rather than only at Tcond˜1000 K, as obtained by models that include chemisputtering. From analysis of the total dust ejecta, we find that the dust-to-gas ratios of the total ejecta from intermediate-mass stars are much less dependent on metallicity than usually assumed. In a broader context, our results are suitable for studying the dust enrichment of the interstellar medium provided by TP-AGB stars in both nearby and high-redshift galaxies.

  15. Condensation of dust in the ejecta of type II-P supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sarangi, Arkaprabha

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study the production of dust in Type II-P supernova by coupling the gas-phase chemistry to the dust nucleation and condensation phases. We consider two supernova progenitor masses with homogeneous and clumpy ejecta to assess the chemical type and quantity of dust that forms. Grain size distributions are derived as a function of post-explosion time. Methods: The chemistry of the gas phase and the simultaneous formation of dust clusters are described by a chemical network. The formation of key species (CO, SiO) and dust clusters of silicates, alumina, silica, metal carbides and sulphides, pure metals, and amorphous carbon is considered. The master equations describing the chemistry of the nucleation phase are coupled to a dust condensation formalism based on Brownian coagulation. Results: Type II-P supernovae produce dust grains of various chemical compositions and size distributions as a function of time. The grain size distributions gain in complexity with time, are slewed towards large grains, and d...

  16. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  17. A coal dust burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhrshev, B.M.; Khasnullin, I.G.; Krauze, Ye.G.; Ushakov, Yu.A.; Zinovyev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The burner for combustion of coal dust fuel, primarily, in rotating furnaces, contains coaxially disposed pipes, a branch pipe for feeding in the air mixture and a rotating mechanism. The first two pipes are switched in to an air source. The third pipe on the input end has an oblique section and the pipe may be rotated around an axis by a mechanism. The first pipe has ports and it may be moved in an axial direction. By installing the third pipe in the first and second positions, it is possible to direct the dust coming from the branch pipe along the central (the larger part of the dust) or the central pipe, respectively, which makes it possible to regulate the configuration of the torch and its temperature. Hot air is sucked from the furnace through the ports in the perforated first pipe to the mouth of the burner, which makes it possible to intensify combustion. By moving the fifitpipe to the right it is possible to overlap the ports with the projections and to rule out suction of the air. The possibility of regulating combustion in wide ranges makes it possible to reduce the expenditure of fuel by 2 to 3 percent.

  18. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  19. Exposure to crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations where silica and non-silica abrasives are used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnoff, Diane L; Kutz, Michelle K

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is a hazard common to many industries in Alberta but particularly so in abrasive blasting. Alberta occupational health and safety legislation requires the consideration of silica substitutes when conducting abrasive blasting, where reasonably practicable. In this study, exposure to crystalline silica during abrasive blasting was evaluated when both silica and non-silica products were used. The crystalline silica content of non-silica abrasives was also measured. The facilities evaluated were preparing metal products for the application of coatings, so the substrate should not have had a significant contribution to worker exposure to crystalline silica. The occupational sampling results indicate that two-thirds of the workers assessed were potentially over-exposed to respirable crystalline silica. About one-third of the measurements over the exposure limit were at the work sites using silica substitutes at the time of the assessment. The use of the silica substitute, by itself, did not appear to have a large effect on the mean airborne exposure levels. There are a number of factors that may contribute to over-exposures, including the isolation of the blasting area, housekeeping, and inappropriate use of respiratory protective equipment. However, the non-silica abrasives themselves also contain silica. Bulk analysis results for non-silica abrasives commercially available in Alberta indicate that many contain crystalline silica above the legislated disclosure limit of 0.1% weight of silica per weight of product (w/w) and this information may not be accurately disclosed on the material safety data sheet for the product. The employer may still have to evaluate the potential for exposure to crystalline silica at their work site, even when silica substitutes are used. Limited tests on recycled non-silica abrasive indicated that the silica content had increased. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of product recycling

  20. Clouds and Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote

  1. An observational study of dust nucleation in Mira ($o$ Ceti): II. Titanium oxides are negligible for nucleation at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiński, T; Schmidt, M R; Cherchneff, I; Wong, K T; Brünken, S; Menten, K M; Winters, J M; Gottlieb, C A; Patel, N A

    2016-01-01

    The formation of silicate dust in oxygen-rich envelopes of evolved stars is thought to be initiated by formation of seed particles that can withstand the high temperatures close to the stellar photosphere and act as condensation cores farther away from the star. Candidate species considered as first condensates are TiO and TiO$_2$. We aim to identify and characterize the circumstellar gas-phase chemistry of titanium that leads to the formation of solid titanium compounds in the envelope of $o$ Cet, the prototypical Mira, and seek an observational verification of whether titanium oxides play a major role in the onset of dust formation in M-type AGB stars. We present high angular-resolution ALMA observations at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths supplemented by APEX and Herschel spectra of the rotational features of TiO and TiO$_2$. In addition, circumstellar features of TiO and TiI are identified in optical spectra which cover multiple pulsation cycles of $o$ Cet. The submm ALMA data reveal TiO and TiO$_2$ bear...

  2. The wind speeds, dust content, and mass-loss rates of evolved AGB and RSG stars at varying metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Steven R; Zijlstra, Albert A; Green, James A; Wood, Peter R; Nanni, Ambra; Imai, Hiroshi; Whitelock, Patricia A; Matsuura, Mikako; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Gómez, José F

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our survey of 1612 MHz circumstellar OH maser emission from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants (RSGs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have discovered four new circumstellar maser sources in the LMC, and increased the number of reliable wind speeds from IR stars in the LMC from 5 to 13. Using our new wind speeds, as well as those from Galactic sources, we have derived an updated relation for dust driven winds: $v_{exp} \\propto Z L^{0.4}$. We compare the sub-solar metallicity LMC OH/IR stars with carefully selected samples of more metal-rich OH/IR stars, also at known distances, in the Galactic Centre and Galactic Bulge. For 8 of the Bulge stars we derive pulsation periods for the first time, using near-IR photometry from the VVV survey. We have modeled our LMC OH/IR stars and developed an empirical method of deriving gas-to-dust ratios and mass loss rates by scaling the models to the results from maser profiles. We have done this also for samples in the Galactic...

  3. Circumstellar disks and planets. Science cases for next-generation optical/infrared long-baseline interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Sebastian; Alexander, Richard; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Duchene, Gaspard; Dutrey, Anne; Mordasini, Christophe; Pantin, Eric; Pont, Frederic; Pott, Joerg-Uwe; Tatulli, Eric; Testi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of the interplay between the evolution of circumstellar disks and the formation of planets, both from the perspective of theoretical models and dedicated observations. Based on this, we identify and discuss fundamental questions concerning the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks and planets which can be addressed in the near future with optical and infrared long-baseline interferometers. Furthermore, the importance of complementary observations with long-baseline (sub)millimeter interferometers and high-sensitivity infrared observatories is outlined.

  4. On the central symmetry of the circumstellar envelope of RS Cnc

    CERN Document Server

    Nhung, Pham Tuyet; Winters, Jan Martin; Darriulat, Pierre; Gérard, Eric; Bertre, Thibaut Le

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star RS\\,Cnc. It reveals departures from central symmetry that turn out to be efficient tools for the exploration of some of the CSE properties. We use a wind model including a bipolar flow with a typical wind velocity of $\\sim$8 km\\,s$^{-1}$ decreasing to $\\sim$2 km\\,s$^{-1}$ near the equator to describe Doppler velocity spectral maps obtained by merging data collected at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Pico Veleta single dish radio telescope. Parameters describing the wind morphology and kinematics are obtained, together with the radial dependence of the gas temperature in the domain of the circumstellar envelope probed by the CO observations. Significant north-south central asymmetries are revealed by the analysis, which we quantify using a simple phenomenological description. The origin of such asymmetries is unclear.

  5. Tracing planet-induced structures in circumstellar disks using molecular lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ober, F; Uribe, A L; Klahr, H H

    2015-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are considered to be the birthplace of planets. Specific structures like spiral arms, gaps, and cavities are characteristic indicators of planet-disk interaction. Investigating these structures can provide insights into the growth of protoplanets and the physical properties of the disk. We investigate the feasibility of using molecular lines to trace planet-induced structures in circumstellar disks. Based on 3D hydrodynamic simulations of planet-disk interactions, we perform self-consistent temperature calculations and produce N-LTE molecular line velocity-channel maps and spectra of these disks using our new N-LTE line radiative transfer code Mol3D. Subsequently, we simulate ALMA observations using the CASA simulator. We consider two nearly face-on inclinations, 5 disk masses, 7 disk radii, and 2 different typical pre-main-sequence host stars (T Tauri, Herbig Ae). We calculate up to 141 individual velocity-channel maps for five molecules/isotopoloques in a total of 32 rotational transitio...

  6. A Correlation Between Circumstellar Disks and Rotation in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Dahm, S E; White, R J

    2011-01-01

    We present projected rotational velocities for 20 early-type (B8-A9) and 74 late-type (F2-M8) members of the ~5 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB Association derived from high dispersion optical spectra obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) on Keck I and the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan Clay telescope. The spectroscopic sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with infrared signatures of circumstellar disks, both primordial and debris, and non-excess sources of comparable spectral type. We merge projected rotational velocities, accretion diagnostics, and Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 micron photometry to examine the relationship between rotation and circumstellar disks. The rotational velocities are strongly correlated with spectral type, a proxy for mass, such that the median vsini for B8-A9 type stars is: 195(+/-)70 km/s, F2-K4: 37.8(+/-)7.4 km/s, K5-K9: 13.8(+21.3/-8.2) km/s, M0-M5:...

  7. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Nielsen, Eric L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Room 552, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goodsell, Stephen J. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: swolff9@jh.edu [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  8. Detection of circumstellar CH2CHCN, CH2CN, CH3CCH and H2CS

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Cernicharo, J; Pardo, J R; Guélin, M

    2007-01-01

    We report on the detection of vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN), cyanomethyl radical (CH2CN), methylacetylene (CH3CCH) and thioformaldehyde (H2CS) in the C-rich star IRC +10216. These species, which are all known to exist in dark clouds, are detected for the first time in the circumstellar envelope around an AGB star. The four molecules have been detected trough pure rotational transitions in the course of a 3 mm line survey carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The molecular column densities are derived by constructing rotational temperature diagrams. A detailed chemical model of the circumstellar envelope is used to analyze the formation of these molecular species. We have found column densities in the range 5 x 10^(12)- 2 x 10^(13) cm^(-2), which translates to abundances relative to H2 of several 10^(-9). The chemical model is reasonably successful in explaining the derived abundances through gas phase synthesis in the cold outer envelope. We also find that some of these molecules, CH2CHCN and CH2CN, are most pr...

  9. Hubble and Spitzer Observations of an Edge-on Circumstellar Disk around a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L; D'Alessio, Paola; Calvet, Nuria; McLeod, Kim K; Bohac, J; Forrest, William J; Hartmann, Lee; Sargent, B; Watson, Dan M

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of a circumstellar disk that is inclined close to edge-on around a young brown dwarf in the Taurus star-forming region. Using data obtained with SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, we find that the slope of the 0.8-2.5 um spectrum of the brown dwarf 2MASS J04381486+2611399 cannot be reproduced with a photosphere reddened by normal extinction. Instead, the slope is consistent with scattered light, indicating that circumstellar material is occulting the brown dwarf. By combining the SpeX data with mid-IR photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope and previously published millimeter data from Scholz and coworkers, we construct the spectral energy distribution for 2MASS J04381486+2611399 and model it in terms of a young brown dwarf surrounded by an irradiated accretion disk. The presence of both silicate absorption at 10 um and silicate emission at 11 um constrains the inclination of the disk to be ~70 deg, i.e. ~20 deg from edge-on. Additional evidence of the h...

  10. Testing circumstellar disk lifetimes in young embedded clusters associated with the Vela Molecular Ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; Codella, Claudio; Testi, Leonardo; Vanzi, Leonardo; Gomes, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Context. The Vela Molecular Ridge hosts a number of young embedded star clusters in the same evolutionary stage. Aims. The main aim of the present work is testing whether the fraction of members with a circumstellar disk in a sample of clusters in the cloud D of the Vela Molecular Ridge, is consistent with relations derived for larger samples of star clusters with an age spread. Besides, we want to constrain the age of the young embedded star clusters associated with cloud D. Methods. We carried out L (3.78 microns) photometry on images of six young embedded star clusters associated with cloud D of the Vela Molecular Ridge, taken with ISAAC at the VLT. These data are complemented with the available HKs photometry. The 6 clusters are roughly of the same size and appear to be in the same evolutionary stage. The fraction of stars with a circumstellar disk was measured in each cluster by counting the fraction of sources displaying a NIR excess in colour-colour (HKsL) diagrams. Results. The L photometry allowed us...

  11. The PDS 66 Circumstellar Disk as seen in Polarized Light with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Schuyler G; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Nielsen, Eric L; Wang, Jason; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary H; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Goodsell, Stephen J; Grady, Carol A; Graham, James R; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C; Hung, Li-Wei; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Schneider, Glenn; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2016-01-01

    We present H and K band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.12'' inner working angle (IWA) in H band, almost 3 times as close to the star as the previous HST observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.35'' effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the East side of the disk which is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the South possibly due to shadowing from material within the inner working angle. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  12. A Deep Chandra Observation of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A Type Ia Event with Circumstellar Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, S P; Hwang, U; Hughes, J P; Badenes, C; Laming, J M; Blondin, J M

    2007-01-01

    We present initial results of a 750 ks Chandra observation of the remnant of Kepler's supernova of AD 1604. The strength and prominence of iron emission, together with the absence of O-rich ejecta, demonstrate that Kepler resulted from a thermonuclear supernova, even though evidence for circumstellar interaction is also strong. We have analyzed spectra of over 100 small regions, and find that they fall into three classes. (1) The vast majority show Fe L emission between 0.7 and 1 keV and Si and S K alpha emission; we associate these with shocked ejecta. A few of these are found at or beyond the mean blast wave radius. (2) A very few regions show solar O/Fe abundance rations; these we associate with shocked circumstellar medium (CSM). Otherwise O is scarce. (3) A few regions are dominated by continuum, probably synchrotron radiation. Finally, we find no central point source, with a limit about 100 times fainter than the central object in Cas A. The evidence that the blast wave is interacting with CSM may indic...

  13. A search of diffuse bands in fullerene planetary nebulae: evidence for diffuse circumstellar bands

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Luis, J J; Rao, N Kameswara; Manchado, A; Cataldo, F

    2014-01-01

    Large fullerenes and fullerene-based molecules have been proposed as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C60 and C70) around some Planetary Nebulae (PNe) now enable us to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments. We search DIBs in the optical spectra towards three fullerene-containing PNe (Tc 1, M 1-20, and IC 418). Special attention is given to DIBs which are found to be unusually intense towards these fullerene sources. In particular, an unusually strong 4428A absorption feature is a common charateristic to fullerene PNe. Similarly to Tc 1, the strongest optical bands of neutral C60 are not detected towards IC 418. Our high-quality (S/N > 300) spectra for PN Tc 1 together with its large radial velocity permits us to search for the presence of diffuse bands of circumstellar origin which we refer to as diffuse circumstellar bands (DCBs). We report the first tentative detection of two DCBs at 4428 and 5780 A in the fullerene-rich ci...

  14. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  15. A New View of the Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the analysis of a uniform set of both previously-known and newly-discovered scattered-light echoes, detected within 30" of SN 1987A in ten years of optical imaging, and with which we have constructed the most complete three-dimensional model of the progenitor's circumstellar environment. Surrounding the SN is a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``peanut,'' which we believe is the contact discontinuity between the red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior, the innermost circumstellar material lies along a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41o south and 8o east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. Th...

  16. V409 Tau As Another AA Tau: Photometric Observations of Stellar Occultations by the Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Stassun, Keivan G; Siverd, Robert J; Cargile, Phillip; Weintraub, David A; Beatty, Thomas G; Gaudi, B Scott; Mamajek, Eric E; Sanchez, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    AA Tau is a well studied young stellar object that presents many of the photometric characteristics of a Classical T Tauri star (CTTS), including short-timescale stochastic variability attributed to spots and/or accretion as well as long duration dimming events attributed to occultations by vertical features (e.g., warps) in its circumstellar disk. We present new photometric observations of AA Tau from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope North (KELT-North) which reveal a deep, extended dimming event in 2011, which we show supports the interpretation by Bouvier et al. (2013) of an occultation by a high-density feature in the circumstellar disk located >8 AU from the star. We also present KELT-North observations of V409 Tau, a relatively unstudied young stellar object also in Taurus-Auriga, showing short timescale erratic variability, along with two separate long and deep dimming events, one from January 2009 through late October 2010, and the other from March 2012 until at least September 2013. We interp...

  17. BANYAN. VIII. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Anne; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Doyon, René; Chen, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082$-$4337102 (M4.5), J08561384$-$1342242 (M8$\\,\\gamma$), J12474428$-$3816464 (M9$\\,\\gamma$) and J02265658$-$5327032 (L0$\\,\\delta$), and are candidate members of the TW Hya ($\\sim10\\pm 3\\,$Myr), Columba ($\\sim 42^{+6}_{-4}\\,$Myr) and Tucana-Horologium ($\\sim 45\\pm 4\\,$Myr) associations, with masses of $120$ and $13-18\\,M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$. The M8$-$L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are po...

  18. Effects of stellar flybys on planetary systems: 3D modeling of the circumstellar disks damping effects

    CERN Document Server

    Picogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flybys in star clusters are suspected to affect the orbital architecture of planetary systems causing eccentricity excitation and orbital misalignment between the planet orbit and the equatorial plane of the star. We explore whether the impulsive changes in the orbital elements of planets, caused by an hyperbolic stellar flyby, can be fully damped by the circumstellar disk surrounding the star. The time required to disperse stellar clusters is in fact comparable to circumstellar disk's lifetime. We have modelled in 3D a system made of a solar type star surrounded by a low density disk with a giant planet embedded in it approached on a hyperbolic encounter trajectory by a second star, of similar mass and with its own disk. We focus on extreme configurations where a very deep stellar flyby perturbs a Jovian planet on an external orbit. This allows to test in full the ability of the disk to erase the effects of the stellar encounter. We find that the amount of mass lost by the disk during the stellar fly...

  19. MSHA review of silicosis and dust control in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaxton, R. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Silicosis has become a forgotten disease. Many miners, when told of the risks of silicosis, indicate that they have never heard of the disease. A 1992 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ALERT, however, pointed out that drilling in rock is hazardous to miners due to exposure to excessive amounts of silica-containing dust. Recent Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and NIOSH surveys also indicate that silicosis continues to be a significant health risk faced by miners. A joint field study conducted by NIOSH and MSHA in the Johnstown, Pennsylvania area found 8 cases of silicosis among 150 surveyed surface coal miners. Additional x-ray surveillance studies found 6 cases of disease among 234 current and former surface coal miners in the Poteau, Oklahoma area and 3 cases among 66 surface coal miners in the northern West Virginia area. These studies cannot be used to determine quantitative risk, or prevalence of the disease. They do, however, indicate the unacceptable reality that coal miners continue to develop silicosis. Surface miners are not the only miners potentially exposed to levels of silica-containing dust that may lead to development of silicosis. NIOSH and MSHA have received reports of disease among underground coal miners. Several of these cases involve coal miners under age 50. The focus of this presentation is to highlight the specific initiatives undertaken by MSHA`s Coal Mine Safety and Health to address this health hazard.

  20. Influence of solar wind ions on photoemission charging of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouzak, Libor; Richterova, Ivana; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2016-04-01

    The lunar surface covered by a layer of dust grains is exposed to solar wind particles and photons coming from the Sun on the sunlit side. Solar wind ions cause sputtering of dust grains or can be implanted into grains. We suppose that as a consequence of ion implantation, an additional energy is transferred to grains, more valence band electrons are excited, and the photoelectron yield is increased. An increase of the photoelectron current causes the enhanced density of electrons that form a sheet above the illuminated lunar surface. Thus, an influence of solar wind ions on the Debye length and photoelectron sheet formation is expected. We present laboratory estimations of work functions and photoelectron yields of a single micron-sized silica grain before and after ion implantation. The silica grain used as a lunar simulant is caught in the electrodynamic trap. Grain's specific charge is evaluated by an analysis of the grain motion within the trap, while its work function is determined from observations of a time evolution of the charge-to-mass ratio when the grain is irradiated by photons of different emission lines. By comparison of the photoelectron current (from grain) with photon flux (from UV source), we establish the photoelectron yield of the trapped object. The influence of ion implantation is thoroughly analyzed and discussed.

  1. Silica Aerogel: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti L. Gurav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogels have drawn a lot of interest both in science and technology because of their low bulk density (up to 95% of their volume is air, hydrophobicity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and optical transparency. Aerogels are synthesized from molecular precursors by sol-gel processing. Special drying techniques must be applied to replace the pore liquid with air while maintaining the solid network. Supercritical drying is most common; however, recently developed methods allow removal of the liquid at atmospheric pressure after chemical modification of the inner surface of the gels, leaving only a porous silica network filled with air. Therefore, by considering the surprising properties of aerogels, the present review addresses synthesis of silica aerogels by the sol-gel method, as well as drying techniques and applications in current industrial development and scientific research.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bimodal Mesoporous Silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaofang; GUO Cuili; WANG Xiaoli; WU Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with controllable bimodal pore size distribution was synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as chemical template for small mesopores and silica gel as physical template for large mesopores.The structure of synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements.The experimental results show that bimodal mesoporous silica consists of small mesopores of about 3 nm and large mesopores of about 45 nm.The small mesopores which were formed on the external surface and pore walls of the silica gel had similar characters with those of MCM-41,while large mesopores were inherited from parent silica gel material.The pore size distribution of the synthesized silica can be adjusted by changing the relative content of TEOS and silica gel or the feeding sequence of silica gel and NH4OH.

  3. Optimizing Saharan dust CALIPSO retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Amiridis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate improvements in CALIPSO dust extinction retrievals over North Africa and Europe when corrections are applied regarding the Saharan dust lidar ratio assumption, the separation of dust portion in detected dust mixtures, and the averaging scheme introduced in the Level 3 CALIPSO product. First, a universal, spatially constant lidar ratio of 58 sr instead of 40 sr is applied to individual Level 2 dust-related backscatter products. The resulting aerosol optical depths show an improvement compared with synchronous and co-located AERONET measurements. An absolute bias of the order of −0.03 has been found, improving on the statistically significant biases of the order of −0.10 reported in the literature for the original CALIPSO product. When compared with the MODIS co-located AOD product, the CALIPSO negative bias is even less for the lidar ratio of 58 sr. After introducing the new lidar ratio for the domain studied, we examine potential improvements to the climatological CALIPSO Level 3 extinction product: (1 by introducing a new methodology for the calculation of pure dust extinction from dust mixtures and (2 by applying an averaging scheme that includes zero extinction values for the non-dust aerosol types detected. The scheme is applied at a horizontal spatial resolution of 1° × 1° for ease of comparison with the instantaneous and co-located dust extinction profiles simulated by the BSC-DREAM8b dust model. Comparisons show that the extinction profiles retrieved with the proposed methodology reproduce the well-known model biases per sub-region examined. The very good agreement of the proposed CALIPSO extinction product with respect to AERONET, MODIS and the BSC-DREAM8b dust model, makes this dataset an ideal candidate for the provision of an accurate and robust multi-year dust climatology over North Africa and Europe.

  4. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass $(\\simeq 10^{-12} $m$^2/$W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The non\\-li\\-near coefficient can be increased to values in the range of $10^{-10} $m$^2/$W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  5. Niobia-silica and silica membranes for gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of ceramic membranes suitable for hydrogen separation and CO2 recovery from gaseous streams. The research work was focused on the three different parts of which gas selective ceramic membranes are composed, i.e., the microporous gas selective silica layer, the m

  6. An Interferometric Study of the Fomalhaut Inner Debris Disk. I. Near-Infrared Detection of Hot Dust with VLTI/VINCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, Olivier; Mennesson, Bertrand; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Kervella, Pierre; Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2009-10-01

    The innermost parts of dusty debris disks around main-sequence stars are currently poorly known due to the high contrast and small angular separation with their parent stars. Using near-infrared interferometry, we aim to detect the signature of hot dust around the nearby A4 V star Fomalhaut, which has already been suggested to harbor a warm dust population in addition to a cold dust ring located at about 140 AU. Archival data obtained with the VINCI instrument at the VLTI are used to study the fringe visibility of the Fomalhaut system at projected baseline lengths ranging from 4 m to 140 m in the K band. A significant visibility deficit is observed at short baselines with respect to the expected visibility of the sole stellar photosphere. This is interpreted as the signature of resolved circumstellar emission, producing a relative flux of 0.88% ± 0.12% with respect to the stellar photosphere. While our interferometric data cannot directly constrain the morphology of the excess emission source, complementary data from the literature allow us to discard an off-axis point-like object as the source of circumstellar emission. We argue that the thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut is the most plausible explanation for the detected excess. Our study also provides a revised limb-darkened diameter for Fomalhaut (θLD = 2.223 ± 0.022 mas), taking into account the effect of the resolved circumstellar emission. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (public VINCI commissioning data).

  7. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  8. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  9. Early Dust Formation and a Massive Progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, J E; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Montiel, E; Wesson, R; Sugerman, Ben E K; Barlow, M J; Matsuura, M; Drass, H

    2015-01-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multi-peaked H-alpha and H-beta spectral emission lines appear between 64 - 84 days post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined 30-45 degrees from edge-on. After day 84 an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing CSM. Radiative transfer modeling reveals both ~1.5 x 10^-4 Msun of pre-existing dust located ~ 10^16.7 cm away and ~ 5 x 10^-5 Msun of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 years reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 Msun may indicate a ...

  10. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 $\\mu$m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 $\\mu$m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the p...

  11. Swift Ultraviolet Observations of Supernova 2014J in M82: Large Extinction from Interstellar Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Wang, Lifan; Breeveld, Alice; de Pasquale, Massimiliano; Hartmann, Dieter H; Krisciunas, Kevin; Kuin, N P M; Milne, Peter A; Page, Mat; Siegel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet (UV) photometry and spectra of the very nearby and highly reddened supernova (SN) 2014J in M82 obtained with the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Comparison of the UVOT grism spectra of SN~2014J with Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN2011fe or UVOT grism spectra of SN~2012fr are consistent with an extinction law with a low value of R_V~1.4. The high reddening causes the detected photon distribution in the broadband UV filters to have a much longer effective wavelength than for an unreddened SN. The light curve evolution is consistent with this shift and does not show a flattening due to photons being scattered back into the line of sight. The light curve shapes and color evolution are inconsistent with a contribution scattered into the line of sight by circumstellar dust. We conclude that most or all of the high reddening must come from interstellar dust. We show that even for a single dust composition, there is not a unique reddening law caused by circums...

  12. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks. III. The Case of GG Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from a measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere. We simulate a suite of systems configured with semimajor axes of either a = 62 AU (“wide”) or a = 32 AU (“close”), and with assumed orbital eccentricity of either e = 0 or e = 0.3. Each simulation follows the evolution for ˜6500-7500 yr, corresponding to about three orbits of the torus around the center of mass. Our simulations show that strong, sharply defined spiral structures are generated from the stirring action of the binary and that, in some cases, these structures fragment into 1-2 massive clumps. The torus quickly fragments into several dozen such fragments in configurations in which either the binary is replaced by a single star of equal mass, or radiative heating is neglected. The spiral structures extend inwards to the circumstellar environment as large scale material streams for which most material is found on trajectories that return it to the torus on a timescale of 1-200 yr, with only a small fraction accreting into the circumstellar environment. The spiral structures also propagate outwards through the torus, generating net outwards mass flow, and eventually losing coherence at large distances from the stars. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape over most of its evolution. In all configurations, accretion onto the stars

  13. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  14. Ringing phenomenon in silica microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhua Dong; Changling Zou; Jinming Cui; Yong Yang; Zhengfu Han; Guangcan Guo

    2009-01-01

    Whispering gallery modes in silica microspheres are excited by a tunable continuous-wave laser through the fiber taper. Ringing phenomenon can be observed with high frequency sweeping speed. The thermal nonlinearity in the microsphere can enhance this phenomenon. Our measurement results agree very well with the theoretical predictions by the dynamic equation.

  15. Hot Dust! Late-Time Infrared Emission From Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori; Skrutskie, M. F.; Chevalier, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Supernovae light curves typically peak and fade in the course of several months. Some supernovae , however, exhibit late-time infrared emission that in some cases can last for several years. These supernovae tend to be of the Type IIn subclass, which is defined by narrow hydrogen and helium emission lines arising from a dense, pre-existing circumstellar medium excited by the supernova radiation. Such a late-time ``IR excess'' with respect to the optical blackbody counterpart typically indicates the presence of warm dust. The origin and heating mechanism of the dust is not, however, always well constrained. In this talk, I will explore several scenarios that explain the observed late-time emission. In particular, I will discuss the case of the Type IIn SN 2005ip, which has displayed an ``IR excess'' for over 3 years. The results allow us to interpret the progenitor system and better understand the late stages of stellar evolution. Much of the data used for this analysis were obtained with TripleSpec, a medium-resolution near-infrared spectrograph located at Apache Point Observatory, NM, and FanCam, a JHK imager located at Fan Mountain Observatory, just outside of Charlottesville, VA. These two instruments were designed, fabricated, built, and commissioned by our instrumentation group at the University of Virginia. I will also spend some time discussing these instruments. I would like to thank the following for financial support of this work throughout my graduate career: NASA GSRP, NSF AAG-0607737, Spitzer PID 50256, Achievement Reward for College Scientists (ARCS), and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium.

  16. Searching for Dust around Hyper Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Venn, Kim A; Divell, Mike; Cote, Stephanie; Lambert, David L; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for metal-poor stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] $\\lesssim-5$, as well as two CEMP-no stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excess. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g. a warm debris disk ($T\\!\\le\\!290$ K), or debris disks with inner radii $\\le1$ AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-AGB spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g. a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 microns is detected at ...

  17. Gas absorption and dust extinction towards the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenberger, Birgit; Alves, Joao; Wolk, Scott; Meingast, Stefan; Getman, Konstantin; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    We characterise the relation between the gas and dust content of the interstellar medium towards young stellar objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster. X-ray observations provide estimates of the absorbing equivalent hydrogen column density N_H based on spectral fits. Near-infrared extinction values are calculated from intrinsic and observed colour magnitudes (J-H) and (H-K_s) as given by the VISTA Orion A survey. A linear fit of the correlation between column density and extinction values A_V yields an estimate of the N_H/A_V ratio. We investigate systematic uncertainties of the results by describing and (if possible) quantifying the influence of circumstellar material and the adopted extinction law, X-ray models, and elemental abundances on the N_H/A_V ratio. Assuming a Galactic extinction law with R_V=3.1 and solar abundances by Anders & Grevesse (1989), we deduce an N_H/A_V ratio of (1.39 +- 0.14) x 10^21 cm^-2 mag^-1 for Class III sources in the Orion Nebula Cluster where the given error does not include...

  18. ALMA view of the circumstellar environment of the post-common-envelope-evolution binary system HD101584

    CERN Document Server

    Olofsson, H; Maercker, M; Humphreys, E M L; Lindqvist, M; Nyman, L; Ramstedt, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the circumstellar evolution of the binary HD101584, consisting of a post-AGB star and a low-mass companion, which is most likely a post-common-envelope-evolution system. We used ALMA observations of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=2-1 lines and the 1.3mm continuum to determine the morphology, kinematics, masses, and energetics of the circumstellar environment. The circumstellar medium has a bipolar hour-glass structure, seen almost pole-on, formed by an energetic jet, about 150 km/s. We conjecture that the circumstellar morphology is related to an event that took place about 500 year ago, possibly a capture event where the companion spiraled in towards the AGB star. However, the kinetic energy of the accelerated gas exceeds the released orbital energy, and, taking into account the expected energy transfer efficiency of the process, the observed phenomenon does not match current common-envelope scenarios. This suggests that another process must augment, or even dominate, the ejection process. A significant...

  19. HST/STIS results on circumstellar disks and jets, future coronography and technology for IR multi-object spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    Results of studies of circumstellar disks and jets obtained by HST/STIS visible coronagraphy and UV spectroscopy, and by ground-based Fabry-Perot coronagraphy will be presented. Future improvements in coronagraphy will be discussed. The development of microshutter arrays as programmable multi-object selectors for the NGST near IR spectrograph will be described.

  20. Chemistry and distribution of daughter species in the circumstellar envelopes of O-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Millar, Tom J.; Heays, Alan N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Context. Thanks to the advent of Herschel and ALMA, new high-quality observations of molecules present in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are being reported that reveal large differences from the existing chemical models. New molecular data and more comprehensive models of the chemistry in circumstellar envelopes are now available. Aims: The aims are to determine and study the important formation and destruction pathways in the envelopes of O-rich AGB stars and to provide more reliable predictions of abundances, column densities, and radial distributions for potentially detectable species with physical conditions applicable to the envelope surrounding IK Tau. Methods: We use a large gas-phase chemical model of an AGB envelope including the effects of CO and N2 self-shielding in a spherical geometry and a newly compiled list of inner-circumstellar envelope parent species derived from detailed modeling and observations. We trace the dominant chemistry in the expanding envelope and investigate the chemistry as a probe for the physics of the AGB phase by studying variations of abundances with mass-loss rates and expansion velocities. Results: We find a pattern of daughter molecules forming from the photodissociation products of parent species with contributions from ion-neutral abstraction and dissociative recombination. The chemistry in the outer zones differs from that in traditional PDRs in that photoionization of daughter species plays a significant role. With the proper treatment of self-shielding, the N → N2 and C+→ CO transitions are shifted outward by factors of 7 and 2, respectively, compared with earlier models. An upper limit on the abundance of CH4 as a parent species of (≲2.5 × 10-6 with respect to H2) is found for IK Tau, and several potentially observable molecules with relatively simple chemical links to other parent species are determined. The assumed stellar mass-loss rate, in particular, has an impact on the