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Sample records for circumstances influence health

  1. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    -twin, while there seemed to be no twin pair difference in dental status. This suggests that the associations of adult social class with functional limitations, poor self-rated health and fatigue may partly be due to causal effects related to adult social class exposures, while social class differences......This study examines the joint and separate contribution of social class in early and adult life to differences in health and physical function in middle-aged men. We use data from the Metropolit project which includes men born in 1953 in Copenhagen and a study of middle-aged Danish twins (MADT...... and fatigue than men from the highest social classes. When childhood and adult social class were mutually adjusted, the estimates for both measures were attenuated. Adjustment for living without a partner, body mass index (BMI) and smoking in midlife, which were also related to the four outcomes, had marginal...

  2. Environmental circumstances influencing tic expression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caurín, Belén; Serrano, Mercedes; Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio; Campistol, Jaume; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén

    2014-03-01

    To assess the clinical features and severity of tics and environmental factors influencing tic expression in a cohort of children with tic disorders. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of children and adolescents (N = 92) with tic disorders referred to the outpatient clinic of a tertiary-level paediatric centre in Barcelona. The severity of tics was evaluated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). A questionnaire including a list of environmental factors and common daily activities that might influence tic occurrence was completed for patients greater than 5 years old. Children were classified as having Tourette syndrome (TS) (52 patients), chronic motor or phonic tics (22 patients) and tics of less than 12 months' duration (18 patients). Tics worsened with stressful situations, activities related to school, playing video games and watching TV. A significant proportion of children reported a reduction in tics while they were concentrating on artistic or creative activities or when playing sports and participating in outdoor activities. The YGTSS scores were higher for TS patients (P performance was associated with TS (p = .043) and higher scores on the YGTSS (P = .018), as well as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P = .007). Several activities of daily living were identified as modifying tic severity in children and may be important clues for tic management. In a subgroup of children with TS, tics were associated with significant morbidity and poor academic performance. Our results emphasise the importance of developing specific school programmes and tailored recommendations in patients with TS. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The contribution of childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour to educational health differences in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Härkänen Tommi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life course approach emphasises the contribution of circumstances in childhood and youth to adult health inequalities. However, there is still a lot to know of the contribution of living conditions in childhood and youth to adult health inequalities and how later environmental and behavioural factors are connected with the effects of earlier circumstances. This study aims to assess a how much childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour contribute to educational health differences and b to which extent the effect of childhood circumstances on educational health differences is shared with the effects of later living conditions and health behaviour in young adults. Methods The data derived from the Health 2000 Survey represent the Finnish young adults aged 18–29 in 2000. The analyses were carried out on 68% (n = 1282 of the sample (N = 1894. The cross-sectional data based on interviews and questionnaires include retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The outcome measure was poor self-rated health. Results Poor self-rated health was much more common among subjects with primary education only than among those in the highest educational category (OR 4.69, 95% CI 2.63 to 8.62. Childhood circumstances contributed substantially (24% to the health differences between these educational groups. Nearly two thirds (63% of this contribution was shared with behavioural factors adopted by early adulthood, and 17% with current circumstances. Health behaviours, smoking especially, were strongly contributed to educational health differences. Conclusion To develop means for avoiding undesirable trajectories along which poor health and health differences develop, it is necessary to understand the pathways to health inequalities and know how to improve the living conditions of families with children.

  4. Holistic approach to human health and disease: life circumstances and inner processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Human body is dinamic, energetic system under the influences of food intake, environment, interpersonal relationships, inheritance, culture and human activities. The environmental and psychosocioeconomic factors affect the individual's health altering the performance of biological systems effecting disease risk and disease progression. The concerns in modern society are more and more devoted to stress and its influences on health. Life span is extended but the quality of life, well-being and productivity usually do not follow that extention. Body is a flow of energy and dynamic communications with inside and outside environment. The way to improve health is to address its social determinants. Only in sinergy the questions about disease and health could be better understood. It is not enough to diagnose illness, important is to diagnose circumstances and environmental influences that consequently lead to disease. Emotional disruptions make base for physical disruptions. Social gradient and stress involving personal life and work is a significant factor in physical and mental illness. The best indicator of the successful social policy result is the sense of well-being of the inhabitants. Holistic approach to a patient and discussions about the influences in patient's life can lead to a better health outcome. Anthropology studies people's habits, means and conditions of life and can be the bridge between the medicine and the life circumstances that put people's health at risk providing important insights into health and disease and assist in public health policies, preventive measures and health improvement of the populations.

  5. Associations between deprived life circumstances, wellbeing and self-rated health in a socially marginalized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pia V; Grønbæk, Morten; Curtis, Tine

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies of self-rated health among socially marginalized people provide insufficient understandings of what influences their self-rated health. This study aimed to examine how disadvantaged life circumstances (homelessness, substance abuse, poverty) and general well-being were associated with poor self-rated health among the socially marginalized. In a nationwide survey in Denmark, 1348 users of shelters, drop-in centres, treatment centres and social psychiatric centres answered a self-administered questionnaire. We analysed data using logistic regression. Disadvantaged life circumstances and well-being were associated with self-rated health, also when controlling for illness, mental disorder and age. Male respondents exposed to two or more disadvantaged life circumstances had higher odds of poor self-rated health [odds ratio (OR): 2.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80-4.87] than males exposed to fewer disadvantages. A low sense of personal well-being implied higher odds of poor self-rated health among both men and women. Among men, not showering regularly (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.17-2.79), and among women, not eating varied food (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.20-4.20) and exposure to physical violence (borderline significant) implied higher odds of poor self-rated health. Male and female respondents reporting lack of sleep and loneliness (borderline significant among women) had higher odds of poor self-rated health. The poor self-rated health among socially marginalized is strongly associated with massive social problems, poor living conditions and poor well-being. This study elucidates the need for more broadly based and holistic initiatives by both the health sector and the social services, incorporating health promotion initiatives into social work.

  6. [Health risks in different living circumstances of mothers. Analyses based on a population study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the living circumstances ('Lebenslagen') in mothers which are associated with elevated health risks. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n = 3129) with underage children. By means of a two-step cluster analysis ten different maternal living circumstances were assessed which proved to be distinct with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position, employment status and family-related factors. Out of the ten living circumstances, one could be attributed to higher socioeconomic status (SES), while five were assigned to a middle SES and four to a lower SES. In line with previous findings, mothers with a high SES predominantly showed the best health while mothers with a low SES tended to be at higher health risk with respect to subjective health, mental health (anxiety and depression), obesity and smoking. However, there were important health differences between the different living circumstances within the middle and lower SES. In addition, varying health risks were found among different living circumstances of single mothers, pointing to the significance of family and job-related living conditions in establishing health risks. With this exploratory analysis strategy small-scale living conditions could be detected which were associated with specific health risks. This approach seemed particularly suitable to provide a more precise definition of target groups for health promotion. The findings encourage a more exrensive application of the concept of living conditions in medical sociology research as well as health monitoring.

  7. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that the association between social disadvantage in childhood and adult mortality could come about through processes related to the family environment in which the child is raised. This study examines the relationship of fathers' social class with health behaviour in middle...... age and assesses the potential mediating role of cognitive function, educational status and social integration in young adulthood in these relationships....

  8. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  9. The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shouls, S; Whitehead, M; Burström, B

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private...... households. The main measures are self perceived general health, limiting long-standing illness, poverty and working status....

  10. Mental health trajectories and their embeddedness in work and family circumstances: a latent state-trait approach to life-course trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine

    2014-09-01

    Mental health trajectories are known to be influenced by work and family circumstances. However, few studies have examined both of these influences simultaneously in a longitudinal manner. The life-course perspective stresses the importance of examining trajectories in terms of both stable and dynamic components. In this article we use structural equation models (latent state-trait, LST) to distinguish the stable and situational components of mental health trajectories and hypothesise that situational mental health is influenced by satisfaction with work and family, and this effect differs by gender. An analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of 1616 working Swiss residents (2000-2006) shows that mental health trajectories are mostly stable and only slightly sensitive to situational influences. However, situational influences in a given wave do predict situational influences in the next wave. Satisfaction with work and family influences situational mental health in both genders, but the impact is greater for men. In conclusion, the LST approach allows for the examination of mental health trajectories from a life-course perspective by distinguishing stable and situational components. Mental health trajectories are more stable and constant than they are dependent on work and family circumstances, and men are more sensitive to family circumstances than women. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons.

  11. Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4% residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income < US$ 240.00 and higher-income seniors were assessed. Social network stood out as a major factor in the structure of self-rated health among the poorest. Psychological distress was independently associated with worse self-rated health among the poorest, while perceptions by the wealthiest were broader, including psychological distress, insomnia, Trypanosoma cruzi infection, use of medications, and access to health services. Physician visits and hospitalizations were associated with self-rated health in both groups. Our results show important differences in the structure of self-rated health according to socioeconomic circumstances and reinforce the need for policies to reduce health inequalities in later life.

  12. Exceptional circumstance drug dispensing: history and expenditures of the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carias, Claudia Mezleveckas; Vieira, Fabíola Sulpino; Giordano, Carlos V; Zucchi, Paola

    2011-04-01

    To describe the technical aspects of the Exceptional Circumstance Drug Dispensing Program of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, especially with respect to the cost of dispensed medication. Technical information was obtained from the ordinances that regulate the Program. Expenditure from 2000 to 2007 was obtained from the Sistema Único de Saúde's (Unified Healthcare System) Outpatient Information System. All drugs dispensed between 1993 and 2009 and the amount and cost of each procedure were evaluated, based on information from the high-complexity procedure authorization of each of the country's states. The Program changed with the increase in the number of pharmacological agents and presentations distributed by, and the number of diseases contemplated in the program. In 1993, the program distributed 15 pharmacological agents in 31 distinct presentations. This number increased to 109 agents in 243 presentations in 2009. Total Ministry of Health expenditure with medications was R$1,410,181,600.74 in 2007, almost twice the amount spent in 2000, R$684,975,404.43. Diseases whose expenditure increased in the period included chronic renal insufficiency, transplantation, and hepatitis C. The Exceptional Circumstance Drug Dispensing Program is in constant transformation, aimed at building instruments and strategies that can ensure and expand access to medication among the population. Alternatives should be sought to decrease the financial impact of the Program to a level that does not impact other sectors of the health care system, given the high cost associated with novel interventions.

  13. From macro to micro: the health of Swedish lone mothers during changing economic and social circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Sara; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Fritzell, Johan; Burström, Bo

    2007-12-01

    The deep recession in Sweden in the early 1990s led to high unemployment levels. In addition, policy changes and reductions in welfare benefits increased costs of living. These changes may have affected lone mothers to a greater extent than other groups. How have these changes in the social context and policy context impacted on the health of lone mothers in comparison with couple mothers in Sweden between 1983 and 2001? Survey data on 19,192 mothers over the period of 1983-2001 were used to study changes in individual economic and social circumstances and self-rated health (SRH) with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality and severe morbidity were studied using registers for the whole population. Three cohorts of mothers aged 20-54 years (starting 1985, 1990 and 1996) were formed. Age-adjusted risk ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. The employment rate among lone mothers declined from 1983 to 2001. At the same time, prevalence of self-reported financial problems and exposure to violence increased. Lone mothers reported worse SRH and had higher risks of hospitalisation and mortality than couple mothers in all time periods. Despite changes in social context and policy context causing an increase of health detrimental exposures, and deteriorated levels of SRH 1980-2001 for lone mothers, there was no evidence of increased differentials over time between lone and couple mothers in less than good SRH, hospitalisation or mortality. Three alternative explanations are discussed: the Swedish welfare state still acts as a buffer for ill health; latency makes the follow-up time too short; and finally, the lack of increased differentials is due to methodological reasons.

  14. Study of the circumstance influence on the elemental distribution in ancient animal bone using μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lingtong; Feng Songlin; Li Li; Xu Wei; Feng Xiangqian; Xie Guoxi

    2010-01-01

    Elemental analysis of archaeological bone plays an important role in the study of the dietary habits of ancient animals. The elemental characteristic of diagenetic skeletons depends on the surrounding circumstance. The study of environmental influence on the elemental concentration of ancient bone is significant. In this paper, the diagenetic influence on archaeological skeletons is analyzed by microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). The results show that the enamel is an excellent barrier to the diagenesis and the element Sr in bone isn't susceptible to contamination from the buried environment. (authors)

  15. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health.

  16. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife: the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    at participants' birth and assessments of cognitive performance, education and social integration in early adulthood. In 2004, 6292 of these men participated in a follow-up survey on health and behaviour. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of father's social class with smoking, alcohol...... class influences adult smoking, alcohol preference and food intake, and a major part of the effect is mediated through cognitive function and education....

  17. Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2) (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654.8, pmental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence

  18. Attributes and circumstances that induce inappropriate health services demand: a study of the health sector in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Djalma S; Soares, Eduardo J O; Júnior, Gileno Ferraz; Medeiros, Denise D

    2015-02-18

    The current economic and social context has required health systems to provide top quality services and to be efficient in controlling costs. An obstacle to achieve these goals is the inappropriate health services demand. This study aims to present these inappropriate health service demand determinants from data on telephone calls made to a medical advice call centre. This study used a Brazilian medical advice call centre data sample in the period of November and December 2012 (n = 19690), which supplied data on the user's initial request, the physician's recommendation, information on the patient and circumstances (the day and time of the day of the telephone call). The convergence between user intent and medical recommendation consists in adequate demand; otherwise the divergence consists in an inadequate one. In this way, using a logistic regression model, the critical factors that determine inappropriate health services request could be estimated. In general, the user's initial intent is the most critical for the inappropriate health system demand occurrence: the greater the complexity of the patient's initial intent, the greater the chance the intent is wrong: (OR: 1.160; 95% CI: 1.113-1.210). With regard to the social characteristics, men are more likely to make inappropriate requests (OR: 1.102; 95% CI: 1038-1169); as well as youngsters are more likely to use the system incorrectly (OR = .993; 95% CI: .992 - .994). Regarding the circumstances (day and time of the call), requests in the final hours of the day and on days close to the weekend are more likely to be the inappropriate ones (OR: 1.082 for each six hour increase; 95% CI: 1.049-1.116) and weekday (OR: 1.017 for each day increase; 95% CI: 1.002-1.032). The critical profile for the inappropriate use occurrence consists of males and youngsters, who use the health service in the final hours of the day and at weekends, and mainly want to use more complex services. A practical implication of this

  19. Family size and perinatal circumstances, as mental health risk factors in a Scottish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel Vincent; Morris, Carole; Hattie, Joanne; Stark, Cameron

    2012-06-01

    Higher maternal parity and younger maternal age have each been observed to be associated with subsequent offspring suicidal behaviour. This study aimed to establish if these, and other variables from the perinatal period, together with family size, are also associated with other psychiatric morbidity. Linked datasets of the Scottish Morbidity Record and Scottish death records were used to follow up, into young adulthood, a birth cohort of 897,685. In addition to the index maternity records, mothers' subsequent pregnancy records were identified, allowing family size to be estimated. Three independent outcomes were studied: suicide, self-harm, and psychiatric hospital admission. Data were analysed using Cox regression. Younger maternal age and higher maternal parity were independently associated with increased risk in offspring of suicide, of self-harm and of psychiatric admission. Risk of psychiatric admission was higher amongst those from families of three or more, but, compared with only children, those with two or three siblings had a lower risk of self harm. Perinatal and family composition factors have a broad influence on mental health outcomes. These data suggest that the existence of younger, as well as elder siblings may be important.

  20. Influence of production circumstances and economic evaluation criteria on economic comparison of breeds and breed-crosses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahi, A.K.; Koskey, I.S.; Cardoso, V.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ranking of genotypes (i.e., breeds and breed crosses) for economic performance depends on the production circumstances of the herd and the criteria for economic evaluation. In this study, the effects of evaluation criteria and production circumstance are quantified using data from the literature

  1. The associations between early life circum-stances and later life health and employment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages

  2. Circumstances and underlying causes of suicidal attempts in teen patients of mental health facilities – a psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Stradomska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper brings together and summarizes the results of a study carried out in 2011–2015, aimed at analysing circumstances and reasons underlying adolescent suicidal attempts. Material and methods: The studied group comprised 115 patients hospitalised due to having attempted suicide, aged 13–19 years old, based in 3 voivodeships, namely the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Lubelskie Voivodeship, and Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The results of the study have been subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis has demonstrated that in the opinion of 95% of the patients another suicide previously committed in their environment inspired their own suicidal attempt. A significant proportion of the participants of the study (88% claims suicidal behaviours in a person’s environment to be conducive to similar behaviours not only in adolescents, but across all age groups alike. A majority of participants have admitted possessing a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning mental health and wellbeing. Nor do they receive effective help, feeling emotional distress, yet failing to meet with any response on the part of their relatives and friends, who seem not to take teenagers’ psychological condition seriously. Suicidal and depressive disposition is commonly regarded as a sign of mere moodiness, fanciness, being spoilt, or being prone to playing practical jokes. According to the majority of the participants (71%, their relatives had directly influenced their decision to attempt suicide. As much as 88% of the responses provided in the study indicated causes stemming from inadequate communication. Teenagers’ attempts to talk about death-related issues (suicidal issues failed, not being met with understanding on the part of their parents and other caregivers. Conclusions: There is a need for education, prophylaxis, and raising social awareness concerning the problem of suicides. Education on a broad scale

  3. Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether childhood familial conditions are associated with the social impact of adult oral health and to investigate the role of psychosocial attributes as potential mechanisms by which risk might be conveyed from childhood to adulthood. Using a cross-sectional design, self-report data were obtained from a representative sample of adults in Australia with a telephonic interview and a self-completed questionnaire. The dependent variable was the sum of impacts on the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Childhood familial conditions included socioeconomic position assessed by paternal occupation group, family structure and quality of rearing. Current adult sense of control, perceived stress and satisfaction with life were assessed with standard scales and social support was evaluated with four items. Data were obtained for 3678 dentate adults aged 18-91 years. In bivariate analysis controlling for sex, age and household income in adulthood, parenting style was significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (anova, P parental rearing style was significantly associated with social impact after adjusting for sex, age and household income in adulthood, but was no longer significant in the presence of the psychosocial factors. The importance of parental rearing to adult oral health may be mediated through the quality and nature of psychosocial attributes.

  4. Towards a better understanding of unethical consumer behavior : the influence of individual characteristics, situational circumstances and emotional experiences in consumers' ethical decision-making processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhaut, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    In sum, we may conclude that – although many questions are still to be resolved – the present dissertation contributes to a better understanding of unethical consumer behavior by further enhancing the theory development of consumers’ ethical decision-making processes by conceiving and testing (1) additional individual characteristics, (2) situational circumstances, and (3) emotional experiences (along with other issue-related influences), and considering the potential mediating and moderating...

  5. Early years interventions to improve child health and wellbeing: what works, for whom and in what circumstances? Protocol for a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Cheyne, Helen; Daniel, Brigid

    2015-06-06

    Child health and wellbeing is influenced by multiple factors, all of which can impact on early childhood development. Adverse early life experiences can have lasting effects across the life course, sustaining inequalities and resulting in negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of individuals and society. The potential to influence future outcomes via early intervention is widely accepted; there are numerous policy initiatives, programmes and interventions clustered around the early years theme, resulting in a broad and disparate evidence base. Existing reviews have addressed the effectiveness of early years interventions, yet there is a knowledge gap regarding the mechanisms underlying why interventions work in given contexts. This realist review seeks to address the question 'what works, for whom and in what circumstances?' in terms of early years interventions to improve child health and wellbeing. The review will be conducted following Pawson's five-stage iterative realist methodology: (1) clarify scope, (2) search for evidence, (3) appraise primary studies and extract data, (4) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions and (5) disseminate findings. The reviewers will work with stakeholders in the early stages to refine the focus of the review, create a review framework and build programme theory. Searches for primary evidence will be conducted iteratively. Data will be extracted and tested against the programme theory. A review collaboration group will oversee the review process. The review will demonstrate how early years interventions do or do not work in different contexts and with what outcomes and effects. Review findings will be written up following the RAMESES guidelines and will be disseminated via a report, presentations and peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO CRD42015017832.

  6. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  7. Influence of Age, Gender, and Living Circumstances on Patterns of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use in Children and Adolescents With or Without Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunsanmi, Sunkanmi; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in psychopharmacological practice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents dependent on the presence or absence of associated intellectual disability; and if there are, whether the differences are influenced by factors such as age, gender, and living circumstances. A case-control cross-sectional design was used. Each arm of the study had a total of 107 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years. Case participants had diagnoses of having intellectual disability and ADHD; comparison participants had diagnoses of having ADHD, but no intellectual disability. Outcome measurements were (1) concurrent use of medications-single medication event as against concurrent multiple medication events-and (2) type of medication used-stimulants versus nonstimulants. Demographic factors considered were gender, age, and living circumstances. Male-to-female ratio in each group was 90:17. Mean age in the case group was 10.93 years (standard deviation [SD]: 3.39 years) and in the comparison group, 12.34 years (SD: 3.22 years). Seventy percent of the case group lived with their biological families, while 84% of the comparison group did so. In the case group, 7.5% were in residential school placements compared with only 0.9% of the comparison group. There were no statistically significant differences in broad measurements of outcomes between the case and comparison groups. Age appeared to be an important moderating factor for type of medication prescribed. Younger children with intellectual disabilities and ADHD were more likely to be established on nonstimulant medications than those with ADHD and no intellectual disabilities (p = 0.024, odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7). Being between the ages of 5 and 12 years and having intellectual disability and ADHD are associated with raised likelihood of being prescribed nonstimulant medications for ADHD. This difference is maintained

  8. Investigation of army soldiers readiness about health actions in critical circumstances. Case study: Malek Ashtar Military Garrison’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah vosoughi niri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health related measures in emergencies are of the issues that, if taken properly, can reduce damages of a disaster effectively. To have this situation happened knowledge of health personnel, crisis staff, and military and other related groups has to improve. This study aimed to determine military staffs’ attitude and knowledge about health measures in emergencies. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted through a self-administrated questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was previously proven. The questionnaire included items on personal information and knowledge and attitude about health measures in emergencies. Using a multi-stage sampling, 190 soldiers of Malek Ashtar Military Garrison in Arak were selected. ANOVA, Kruskal- Wallis, Chi Square, Spearman rho’s coefficient correlation and T-test were used to analyze that data. Results: Findings showed that 43 percent of soldiers had good knowledge of health measures in emergencies. About 11 percent of staff had poor knowledge. Half of staff had an average attitude toward emergency health measures. Concerning the degree of knowledge, no significant difference was observed between soldiers with different levels of education. Regarding knowledge and attitude, there was no statistically significant difference between different age groups. Conclusion: Having a basic knowledge of health measures in emergencies is of salient importance. Considering lack of such basic knowledge among some military staff, provision of training on health related measures for those staff is recommended. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, health measures, military staff, crisis

  9. The associations between early life circumstances and later life health and employment in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this paper provides empirical evidence for the Netherlands and Spain on the associations between individuals’ early life circumstances—measured by health and socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood—educational attainment, and

  10. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  11. 42 CFR 23.10 - Under what circumstances may a National Health Service Corps site's reimbursement obligation to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service Corps site's reimbursement obligation to the Federal Government be waived? 23.10 Section 23.10... National Health Service Corps site's reimbursement obligation to the Federal Government be waived? (a) The Secretary may waive in whole or in part the reimbursement requirements of section 334(a)(3) of the Act if he...

  12. Effects of housing circumstances on health, quality of life and healthcare use for people with severe mental illness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Tania; Dunn, James R

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) identify housing as an important factor in achieving and maintaining their health. However, many live in substandard accommodations that are physically inadequate, crowded, noisy and located in undesirable neighbourhoods. In much of the research on housing for persons with SPMI, the central outcome of interest is remaining housed; however, it is worth investigating whether housing has other benefits. This paper is a systematic review of studies that investigated the relationship between housing-related independent variables and health-related dependent variables. Ten online databases were searched for studies published since 1980 that had study populations of adults with SPMI, analysed primary or secondary empirical data, and measured housing-related independent variables and health-related dependent variables. Clearly defined epidemiological criteria were used to assess the strength of evidence of the selected studies. Twenty-nine studies met the suitability criteria, of which 14 reported healthcare utilisation outcomes; 12 examined mental status outcomes; and 9 reported quality-of-life outcomes. The findings of the review suggest that there is good evidence that housing interventions benefit the homeless population; however more research is needed about housing solutions for individuals with SPMI who are housed, but in precarious or inappropriate housing situations. Study methodologies could be improved by emphasising longitudinal designs that focus on participant retention and by implementing matched control groups or randomised interventions to strengthen internal validity. Ensuring that a person is adequately housed upon discharge from hospital should be a treatment priority. When housing eligibility is not dependent on psychiatric treatment compliance and sobriety, providing permanent housing minimises harm and may free people to voluntarily seek treatment. Housing that offers an unlimited length of

  13. Divorce and its circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Kšádová, Kristýna

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of my bachelor thesis is divorce and its circumstances. I have devided it in two parts, such as theoretical and practical parts. In the first theoretical part I describe meaning of marriage, divorce, major reasons of divorces and theirs consequences. In the second practical part I am focusing on particular case of divorce in which I will compare foundations documented in the theoretical part with the reality. The main aim of this work is to realise wheter is there any resemblan...

  14. Influencing public health without authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  15. Carcinogenesis. Genetics and circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Okio

    2005-01-01

    Described are the author's study and aspect concerning carcinogenesis and radiation carcinogenesis, where he thinks cancer is not automatic, has a process and takes time. For radiation carcinogenic studies, he has used a model of the rat with genetically determined kidney cancer which is highly radiosensitive. That is, mutation by the so-called 2nd-hit of the causal gene (tumor suppressing gene Tsc2) is studied in the animal where the 1st-hit has been done by retrotransposon insertion, with and without exposure to radiations (X-ray, heavy particle beam and cosmic ray) for elucidating the mutation spectrum of the causal gene, the carcinogenic target, for the ultimate aim to prevent human cancer. He discusses the drama-type molecular mechanisms leading to cancer, gene abnormality and disease crisis, discontinuity in continuity in cancer formation, and importance of the timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy, and concludes the present age is becoming such one as that the nature of cancer even if genetic can be controlled by circumstances like timely and appropriate intervention. (S.I.)

  16. Psychological influences for the driver by the changes of running circumstance; Jidosha no soko kankyo henka no driver eno shinriteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, S; Yokomori, M; Yamaguchi, S [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A driver is influenced psychologically by the cars proceeding on the street and the cars parked on the shoulder which come into the front view. The traffic accidents are caused when these influences put a lot of stress on a driver. In this report, we study the relations between the road traffic condition on the streets and the highway and the driver`s psychological and psysiological responses by using the driver`s front view, sweating and pulse rate. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Desigualdade social e saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Socioeconomic circumstances and health among the brazilian elderly: a study using data from a National Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da situação sócio-econômica sobre a saúde dos idosos é controversa. Nós utilizamos dados da PNAD 1998 para examinar esta influência em uma amostra de 19.068 idosos representativos da população brasileira com ³ 65 anos de idade. Aqueles com renda domiciliar per capita situada no quintil mais baixo foram comparados àqueles com renda mais alta (³ 0,67 salários mínimos. Os idosos com renda mais baixa apresentaram piores condições de saúde (pior percepção da saúde, interrupção de atividades por problemas de saúde, ter estado acamado e relato de algumas doenças crônicas, pior função física (avaliada através de seis indicadores e menor uso de serviços de saúde (menor procura e menos visitas a médicos e dentistas. Esses resultados não confirmam observações realizadas em alguns países desenvolvidos quanto à ausência de associação entre o nível sócio-econômico e a saúde do idoso. Ao contrário, os resultados deste trabalho mostram que mesmo pequenas diferenças na renda domiciliar são suficientemente sensíveis para identificar idosos com piores condições de saúde e menor acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil.The influence of socioeconomic circumstances on senior citizens' health is still controversial. We used data from the 1998 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD 1998 to examine this influence. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged ³ 65 years (n = 19,068 were included in the study. The characteristics of those in the lower quintile of per capita household income were compared with those with higher income (³ 0.67 the Brazilian minimum wage. The lower income group presented worse health conditions (self-rated health, inability to perform routine activities due to a health problem, bedridden conditions, and a report of any disease, and worse physical functioning (level of difficulty in performing selected physical activities, and less frequent use of medical and

  18. Influence resistance on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  19. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and depressive symptom burden across 15 years of follow-up during midlife: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, Joyce T; Schott, Laura L; Matthews, Karen A; Kravitz, Howard M; Harlow, Siobán D; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2017-08-01

    Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage may contribute to adult depression. Understanding pathways by which early socioeconomic adversity may shape adult depression is important for identifying areas for intervention. Studies to date have focused on one potential pathway, adult socioeconomic status (SES), and assessed depression at only one or a few time points. Our aims were to examine (a) the association between childhood SES (low vs. high) and depressive symptom burden in midlife and (b) whether adult socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physical health characteristics are important pathways. Using annual data from a cohort of 1109 black and white US women recruited in 1996-1997, we evaluated the association between childhood SES and depressive symptom burden across 15 years in midlife and whether adult characteristics-financial difficulty, lower education, stressful events, low social support, low role functioning, medical conditions, and bodily pain-mediated the association. Depressive symptom burden was estimated by calculating area under the curve of annual scores across 15 years of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D). In unadjusted models, low childhood SES was associated with greater depressive burden (P = 0.0002). Each hypothesized mediator, individually, did not reduce the association. However, when five of the hypothesized mediators were included together in the same analysis, they explained more than two thirds of the association between childhood SES and depressive symptom burden reducing the P value for childhood SES to non-significance (P = 0.20). These results suggest that childhood SES influences midlife depressive symptom burden through a cluster of economic stress, limited social resources, and physical symptoms in adulthood.

  20. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  1. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  2. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  3. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  4. The influence of income on health: views of an epidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Income is related to health in three ways: through the gross national product of countries, the income of individuals, and the income inequalities among rich nations and among geographic areas. A central question is the degree to which these associations reflect a causal association. If so, redistribution of income would improve health. This paper discusses two ways in which income could be causally related to health: through a direct effect on the material conditions necessary for biological survival, and through an effect on social participation and opportunity to control life circumstances. The fewer goods and services are provided publicly by the community, the more important individual income is for health. Under present U.S. circumstances, a policy of counteracting growing income inequalities through the tax and benefit system and of public provision appears justified.

  5. Migrant Men in Misery : Result from a Qualitative Life History Analysis on Individuals and Families Concerning Internal Migration, Health and Life Circumstances in Early 19th Century, Linköping, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore and understand under what health and life circumstances internal migrants lived, in a small early 19th century Swedish town during a time of considerable social change, and also how these migrants coped with their everyday lives. By following a small number of men throughout their lives in a family context, using mainly church registers, a group of ‘migrant men in misery’ has been qualitatively discerned. These men´s problems were found to peak in a phase of their lives when they lived in town with wives and children to support. The wives shared the tough life in town with their husbands but the overall impression still support a conclusion which put the spouses´ different gender roles´ in a stressful situation in focus, where a lack of social integration in town could be an additional factor.

  6. Social circumstances and teaching profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beara Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers, as an element of the educational system, are considered to be the most important factor for improving the quality of work in schools. At the same time, schools and teachers, as well as the entire educational system, are functioning in the framework of broader social conditions that may be perceived as favorable and unfavorable for particular aspects of their job and profession. The paper examined teachers' perceptions of the social circumstances in which they work and professionally develop, as well as their temporal satisfaction of their profession and professional development. Temporal satisfaction involves cognitive evaluation of professional area of life through the prism of time (past, present, future. Examined was the interrelationship between these factors, as well as correlations with certain socio-demographic variables: length of employment, age, gender, initial education and type of school in which they are employed. Results indicate that teachers generally perceive social conditions as unfavorable to their professional development, being more satisfied with the past, than with the present and future professional aspects of life. Professional satisfaction was significantly correlated with the perception of social circumstances. Significant differences were established in the temporal satisfaction and perception of social conditions in relation to sex. Teachers in secondary vocational schools are more satisfied with their profession compared to teachers in gymnasiums and primary schools.

  7. Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study Diferenças na estrutura da auto-avaliação da saúde em idosos com diferente situação sócio-econômica: Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4% residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income A influência da situação sócio-econômica na estrutura da percepção da saúde dos idosos tem recebido pouca atenção. O objetivo foi verificar se a estrutura da percepção da saúde difere em idosos mais pobres em comparação àqueles com melhor poder aquisitivo (renda mensal familiar 2 salários mínimos. O estudo incluiu 1.505 idosos (> 60 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A satisfação com a rede social surgiu com maior força na estrutura da percepção da saúde entre os mais pobres. Entre esses, sintomas depressivos e ansiosos estavam associados com a auto-avaliação da saúde, ao passo que os idosos com melhor poder aquisitivo apresentavam uma percepção da saúde mais ampla, que incluía sintomas depressivos e ansiosos, insônia, infecção pelo Trypanossoma cruzi, medicamentos utilizados e acesso aos serviços de saúde. Consultas a médicos e hospitalizações apresentaram-se associadas à auto-avaliação da saúde em ambos os grupos. Estes resultados apontam para importantes diferenças na estrutura da percepção da saúde em idosos com menor ou maior renda familiar e reforçam a necessidade de políticas para reduzir as desigualdades em saúde dessa população.

  8. [Extraterrestrial influences on health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, J

    1994-02-14

    As to extraterrestrial influences on man in health and disease so far only the effect of the sun and moon are known. This concerns the effect of solar radiation of different wavelengths and the effect of corpuscular solar radiation which has an impact on the condition of the terrestrial magnetic field and electric conditions in the atmosphere. Moreover there is also a question of important influences of gravitation (tides). Here the influence of the position of the moon in relation to the connecting line between sun and earth is involved. In the course of the synodic month (from new moon to the next new moon) a semilunar periodicity of different medical and geomagnetic indicators as well as meteorological ones plays a part. Based on his own research and that of others the author reaches the conclusion that extraterrestrial and terrestrial influences are interrelated and exert a mutual influence on each other and that it is not sensible to separate them strictly. Investigation of all the mentioned influences is important not only for biomedical prognosis but also for basic geophysical and meteorological research. Perspectively it would be useful to plan model experiments. The author feels it is his duty to refuse publication of different horoscopes in the mass media, whatever the intention. In the lay public this may lead to popularization of astrology which has nothing in common with serious research.

  9. Social influences and reproductive health of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents a state of complete physical, mental and social prosperity, and not just the absence of illness or weakness, and it refers to reproductive processes, functions and systems. Adolescents, young people from the age of ten to nineteen, are yet to achieve their reproductive function, thus their reproductive health and behavior are very significant both from the individual and social standpoint. Risky behavior, which represents the main cause of diseases that young people contract most often, in the field of sexuality often lead to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as diseases from sexually transmitted infections. The extensiveness can be decreased by prevention. Reproductive health promotion, as well as general health promotion, understands a social surrounding that supports healthy behavior styles. Above all, the family, schoolmates, health and school systems, mass media, without neglecting the importance of economic, social and political security in society, political and legal solutions, as well as activities of nongovernmental, religious and other organizations. Their impact, in complex interaction, directly and indirectly influence youth behavior and determine the decisions they make regarding reproductive health.

  10. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the determinants influencing women's use of public health facilities at the time they give birth. Results: Of .... due to distance between their places of abode and health care facilities ..... care: what works for safe motherhood: Bull World Health.

  11. Factors Influencing Teamwork in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijal Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.

  12. Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences.

  13. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Robert

    2011-11-18

    Abstract Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact

  14. [Influence of aging on male sexual health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Costa, P; Giuliano, F

    2012-06-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, men's sexual health has become a major concern for elderly couples. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is responsible for a 50 % decrease of sexually active men between 60 and 85. The aim of this study was to identify objective elements to evaluate the influence of age on male sexual health. Data on the effects of aging on men's sexual health have been explored in Medline and Embase using the MeSH keywords: prostate; sexuality and erectile dysfunction; aging. The articles were selected based on their methodology, relevance, date and language of publication. ED concerns 64 % of 70 years old patients and up to 77.5 % after 75 years. The screening of this pathology is based on standardized diagnostic tools. The most used of them remains the "International Index of Erectile function" which, in its simplified version with 5 items (IIEF-5 or SHIM), presents at the cutoff score of 21, a sensitivity of 98 %, a specificity of 88 % and a kappa index of 0.82. The ED is often responsible for a decrease in the quality of life for 60 % of elderly couples wishing to pursue sexual activity. Some diagnostic tools, such as the "Self-Esteem And Relationship" (SEAR) questionnaire or the "Sexual Experience Questionnaire" (SEX-Q) assess individual and couple satisfaction. Physiological aging seems to favor erection disorders by the development of an Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM) but pathological aging appears to be primarily responsible. Cardiovascular or neurological diseases and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are, with the polymedication, modifiable risk factors of ED to systematically screen in elderly subjects. Many diagnostic tools allow to detect ED and assess the impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The fundamental element of the management of ED is the research of modifiable risk factors including cardiovascular. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. 24 CFR 51.207 - Special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Handling Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.207 Special circumstances..., require the application of this subpart C with respect to a substance not listed in appendix I to this...

  16. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A. J. M.; van Assema, P.; Hesdahl, B.; Harting, J.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health

  17. Each Is in Different Circumstances Anyway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eastwood

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a realist multilevel situational analysis of maternal depression. We use situational analysis to identify the interaction of mothers with social structures and the possible causal influence of those social structures on her well-being. The analysis moves from an emergent empirical approach toward the more reflexive and abductive approach of situational analysis, thus better informing our abductive reasoning and the generation of theory. Critical realism and symbolic interactionism provide the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was South Western Sydney, Australia. Interviews of mothers and practitioners were analyzed using open coding to enable maximum emergence. Situational analysis was then undertaken using situational and social worlds/arena maps. Home and neighborhood situational analysis mapping and analysis of relations identified the following concepts: (a expectations and dreams, (b marginalization and being alone, (c loss or absence of power and control, and (d support and nurturing. The neighborhood and macro-arena situational analysis mapping and analysis of relations identified the following concepts: (a social support networks, social cohesion and social capital; (b services planning and delivery and social policy; and (c global economy, business, and media. Emerging was the centrality of being alone and expectations lost as possible triggers of stress and depression within circumstances where media portrays expectations of motherhood that are shattered by reality and social marginalization. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situations. The challenge for policy and practice is to support families within this adverse regional and global economic context.

  18. 21 CFR 822.37 - Under what circumstances would you inspect records identifying subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances would you inspect records identifying subjects? 822.37 Section 822.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Under what circumstances would you inspect records identifying subjects? We can inspect and copy records...

  19. Influencing Organizations to Promote Health: Applying Stakeholder Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more…

  20. Health worries: analysis of mass media influence

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez, Marina; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Hernández-Ruiz, Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    Póster presentado en 18th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society, 21-24 June 2004, Helsinki, Finland. During the last years, mass media have centred on health and illness information more than ever before and stories about health risks fill up newspapers, magazines, TV programmes and internet sites. Recently, much of these informations are focused on emergent health risks, such as genetically modified food. In western countries, mass media appear as one of the main ...

  1. The impact of conscientiousness, mastery, and work circumstances on subsequent absenteeism in employees with and without affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Almar A L; Plaisier, Inger; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-03-29

    High numbers of employees are coping with affective disorders. At the same time, ambitiousness, achievement striving and a strong sense of personal control and responsibility are personality characteristics that are nowadays regarded as key to good work functioning, whereas social work circumstances tend to be neglected. However, it is largely unkown how personality characteristics and work circumstances affect work functioning when facing an affective disorder. Given the high burden of affective disorders on occupational health, we investigate these issues in the context of affective disorders and absenteeism from work. The principal aim of this paper is to examine whether particular personality characteristics that reflect self-governance (conscientiousness and mastery) and work circumstances (demands, control, support) influence the impact of affective disorders on long-term absenteeism (>10 working days). Baseline and 1-year follow-up data from 1249 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) in 2004-2006 was employed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, including interaction effects between depressive, anxiety, and comorbid disorders and personality and work circumstances. In general, mastery and conscientiousness increased nor diminished odds of subsequent long-term absenteeism, whereas higher job support significantly decreased these odds. Interaction effects showed that the impact of affective disorders on absenteeism was stronger for highly conscientious employees and for employees who experienced high job demands. Affective disorders may particularly severely affect work functioning of employees who are highly conscientious or face high psychological job demands. Adjusting working conditions to their individual needs may prevent excessive work absence.

  2. Influencing organizations to promote health: applying stakeholder theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-04-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more central in the network, the stronger the influence. As stakeholders, health promoters may use communicative, compromise, deinstitutionalization, or coercive methods through an ally or a coalition. A hypothetical case study, involving adolescent use of harmful legal products, illustrates the process of applying stakeholder theory to strategic decision making. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  4. Influencers of career choice among allied health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-West, A P

    1991-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that influence students' choice of an allied health profession. A survey of 153 students in three allied health programs at the University of Connecticut revealed that "the need to help others," "prestige," "professional autonomy," "opportunities for advancement," "income potential," and "the effect of the specialty on family and personal life," were the major influencers of career choice among allied health students. Only a few students regarded malpractice suits and AIDS as negative influencers. While medical laboratory science majors regarded these as important factors, dietetics and physical therapy majors did not. The article suggests further use of these findings by program directors and career counselors.

  5. Socioeconomic circumstances of children with disabilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with disabilities are an integral part of Zimbabwean society. However these children face insurmountable challenges that hinder their human and social capital development. The current study used a mixed methodology approach to examine the socioeconomic circumstances of children living with disabilities ...

  6. ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES AND PERSONAL FINANCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Matic; Hrvoje Serdarusic; Maja Vretenar Cobovic

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the impact of changed economic circumstances to manage personal finances. Analyze financial involvement, level of education and the management of personal finances population in Croatia. The paper used the method of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and a survey poll.

  7. Personal circumstances and social characteristics as determinants of landholder participation in biodiversity conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Marshall, Nadine; Cocklin, Chris

    2012-12-30

    Adequate conservation of biodiversity on private land remains elusive due, in part, to a failure to understand the personal circumstances and social characteristics of private landholders. Our aim was to identify those personal and social dimensions of landholders that might contribute to improved conservation policy and program design and, thereby, participation in private land conservation. We tested whether personal circumstances of landholders (e.g., lifestyle and wellbeing, information and knowledge, financial security) and social characteristics (e.g., attitudes, norms, and trust) would be important predictors of landholders' capacity and willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation programs. Forty-five participants and twenty-nine non-participants of biodiversity conservation programs in north Queensland, Australia, were surveyed to: 1) examine differences between their personal circumstances and social characteristics that may influence participation; and 2) explore whether personal circumstances and social characteristics were influenced by participation. The results revealed that, compared to participants, non-participants in conservation programs had significantly different personal circumstances and social characteristics for four of eight measured variables. Compared to participants, non-participants demonstrated a reduced capacity and willingness to participate in conservation programs. Participation did not appear to have a strong influence on participants' personal circumstances or social characteristics, and when social norms supported conservation, programs did not demonstrate additionality. Conservation policies that maintain or improve landholders' personal circumstances and that promote pro-environmental norms may result in increased participation and thereby conservation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social influences and reproductive health of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Reproductive health represents a state of complete physical, mental and social prosperity, and not just the absence of illness or weakness, and it refers to reproductive processes, functions and systems. Adolescents, young people from the age of ten to nineteen, are yet to achieve their reproductive function, thus their reproductive health and behavior are very significant both from the individual and social standpoint. Risky behavior, which represents the main cause of diseases that young pe...

  9. Factors Influencing Acceptance of Electronic Health Records in Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Melinda A

    2009-01-01

    The study's aim was to examine factors that may influence health information managers in the adoption of electronic health records. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) served as theoretical foundation for this quantitative study. Hospital health information managers in Arkansas were queried as to the constructs of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior intention. The study population comprised 94 health information managers with a return rate of 74.5 percent. One manager ...

  10. Motivation, effort and life circumstances as predictors of foot ulcers and amputations in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, C; Guassora, A D; Nielsen, A B S; Siersma, V; Holstein, P E; de Fine Olivarius, N

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the predictive value of both patients' motivation and effort in their management of Type 2 diabetes and their life circumstances for the development of foot ulcers and amputations. This study was based on the Diabetes Care in General Practice study and Danish population and health registers. The associations between patient motivation, effort and life circumstances and foot ulcer prevalence 6 years after diabetes diagnosis and the incidence of amputation in the following 13 years were analysed using odds ratios from logistic regression and hazard ratios from Cox regression models, respectively. Foot ulcer prevalence 6 years after diabetes diagnosis was 2.93% (95% CI 1.86-4.00) among 956 patients. General practitioners' indication of 'poor' vs 'very good' patient motivation for diabetes management was associated with higher foot ulcer prevalence (odds ratio 6.11, 95% CI 1.22-30.61). The same trend was seen for 'poor' vs 'good' influence of the patient's own effort in diabetes treatment (odds ratio 7.06, 95% CI 2.65-18.84). Of 1058 patients examined at 6-year follow-up, 45 experienced amputation during the following 13 years. 'Poor' vs 'good' influence of the patients' own effort was associated with amputation (hazard ratio 7.12, 95% CI 3.40-14.92). When general practitioners assessed the influence of patients' life circumstances as 'poor' vs 'good', the amputation incidence increased (hazard ratio 2.97, 95% CI 1.22-7.24). 'Poor' vs 'very good' patient motivation was also associated with a higher amputation incidence (hazard ratio 7.57, 95% CI 2.43-23.57), although not in fully adjusted models. General practitioners' existing knowledge of patients' life circumstances, motivation and effort in diabetes management should be included in treatment strategies to prevent foot complications. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  11. factors influencing the choice of health care providing facility among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the public sector ... Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local ... the consumer of healthcare services cannot control. ..... Acquisition of Stable Food.

  12. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  13. Influencers of Career Choice among Allied Health Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-West, Anne P.

    1991-01-01

    Major influences on career choice among 153 allied health students were need to help others, prestige, autonomy, and advancement and income potential. Risk of malpractice suits and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were negative influences for medical laboratory majors, but not for dietetics and physical therapy majors. (SK)

  14. The circumstances of minor planet discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances of discoveries of minor planets are presented in tabular form. Complete data are given for planets 2125-4044, together with notes pertaining to these planets. Information in the table includes the permanent number; the official name; for planets 330 and forward, the table includes the provisional designation attached to the discovery apparition and the year, month, the day of discovery, and the discovery place

  15. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  16. Occupational Influence on Women's Attitude Towards Oral Health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the influence of occupation on women's attitude towards oral health among women attending Primary Health Care (PHC) Centres in the Nkanu West Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria. Three hundred and forty seven (347) women were selected from 2,608 women who formed the ...

  17. Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and service provision for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania. ... However there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in marital status, education levels, use of English language, number of dependants, and income from ...

  18. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC.Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy.The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies.Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on

  19. The influence of source term release parameters on health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the influence of source term release parameters on the health effects was examined. This is very useful in identifying the relative importance of release parameters and can be an important factor in developing a strategy for reducing offsite risks. The release parameters investigated in this study are release height, heat content, fuel burnup, release time, release duration, and warning time. The health effects affected by the change of release parameters are early fatalities, cancer fatalities, early injuries, cancer injuries, early fatality risk, population weighted early fatality risk, population weighted cancer fatality risk, effective whole body population dose, population exceeding an early acute red bone marrow dose of 1.5 Sv, and distance at which early fatalities are expected to occur. As release height increases, the values of early health effects such as early fatalities and injuries decrease. However, the release height dose not have significant influences on late health effects. The values of both early and late health effects decrease as heat content increases. The increase fuel burnup, i.e., the increase of core inventories increases the late health effects, however, has small influence on the early health effects. But, the number of early injuries increases as the fuel burnup increases. The effects of release time increase shows very similar influence on both the early and late health effects. As the release time increases to 2 hours, the values of health effects increase and then decrease rapidly. As release duration increases, the values of late health effects increase slightly, however, the values of early health effects decrease. As warning time increases to 2 hours, the values of late health effects decrease and then shows no variation. The number of early injuries decreases rapidly as the warning time increases to 2 hours. However, the number of early fatalities and the early fatality risk increase as the warning time increases

  20. Influence of religious leaders in the health-disease process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lima Macêdo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Religion has helped the lower classes to raise the perspective of "divine justice" in the struggle for survival by allowing their believers to seek, in their practices, under the influence of religious leaders, the main guidelines to alleviate the suffering from the health-disease process. Objective: Unveil the limits and potentialities of religious leaders' influence on the health-disease process. Materials and Methods: Exploratory-type research, with a qualitative approach, based methodologically on the Historical Dialectical Materialism. For the data analysis, one used the discourse analysis technique proposed by Fiorin. Results: From the empirical universe, two analytical categories emerged: (1. Limits and possibilities of religious influence in relation to the health-disease process; 2. Vulnerabilities of the Unified Health System and the complementarity of religion: Interfaces of the health-disease process in postmodernity, in which religious practices, institutions and leaders express positively health care in the face of the disease process. However, the religious leader's power relations over the community and religious fanaticism make the search for religion to have a negative influence on people's health-disease process. Conclusion: Religious leaders encourage the complementarity between religion and medicine only at times when their believers need medium and high-complexity assistance, showing little attention to the preventive aspects of self-care, which reinforces the need to invest in new studies in the area.

  1. Organizational factors influencing successful primary care and public health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Mara, Linda

    2018-06-07

    Public health and primary care are distinct sectors within western health care systems. Within each sector, work is carried out in the context of organizations, for example, public health units and primary care clinics. Building on a scoping literature review, our study aimed to identify the influencing factors within these organizations that affect the ability of these health care sectors to collaborate with one another in the Canadian context. Relationships between these factors were also explored. We conducted an interpretive descriptive qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 74 key informants from three provinces, one each in western, central and eastern Canada, and others representing national organizations, government, or associations. The sample included policy makers, managers, and direct service providers in public health and primary care. Seven major organizational influencing factors on collaboration were identified: 1) Clear Mandates, Vision, and Goals; 2) Strategic Coordination and Communication Mechanisms between Partners; 3) Formal Organizational Leaders as Collaborative Champions; 4) Collaborative Organizational Culture; 5) Optimal Use of Resources; 6) Optimal Use of Human Resources; and 7) Collaborative Approaches to Programs and Services Delivery. While each influencing factor was distinct, the many interactions among these influences are indicative of the complex nature of public health and primary care collaboration. These results can be useful for those working to set up new or maintain existing collaborations with public health and primary care which may or may not include other organizations.

  2. Influence of worklife on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, G

    1999-12-01

    The paper discusses worklife changes with broad public health impacts. Central concepts for the analysis of the labor market are flexibility and differentiation. One conclusion is that there is ongoing polarization and differentiation--with an increased group of people in time-restricted (contingent) employment and self-employment and a reduced group of core workers. Greater demands for adaptability are being imposed on the majority of employees. Concepts related to flexibility and differentiation at an individual level are adaptability, identity formation, loss of control, trust and lack of trust, allostatic load, long-term strain, and psychological contracting. The labor market and organizational changes are discussed in relation to what can be called "institutional effectiveness". These changes refer to how institutions commissioned to act for the prevention of injuries and to contribute to worklife quality handle the new conditions. Finally, work-environment research is discussed in relation to a new and more complex pattern of exposures and interactions. One conclusion drawn is that it is becoming increasingly difficult to identify workplaces at risk.

  3. Interpersonal influence among public health leaders in the United States department of health and human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Carothers, Bobbi J; Wald, Lana M; Shelton, Sarah C; Leischow, Scott J

    2012-02-17

    In public health, interpersonal influence has been identified as an important factor in the spread of health information, and in understanding and changing health behaviors. However, little is known about influence in public health leadership. Influence is important in leadership settings, where public health professionals contribute to national policy and practice agendas. Drawing on social theory and recent advances in statistical network modeling, we examined influence in a network of tobacco control leaders at the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Fifty-four tobacco control leaders across all 11 agencies in the DHHS were identified; 49 (91%) responded to a web-based survey. Participants were asked about communication with other tobacco control leaders, who influenced their work, and general job characteristics. Exponential random graph modeling was used to develop a network model of influence accounting for characteristics of individuals, their relationships, and global network structures. Higher job ranks, more experience in tobacco control, and more time devoted to tobacco control each week increased the likelihood of influence nomination, as did more frequent communication between network members. Being in the same agency and working the same number of hours per week were positively associated with mutual influence nominations. Controlling for these characteristics, the network also exhibited patterns associated with influential clusters of network members. Findings from this unique study provide a perspective on influence within a government agency that both helps to understand decision-making and also can serve to inform organizational efforts that allow for more effective structuring of leadership.

  4. Managed care: employers' influence on the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, K T; Phoon, J; Barter, M

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform is a complex issue involving many key sectors including providers, consumers, insurers, employers, and the government. System changes must involve all sectors for reform to be effective. Each sector has a responsibility to understand not only its own role in the health care system, but the roles of others as well. The role of business employers is often not apparent to health care providers, especially nurses. Understanding the influence employers have on the health care system is vital if providers want to be proactive change agents ensuring quality care.

  5. A strategic framework for improbable circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennon, Denzil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare events, known as ‘Black Swans’, have determined the course of history. One of these was the global economic crisis of 2008. Such events highlight fields like strategic management and their shortcomings in helping to prepare organisations. The Strategic Framework for Improbable Circumstances was designed to add to the strategic management process by improving organisational preparation for these rare events. The framework was validated through interviews with experts who showed the need for such a framework, and who confirmed that it is a good first step for organisations to take towards addressing these Black Swan events.

  6. Factors that influence Asian communities' access to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; Chapman, Rose; Orb, Angelica; McGowan, Sunita; Zeeman, Zenith; Yeak, SiewHo

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study to identify factors that influence Asian communities' access to mental health care and how mental health care is delivered to them. Semistructured interviews were completed with Asian community members/leaders and health-care professionals. Content analysis identified major themes. Participants also completed a demographic data sheet. The research aimed to provide health professionals with an increased understanding of the values and beliefs held by people from Asian communities regarding the cause and treatment of mental illness. Data analysis identified six main themes that influenced Asian communities' access to mental health care and how mental health care is delivered to them. They were: shame and stigma; causes of mental illness; family reputation; hiding up; seeking help; and lack of collaboration. The findings highlighted that people from Asian communities are unwilling to access help from mainstream services because of their beliefs, and that stigma and shame are key factors that influence this reluctance. The findings also highlight that the mental health needs of refugee women are significant, and that they comprise a vulnerable group within Australian society.

  7. Curriculum influence on interdisciplinary oral health education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melinda; Quinonez, Rocio; Bowser, Jonathan; Silk, Hugh

    2017-06-01

    Oral diseases are very prevalent across the lifespan and impact overall health, yet are largely preventable. The Smiles for Life (SFL) curriculum was created to educate healthcare providers about oral disease and support integration of oral health and primary care. This study examines SFL's influence on clinical practice and education. Surveys were sent to registered users of SFL. Users who self-identified as direct care providers (DCPs), or educators, were included in the analysis. Survey response rate was 18 percent, with 87 percent identifying as DCPs and 13 percent as educators. Across professions, 85 percent of DCPs reported SFL influencing their practice to some degree, with variance among profession type and experience. DCPs most commonly reported that SFL led them to improve how they conduct oral health activities, with 60 percent performing the activity more skillfully following completion of SFL. Fluoride varnish application was the most common practice behavior initiated, and caries risk assessments was the oral health activity affected to the greatest degree. A majority of educators (94 percent) reported that SFL led them to incorporate or enhance oral health in their teaching. SFL helped educators emphasize the importance of oral health, improved their ability to teach content, raised motivation, and reduced barriers to teaching oral health. Data supports that SFL is positively influencing oral health practice across professions, especially in areas of caries risk assessment and fluoride varnish application. SFL improves the frequency and quality with which DCPs and educators participate in oral health activities, and facilitates oral health inclusion in primary care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. The influence of social hierarchy on primate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2005-04-29

    Dominance hierarchies occur in numerous social species, and rank within them can greatly influence the quality of life of an animal. In this review, I consider how rank can also influence physiology and health. I first consider whether it is high- or low-ranking animals that are most stressed in a dominance hierarchy; this turns out to vary as a function of the social organization in different species and populations. I then review how the stressful characteristics of social rank have adverse adrenocortical, cardiovascular, reproductive, immunological, and neurobiological consequences. Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status.

  9. Influence of Religious Beliefs on the Health of Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tai-Jung; Chung, Ue-Lin; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wang, Hsiu-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of religious beliefs on the health of cancer patients and identified the factors contributing to the influence. A questionnaire survey was conducted using a convenient sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used to the samplings, and the data of 200 cancer patients were collected. The effects of religion on the health of cancer patients achieved an average score of 3.58. The top five effects are presented as follows: (a) Religion provides me with mental support and strength, (b) religion enables me to gain confidence in health recovery, (c) religion motivates me to cope with disease-related stress positively and optimistically, (d) religion helps me reduce anxiety, and (e) religion gives me courage to face uncertainties regarding disease progression. Moreover, among the demographic variables, gender, type of religion, and experience of religious miracles contributed to the significantly different effects of religion on patients. Specifically, the effect of religion on the health of patients who were female and Christian and had miracle experiences was significantly (< .01) higher than that on other patients. These results are helpful in understanding the influence of religious beliefs on the health of cancer patients and identified the factors contributing to the influence. The result can serve as a reference for nursing education and clinical nursing practice.

  10. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  11. The Influence of Black Identity on Wellbeing and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona B; Boutrin, Marie-Claire; Dalrymple, Lisa; McNeill, Lorna H

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Black identity on wellbeing and health behaviors. Data from the third year (wave) of a longitudinal cohort study (N = 1316) from a large, majority Black, Protestant church of 16,000 members located in Houston, Texas, were used to conduct secondary data analyses. Univariate analyses were used to obtain participants' sociodemographic and health characteristics. ANCOVA and linear regression analyses and Bonferroni adjustments were used to examine the influence of the centrality, public and private regard aspects of Black identity as measured by the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity subscales on wellbeing (CES-D scores and self-reported general health) and health behaviors (diet and physical activity levels). Associations were noted between fruit consumption and centrality (F (95,1216) = 2.27) p = .046); soda consumption and private regard (F (5,1214) = 3.04; p = .010); public regard (F (2,1186) = 4.70; p = .009) and physical activity levels; self-reported general health status and private (F (4,1219) = 4.78; p = .001) and public regard (F (4,1211) = 8.53; p identity remain an important factor to consider in addressing health disparities. Racial identity influences mental health, general health, diet and the physical activity levels. Utilizing identity congruent health promotion interventions may positively impact mental, exercise levels, self-reported general health and diet.

  12. Nursing shaping and influencing health and social care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Theresa

    2009-09-01

    This paper seeks to consider how nursing as a profession in the United Kingdom is developing its role in shaping and influencing policy using lessons learnt from a policy study tour undertaken in the United States of America and extensive experience as a senior nurse within the government, the health service and more recently within a Professional Organization. The nursing profession faces major changes in health and health care and nurses need to be visible in the public debate about future models of health and health care. This paper critically reviews recent UK and USA literature and policy with relevance to nursing. Strategies that support nurses and nursing to influence policy are in place but more needs to be done to address all levels of nursing in order to find creative solutions that promote and increase the participation of nurses in the political process and health policy. There are lessons to be learnt in the UK from the US nursing experience. These need to be considered in the context of the UK and devolution. Although much has been achieved in positioning nurses and nursing as an influencer in the arena of policy and political decision-making, there is a need for greater co-ordination of action to ensure that nursing is actively supported in influencing and shaping health and health care policy. All leaders and other stakeholders require to play their part in considering how the actions set out in this article can be taken forward and how gaps such as education, fellowship experience and media engagement can be addressed in the future.

  13. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  14. What incentives influence employers to engage in workplace health interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martinsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Method Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Results Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: “law and provisions”, “consequences for the workplace”, “knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions”, “characteristics of the intervention”, “communication and collaboration with the provider”. The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. Conclusions This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.

  15. What incentives influence employers to engage in workplace health interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Camilla; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Kwak, Lydia; Bergström, Gunnar; Hellman, Therese

    2016-08-23

    To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: "law and provisions", "consequences for the workplace", "knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions", "characteristics of the intervention", "communication and collaboration with the provider". The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.

  16. Influence of Maternal Health Literacy on Healthy Pregnancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the influence of maternal health literacy on healthy pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. It was carried out among 231 pregnant women and nursing mothers using the descriptive survey research design of the expost-facto type. Three hypotheses were tested by using pearson product moment ...

  17. Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a study to investigate the relative influence of some sociodemographic variables on oral hygiene and health of primary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria. The pupils were from two different socioeconomic strata of the society and their ages ranged between 7 and 16 years. They were ...

  18. (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.

  19. Influence of Health Education on Prevention of Drug Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse. 192 adolescents comprising of male and females, randomly selected from two secondary schools and a university were used as sample with ages ranging from 12-22years with a mean of 17years. The questionnaire ...

  20. Armenia: Influences and Organization of Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John; Harutyunyan, Hasmik; Smbatyan, Meri; Cressley, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little has been published on mental health care and counseling as they pertain to Armenia, a country of approximately three million residents that gained independence in 1991 from the former Soviet Union. Various influences, such as its history, economy, religious and family systems, and a major natural disaster in 1988, have affected…

  1. Factors Influencing Health Beliefs Among People in South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Items 9 - 16 ... Similarly, a natural phenomenon, e.g., ... disasters, crop failures and theft, or loss) in which ill-health is ... are blamed on conflicts with spouses, children, family, friends, ..... cohort effects and influence of western education on their.

  2. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  3. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  4. INFLUENCE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND ITS MEASUREMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, David; Werkö, Sophie; Rosén, Måns; Macpherson, Karen; Myles, Susan; Gallegos Rivero, Verónica; Hipólito-Olivares, Cecilia; Sihvo, Sinikka; Pwu, Jasmine; Yang, Wen-Wen; Chen, Yong-Chen; Perez Galán, Ana; Aleman, Alicia; Villamil, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on methods used to measure health technology assessment (HTA) influence, decisions that were influenced, and outcomes linked to HTA. Electronic databases were used to locate studies in which HTA influence had been demonstrated. Inclusion criteria were studies that reliably reported consideration by decision makers of HTA findings; comparative studies of technology use before and after HTA; and details of changes in policy, health outcomes, or research that could be credibly linked to an HTA. Fifty-one studies were selected for review. Settings were national (24), regional (12), both national and regional (3) hospitals (9), and multinational (3). The most common approach to appraisal of influence was review of policy or administrative decisions following HTA recommendations (51 percent). Eighteen studies (35 percent) reported interview or survey findings, thirteen (26 percent) reviewed administrative data, and six considered the influence of primary studies. Of 142 decisions informed by HTA, the most common types were on routine clinical practice (67 percent of studies), coverage (63 percent), and program operation (37 percent). The most frequent indications of HTA influence were on decisions related to resource allocation (59 percent), change in practice pattern (31 percent), and incorporation of HTA details in reference material (18 percent). Few publications assessed the contribution of HTA to changing patient outcomes. The literature on HTA influence remains limited, with little on longer term effects on practice and outcomes. The reviewed publications indicated how HTA is being used in different settings and approaches to measuring its influence that might be more widely applied, such as surveys and monitoring administrative data.

  5. Multiple socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E

    2007-06-01

    To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.

  6. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  7. Interpersonal influence among public health leaders in the United States Department of Health and Human Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine K. Harris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In public health, interpersonal influence has been identified as an important factor in the spread of health information, and in understanding and changing health behaviors. However, little is known about influence in public health leadership. Influence is important in leadership settings, where public health professionals contribute to national policy and practice agendas. Drawing on social theory and recent advances in statistical network modeling, we examined influence in a network of tobacco control leaders at the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS. Design and Methods. Fifty-four tobacco control leaders across all 11 agencies in the DHHS were identified; 49 (91% responded to a web-based survey. Participants were asked about communication with other tobacco control leaders, who influenced their work, and general job characteristics. Exponential random graph modeling was used to develop a network model of influence accounting for characteristics of individuals, their relationships, and global network structures. Results. Higher job ranks, more experience in tobacco control, and more time devoted to tobacco control each week increased the likelihood of influence nomination, as did more frequent communication between network members. Being in the same agency and working the same number of hours per week were positively associated with mutual influence nominations. Controlling for these characteristics, the network also exhibited patterns associated with influential clusters of network members. Conclusions. Findings from this unique study provide a perspective on influence within a government agency that both helps to understand decision-making and also can serve to inform organizational efforts that allow for more effective structuring of leadership.

  8. The Perception of Time: Influences on Physical and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo Oyanadel Véliz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With a broad understanding of time perception, the dimensions positive past, negative past, fatalistic present, hedonistic present and future were grouped in profiles to assess relations with physical and mental health. Using a quasi-experimental design, 50 subjects matched for age and sex completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and the SF-36, with 3 measures of time estimation. Pearson correlations and ANOVA showed significant relationships between dimensions, physical and mental health, and estimation. Three profiles were obtained, with the balanced one (BTP having the best health indicators. These results support the idea that it is good to have a balanced profile that implies a positive attitude to the past, future orientation, and enjoying pleasant experiences. Also, health is influenced by time estimation

  9. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...

  10. Influence of hiking trainings on 13 years old adolescents’ health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Mulyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of influence of hiking trainings on adolescents’ health. Material: the research covered adolescents, who train hiking for one year in hiking circles (20 boys and 16 girls and adolescents, who do not practice hiking trainings (18 boys and 20 girls. Age of participants was 13 years. The following indices were determined” Ketle -2 index, Robinson’s index, indices of Skibinskiy, Shapovalova, Ruffiet. Results: positive influence of hiking trainings on general health condition of adolescents was determined. It has been recommended to practice hiking at days off, summer holidays and during academic year. It was found that general health of group 2 adolescents (who did not practice hiking corresponds to level below middle (10-13 points. Adolescents of group 1 (who practice hiking level of general health reaches middle level (14-18 points. Conclusions: it is recommended to assess schoolchildren’s health in points. Besides, it is necessary to consider points of every separate index; it will permit to find weak points of adolescents organism’s functioning.

  11. Identifying Twitter influencer profiles for health promotion in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2017-06-01

    New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  13. Influence of qualitative research on women's health screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadir, Anna Maria; Lang, Ariella; Klein, Talia; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2014-01-01

    Considerable time and resources are allocated to carry out qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research on women's health screening and assess its influence on screening practice guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Medline, CINHAL, and WEB of Science databases were used to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 15 years on 3 different women's health screening topics: cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and prenatal first-trimester screening. Key national practice guidelines on women's health screening were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse web site. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in the guidelines. A total of 272 qualitative research papers on women's health screening was identified: 109 on cervical cancer screening, 104 on breast cancer screening, and 59 on prenatal first-trimester screening. The qualitative studies focused on health care provider perspectives as well as ethical, ethnographic, psychological, and social issues surrounding screening. Fifteen national clinical practice guidelines on women's health screening were identified. A total of 943 references was cited, only 2 of which comprised of qualitative research cited by only 1 clinical practice guideline. Although there is considerable qualitative research that has been carried out on women's health screening, its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines is minimal. Further exploration of the disconnect between the two is important for enhancing knowledge translation of qualitative research within clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.

  15. Does health status influence intention regarding screening mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)

  16. Influence of functional food components on gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Murphy L Y; Ling, K H; El-Nezami, Hani; Wang, M F

    2018-01-30

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc. Any disruption of gut microbiota composition (also termed dysbiosis) can lead to various pathological conditions. In short, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota are two crucial factors affecting gut health. The gastrointestinal tract is a complex environment exposed to many dietary components and commensal bacteria. Dietary components are increasingly recognized to play various beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, resulting in the development of the functional food concepts. Various dietary modifiers, including the consumption of live bacteria (probiotics) and ingestible food constituents such as prebiotics, as well as polyphenols or synbiotics (combinations of probiotics and prebiotics) are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds and have been demonstrated to beneficially impact the gut health and the overall well-being of the host. In this review we depict the roles of intestinal epithelium and gut microbiota in mucosal defence responses and the influence of certain functional food components on the modulation of gut health, with a particular focus on probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenols.

  17. Factors influencing Chinese college students' preferences for mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Vitti; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui-Chung; Lee, June Ka Yan; Sung, Connie; H Wilson, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Transition from high school to college can be particularly difficult and stressful for Chinese college students because of parent expectations. The purpose of this study was to examine therapist variables influencing Chinese college students' preferences for mental health professionals using conjoint analysis. Two hundred fifty-eight community college students in Hong Kong were asked to rate the profile of 55 mental health professionals representing a combination of therapist characteristics (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, professional background, and training institutions) from the most to least preferred therapist from whom to seek psychological counselling. Results indicated that students' preference formation was based largely on professional background and training institution of the mental health professionals. Clinical psychologists and clinical social workers were preferred over educational psychologists (school psychologists), counsellors, and psychiatrists. Mental health professionals who received training from more prestigious schools were preferred over those trained at less prestigious schools. Understanding clients' preference formation for choosing mental health professionals could be the first step to gain insights for developing effective educational and outreach strategies to promote help seeking behavior and mental health service utilization among Chinese college students.

  18. Circumstances and causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in sudden death survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede-Swagemakers, J. J.; Gorgels, A. P.; Dubois-Arbouw, W. I.; Dalstra, J.; Daemen, M. J.; van Ree, J. W.; Stijns, R. E.; Wellens, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    To study the circumstances and medical profile of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) patients in whom resuscitation was attempted by the ambulance service, and to identify causes of SCA in survivors and factors that influence resuscitation success rate. During a five year period (1991-95)

  19. Paediatric tracheostomy and ventilation home care with challenging socio-economic circumstances in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Ilse; Booth, Jane; van Dijk, Monique; Argent, Andrew; Zampoli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Children discharged home with a tracheostomy need a safe home environment and access to health care. We described the indications, clinical characteristics, socio-economic circumstances and outcomes of children enroled in a tracheostomy home care programme in South Africa. We performed a retrospective chart review of children receiving a tracheostomy and enroled in the Breatheasy programme at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town. Medical and background characteristics were recorded. Influences of socio-economic variables and underlying medical conditions on length of hospital stay, unplanned readmissions and mortality in the first year after discharge were evaluated. In the period 2008-2012, 157 patients were discharged home with a tracheostomy. Median hospital stay after tracheostomy insertion was significantly longer when parents had incomplete schooling compared to completed secondary school or higher education; 30 days (IQR 21-53) versus 23 days (IQR 16-33), respectively. Unplanned readmissions in the first year were documented for 72 patients (45.9%). The risk for unplanned readmission was 2.6 times higher in families with substance abuse the risk of respiratory infections was two-fold in case of household cigarette smoke exposure (OR 2.3.) Tracheostomy-related mortality was low (1.2%). An underlying medical condition was the only independent significant risk factor for mortality (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.3). This study demonstrates that despite difficult socio-economic circumstances, home ventilation of children with a tracheostomy is safe, provided caregivers are adequately trained and supported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Influence of organizational climate on job satisfaction among health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Seco, E; Coll-Benejam, J M; Torrent-Quetglas, M; Linares-Pou, L

    2006-03-15

    To describe the quality of professional life (QPL) as perceived by primary care workers and to measure the organizational climate (OC). To identify the influence of OC on QPL and the variables that explain this relationship. Cross-sectional study. Primary care centres in the Menorca Health Area (Balearic Islands, Spain). One hundred and sixty six primary care, including health-workers and others. Two anonymous, self-administered, PC-validated questionnaires were filled in: QPL-35 (dimensions: perception of demands, support from managers, and motivation) and OC (dimensions: team-work, cohesion, and commitment). Age, seniority, professional group, job relationship, and the health centre were analysed. Positive answers: 67.4%. Average QPL was 5.78, lower for older workers and higher among those perceiving more cohesion. Average score for perceived demands was 5.53, higher among physicians and less if there is high commitment. Support from managers was 4.9, positively associated with cohesion and team-work and negatively associated with permanent workers and clerical staff. Intrinsic motivation was 7.43, greater if commitment was higher. Regardless of age, professional category and seniority, there was a significant association between OC and QPL (strongest in the motivation [r2=0.26] and managerial support [r2=0.476] dimensions). OC influences QPL, especially in motivation and managerial support. Commitment enhances motivation and perception of demands. Where there is better cohesion and team-work, the manager s support is also rated more highly.

  4. Influence of women health care adoption on contraceptive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.U.R.S.; Zafar, M.I.; Batool, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of woman heath seeking behaviour during pregnancy and post delivery period on contraceptive use and family size are important dimensions of female fertility. These determinants of female fertility have rarely been explored, particularly in developing countries confronting problems of rising population growth. A study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan to explore the influence of pre and postnatal care on contraceptive use. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from the urban and rural areas of the district through formal survey. It was found that contraceptive use is associated with pre. and postnatal care. Minimum of 5-7 prenatal and at least 2 postnatal visits have been identified as effective to promote contraceptive use. Involvement of health professionals, motivation through mass media and improved access to health care services during the period of pregnancy and after childbirth are the measures suggested to enhance contraceptive use in the society to curtail family size. (author)

  5. Exploring the Influence of Social Determinants, Social Capital, and Health Expertise on Health and the Rural Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly; Olson, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    In rural communities, religious places can significantly shape health for individuals, families, and communities. Rural churches are prominent community centers in rural communities and are deeply woven into rural culture. Thus, health influences arising from the rural church likely have health implications for the greater community. This article explores health influences emerging from rural churches using social determinants of health, social capital, and health expertise. Although nurses are important health resources for all populations, their value in rural areas may be exceedingly significant. The contribution of nurses to church-based health capital in rural communities may be quite significant and underestimated, although it remains poorly understood. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Influence of nutritional variables and obesity on health and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Fernanda Reis de; Brito, Bruna Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a recurring theme in current scientific literature. This can easily be explained by its exponential increase in all layers of society. The popularity of this subject has also given rise to associated questions, which have achieved greater prominence in health-related publications. In order to assess what has been studied in the field of obesity and nutrition, an overview of all articles published on these subjects in some of the main Brazilian scientific journals over the past two years was performed. Among the subthemes selected for this study, those related to childhood obesity attracted attention due to their greater frequency. These were subdivided into: prevalence, intrauterine and breastfeeding influences that may lead to the development of this condition, impact on quality of life, cardiovascular system and metabolism, and possible prevention strategies. Furthermore, issues related to obesity in adults were explored, such as risk factors and new strategies for prevention, with special attention given to the many studies evaluating different aspects of bariatric surgery. Finally, the subject of malnutrition and the impact of the deficiency of specific micronutrients such as selenium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 were assessed. Based on the results, it was possible to assess the actual importance of obesity and nutrition in health maintenance, and also the several lines of research regarding these issues. Thus, it is essential to create new methods, which must be quick and efficient, to update health professionals involved in the treatment of obesity.

  7. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Assessment of anthropogen aerosols : influence on environment and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, F.

    2010-01-01

    The term aerosol describes a dispersion of liquid or solid particles in a gaseous medium, usually including particles at a size ranging from 0.001 to 100 μm. The size of an aerosol's particle is of special interest, as it influences its fate. Together with other physical properties like shape, density and mass of the particles, it defines the aerosol's possibilities of sedimentation, diffusion, dispersion, coagulation or impaction onto surfaces. As aerosols are by definition composed of a number of particles, this regime of constituent parts varies. Aerosols are well known with their common names such as dust, smoke, fume, fog, mist, spray or haze. The projects of this thesis deal with different aspects of anthropogenic aerosols. We investigated their influence on human health and environmental impact by looking at particle concentrations and size distributions of aerosols. Ultimately, we examined their fate in a human lung model to reveal a direct influence on humans. Our studies included brine inhalation at an open-air spa, exposure to ultrafine particles while driving a car through a heavy impacted environment, and the influence of aerosols on spectators while watching fireworks. In a project with the local environmental authorities we investigated the correlation of air quality, meteorological and traffic data with ultrafine particles. Resulting from our studies, we found beneficial effects of salt aerosols used for inhalation therapy, showing the positive influence in lung deposition, as well as, an effect on ultrafine particle inventory of the ambient air. Combustion aerosols and other man-made particulate matter proved to have adverse effects on human lung deposition, allowing ultrafine particles to reach deep into the human lung. This not only poses a threat to respiratory organs; particles can be translocated from the respiratory tract into the blood stream and from there to other organs, affecting the entire body. For the purpose of finding reasonable

  9. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kullaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.

  11. 19 CFR 351.410 - Differences in circumstances of sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.410 Differences in circumstances of sale (a) Introduction. In calculating normal value the Secretary... on the market value of the merchandise. ...

  12. Influence of family environment on children's oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Parents’ dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits.

  13. Ultrasonic imaging of materials under unconventional circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declercq, Nico Felicien, E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu; McKeon, Peter, E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu; Liu, Jingfei; Shaw, Anurupa [Georgia Institute of Technology, UMI Georgia Tech - CNRS 2958, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Lorraine, Laboratory for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation, 2 rue Marconi, 5070 Met-technopole (France); Slah, Yaacoubi [Institut de Soudure, 4 Bvd Henri Becquerel, Espace Cormontaigne, 57937 Yutz (France)

    2015-03-31

    This paper reflects the contents of the plenary talk given by Nico Felicien Declercq. “Ultrasonic Imaging of materials” covers a wide technological area with main purpose to look at and to peek inside materials. In an ideal world one would manage to examine materials like a clairvoyant. Fortunately this is impossible hence nature has offered sufficient challenges to mankind to provoke curiosity and to develop science and technology. Here we focus on the appearance of certain undesired physical effects that prohibit direct imaging of materials in ultrasonic C-scans. Furthermore we try to make use of these effects to obtain indirect images of materials and therefore make a virtue of necessity. First we return to one of the oldest quests in the progress of mankind: how thick is ice? Our ancestors must have faced this question early on during migration to Northern Europe and to the America’s and Asia. If a physicist or engineer is not provided with helpful tools such as a drill or a device based on ultrasound, it is difficult to determine the ice thickness. Guided waves, similar to those used for nondestructive testing of thin plates in structural health monitoring can be used in combination with the human ear to determine the thickness of ice. To continue with plates, if an image of its interior is desired high frequency ultrasonic pulses can be applied. It is known by the physicist that the resolution depends on the wavelength and that high frequencies usually result in undesirably high damping effects inhibiting deep penetration into the material. To the more practical oriented engineer it is known that it is advantageous to polish surfaces before examination because scattering and diffraction of sound lowers the image resolution. Random scatterers cause some blurriness but cooperating scatters, causing coherent diffraction effects similar to the effects that cause DVD’s to show rainbow patterns under sunlight, can cause spooky images and erroneous

  14. Teacher Reports of Student Health and Its Influence on Students' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Hollo, Alexandra; Robertson, Rachel E.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical health may be an important variable that influences students' behavioral and academic performance in school settings. Poor health status is hypothesized to negatively influence student performance even in the presence of evidence-based practices. In this study, teachers reported their perceptions of students' health status as well as…

  15. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight.

  16. Barriers and facilitators influencing ethical evaluation in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; O'Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators influencing the integration of ethical considerations in health technology assessment (HTA). The study consisted of two complementary approaches: (a) a systematic review of the literature; and (b) an eighteen-item online survey that was distributed to fifty-six HTA agencies affiliated with the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. The review identified twenty-six relevant articles. The most often cited barriers in the literature were: scarcity, heterogeneity and complexity of ethical analysis methods; challenges in translating ethical analysis results into knowledge that is useful for decision makers; and lack of organizational support in terms of required expertise, time and financial resources. The most frequently cited facilitators included: usage of value-based appraisal methods, stakeholder and public engagement, enhancement of practice guidelines, ethical expertise, and educational interventions. Representatives of twenty-six (46.5 percent) agencies from nineteen countries completed the survey. A median of 10 percent (interquartile range, 5 percent to 50 percent) of the HTA products produced by the agencies was reported to include an assessment of ethical aspects. The most commonly perceived barriers were: limited ethical knowledge and expertise, insufficient time and resources, and difficulties in finding ethical evidence or using ethical guidelines. Educational interventions, demand by policy makers, and involvement of ethicists in HTA were the most commonly perceived facilitators. Our results emphasize the importance of simplification of ethics methodology and development of good practice guidelines in HTA, as well as capacity building for engaging HTA practitioners in ethical analyses.

  17. Health Factors Influencing Education of American Indians. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMontigny, Lionel H.

    The resume of health problems facing the American Indian school child emphasized that health, culture, education, and economics are mutually interdependent and must be evaluated and planned for jointly. Specific health problems discussed include general health, nutrition, fever and chronic illness, hearing, sight, and mental health.…

  18. Aged care nurses' job control influence satisfaction and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Rodwell, John; Martin, Angela J

    2017-10-01

    Relationships exist between aged care nurses' perceptions of psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction and mental health, suggesting these characteristics may be important for the management of aged care services. An expanded demand-control-support model that included justice perceptions was examined to determine its impact on multiple types of psychological and organisational well-being outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression). Data were collected from a sample of 173 aged care nurses using a self-report survey and analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. A significant proportion (27-28%) of the variance in aged care nurses' satisfaction, depression and psychological distress was explained by the psychosocial factors included in the model. Job control had the most consistent impact with direct effects on job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression. Informational justice was associated with both psychological distress and depression. Targeting job control may provide the biggest response for nurse managers in aged care, as it is likely to influence nurses' job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression. Facility managers should implement organisational policies and procedures that promote higher levels of control over how nurses perform their work in order to improve nurse well-being in aged care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Publication planning: an effective corporate strategy to influence health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies integrate scientific publications into the communication strategies they employ to influence the practices of health professionals. In their"publication plan", pharmaceutical companies, or the communication agencies they hire, develop key messages to promote their drugs and then plan in advance how, when and where to disseminate them in medical journals or at conferences. Although their true intent is promotional, these messages must appear to be purely scientific, and are therefore disseminated as research articles, review articles, editorials, commentaries. Publication planning involves the use of "ghost" authors who work directly for pharmaceutical companies, but whose contribution is rarely acknowledged in the final published article. Key opinion leaders are recruited as the honorary authors of these articles, to which they have made little, if any, contribution. The criteria for authorship set by journals that publish primary research articles do not provide adequate protection against the practice of ghost and honorary authorship. Certain journals publishing primary research derive a large proportion of their revenue from selling reprints used by pharmaceutical companies to promote their drugs, especially by their sales representatives.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Factors That Influence Contraceptive Choice among Adolescent School-Based Health Center Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Gilmore, Kelly; Cady, Janet; Akers, Aletha Y; Ahrens, Kym R

    2016-06-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods can prevent teen pregnancy yet remain underutilized by adolescents in the United States. Pediatric providers are well positioned to discuss LARCs with adolescents, but little is known about how counseling should occur in pediatric primary care settings. We explored adolescent womens' attitudes and experiences with LARCs to inform the development of adolescent-centered LARC counseling strategies. Qualitative analysis of one-on-one interviews. Participants were recruited from 2 urban school-based, primary care centers. Thirty adolescent women aged 14-18 years, diverse in race/ethnicity, and sexual experience. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive and deductive coding. Major themes were identified to integrate LARC-specific adolescent preferences into existing counseling approaches. Participants (mean age, 16.2 years; range, 14-18 years) represented a diverse range of racial and/or ethnic identities. Half (15/30) were sexually active and 17% (5/30) reported current or past LARC use. Five themes emerged regarding key factors that influence LARC choice, including: (1) strong preferences about device-specific characteristics; (2) previous exposure to information about LARCs from peers, family members, or health counseling sessions; (3) knowledge gaps about LARC methods that affect informed decision-making; (4) personal circumstances or experiences that motivate a desire for effective and/or long-acting contraception; and (5) environmental constraints and supports that might influence adolescent access to LARCs. We identified 5 factors that influence LARC choice among adolescent women and propose a framework for incorporating these factors into contraceptive counseling services in pediatric primary care settings. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Students’Self-Perception and Cognition about Circumstances in Writing a Graduation Thesis

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 京子

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how students perceive self and the circumstances when writing a graduation thesis, and also the relationship between positive cognitions and mental health. Thirty-one university students who were writing graduation theses were administered a questionnaire six months before the deadline and again one month before it. Students perceived themselves more emotionally unbalanced and more incapable, but more positive about their attitudes concerning their graduation theses th...

  2. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Health: Does Sexism Influence Women’s Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes the sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and CVD but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of two types of sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be employed to assess cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences. PMID:25054736

  3. Data Speak: Influencing School Health Policy through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Keller, Teresa; Hine, Beverly; Christeson, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    School nurses occupy a unique position in relation to school health policy. In addition to facing the demands of promoting and maintaining the health of students, they collect the information that is used to document the implementation of school health policy. Effective school health policy is guided by reliable, credible data regarding what…

  4. Influence of biomedical sciences on National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health insurance becomes a viable alternative for financing health care amidst the high cost of health care. This study, conducted in 1997, uses a valuation method to assess the willingness of individuals from the working sector in Accra, Ghana, to join and pay premium for a proposed National Health Insurance Scheme ...

  5. “Como Arrancar una Planta”: Women’s Reflections about Influences of Im/Migration on Their Everyday Lives and Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K. Robertson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze women’s reflections about how experiences of im/migration from rural to urban settings in Monterrey, Mexico, influence their everyday life experience and health and that of their families. The participants were eight women from heterogeneous indigenous backgrounds, one woman with a mestizo background, two health professionals, three persons from organizations supporting indigenous groups, and two researchers. I collected data from personal observations, documents, and interviews that I then analyzed with a critical ethnography methodology developed by Carspecken. The women emphasized that food habits were the first to be adapted to circumstances in an urban everyday life constrained by working conditions. Together with their experiences of discrimination and violence, urban living determines the challenges and the priorities of daily life. Urban life affects how they perceive and treat their own and their family’s health and wellbeing. Nevertheless, their sense of belonging and home remains in their communities of origin, and they strive to reach a balance in their lives and preserve a connection to their roots, motherhood, and traditional knowledge. However, the women handle their im/migration experiences in diverse ways depending on their own conditions and the structural forces limiting or allowing them to act in decisive life situations. Im/migration is not just a matter of choice; it is about survival and is influenced by social determinants and “structural vulnerability” that influences and/or limit human agency. These, together with an unsustainable economic situation, make migration the only option, a forced decision within households. Structural forces such as social injustice in welfare policies restrict human rights and rights for health. Social determinants of health can constrain decision making and frame choices concerning health and childbearing in everyday life.

  6. Health Care Factors Influencing Teen Mothers' Use Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study ... gradually reaped in reducing the average number of ... stigma to remarriage and relationship instability, ..... Health and Mental Hygiene; 2011. 6.

  7. Why bother about health? A study on the factors that influence health information seeking behaviour among Malaysian healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Ainin, Sulaiman; Yeong, Mun Wai

    2017-08-01

    The general improvement of socio-economic conditions has resulted in people becoming more educated to make better-informed decisions in health related matters. Individual's perspective on health increases with better understanding of ways to improve lifestyle for better health and living. With the increase in lifestyle related diseases that lead to health problems, there is an increase in the availability of healthcare information. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence information seeking behaviour in the area of healthcare and lifestyle. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the factors that affect online health information-seeking behaviour among healthcare product in the capital city of Malaysia. Survey questionnaire was used to collect empirical data. A survey was conducted among 300 healthcare consumers in three main cities in Malaysia where questionnaires were personally distributed through snowball sampling. A total of 271 questionnaire forms were used in the analysis. Health Behaviour of the consumers influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. And this relationship is strongly affected by Gender whereby the affect is strongly among females compared to males. The findings indicate that Health Behaviour influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Marketers can find out which target segment of population to target when devising information channels for consumers, especially through the Internet. However, message that promotes positive health behaviour to a target audience who already has positive Health Behaviour increase the motivation to Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing the migration of West African health professionals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The West African health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers and specialized skills. Among the contributory factors to this lack of human resource for health workforce include but not limited to the migration of health professionals. Methods: This cross-sectional survey targeted ...

  9. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  10. 12 CFR 212.7 - Change in circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deposits of the depository organization, or an acquisition, merger, consolidation, or reorganization of the ownership structure of a depository organization that causes a previously permissible interlock to become... prohibited. A change in circumstances may include an increase in asset size of an organization, a change in...

  11. 12 CFR 26.7 - Change in circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the depository organization, or an acquisition, merger, consolidation, or any reorganization of the ownership structure of a depository organization that causes a previously permissible interlock to become... change in circumstances may include an increase in asset size of an organization, a change in the...

  12. 12 CFR 348.7 - Change in circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... aggregate deposits of the depository organization, or an acquisition, merger, consolidation, or reorganization of the ownership structure of a depository organization that causes a previously permissible... become prohibited. A change in circumstances may include an increase in asset size of an organization, a...

  13. 40 CFR 2.209 - Disclosure in special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... its officers and employees, furnished to each affected business at least the same notice to which the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure in special circumstances. 2.209 Section 2.209 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION...

  14. CIRCUMSTANCES AND CONSEQUENCES OF FALLS IN POLIO SURVIVORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. Methods: A survey was conducted among 376 polio

  15. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS) in...

  16. Self-reported circumstances and consequences of driving while

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radun, I.; Radun, J.; Wahde, M.; Watling, C.N.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Driver surveys are indispensable sources of information when estimating the role of sleepiness in crash causation. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify the prevalence of driving while sleepy among Finnish drivers, (2) determine the circumstances of such instances, and (3) identify risk

  17. 29 CFR 1980.115 - Special circumstances; waiver of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circumstances not contemplated by the provisions of this part, or for good cause shown, the administrative law judge or the Board on review may, upon application, after three days notice to all parties and interveners, waive any rule or issue any orders that justice or the administration of the Act requires. ...

  18. 32 CFR 700.809 - Persons found under incriminating circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offense, he shall be released at the earliest opportunity, except: (1) If not a citizen of the United... immigration authorities shall be notified as to the time and place of release sufficiently in advance to..., at the first opportunity, deliver such person, together with a statement of the circumstances, to the...

  19. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities? influence on patients? health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice’s validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people’s health-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic searche...

  20. How Does Retiree Health Insurance Influence Public Sector Employee Saving?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Clark; Olivia S. Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided r...

  1. [Health-care utilization in elderly (Spain 2006-2012): Influence of health status and social class].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Solsona, Sofía; Sartolo, M Teresa; Rabanaque, M José

    2016-04-01

    to explore health-care utilization (primary and specialized health-care, hospitalizations, day hospital and emergency services) and overuse in elderly in Spain, considering the influence of health status, sex, social class and its temporal trend. cross sectional study in two phases. Spain. people surveyed in the National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011-12. Health status was measured using self-rated and diagnosed health (number and diagnoses). Social class was obtained from the last occupation of the main supporter (manual and non-manual workers). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting by sex, age, health status, social class and year, obtaining its predictive capacity. the percentage of elderly population with health-care utilization decreased during the period analyzed. Women who belonged to the manual workers category presented the highest prevalence of low health (low self-rated health in 2006: 70.6%). Low health status was associated with a higher utilization of health-care services. Self-rated health was a better predictor of health-care utilization and overuse than diagnosed health, getting the highest predictive capacity for specialized health-care (C = 0.676). Old people from low social class used with higher frequency primary health-care and emergency services. On the other hand, specialized health-care and day hospital were more used by high social classes. inequalities in health and health-care utilization have been observed in elderly according social class. It is necessary to consider self-rated health as a health-care utilization predictor and to review our health-care services accessibility and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Social Group Influences of US Health Journalists and Their Impact on the Newsmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…

  3. Strengthening primary health care through primary care and public health collaboration: the influence of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; O'Mara, Linda; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; Murray, Nancy; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Meagher-Stewart, Donna

    2018-04-12

    AimThe aim of this paper is to examine Canadian key informants' perceptions of intrapersonal (within an individual) and interpersonal (among individuals) factors that influence successful primary care and public health collaboration. Primary health care systems can be strengthened by building stronger collaborations between primary care and public health. Although there is literature that explores interpersonal factors that can influence successful inter-organizational collaborations, a few of them have specifically explored primary care and public health collaboration. Furthermore, no papers were found that considered factors at the intrapersonal level. This paper aims to explore these gaps in a Canadian context. This interpretative descriptive study involved key informants (service providers, managers, directors, and policy makers) who participated in one h telephone interviews to explore their perceptions of influences on successful primary care and public health collaboration. Transcripts were analyzed using NVivo 9.FindingsA total of 74 participants [from the provinces of British Columbia (n=20); Ontario (n=19); Nova Scotia (n=21), and representatives from other provinces or national organizations (n=14)] participated. Five interpersonal factors were found that influenced public health and primary care collaborations including: (1) trusting and inclusive relationships; (2) shared values, beliefs and attitudes; (3) role clarity; (4) effective communication; and (5) decision processes. There were two influencing factors found at the intrapersonal level: (1) personal qualities, skills and knowledge; and (2) personal values, beliefs, and attitudes. A few differences were found across the three core provinces involved. There were several complex interactions identified among all inter and intra personal influencing factors: One key factor - effective communication - interacted with all of them. Results support and extend our understanding of what influences

  4. Parental influence on children's oral health-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.

  5. Vital Signs: Trends in State Suicide Rates - United States, 1999-2016 and Circumstances Contributing to Suicide - 27 States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Deborah M; Simon, Thomas R; Fowler, Katherine A; Kegler, Scott R; Yuan, Keming; Holland, Kristin M; Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E

    2018-06-08

    Suicide rates in the United States have risen nearly 30% since 1999, and mental health conditions are one of several factors contributing to suicide. Examining state-level trends in suicide and the multiple circumstances contributing to it can inform comprehensive state suicide prevention planning. Trends in age-adjusted suicide rates among persons aged ≥10 years, by state and sex, across six consecutive 3-year periods (1999-2016), were assessed using data from the National Vital Statistics System for 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, covering 27 states in 2015, were used to examine contributing circumstances among decedents with and without known mental health conditions. During 1999-2016, suicide rates increased significantly in 44 states, with 25 states experiencing increases >30%. Rates increased significantly among males and females in 34 and 43 states, respectively. Fifty-four percent of decedents in 27 states in 2015 did not have a known mental health condition. Among decedents with available information, several circumstances were significantly more likely among those without known mental health conditions than among those with mental health conditions, including relationship problems/loss (45.1% versus 39.6%), life stressors (50.5% versus 47.2%), and recent/impending crises (32.9% versus 26.0%), but these circumstances were common across groups. Suicide rates increased significantly across most states during 1999-2016. Various circumstances contributed to suicides among persons with and without known mental health conditions. States can use a comprehensive evidence-based public health approach to prevent suicide risk before it occurs, identify and support persons at risk, prevent reattempts, and help friends and family members in the aftermath of a suicide.

  6. Influence of Maternal Health Literacy on Healthy Pregnancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... Mobile Phone No: +2348034670349. Abstract ... significant relationships between maternal health literacy and antenatal care. (r = .445, df = 229, ... health literacy include knowledge and use of a healthy diet, taking actions to ... it is especially problematic among those of modest financial means, many of.

  7. Exploring factors influencing health-seeking decisions and retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions .... 4.2 Perceived stigma and discrimi- ... and self-medication. ... help you think through that oh, these are some of the questions ...

  8. Contradictions in digital health engagement: An activity tracker's ambiguous influence on vulnerable young adults' engagement in own health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Jensen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    Activity trackers are designed to support individuals in monitoring and increasing their physical activity. The use of activity trackers among individuals diagnosed with depression and anxiety has not yet been examined. This pilot study investigates how this target group engages with an activity tracker during a 10-week health intervention aimed to increase their physical activity level and improve their physical and mental health. Two groups of 11 young adults (aged 18-29 years) diagnosed with depression or anxiety participated in the digital health intervention. The study used mixed methods to investigate the research question. Quantitative health data were used to assess the intervention's influence on the participants' health and qualitative data provided insights into the participants' digital health experience. The study demonstrated an ambiguous influence from the use of an activity tracker with positive physical and mental health results, but a fading and even negative digital health engagement and counterproductive competition. The ambiguous results identify a need for (1) developing strategies for health professionals to provide supervised use of activity trackers and support the target groups' abilities to convert health information about physical activity into positive health strategies, and (2) designing alternatives for health promoting IT targeted users who face challenges and need motivation beyond self-tracking and competition.

  9. The influence of COPD on health-related quality of life independent of the influence of comorbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manen, J.G. van; Bindels, P.J.E.; Dekker, F.W.; Bottema, B.J.A.M.; Zee, J.S. van der; IJzermans, C.J.; Schadé, E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) independent of comorbidity. METHODS: Patients with COPD in general practice, >/=40 years, were selected. To recruit controls, a random

  10. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  11. Children's television viewing and objectively measured physical activity: associations with family circumstance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Jo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of family circumstance to physical activity and television viewing has not been widely investigated in pre-adolescents, and available information is inconsistent. This study examines whether television viewing and objectively measured physical activity vary by different indicators of family circumstance. Methods Data from the 2001 Children's Leisure Activity Study and the 2002/3 Health, Eating and Play Study, involving Australian children in Grades Prep (mean age 6y and 5–6 (mean age 11y, were combined. Children wore accelerometers for six consecutive 24 hour periods. Average min/day in low-intensity activity (1.0–1.9 METs and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (≥3 METs were calculated. Parents reported children's television viewing and family circumstance. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for young girls, young boys, older girls and older boys. Results Complete data were available for 2458 children. Parental education and, to a lesser extent, employment level were inversely associated with television viewing. Children in single-parent families, those whose fathers were not in paid employment, and those without siblings tended to spend more time in low-intensity activity than their peers. Children with siblings spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity; associations were stronger for girls. Maternal education was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for younger children. Maternal employment was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for older children. Multivariable models did not demonstrate a cumulative explanatory effect. Conclusion Individual measures of family circumstance were differentially associated with television, low-intensity activity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity and associations were often not consistent across age-by-gender groups. Interventions may need to be tailored

  12. How the media influences women's perceptions of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C

    2001-01-01

    To better understand the effectiveness of media sources that marketers use to channel direct-to-consumer (DTC) campaigns to women, researchers devised a study that segmented the female participants according to their degree of involvement in health care decisions, marital status, age, employment, income, and education. The findings show that women in certain population segments reacted far differently to health care information depending on whether it was presented through the Internet, magazines, newspapers, radio, or TV.

  13. Reasons and circumstances of the Chernobyl-4 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomakin, V.V.; Krayushkin, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Paper considers the present-day opinions concerning the reasons and circumstances of the CNPP fourth power unit accident. The chronology of test conductions at the fourth power unit is given. The sources of the initial information on the accident development are pointed out. Evolution of the concepts about the reasons of occurrence and development of the accident is shown. Calculation analysis of the accident development is presented. 5 figs

  14. Leadership and Human Resource Management in Project Circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Fadjar, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Leadership is a very important issue in any organizations. The complexity of a project makes the role of the project manager as the leader even more challenging because he/she has to work in an organization which has relatively short time period and dealing with many people who come from various backgrounds. This paper discusses various theories of leadership and proposes their application in project circumstances. As It is often said that the project management is effective if it can manage ...

  15. The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes: findings from refugee settlements in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored...

  16. Juveniles' Miranda comprehension: Understanding, appreciation, and totality of circumstances factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Heather; Romaine, Christina L Riggs; Goldstein, Naomi E S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined juvenile justice-involved youths' understanding and appreciation of the Miranda warnings' rights to silence and legal counsel using the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (Goldstein, Zelle, & Grisso, 2012). It also examined the relationships between totality of circumstances factors and understanding and appreciation of rights. Data were collected from 183 youths (140 boys) in pre- and postadjudication facilities in 2 states. Overall, youths demonstrated greater difficulty on measures of appreciation than understanding, with particular deficits in their abilities to comprehend the abstract concept of the right to silence. Results varied slightly by instrument, highlighting the importance of a multimodal assessment of these complex abilities. Examination of totality of circumstances factors identified relationships between some factors (e.g., age, verbal IQ, academic achievement) and Miranda comprehension, but revealed that other factors (e.g., gender, number of previous arrests) were not significantly related to Miranda understanding or appreciation. The findings support a nuanced conceptualization of Miranda rights comprehension that acknowledges the complexity of understanding and appreciating the warnings. Empirical analyses also support the continued use of some totality of circumstances factors and abandonment of others. Findings underscore the necessity of multimodal assessment and interpretation when conducting capacity to waive Miranda rights evaluations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Masliak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  18. Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health, the Importance of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured Abstract Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Due to the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review, we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  19. Intimate personal violence and caregiving: Influences on physical and mental health in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pablo; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh R

    2017-08-01

    To investigate if women with a history of having experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) who undertook caregiving would experience worse mental and physical health compared to those without caregiving roles. IPV, caregiving history and data on covariates were collected between 1996 and 2010 from 8453 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health aged between 45 and 65 over the course of the study. Regression analyses were used to analyse the association of IPV and caregiving (categorised as IPV+caregiving, IPV+no caregiving, no IPV+caregiving, no IPV+no caregiving), with and without adjustment for covariates, on mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depressive symptoms and perceived stress, measured in 2010. Experiencing IPV and being a caregiver was associated with poor health outcomes on three of the four outcomes (depressive symptoms, OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.58, 2.75; stress, OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.55, 2.87; physical HRQOL β -2.39, 95% CI -3.34, -1.44; all p≤0.001, fully adjusted) compared with not experiencing IPV or caregiving. On these outcomes, IPV and caregiving combined had a stronger association than IPV or caregiving separately. For mental HRQOL, a weaker association was found (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.02, 1.95, fully adjusted, p=0.04). This paper provides evidence for the cumulative health impact of stressful life events, both those that are perpetrated against an individual (violence) and those undertaken with a degree of personal agency (caregiving). The findings underscore the need to understand the drivers of poor health, for clinicians to ask about life circumstances of patients experiencing poor health, and for the provision of referral pathways for complex cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of physical activity on psychosomatic health in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzyk, K; Cajdler, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent the known psychosomatic benefits of exercise hold true for the obese. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the psychosomatic health and components of general intelligence, such as the capacity for logical-deductive tasks, would be better in regularly exercising than non-exercising obese women. We addressed the issue in a self-reported survey study, comprising two groups of middle-aged obese women (age 30-50 years, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) of 25 persons each. The criterion for the group division was regular exercise, minimum twice a week, for at least 2 months. The following psychometric tools were used: Physical Fitness and Exercise Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Life Satisfaction Scale, General Health Inventory-28, Raven's Matrices Test for intelligence, and a test for selfcontentment with one's body figure shape. The exercising obese women scored significantly better in Life Satisfaction Scale (17.1 +/- 1.2 vs.12.0 +/- 0.9), had a lower level of depression (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.4 +/- 0.7), and a better assessment of the health status (24.6 +/- 1.6 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.2) (reversed score) compared with non-exercising ones (Pexercising obese women also appreciably better assessed their bodily looks. Interestingly, if depression was present in exercising women, it had more detrimental health effects than in physically inactive ones. The study failed to substantiate appreciable changes in general intelligence between active and non-active obese women. In conclusion, physical activity is of benefit for the psychosomatic health in obese women, which should be considered in behavioral counseling.

  1. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  2. Dietary influences on periodontal health in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ellen I

    2006-11-01

    A pet cannot be healthy without oral health. Periodontal is a significant disease that has local and systemic ramifications. It has been stated earlier that effective plaque control prevents gingivitis. In human beings, 90% of periodontitis occurs as the result of progression gingivitis, and this type of periodontitis can be completely prevented by plaque control. It is reasonable that dogs and cats react similarly and that effective plaque control could prevent a large percentage of periodontitis cases. Proper nutrition and effective oral hygiene are necessary components of oral health and should be jointly promoted in the management of oral disease in dogs and cats.

  3. The Influence of School Health Education Programmes on the Knowledge and Behaviour of School Children towards Nutrition and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirle, Kathleen; Thomas, Malcolm

    2000-02-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted involving two school situations; one identified as being health promoting and having a comprehensive policy and a defined programme of health education, and the other not health promoting, having no policy and an unstructured programme of health education. A total of 367 students from two secondary and four primary schools participated in the study. The factors used to categorise schools are highlighted. A self-completion questionnaire was employed to assess students' knowledge and behaviour with regard to nutrition and health. Students' dietary intake was monitored by employing a frequency of consumption tick sheet. The results revealed that students from the more health promoting secondary school (School 1(H)) were more knowledgeable of what constitutes a healthy diet and the benefits and risks to health. The implications of these results are considered within the context of the many factors that could influence students' knowledge and behaviour.

  4. Influence of Parental Encouragement towards Health Care of Their Wards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, R. Grace; Veliappan, A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore how parents are encouraging towards health care of their wards. A "Survey Method" was used in the present study. A standardized "Agarwal Parental Encouragement Scale (APES)" was used to collect information from the students. The sample consists of thousand and ninety five higher…

  5. Influence of environmental health services on students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of environmental health services on students' academic performance in secondary schools in Brass Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The sample for the study comprised a total of 245 students and 59 teachers, amounting to 304 ...

  6. The influence of clients' leadership in relation to construction health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Construction Regulations realise the contributions by each member of a project team to health and safety (H&S) improvement. These Regulations amplify the roles and contributions of clients to project realisation. The tenets of the Regulations conform with the observation that clients' H&S leadership and ...

  7. Influence of gender on mental health literacy in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sue M; Wright, Annemarie; Harris, Meredith G; Jorm, Anthony F; McGorry, Patrick D

    2006-09-01

    To determine the effects of gender on mental health literacy in young people between 12 and 25 years of age. Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing was employed to conduct a cross-sectional structured interview focusing on young people's awareness of depression and psychosis. The sample comprised 1207 young Australians (539 males and 668 females) between the ages of 12-25 recruited from two metropolitan and two regional areas within Victoria. Six hundred and six respondents were presented a depression vignette and 601 were presented a psychosis vignette. Female respondents (60.7%) were significantly more likely to correctly identify depression in the vignette as compared to male respondents (34.5%). No significant gender differences were noted for the psychosis vignette. Males were less significantly likely to endorse seeing a doctor or psychologist/counsellor for the treatment of psychosis. Males were also significantly more likely than females to endorse alcohol as a way of dealing with depression and antibiotics as useful for dealing with psychosis. Gender differences in mental health literacy are striking. Males showed significantly lower recognition of symptoms associated with mental illness and were more likely endorse the use alcohol to deal with mental health problems. Such factors may contribute to the delays in help seeking seen in young males. Further research is needed to delineate how these gender differences in young people may obstruct help seeking, early intervention and other aspects of mental health service delivery.

  8. Health Care Factors Influencing Teen Mothers' Use Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 ...

  9. Influence Of Social Factors On The Reproductive Health Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the relationship between demographic variables and the reproductive health behaviour of the adolescents in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study consisted of 164 adolescents, male and female, in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage ...

  10. How Sex and Gender Influence Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Research Reports Interdisciplinary Research Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH) Specialized Centers of Research on Sex Differences (SCORE) U3 Clinical Research & Trials NIH Inclusion Policy An NIH Outreach Toolkit: How to Engage, Recruit, and Retain Women in ...

  11. Analyzing the influence of institutions on health policy development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on health policy development in Uganda: A case study of the decision to abolish user fees. ... Methods: An explanatory case study informed by analytical frameworks from the ... Multiple data sources were used including: academic literature, key ... However, prevalent informal institutions such as “Big Man” presidentialism ...

  12. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort

  13. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:

  14. Influence of an integral life practice workshop on health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of an Integral Life Practice workshop on perceptions of health and spirituality. An integral psychological approach using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods in a pre- and post-test, quasi experimental and control group design was used to assess changes ...

  15. [THE INFLUENCE OF SHIFT WORK ON WORKER'S HEALTH STATUS (REVIEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, E F

    2015-01-01

    The article provides an overview of domestic and foreign works on the impact of the replaceable labor on the efficiency, general state of health, the health and the dream of workers. Many hours shifts and overtime work were found to disturb likely familiar rhythms (sleep, wakefulness, performance), change the metabolic and hormonal metabolisms, reducing the recovery period between duties, contribute to more rapid development of fatigue. The consequence of circadian dyschrony may be the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system and cancer incidence. Studies have shown that sleep disorders are associated with metabolic changes, and particularly, obesity. In persons working in shifts, there are more often registered as individual features of the metabolic syndrome and the whole syndrome. It is noted that persons forming this group are at higher risk of developing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the problem of shift work is presented to be very important. Knowledge of ways and mechanisms that explain the impact of shift work on health is necessary to evaluate the professional risk. In the system of health measures the attention should be given to the rationalization of work and rest regimens, prevention of fatigue, struggle with sleep disorders and obesity.

  16. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people.

  18. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  19. 'BRICS without straw'? A systematic literature review of newly emerging economies' influence in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Andrew; Xiao, Yina; Missoni, Eduardo; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2013-04-15

    Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as 'BRICS' (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS' collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries' material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily 'opportunity seekers' and region mobilisers but with potential to become 'issue leaders' and region organisers. Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has increased significantly since a similar review conducted in

  20. Influence of Health Behaviors and Occupational Stress on Prediabetic State among Male Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Moon, Jihyeon; Jung, Jiyeon

    2018-06-14

    This study examined the influence of health behaviors and occupational stress on the prediabetic state of male office workers, and identified related risks and influencing factors. The study used a cross-sectional design and performed an integrative analysis on data from regular health checkups, health questionnaires, and a health behavior-related survey of employees of a company, using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed significant relationships of prediabetic state with health behaviors and occupational stress. Among health behaviors, a diet without vegetables and fruits (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.74, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.93⁻7.66) was associated with a high risk of prediabetic state. In the subscales on occupational stress, organizational system in the 4th quartile (OR = 4.83, 95% CI = 2.40⁻9.70) was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of prediabetic state. To identify influencing factors of prediabetic state, the multiple logistic regression was performed using regression models. The results showed that dietary habits (β = 1.20, p = 0.002), total occupational stress score (β = 1.33, p = 0.024), and organizational system (β = 1.13, p = 0.009) were significant influencing factors. The present findings indicate that active interventions are needed at workplace for the systematic and comprehensive management of health behaviors and occupational stress that influence prediabetic state of office workers.

  1. Health-related disparities: influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L

    2005-07-01

    Racial disparities in health cannot be explained solely on the basis of poverty, access to health care, behavior, or environmental factors. Their complex etiology is dependent on interactions between all these factors plus genetics. Scientists have been slow to consider genetics as a risk factor because genetic polymorphisms tend to be more variable within a race than between races. Now that studies are demonstrating the existence of racial differences in allelic frequencies for multiple genes affecting a single biologic mechanism, the present argument for a significant genetic role in contributing to health disparities is gaining support. Individuals vary, often significantly, in their response to environmental agents. This variability provides a high "background noise" when scientists examine human populations to identify environmental links to disease. This variability often masks important environmental contributors to disease risk and is a major impediment to efforts to investigate the causes of diseases.Fortunately, investments in the various genome projects have led to the development of tools and databases that can be used to help identify the genetic variations in environmental response genes that can lead to such wide differences in disease susceptibility. NIEHS developed the environ-mental genome project to catalog these genetic variants (polymorphisms)and to identify the ones that play a major role in human susceptibility to environmental agents. This information is being used in epidemiologic studies to pinpoint environmental contributors to disease better. The research summarized in this article is critically important for tying genetics and the environment to health disparities, and for the development of a rational approach to gauge environmental threats. Common variants in genes play pivotal roles in determining if or when illness or death result from exposure to drugs or environmental xenobiotics. Most common variants exist in all human

  2. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  3. Health insurance without provider influence: the limits of cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L G; Greenberg, W

    1988-01-01

    In our previous paper, we showed that market forces can play a significant role in controlling health care costs and that a considerable amount of cost containment effort was pursued by third-party insurers in Oregon in the 1930s and 1940s. Although physicians were able to thwart this cost-control effort, a 1986 Supreme Court decision, FTC v. Indiana Federation of Dentists, found that a boycott of insurers by dentists violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. Further investigation of recent developments, including the recent Wickline v. California decision, indicates that the primary barriers to cost containment today are not obstructive tactics by providers or provider-controlled health insurance plans. Rather, the primary barriers are increases in the development and diffusion of new technology and society's apparent preference for paying for new tests and procedures regardless of economic efficiency.

  4. The Influence of Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training on Resident Assistants' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin A. Swanbrow; Drum, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the mental health influence on resident assistants associated with their training in suicide prevention and their subsequent role as campus mental health gatekeepers. Despite considerable prior personal experience with their own suicidal thinking as well as with others who have thoughts of suicide, a multiple regression…

  5. Influence of social support on health among gender and socio-economic groups of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP; Stewart, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Background: The influence of social support on health was explored among gender and socio-economic groups with the aim of contributing to the explanation of socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2616 Slovak adolescents (52.4% male, 47.6% female,

  6. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  7. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  8. Testing Theoretical Relationships: Factors Influencing Positive Health Practices (PHP) in Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…

  9. The influence of social factors on gender health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Male births exceed female births by 5-6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05-1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Influence of preschool-teacher-efficacy, social skills and work satisfaction on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 直樹; 金丸, 靖代; 畑田, 惣一郎; マエダ, ナオキ; カネマル, ヤスヨ; ハタダ, ソウイチロウ; Naoki, MAEDA; Yasuyo, KANEMARU; Soichiro, HATADA

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate preschool teacher's mental health and to examine the influence of preschool-teacher-efficacy, social skills and work satisfaction on their mental health. One hundred preschool teachers (8 males, 92 females) were administered a questionnaire including preschool teacher-efficacy scale, Kiss-18, work satisfaction scale and BDI-II. With regard to the situation of mental health, preschool teachers scored slightly lower than the general level. Pas...

  11. [Factors Influencing Participation in Financial Incentive Programmes of Health Insurance Funds. Results of the Study 'German Health Update'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S; von der Lippe, E; Starker, A; Hoebel, J; Franke, A

    2015-11-01

    The statutory health insurance can offer their insured incentive programmes that will motivate for healthy behaviour through a financial or material reward. This study will show results about what factors influence financial incentive programme participation (BPT) including all sorts of statutory health insurance funds and taking into account gender differences. For the cross-sectional analysis, data were used from 15,858 participants in the study 'Germany Health Update' (GEDA) from 2009, who were insured in the statutory health insurance. The selection of potential influencing variables for a BPT is based on the "Behavioural Model for Health Service Use" of Andersen. Accordingly, various factors were included in logistic regression models, which were calculated separately by gender: predisposing factors (age, education, social support, and health awareness), enabling factors (income, statutory health insurance fund, and family physician), and need factors (smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, sports, body mass index, and general health status). In consideration of all factors, for both sexes, BPT is associated with age, health awareness, education, use of a family physician, smoking, and sports activities. In addition, income, body mass index, and diet are significant in women and social support and kind of statutory health insurance fund in men. It is found that predisposing, enabling and need factors are relevant. Financial incentive programmes reach population groups with greatest need less than those groups who already have a health-conscious behaviour, who receive a reward for this. In longitudinal studies, further research on financial incentive programmes should investigate the existence of deadweight effects and whether incentive programmes can contribute to the reduction of the inequity in health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The influence of prison climate on the mental health of adult prisoners: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomany, A; Dickinson, T

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the prison environment may impact upon the mental health of adult prisoners. This paper highlights that prisoners perceive that the prison environment has a negative influence upon their mental health. However, a small number regarded prison as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is a need for more research in this area specifically relating to the impact the prison climate may have upon those from black and minority ethic groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Little is known regarding how the prison environment may affect the mental health of adult prisoners. Consequently, there is a need to investigate how this setting may exacerbate mental distress among this community. This literature review explores how the prison climate influences the mental health of adult prisoners. A thematic synthesis approach was used to elicit data relating to the aspects of the prison climate, which influence the mental health of prisoners. Four primary themes emerged from the synthesis: social, emotional, organizational and physical aspects. Prisoners perceive the prison climate to have a negative influence upon their mental health. However, perceived positively, prison was regarded as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is limited research available specifically exploring the potential impact of the prison climate upon those from black and ethnic minorities groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Additionally nurses need to take an active role in influencing and structuring the political agenda, which governs the

  13. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine.

  15. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its influence on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, B; Katulski, K; Czyzyk, A; Podfigurna-Stopa, A; Maciejewska-Jeske, M

    2014-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is one of the most common causes of secondary amenorrhea. There are three types of FHA: weight loss-related, stress-related, and exercise-related amenorrhea. FHA results from the aberrations in pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which in turn causes impairment of the gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone). The final consequences are complex hormonal changes manifested by profound hypoestrogenism. Additionally, these patients present mild hypercortisolemia, low serum insulin levels, low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and low total triiodothyronine. The aim of this work is to review the available data concerning the effects of FHA on different aspects of women's health. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is related to profound impairment of reproductive functions including anovulation and infertility. Women's health in this disorder is disturbed in several aspects including the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, and mental problems. Patients manifest a decrease in bone mass density, which is related to an increase in fracture risk. Therefore, osteopenia and osteoporosis are the main long-term complications of FHA. Cardiovascular complications include endothelial dysfunction and abnormal changes in the lipid profile. FHA patients present significantly higher depression and anxiety and also sexual problems compared to healthy subjects. FHA patients should be carefully diagnosed and properly managed to prevent both short- and long-term medical consequences.

  16. Organizational culture influences health care workers' influenza immunization behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Nicole; Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Crosson, Jesse C; Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara; Winston, Carla A

    2009-03-01

    Low rates of influenza immunization among health care workers (HCWs) pose a potential health risk to patients in primary care practices. Despite previous educational efforts and programs to reduce financial barriers, HCW influenza immunization rates remain low. Variation in practice-level organizational culture may affect immunization rates. To explore this relationship, we examined organizational cultures and HCWs' influenza immunization behaviors in three family medicine practices. We used a multi-method comparative case study. A field researcher used participant observation, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews to collect data in each practice in November-December 2003. A diverse team used grounded theory to analyze text data. Organizational culture varied among practices and differing HCW immunization rates were observed. The most structured and business-like practice achieved immunization of all HCWs, while the other two practices exhibited greater variation in HCW immunization rates. Physicians in the practices characterized as chaotic/disorganized or divided were immunized at higher rates than other members of the practices. In these practices, organizational culture was associated with varying rates of influenza immunization for HCWs, especially among nonphysicians. Addressing elements of organizational culture such as beliefs regarding influenza immunization and office policies may facilitate the immunization of all staff members.

  17. Gender differences in the influence of economic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on later-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Steven G; Gee, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Gender differences in exposure to social resources play a significant role in influencing gender inequalities in health. A related question--and our focus--asks whether these inequalities are also influenced by gendered vulnerabilities to social forces. Specifically, this paper examines the differential impact of social forces on the health of elderly (65+) men and women. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to estimate gender differences in the influence of socioeconomic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on both self-rated health and overall functional health using data from the 1994-1995 National Population Health Survey. Key findings include: 1) the relationship between income and health is significant for older women only, whereas the converse holds for education; 2) having an acceptable body weight is positively associated with health for elderly women only; and 3) stress-related factors are stronger determinants of health for older women. Our findings shed light on the processes of healthy aging for men and women, and suggest that interventions to improve the health of elderly Canadians need to be gender-specific.

  18. The influence of COPD on health-related quality of life independent of the influence of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Jeannette G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Dekker, Friedo W; Bottema, Bernardus J A M; van der Zee, Jaring S; Ijzermans, C Joris; Schadé, Egbert

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) independent of comorbidity. Patients with COPD in general practice, >/=40 years, were selected. To recruit controls, a random sample of persons without COPD and >/=40 years, was taken. HRQL was assessed with the SF-36 and comorbidity was determined by questionnaire. The influence of COPD on HRQL independent of comorbidity (represented by adjusted regression coefficients) was significant for physical functioning (-27.6), role functioning due to physical problems (-21.6), vitality (-14.4), and general health (-25.7), and was minor and not significant for social functioning (-5.6), mental health (-1.3), role functioning due to emotional problems (-2.7), and bodily pain (-2.5). Comorbidity contributed significantly to the HRQL of all domains (-7.6 to -27.1). COPD patients can be impaired in all domains of HRQL. However, impairments in physical functioning, vitality, and general health are related to COPD and to some extent to comorbidity, while impairments in social and emotional functioning do not seem to be related to COPD, but only to comorbidity.

  19. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-14

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT ON PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Kordić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.

  1. Laughter, Humor, and Cancer: Delicate Moments and Poignant Interactional Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Wayne A; Prickett, Erin

    2017-07-01

    Conversation analysis is employed to examine transcribed excerpts drawn from a subsample of 75 naturally occurring and video recorded interviews between cancer patients and 30 doctors. Close examination is provided of how cancer patients initiate, and doctors respond, to laughter and humor during oncology interviews. Interactions demonstrate that communication about the disease "cancer" shares qualities similar to other medical areas (e.g., primary care): the tendency for patients to initiate laughter or humor to address troubling and challenging circumstances; and that during moments when patients address personal matters, doctors are not invited and do not reciprocate with shared laughter and humor. Prominent in talk about cancer are various precarious circumstances, awkward and delicate moments mirroring the lived experiences of cancer patients (e.g., when patients attempt to minimize fears, justify that they are well when threatened with sickness, claim normality in the midst of chronic conditions, and take stances that weight loss and gain are not problematic). These examples provide a compelling case that routine cancer care involves many poignant situations managed through laughter and humor. Implications are raised for how quality care might be improved through grounded understandings of laughter, humor, and cancer.

  2. Circumstances of fatal lockout/tagout-related injuries in manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Sorock, Gary S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2008-10-01

    Over the past few decades, hundreds of manufacturing workers have suffered fatal injuries while performing maintenance and servicing on machinery and equipment. Using lockout/tagout procedures could have prevented many of these deaths. A narrative text analysis of OSHA accident investigation report summaries was conducted to describe the circumstances of lockout/tagout-related fatalities occurring in the US manufacturing industry from 1984 to 1997. The most common mechanisms of injury were being caught in or between parts of equipment, electrocution, and being struck by or against objects. Typical scenarios included cleaning a mixer or blender, cleaning a conveyor, and installing or disassembling electrical equipment. Lockout procedures were not even attempted in the majority (at least 58.8%) of fatal incidents reviewed. Lockout/tagout-related fatalities occur under a wide range of circumstances. Enhanced training and equipment designs that facilitate lockout and minimize worker contact with machine parts may prevent many lockout/tagout-related injuries. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Major mental disorders, gender, and criminological circumstances of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Bouyer-Richard, Anne-Isabelle; Annweiler, Cédric; Gourevitch, Raphaël; Jollant, Fabrice; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    To examine the criminological circumstances of homicide in a group of French murderers with and without major mental disorders (MMD) stratified by the perpetrator's gender. Sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological variables were collected from the psychiatric expert reports of 210 cases of homicide heard at the High Court of Angers, France. Murderers were categorized according to MMD diagnosis and gender. Among 210 murderers, 17.6% (n = 37) had a MMD (20% of the female perpetrators). Logistic regression models showed that being a murderer with a MMD was associated with younger age (adjusted Odds Ratio OR = 1.03, P = 0.034), high school education (OR = 2.48, P = 0.036), previous use of psychiatric services (OR = 4.75, P = 0.003), alcohol intoxication (OR = 2.71, P = 0.027), and delusional state (OR = 3.96, P = 0.002) at the time of the homicide. Multiple correspondence analyses showed that female murderers with a MMD were more prone to have depression and to use drowning as a method than those without a MMD, and that male murderers with a MMD more often had a high school education and delusional beliefs at the time of the homicide than those without a MMD. Specific profiles of criminological circumstances of homicide could help to explore the risk of homicide in female and male patients with a MMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

  5. Health workers' perceptions of private-not-for-profit health facilities' organizational culture and its influence on retention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, Constance Sibongile; Kielmann, Karina; Witter, Sophie

    2017-12-06

    An in-depth understanding of how organizational culture is experienced by health workers (HWs), and influences their decisions to leave their jobs is a fundamental, yet under-examined, basis for forming effective retention strategies. This research examined HWs' working experiences and perceptions of organisational culture within private-not-for-profit, largely mission-based hospitals, and how this influenced retention. Thirty-two HWs, including managers, in 19 health facilities in Uganda were interviewed using a semi-structured topic guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Interviews showed that the organizational culture was predominantly hierarchical, with non-participative management styles which emphasized control and efficiency. HWs and managers held different perceptions of the organizational culture. While the managers valued results and performance, HWs valued team work, recognition and participative management. The findings of this study indicate that organizational culture influences retention of HWs in health facilities and provide a useful context to inform health care managers in the PNFP sub-sector in Uganda and similar contexts. To improve retention of HWs, a gradual shift in organizational culture will be necessary, focussing on the values, beliefs and perceptions which have the greatest influence on observable behaviour.

  6. Biomechanical Influence of Cartilage Homeostasis in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Bader

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent demand for long term solutions to improve osteoarthritis treatments in the ageing population. There are drugs that control the pain but none that stop the progression of the disease in a safe and efficient way. Increased intervention efforts, augmented by early diagnosis and integrated biophysical therapies are therefore needed. Unfortunately, progress has been hampered due to the wide variety of experimental models which examine the effect of mechanical stimuli and inflammatory mediators on signal transduction pathways. Our understanding of the early mechanopathophysiology is poor, particularly the way in which mechanical stimuli influences cell function and regulates matrix synthesis. This makes it difficult to identify reliable targets and design new therapies. In addition, the effect of mechanical loading on matrix turnover is dependent on the nature of the mechanical stimulus. Accumulating evidence suggests that moderate mechanical loading helps to maintain cartilage integrity with a low turnover of matrix constituents. In contrast, nonphysiological mechanical signals are associated with increased cartilage damage and degenerative changes. This review will discuss the pathways regulated by compressive loading regimes and inflammatory signals in animal and in vitro 3D models. Identification of the chondroprotective pathways will reveal novel targets for osteoarthritis treatments.

  7. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crispim Boing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8% and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%, respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9% and 1.3 (17.3% percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged.

  9. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged.

  10. The influence of micronutrients on oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present clinical pilot study was to examine the influence of a combination of micronutrients on individuals with high stress experience. Methods 40 healthy students (28 female, 12 male with a mean age of 27.1 ± 3.0 years, experiencing high examination stress, were chosen. After approval of the ethics commission, one group of students (n = 19 took a combination of micronutrients (Orthomol vital m/f for three months, whereas other students (n = 21 served as control group. All participants underwent at the beginning and at the end of the trial a dental examination, a determination of 10 periodontal pathogens, a salivary and a blood analysis. In addition, the participants filled in a questionnaire on nutrition, quality of life and degree of stress experienced during their final examinations. Results The evaluation of the results, obtained at the end of the trial period, showed that for all students a slight worsening of oral hygiene and an increased consumption of unhealthy food could be observed. The intake of the micronutrients led to a slight improvement of the degree of gingival inflammation in comparison to the control group. The blood analysis showed an increase in vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc concentrations, and a lower increase in CRP. In the male subjects, a decrease in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (p = 0.073 and LDL (p = 0.048 was observed. Conclusions This pilot study shows that micronutrients, taken during periods of high stress experience, had a beneficial effect on inflammatory processes and helped reduce the level of some of the plasma lipids in males, and thus can be recommended for supplementing the diet. However, additional studies with a higher number of subjects, also suffering from periodontal disease, are necessary to show the effect of a micronutrient supplementation more clearly.

  11. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  12. Individual and institutional influences on faith-based health and wellness programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Fallon, Elizabeth A

    2011-12-01

    The majority of the US population is affiliated with faith-based organizations (FBO). Health and wellness activities (HWAs) within FBOs have great potential for reach, though the factors influencing faith-based HWA are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine individual faith leader and institutional influences on HWAs offered within FBOs. A national convenience sample of faith leaders (N = 844) completed an online survey assessing individual (demographics, health, health behaviors and attitudes) and institutional influences (size, location and external support) on health and HWA within FBO. Respondents were primarily White (93%), male (72%), middle-aged and affiliated with Methodist (42.5%) or Lutheran (20.2%) religions. Respondents reported 4.8 ± 3.2 HWA within their FBO per year. Faith leader education, length of service to the FBO, physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake were positively related to HWA and body mass index was negatively related. Denomination, congregation diversity, location and size were also related to HWA. Results show a strong relationship between faith leaders' health and HWA, indicating the influence of the social environment on health promotion in FBOs. Institutional variables, though not modifiable, were significant predictors of HWA and should be considered when delivering interventions to achieve a significant impact.

  13. How B cells influence bone biology in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mark C; Fretz, Jackie A; Lorenzo, Joseph A

    2010-09-01

    It is now well established that important regulatory interactions occur between the cells in the hematopoietic, immune and skeletal systems (osteoimmunology). B lymphocytes (B cells) are responsible for the generation and production of antibodies or immunoglobulins in the body. Together with T cells these lymphocytes comprise the adaptive immune system, which allows an individual to develop specific responses to an infection and retain memory of that infection, allowing for a faster and more robust response if that same infection occurs again. In addition to this immune function, B cells have a close and multifaceted relationship with bone cells. B cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in supportive niches found on endosteal bone surfaces. Cells in the osteoblast lineage support HSC and B cell differentiation in these niches. B cell differentiation is regulated, at least in part, by a series of transcription factors that function in a temporal manner. While these transcription factors are required for B cell differentiation, their loss causes profound changes in the bone phenotype. This is due, in part, to the close relationship between macrophage/osteoclast and B cell differentiation. Cross talk between B cells and bone cells is reciprocal with defects in the RANKL-RANK, OPG signaling axis resulting in altered bone phenotypes. While the role of B cells during normal bone remodeling appears minimal, activated B cells play an important role in many inflammatory diseases with associated bony changes. This review examines the relationship between B cells and bone cells and how that relationship affects the skeleton and hematopoiesis during health and disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with GPs' knowledge of their patients' socio-economic circumstances: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ludovic; Ringa, Virginie; Bloy, Géraldine; Falcoff, Hector; Rigal, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    To determine appropriate management for individual patients, GPs are supposed to use their knowledge of the patient's socio-economic circumstances. To analyse factors associated with GPs' knowledge of these circumstances. Observational survey of GPs who were internship supervisors in the Paris metropolitan area. Each of 52 volunteer GPs completed a self-administered questionnaire about their own characteristics and randomly selected 70 patients from their patient list. Their knowledge was analysed as the agreement between the patients' and GPs' responses to questions about the patients' socio-economic characteristics in questionnaires completed by both groups. The association between agreement and the GPs' characteristics was analysed with a multilevel model adjusted for age, sex and the duration of the GP-patient relationship. Agreement varied according to the socio-economic characteristics considered (from 51% to 90%) and between GPs. Globally, the GPs overestimated their patients' socio-economic level. GP characteristics associated with better agreement were sex (female), long consultations, the use of paper records or an automatic reminder system and participation in continuing medical education and in meetings to discuss difficult cases. Knowledge of some patient characteristics, such as their complementary health insurance coverage or perceived financial situation, should be improved because their overestimation may lead to care that is too expensive and thus result in the patients' abandonment of the treatment. Besides determining ways to help GPs to organize their work more effectively, it is important to study methods to help doctors identify their patients' social-economic circumstances more accurately in daily practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Influence of macrosocial policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Muntaner, Carles; Urquía, Marcelo; Malmusi, Davide; O'Campo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Gender inequalities in health have been widely described, but few studies have examined the upstream sources of these inequalities in health. The objectives of this review are 1) to identify empirical papers that assessed the effect of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health or on women's health by using between-country (or administrative units within a country) comparisons and 2) to provide an example of published evidence on the effects of a specific policy (parental leave) on women's health. We conducted a literature search covering the period from 1970 to 2012, using several bibliographical databases. We assessed 1,238 abstracts and selected 19 papers that considered gender equality policies, compared several countries or different states in 1 country, and analyzed at least 1 health outcome among women or compared between genders. To illustrate specific policy effects, we also selected articles that assessed associations between parental leave and women's health. Our review partially supports the hypothesis that Nordic social democratic welfare regimes and dual-earner family models best promote women's health. Meanwhile, enforcement of reproductive policies, mainly studied across US states, is associated with better mental health outcomes, although less with other outcomes. Longer paid maternity leave was also generally associated with better mental health and longer duration of breastfeeding.

  16. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Abaalkhail, Bahaa

    2017-11-16

    Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to discuss health-related information

  17. Health-Seeking Influence Reflected by Online Health-Related Messages Received on Social Media: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. Objective This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health. Third, we examine whether patients initiate or alter/discontinue their medications based on information derived from social media. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015 on patients attending outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who used social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter) were included. We designed a questionnaire with closed-ended and multiple-choice questions to assess the type of social media platforms patients used and whether information received on these platforms influenced their health care decisions. We used chi-square test to establish the relationship between categorical variables. Results Of the 442 patients who filled in the questionnaires, 401 used Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. The majority of respondents (89.8%, 397/442) used WhatsApp, followed by Facebook (58.6%, 259/442) and Twitter (42.3%, 187/442). In most cases, respondents received health-related messages from WhatsApp and approximately 42.6% (171/401) reported ever stopping treatment as advised on a social media platform. A significantly higher proportion of patients without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) checked the authenticity of information received on social media. Social media messages influenced decision making among patients without heart disease (P=.04). Respondents without heart disease (P=.001) and obese persons (P=.01) were more likely to

  18. How decentralisation influences the retention of primary health care workers in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye; Olanipekun, Titilope; Igbokwe, Uchenna; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Aina, Muyi

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, the shortage of health workers is worst at the primary health care (PHC) level, especially in rural communities. And the responsibility for PHC - usually the only form of formal health service available in rural communities - is shared among the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local governments). In addition, the responsibility for community engagement in PHC is delegated to community health committees. This study examines how the decentralisation of health system governance influences retention of health workers in rural communities in Nigeria from the perspective of health managers, health workers, and people living in rural communities. The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The multi-stakeholder data were analysed for themes related to health system decentralisation. The results showed that decentralisation influences the retention of rural health workers in two ways: 1) The salary of PHC workers is often delayed and irregular as a result of delays in transfer of funds from the national to sub-national governments and because one tier of government can blame failure on another tier of government. Further, the primary responsibility for PHC is often left to the weakest tier of government (local governments). And the result is that rural PHC workers are attracted to working at levels of care where salaries are higher and more regular - in secondary care (run by state governments) and tertiary care (run by the federal government), which are also usually in urban areas. 2) Through community health committees, rural communities influence the retention of health workers by working to increase the uptake of PHC services. Community efforts to retain health workers also include providing social, financial, and accommodation support to health workers. To encourage health workers to stay, communities also take the initiative to co-finance and co

  19. High performance leadership in unusually challenging educational circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hargreaves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on findings from the results of a study of leadership in high performing organizations in three sectors. Organizations were sampled and included on the basis of high performance in relation to no performance, past performance, performance among similar peers and performance in the face of limited resources or challenging circumstances. The paper concentrates on leadership in four schools that met the sample criteria.  It draws connections to explanations of the high performance ofEstoniaon the OECD PISA tests of educational achievement. The article argues that leadership in these four schools that performed above expectations comprised more than a set of competencies. Instead, leadership took the form of a narrative or quest that pursued an inspiring dream with relentless determination; took improvement pathways that were more innovative than comparable peers; built collaboration and community including with competing schools; and connected short-term success to long-term sustainability.

  20. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzar H. Shah; Bobbie Newell; Ruth E. Whitworth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved em...

  1. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  2. Radon and thoron measurements at special underground circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Tibor; Somlai, Janos; Szeiler, Gabor; Nemeth, Csaba; Tokonami, Shinji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this study a comparative integrating radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) survey executed at underground workplaces are discussed. Two types of solid state nuclear track detectors (Radopot and Raduet) were applied for survey at four sites: a manganese mine, a bauxite mine, a tourist cave and a hospital cave. Several numbers of detecting points were chosen at each site and 1-1 Raduet and Radopot detector were placed at each point. Both detector types contains two polycarbonate (CR-39) foils in different holders in order to determinate the radon as well as the thoron levels. The detectors were changed in 30-60 days periods (approximately monthly) and the survey continued for a year. This study had two aims: 1) To gain information about the radon and thoron concentrations at the chosen places including the seasonal variations; 2) To compare the performance of the two types of detectors and check their response in the special circumstances indicates by these underground places. Concerning the first point the radon concentrations were found to be as the expected ones at the given underground places and were similar to our former measurements. In the case of thoron the results are very variable and significant part of the detectors provides no data or unrealistic data. Concerning the second point there was only a little difference (<10%) between the radon results provided by the two types of detectors. In the case of thoron the two detector types showed high inconsistency. The study suggests that both types of detectors are fit for the integrating radon measurement at these special circumstances but it cannot be stated the same for the thoron measurement. The reason of the unreliability of the thoron measurement could be the high humidity (especially in the caves), the high aerosol concentration (especially in the mines) and the air change rate variation. To find the reasons needs further study. (author)

  3. Factors Influencing Support for National Health Insurance among Patients Attending Specialist Clinics in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almualm, Yasmin; Alkaff, Sharifa Ezat; Aljunid, Syed; Alsagoff, Syed Sagoff

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the level of support towards the proposed National Health Insurance scheme among Malaysian patients attending specialist clinics at the National University of Malaysia Medical centre and its influencing factors. The cross sectional study was carried out from July-October 2012. 260 patients were selected using multistage sampling method. 71.2% of respondents supported the proposed National Health insurance scheme. 61.4% of respondents are willing to pay up to RM240 per year to join the National Health Insurance and 76.6% of respondents are of the view that enrolment in NHI should be made compulsory. Knowledge had a positive influence on respondent's support towards National Health Insurance. National Health Insurance when implemented in Malaysia can be used to raise funds for health care financing, increase access to health services and achieve the desired health status. More efforts should be taken to promote the scheme and educate the public in order to achieve higher support towards the proposed National Health Insurance. The cost to enroll in NHI as well as services to be included under the scheme should be duly considered. PMID:23985101

  4. Influence of family environment on children's oral health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire de; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2013-01-01

    To review current models and scientific evidence on the influence of parents' oral health behaviors on their children's dental caries. MEDLINE articles published between 1980 and June, 2012. Original research articles on parents' oral health behavior were reviewed. A total of 218 citations were retrieved, and 13 articles were included in the analysis. The studies were eligible for review if they matched the following inclusion criteria: (1) they evaluated a possible association between dental caries and parents' oral-health-related behaviors, and (2) the study methodology included oral clinical examination. The main search terms were "oral health", "parental attitudes", "parental knowledge", and "dental caries". : 13 experimental studies contributed data to the synthesis. Original articles, reviews, and chapters in textbooks were also considered. Parents' dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. The social group influences of US health journalists and their impact on the newsmaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M P; Blake, K D; Meissner, H I; Viswanath, K

    2013-04-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--'media agenda-setting' and 'framing'. Using data from a national survey of health and medical science journalists, the authors conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to study the links between the gender, age and race/ethnicity of respondents, and the ways in which they utilized news sources, other resources, news priorities and story angles. Female respondents were more likely than males to say that educating people to make informed decisions and disseminating new, accurate information are important priorities. Female and minority journalists were more likely than white males to use a variety of sources, and to say it is important to develop the health and scientific literacy of audiences and influence public health behaviors. The gender and race/ethnicity of journalists play an important role in the production of health news. Health educators can foster improved coverage by learning more about the life experiences of health journalists and developing better working relationships with them.

  6. Health-related life satisfaction and its influencing factors: A cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Qi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuang-Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Sun, Jiao

    2018-01-24

    With the rapid development of science and technology, the pace of life has accelerated. Health and life satisfaction issues of persons are gaining more attention. China, Japan, Malaysia, and Taiwan conducted international cooperative research on health of four regional populations. This research was a part of the study in mainland China, which aimed to explore health-related life satisfaction and its influencing factors on large samples in mainland China. A random group of 1404 persons from universities, factories, companies, and elderly centers in Changchun completed a structured questionnaire. This study centered on life satisfaction indicators, which included the current whole life, income, family relationships, peer relationships, relationships with the neighbors, living environment, personal health, family health, spare time, and housework share. Other collected data included the Body Mass Index, blood pressure, self-rated health, Breslow's seven health practices, medical treatment within the past 6 months, physical examinations, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 Scale, social activities, networking relationships with persons around the community, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Associations between life satisfaction, demographics, and health-related variables were analyzed through a multiway ANOVA. The living environment and income of Chinese persons were related to their low life satisfaction. The multiway ANOVA showed that the independent relationship of self-rated health, regular physical examinations, GHQ-12 Scale, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and age related with life satisfaction accounting for 20.3% of the variance. Education and age showed interactive effects on life satisfaction. This study identified seven factors that influenced the life satisfaction of persons in mainland China. Life satisfaction can be enhanced through interventions to improve self-rated health, regular physical

  7. Influence of Child Factors on Health-Care Professionals' Recognition of Common Childhood Mental-Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander

    Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This study aimed to establish whether HCPs recognition of mental-health problems varies as a function of three child-related factors (type of problem, number of symptoms, and demographic characteristics). In an online survey, HCPs ( n  = 431) evaluated a series of vignettes describing children with symptoms of mental-health problems. Vignettes varied by problem type (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Major Depressive Disorder), number of symptoms presented (few and many), and child demographic characteristics (ethnicity, gender, age and socio-economic status (SES)). Results show that recognition of mental-health problems varies by problem type, with ADHD best recognised and GAD worst. Furthermore, recognition varies by the number of symptoms presented. Unexpectedly, a child's gender, ethnicity and family SES did not influence likelihood of problem recognition. These results are the first to reveal differences in HCPs' recognition of various common childhood mental-health problems. HCPs in practice should be advised about poor recognition of GAD, and superior recognition of ADHD, if recognition of all childhood mental-health problems is to be equal.

  8. Influence of health risk behavior and socio-economic status on health of Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out

  9. Influence of health, lifestyle, working conditions, and sociodemography on early retirement among nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karina; Ekholm, Ola; Hundrup, Yrsa A

    2007-01-01

    by Statistics Denmark. The follow-up period was from 1993 to 2002. RESULTS: Nurses who had poor self-rated health were more likely to join PEW compared with nurses who considered their health as good (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.16-1.41). Low job influence, high workload, and physical job demands only marginally...... increased the probability of retiring. Nurses who have relatively low gross incomes had an increased probability of entering PEW compared with nurses with relatively high gross incomes (HR 1.60, CI 1.43-1.79). Having a spouse increased the probability of joining PEW, especially having a spouse who had...... retired or was unemployed. CONCLUSIONS: The retirement age among nurses is influenced by a number of sociodemographic, work-related, and health-related factors. Poor health, low income, living outside the Copenhagen area, being married, having a spouse who is outside the labor force, and working...

  10. Gender as an Influencer of Online Health Information-Seeking and Evaluation Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, J.; Johnson, F.; Sbaffi, L.

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing body of research that explores the significance of context in health information behavior. Specifically, through the lens of trust judgments, it demonstrates that gender is a determinant of the information evaluation process. A questionnaire-based survey collected data from adults regarding the factors that influence their judgment of the trustworthiness of online health information. Both men and women identified credibility, recommendation, ease of use...

  11. Workplace stress and its influence in professional and private life of health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Aristotelis Koinis; Maria Saridi

    2014-01-01

    Stress work place influences the physical and mental well-being of health professionals, reducing performance and negatively affecting health-related quality of life. Aim: The purpose of this review was to investigate the causes of occupational stress and the impact on the professional and personal lives of healthcare professionals. Methodology: It is conducted a literature review of published journals from scientific databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Google Scholar, for the period 1985-201...

  12. Religion and disparities: considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-12-01

    Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.

  13. Factors influencing korean international students' preferences for mental health professionals: a conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Feigon, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Asian students comprise over half of all international students in the United States, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors and preferences for mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to use conjoint analysis to examine characteristics of mental health professionals influencing Korean international students' preferences when choosing a mental health professional. Korean international students from three universities in the United States were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in this study (N = 114). Results indicated that mental health professional characteristics, including ethnicity, age, professional identity, and training institution, were significant factors in students' preference formation; however, gender of the mental health professional was not found to be a significant factor in the present study. Ethnic similarity was the most powerful predictor of preference formation. Implications for promoting help-seeking and mental health service utilization among Asian international students are discussed.

  14. Does decentralization influence efficiency of health units? A study of opinion and perception of health workers in Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems in low and middle income countries are struggling to improve efficiency in the functioning of health units of which workforce is one of the most critical building blocks. In India, Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS was established at every health unit as institutions of local decision making in order to improve productive efficiency and quality. Measuring efficiency of health units is a complex task. This study aimed at assessing the perception (opinion and satisfaction of health workers about influence of RKS on improving efficiency of peripheral decision making health units (DMHU; examining differences between priority and non-priority set-ups; identifying predictors of satisfaction at work; and discussing suggestions to improve performance. Methods Following a cross-sectional, comparative study design, 130 health workers from 30 institutions were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to assess perception and opinion of health workers about influence of RKS on efficiency of decision making at local level, motivation and performance of staff, and availability of funds; improvement of quality of services, and coordination among co-workers; and participation of community in local decision making. Three districts with highest infant mortality rate (IMR, one each, from 3 zones of Odisha and 3 with lowest IMR were selected on the basis of IMR estimates of 2011. The former constituted priority districts (PD and the latter, non-priority districts (NPD. Composite scores were developed and compared between PD and NPD. Adjusted linear regression was conducted to identify predictors of satisfaction at work. Results A majority of respondents felt that RKS was efficient in decision making that resulted in improvement of all critical parameters of health service delivery, including quality; this was significantly higher in PD. Further, higher proportion of

  15. Factors influencing workplace violence risk among correctional health workers: insights from an Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the environmental and organisational determinants of workplace violence in correctional health settings. This paper describes the views of health professionals working in these settings on the factors influencing workplace violence risk. All employees of a large correctional health service in New South Wales, Australia, were invited to complete an online survey. The survey included an open-ended question seeking the views of participants about the factors influencing workplace violence in correctional health settings. Responses to this question were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. Participants identified several factors that they felt reduced the risk of violence in their workplace, including: appropriate workplace health and safety policies and procedures; professionalism among health staff; the presence of prison guards and the quality of security provided; and physical barriers within clinics. Conversely, participants perceived workplace violence risk to be increased by: low health staff-to-patient and correctional officer-to-patient ratios; high workloads; insufficient or underperforming security staff; and poor management of violence, especially horizontal violence. The views of these participants should inform efforts to prevent workplace violence among correctional health professionals.

  16. The influence of mastery on mother's health in middle years: Moderating role of stressful life context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Victoria; Wickrama, K A S; Klopack, Erick; Lorenz, Frederick O

    2018-06-07

    Using data from 416 middle-aged mothers gathered over the course of a decade, this study examined the influence of mastery trajectories (the initial level and change), on change in physical health. Mastery is defined as one's ability to control and influence his/her life and environment to reach a desired outcome or goal. Both the initial level and change in mastery from 1991 to 1994 were associated with decreased physical health problems over the middle years (1991-2001). Contextual moderation of this association by stressful life contexts including negative life events and work-family conflict was investigated. Moderation analysis showed that under conditions of low contextual life stressors, the level and increase in mastery significantly contributed to decreases in physical health problems in middle-aged mothers. Alternatively, conditions of high contextual life stressors inhibited the ability of mastery to influence physical health of mothers, suggesting that the positive health impact of mastery on physical health is mitigated by stressful life experiences. Implications for the need to maintain important personal resources, such as mastery, during times of stress are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls : Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Doris; Gustafsson, Per, E; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the normative population (n = 462) completed the questionnaire, the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES), together with Trauma Symptom Checklist for ...

  18. Vivenciando o conjunto de circunstâncias que influenciam na significação da alta hospitalar: estudo de enfermagem Vivencia del conjunto de circunstancias que inciden en la importancia del alta hospitalaria: estudio de enfermería Experiencing the set of circumstances that influence the significance of hospital discharge: nursing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silva de Paiva

    2013-06-01

    .This discussion is part of the dissertation entitled: "Resignifying discharge and perceive themselves as family caregivers: a study of nursing", linked to Anna Nery School of Nursing. It had as its object the meaning of the hospital for the client's family with sequelae form a stroke. The objective set for this discussion was: discuss the context experienced by family caregivers considering the dueling feelings, expressions, attitudes and practices. The theoretical approach was Interactionism, which was adopted the method Grounded Theory. The study was conducted at a public hall. The participants were family caregivers of victims of a stroke. From the analysis of the phenomenon categories reveals an understanding of the set of circumstances surrounding the event and to articulate meaning that interfere with family grant discharge.

  19. The Influence of Health Care Policies on Children's Health and Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 29, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, James M.; Boat, Thomas F.; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of health insurance for children have improved significantly over the past few decades, and more children have insurance than ever before in U.S. history. Health care does improve child health and well-being, but growing understanding of social and community influences has led health care practitioners to work toward more comprehensive and…

  20. The influence of outrage and technical detail on the perception of environmental health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems D; Bruggen M van; IMD; GGD Rotterdam

    2004-01-01

    Differences in risk perception between a professional assessing a risk and a concerned community affected by this risk have been shown to be important obstacles in the communication of environmental health risks. The study reported here aimed at gaining insight into factors that influence people's

  1. The influence of social capital on individual health: is it the neighbourhood or the network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.; Subramanian, S.V.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of both individual and neighbourhood social capital on individual health and analysed whether effects of one type of social capital are contingent upon the other. The Dutch 'Housing and Living Survey' (WoON 2006, n = 53,269) was used and combined with information on

  2. The Influence of Social Capital on Individual Health : Is it the Neighbourhood or the Network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Volker, Beate; Flap, Henk; Subramanian, S. V.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of both individual and neighbourhood social capital on individual health and analysed whether effects of one type of social capital are contingent upon the other. The Dutch 'Housing and Living Survey' (WoON 2006, n = 53,269) was used and combined with information on

  3. Influences on the choice of health professionals to practise in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training health care professionals (HCPs) to work in rural areas is a challenge for educationalists. This study aimed to understand how HCPs choose to work in rural areas and how education influences this. Methods. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 15 HCPs working in rural areas in SA.

  4. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  5. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  6. Contextual Influences on Children's Mental Health and School Performance: The Moderating Effects of Family Immigrant Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.; Duku, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of 13,470 children aged 4-11 years were used to study contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance, the moderating effects of family immigrant status and underlying family processes that might explain these relationships. Despite greater socioeconomic disadvantage, children…

  7. Identifying Health Beliefs Influencing Hispanic College Men's Willingness to Vaccinate against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.; Eaton, Asia

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies health beliefs influencing Hispanic college men's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake decision making processes. Hispanic college men were interviewed about their HPV vaccine knowledge, and information seeking behaviors. Overall, participants did not view HPV infection or vaccination as an immediate concern or priority;…

  8. Distance to hospital and socioeconomic status influence secondary health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Borgquist, Lars; Halling, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population...

  9. Variability in urban soils influences the health and growth of native tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara C. Pregitzer; Nancy F. Sonti; Richard A. Hallett

    2016-01-01

    Reforesting degraded urban landscapes is important due to the many benefits urban forests provide. Urban soils are highly variable, yet little is known about how this variability in urban soils influences tree seedling performance and survival. We conducted a greenhouse study to assess health, growth, and survival of four native tree species growing in native glacial...

  10. The influence of self-efficacy on the effects of framed health messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2008-01-01

    Health promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains that are associated with healthy behaviour, or the losses that are associated with unhealthy behaviour. In this study, we examined the influence of self-efficacy to quit smoking on the effects of gain framed and loss framed anti-smoking

  11. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  12. Factors That Influence Enrolment and Retention in Ghana’ National Health Insurance Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millicent Kotoh, Agnes; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; der Geest, Sjaak Van

    2018-01-01

    Background: The government of Ghana introduced the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 with the goal of achieving universal coverage within 5 years. Evidence, however, shows that expanding NHIS coverage and especially retaining members have remained a challenge. A multilevel perspective was employed as a conceptual framework and methodological tool to examine why enrolment and retention in the NHIS remains low. Methods: A household survey was conducted after 20 months educational and promotional activities aimed at improving enrolment and retention rates in 15 communities in the Central and Eastern Regions (ERs) of Ghana. Observation, indepth interviews and informal conversations were used to collect qualitative data. Forty key informants (community members, health providers and district health insurance schemes’ [DHISs] staff) purposely selected from two casestudy communities in the Central Region (CR) were interviewed. Several community members, health providers and DHISs’ staff were also engaged in informal conversations in the other five communities in the region. Also, four staff of the Ministry of Health (MoH), Ghana Health Service (GHS) and National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) were engaged in in-depth interviews. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: The results show that factors that influence enrolment and retention in the NHIS are multi-dimensional and cut across all stakeholders. People enrolled and renewed their membership because of NHIS’ benefits and health providers’ positive behaviour. Barriers to enrolment and retention included: poverty, traditional risk-sharing arrangements influence people to enrol or renew their membership only when they need healthcare, dissatisfaction about health providers’ behaviour and service delivery challenges. Conclusion: Given the multi-dimensional nature of barriers to enrolment and retention

  13. [CLAVICLE FRACTURES IN CHILDREN--CIRCUMSTANCES AND CAUSES OF INJURY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antabak, Anko; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Madarić, Miroslav; Stilinović, Marina; Stanić, Lana; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children occur twice as often as in adults. During a child's growth period they account for 10-15% of all fractures sustained. The questions which should be asked are how these fractures are sustained and under which circumstances are the children injured. In the study 256 children with clavicle fractures treated during the period 2008-2013 were analyzed. The underlying cause and place of injuries were classified using the ICD-10 classification system, using environmental causes of injury. The circumstances were in each case accidental injury. Environmental causes were traffic accidents (V01-V99) or mishaps/accidents (W00-X59). Fracture injuries were caused in traffic accidents in 24 (9.4%), and in mishaps/accidents in 232 (90.6%) children. Of the injuries caused by mishaps/accidents, in 204 children these were caused by falls (W00-W19). In 123 of them the injuries were caused by falls from a ground level, and in 81 were from a greater height. Direct blow injuries, caused by another person or a blunt instrument, weere the causes of fractures seen in 28 children. Place of fracture sustainment was dominantly at home. This was followed by injuries sustained outside in recreational areas, while least were suffered at school or kindergarden facilities. Bicycle riding was the cause of clavicle fractures in 48 children, which was 18.7% of all fractures seen. Sports related injuries and fractures were seen in 47 (18.4%) out of 256 children: 30 in football, 10 in defensive sports (wrestling, judo, karate), three in hockey, while basketball and gymnastics accounted for two each. Preschool children were injured more often while in the care of their parents while school aged children were adaquately protected, but in after-school activities they were often injured. The most common injuries after school were those suffered in traffic accidents and recreational sports activities. In the adolescent period, the most common injuries seen were again those in

  14. Factors influencing choice of skilled birth attendance at ANC: evidence from the Kenya demographic health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyongesa, Caroline; Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John J; Macharia, William M; Yego, Faith; Hall, Brigid

    2018-04-10

    In Kenya, skilled attendance at delivery is well below the international target of 90% and the maternal mortality ratio is high at 362 (CI 254-471) per 100,000 live births despite various interventions. The preventative role of skilled attendance at delivery makes it a benchmark indicator for safe motherhood. Maternal health data from the Service Provision Assessment Survey, a subset of the 2010 Kenya Demographic Health Survey was analyzed. Logistic regression models were employed using likelihood ratio test to explore association between choice of skilled attendance and predictor variables. Overall, 94.8% of women are likely to seek skilled attendance at delivery. Cost, education level, number of antenatal visits and sex of provider were strongly associated with client's intention to deliver with a skilled birth attendant at delivery. Women who reported having enough money set aside for delivery were 4.34 (p < 0.002, 95% CI: 1.73; 10.87) times more likely to seek skilled attendance. Those with primary education and above were 6.6 times more likely to seek skilled attendance than those with no formal education (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 3.66; 11.95). Women with four or more antenatal visits were 5.95 (p < 0.018, 95% CI: 1.35; 26.18) times more likely to seek skilled attendance. Compared to men, female providers impacted more on the client's plan (OR = 2.02 (p < 0.014, 95% CI: 1.35; 3.53). Interventions aimed at improving skilled attendance at delivery should include promotion of formal education of women and financial preparation for delivery. Whenever circumstances permit, women should be allowed to choose gender of preferred professional attendant at delivery.

  15. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  16. The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health -- a cross-sectional study of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, M; Boldemann, C; Sahlin, U; Mårtensson, F; Raustorp, A; Blennow, M

    2013-01-01

    To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.0-5.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary - 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Factors influencing resource allocation decisions and equity in the health system of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, A D; Zwi, A B

    2009-05-01

    Allocation of financial resources in the health sector is often seen as a formula-driven activity. However, the decision to allocate a certain amount of resources to a particular health jurisdiction or facility may be based on a broader range of factors, sometimes not reflected in the existing resource allocation formula. This study explores the 'other' factors that influence the equity of resource allocation in the health system of Ghana. The extent to which these factors are, or can be, accounted for in the resource allocation process is analysed. An exploratory design focusing on different levels of the health system and diverse stakeholders. Data were gathered through semi-structured qualitative interviews with health authorities at national, regional and district levels, and with donor representatives and local government officials in 2003 and 2004. The availability of human resources for health, local capacity to utilize funds, donor involvement in the health sector, and commitment to promote equity have considerable influence on resource allocation decisions and affect the equity of funding allocations. However, these factors are not accounted for adequately in the resource allocation process. This study highlights the need for a more transparent resource allocation system in Ghana based on needs, and takes into account key issues such as capacity constraints, the inequitable human resource distribution and donor-earmarked funding.

  18. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  19. Nutra-ergonomics: influence of nutrition on physical employment standards and the health of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    The importance of ergonomics across several scientific domains, including biomechanics, psychology, sociology, and physiology, have been extensively explored. However, the role of other factors that may influence the health and productivity of workers, such as nutrition, is generally overlooked. Nutra-ergonomics describes the interface between workers, their work environment, and performance in relation to their nutritional status. It considers nutrition to be an integral part of a safe and productive workplace that encompasses physical and mental health as well as the long-term wellbeing of workers. This review explores the knowledge, awareness, and common practices of nutrition, hydration, stimulants, and fortified product use employed prior to physical employment standards testing and within the workplace. The influence of these nutra-ergonomic strategies on physical employment standards, worker safety, and performance will be examined. Further, the roles, responsibilities, and implications for the applicant, worker, and the employer will be discussed within the context of nutra-ergonomics, with reference to the provision and sustainability of an environment conducive to optimize worker health and wellbeing. Beyond physical employment standards, workplace productivity, and performance, the influence of extended or chronic desynchronization (irregular or shift work) in the work schedule on metabolism and long-term health, including risk of developing chronic and complex diseases, is discussed. Finally, practical nutra-ergonomic strategies and recommendations for the applicant, worker, and employer alike will be provided to enhance the short- and long-term safety, performance, health, and wellbeing of workers.

  20. Facial redness, expression, and masculinity influence perceptions of anger and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Thorstenson, Christopher A; Pazda, Adam D

    2018-02-01

    Past research has found that skin colouration, particularly facial redness, influences the perceived health and emotional state of target individuals. In the current work, we explore several extensions of this past research. In Experiment 1, we manipulated facial redness incrementally on neutral and angry faces and had participants rate each face for anger and health. Different red effects emerged, as perceived anger increased in a linear manner as facial redness increased. Health ratings instead showed a curvilinear trend, as both extreme paleness and redness were rated as less healthy than moderate levels of red. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings by manipulating the masculinity of both angry and neutral faces that varied in redness. The results found the effect of red on perceived anger and health was moderated by masculine face structure. Collectively, these results show that facial redness has context dependent effects that vary based on facial expression, appearance, and differentially impact ratings of emotional states and health.

  1. How Neighborhoods Influence Health: Lessons to be learned from the application of political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitewere, Tendai; Shim, Janet K; Barker, Judith C; Yen, Irene H

    2017-05-01

    This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being. These concepts encourage researchers to examine how people construct neighborhood and health in different ways that, in turn, can influence different health outcomes and, thus, efforts to address solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Bringing (domestic) politics back in: global and local influences on health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2015-07-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for health correctly concluded that: 'with globalization, health inequity increasingly results from transnational activities that involve actors with different interests and degrees of power'. At the same time, taking up that Commission's focus on political determinants of health and 'power asymmetries' requires recognizing the interplay of globalization with domestic politics, and the limits of global influences as explanations for policies that affect health inequalities. I make this case using three examples - trade policy, climate change policy, and the domestic politics of poverty reduction and social policy - and a concluding observation about the 2015 UK election. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How Neighborhoods Influence Health: Lessons to be learned from the application of political ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitewere, Tendai; Shim, Janet K.; Barker, Judith C.; Yen, Irene H.

    2017-01-01

    AIM This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being. These concepts encourage researchers to examine how people construct neighborhood and health in different ways that, in turn, can influence different health outcomes and, thus, efforts to address solutions. PMID:28342425

  4. A qualitative study exploring health perceptions and factors influencing participation in health behaviors in colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Maxwell-Smith, Chloe; Zeps, Nik; Platell, Cameron; O'Connor, Moira; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore colorectal cancer survivors' health perceptions following cessation of active treatment for cancer and to explore the factors influencing participation in health-promoting behaviors that may help reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants that had completed active treatment for cancer within the previous 2 years. Participants were colorectal cancer survivors (N = 24, men = 11, women = 13, M age = 69.38 years, SD = 4.19) recruited from a private hospital in Perth, Australia on the basis that they had existing morbidities that put them at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged: back to normal; the pleasures in life: 'is it worth it?'; beliefs about health behavior; skepticism of eating guidelines; and lack of motivation. The majority of participants felt they were in good health and had made a full recovery. Participants questioned whether it was worth changing their lifestyle given their life stage and referred to the desire to enjoy life. Lay health beliefs, skepticism of eating guidelines, and a lack of motivation were barriers to change. Interventions should target lay beliefs and skepticism in relation to health behaviors in order to reinforce the importance and value of participating in health-related behavior. Findings may inform the development of effective, patient-centered interventions that target lay health beliefs and build motivation for health behavior change. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Causes and circumstances of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Arelli, Vineesha; Minai, Omar A; Newman, Jennie; Bair, Nancy; Heresi, Gustavo A; Dweik, Raed A

    2013-08-01

    The causes and circumstances surrounding death are understudied in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We sought to determine the specific reasons and characteristics surrounding the death of patients with PAH. All deaths of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) followed in the Cleveland Clinic Pulmonary Vascular Program were prospectively reviewed by the PH team. A total of 84 patients with PAH (age 58 ± 14 yr; 73% females) who died between June 2008 and May 2012 were included. PH was determined to be the direct cause of death (right heart failure or sudden death) in 37 (44%) patients; PH contributed to but did not directly cause death in 37 (44%) patients; and the death was not related to PH in the remaining cases (n = 7; 8.3%). In three (3.6%) patients the final cause of death could not be adequately assessed. Most patients died in a healthcare environment and most received PH-specific therapies. In our cohort, 50% of all patients with PAH and 75.7% of those who died of right heart failure received parenteral prostanoid therapy. Less than half of patients had advanced healthcare directives. Most patients with PAH in our cohort died of their disease; however, right ventricular failure or sudden death was the sole cause of death in less than half of patients.

  6. Expert Recommendations on Treating Psoriasis in Special Circumstances (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Galán, M; de Lucas, R; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Ribera, M; Yanguas, I

    2016-11-01

    There is insufficient information on how best to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in difficult clinical circumstances. We considered 5 areas where there is conflicting or insufficient evidence: pediatric psoriasis, risk of infection in patients being treated with biologics, psoriasis in difficult locations, biologic drug survival, and impact of disease on quality of life. Following discussion of the issues by an expert panel of dermatologists specialized in the management of psoriasis, participants answered a questionnaire survey according to the Delphi method. Consensus was reached on 66 (70.9%) of the 93 items analyzed; the experts agreed with 49 statements and disagreed with 17. It was agreed that body mass index, metabolic comorbidities, and quality of life should be monitored in children with psoriasis. The experts also agreed that the most appropriate systemic treatment for this age group was methotrexate, while the most appropriate biologic treatment was etanercept. Although it was recognized that the available evidence was inconsistent and difficult to extrapolate, the panel agreed that biologic drug survival could be increased by flexible, individualized dosing regimens, continuous treatment, and combination therapies. Finally, consensus was reached on using the Dermatology Quality of Life Index to assess treatment effectiveness and aid decision-making in clinical practice. The structured opinion of experts guides decision-making regarding aspects of clinical practice for which there is incomplete or conflicting information. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental protection in actual circumstances of EPS recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a brief summary of the state of environmental protection in the vicinity of Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS) power facilities, both when economy of FR Yugoslavia (FRY) was at an acceptable level and the current situation resulting from a drastic decline of economic power of country and EPS itself, from unfavourable political development from the past period, from the sanctions imposed by UN Security Council, from a prolonged isolation from modern courses worldwide as well as from bombing of facilities during NATO aggression against Yugoslavia. The paper is focused on the analysis of the possibilities of taking certain activities aimed at environmental protection under expected realistic circumstances of EPS recovery and its further development, in accordance with the overall economic recovery and development of the country, and to estimate the price of all environmental protection measures which, would otherwise have been realised in the course of the past period if sanctions of UN Security Council have not been imposed on FR Yugoslavia. (author)

  8. Changed circumstances and the renegotiation of foreign investment contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubajić Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's world is shaped by the processes of globalization and economic liberalization, which dominantly determine the social, economic, environmental and political conditions. As part of these processes, there is an increasing rhetoric about the activities of the state to build a legal system 'ideal for attracting' foreign investment, to establish state institutions in charge of 'attracting foreign investment', and to create a business environment conducive to 'attract' foreign investment. Faced with citizen requests and pressure to create conditions for employment, in initial negotiations with foreign investors state, authorities articulate their willingness to meet these requests. The affirmative stance of governments towards the investments of multinational companies easily can be changed. Once the investment begins, the pledges made by one contracting party to the other may prove to be unrealistic and economically unjustified. The tensions generated between the host state and foreign investors jeopardize the foreign investment contract concluded by the contracting parties. Further fulfillment of contractual obligations from foreign investment contracts will be possible if the contracting parties resolve the resulting conflict through mutual negotiations. Through negotiations, the contracting parties can depreciate the impact of the changed circumstances, including a range of economic, political, legislative and environmental conditions. Initiating negotiations at the right time and conducting them in good faith may lead to a solution. Even if an agreement is not reached, the renegotiation may contribute to a better understanding of contractual partners and redefining the positions of the contracting parties.

  9. Carbon monoxide and COHb concentration in blood in various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modic, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2003-07-01

    On the basis of known medical experiments we find out the correlation between the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in inhaling air and the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne (COHb) in human blood. All internal combustion engines produce exhaust gases containing noxious compounds: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon oxides (CxHy) and smoke. In a living room is important the smoke of cigarettes, smoke of furnaces, improper ventilation. In tunnel is most dangerous the carbon monoxide if it exceeds an allowable level. In human blood the carbon monoxide causes increasing the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne and in this case the hypoxia of web. With help of mathematical model the concentrations of some dangerous substances at the end of tunnel were calculated. For this case a differential equation also was developed and it shows the correlation between concentration of carbon monoxide in the air and concentration of carboxihemoglobyne in the blood. The constructed mathematical model shows circumstances in the tunnel (velocity of air moving as effect of induction, concentration of noxious substances and criterial number). Also a corresponding computer program was developed, which makes possible a quick and simple calculation. All the results are proved by experiments. Finally the differential equation was done, which shows a temporal connection between both parameters as a function of tunnel characteristics. (author)

  10. Public Health Agency Accreditation Among Rural Local Health Departments: Influencers and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Kate E; Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C; Meit, Michael; Fey, James

    Health department accreditation is a crucial strategy for strengthening public health infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to investigate local health department (LHD) characteristics that are associated with accreditation-seeking behavior. This study sought to ascertain the effects of rurality on the likelihood of seeking accreditation through the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB). Cross-sectional study using secondary data from the 2013 National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO) National Profile of Local Health Departments Study (Profile Study). United States. LHDs (n = 490) that responded to the 2013 NACCHO Profile Survey. LHDs decision to seek PHAB accreditation. Significantly more accreditation-seeking LHDs were located in urban areas (87.0%) than in micropolition (8.9%) or rural areas (4.1%) (P < .001). LHDs residing in urban communities were 16.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3-52.3) and micropolitan LHDs were 3.4 times (95% CI, 1.1-11.3) more likely to seek PHAB accreditation than rural LHDs (RLHDs). LHDs that had completed an agency-wide strategic plan were 8.5 times (95% CI, 4.0-17.9), LHDs with a local board of health were 3.3 times (95% CI, 1.5-7.0), and LHDs governed by their state health department were 12.9 times (95% CI, 3.3-50.0) more likely to seek accreditation. The most commonly cited barrier was time and effort required for accreditation application exceeded benefits (73.5%). The strongest predictor for seeking PHAB accreditation was serving an urban jurisdiction. Micropolitan LHDs were more likely to seek accreditation than smaller RLHDs, which are typically understaffed and underfunded. Major barriers identified by the RLHDs included fees being too high and the time and effort needed for accreditation exceeded their perceived benefits. RLHDs will need additional financial and technical support to achieve accreditation. Even with additional funds, clear messaging of the benefits of accreditation

  11. The influence of parenting on early childhood health and health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Hubert, Michele; Hastings, Paul D; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether parenting, specifically parental support, structure, and behavioral control, predicted early childhood health care use and moderated the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage. A sample of 250 parent-child dyads from a longitudinal intergenerational research program participated. Greater parental support was associated with increased rates of nonemergency care and a higher ratio of outpatient to emergency room (ER) services, a pattern reflecting better health and service use. Support also moderated the negative effects of disadvantaged family background. Greater behavioral control by parents predicted lower rates of both nonemergency care and ER visits. Structured parenting and behavioral control were associated with lower rates of respiratory illness. This study highlights the importance of considering parenting practices when examining variations in early childhood health and health care, and the relevance of parental behavior in designing interventions for high-risk populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches

  13. The structure of mental health research: networks of influence among psychiatry and clinical psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, N; Lusher, D

    2011-12-01

    Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.

  14. The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes: findings from refugee settlements in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-12-19

    Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored the relationship between caregiver depression and adolescent mental health in two refugee settlements, Kiryandongo and Adjumani, in Uganda. Adolescents between 13 and 17 and their caregivers participated in a household survey, which included measures of adolescent anxiety and depression, and caregiver depression. Analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression models, and results were reported for the full sample and for each site separately. In Kiryandongo, a one-unit increase in a caregiver's depression score tripled the odds that the adolescent would have high levels of anxiety symptoms (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1), while in Adjumani, caregiver depression did not remain significant in the final model. Caregiver depression, gender and exposure to violence were all associated with higher symptoms of adolescent depression in both sites and the full sample, for example, a one unit increase in caregiver depression more than tripled the odds of higher levels of symptoms of adolescent depression (AOR: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.2). Caregiver depression is a consistently significantly associated with adverse mental health outcomes for adolescents in this study. Adolescent well-being is significantly affected by caregiver mental health in this refugee context. Child protection interventions in humanitarian contexts do not adequately address the influence of caregivers' mental health, and there are opportunities to integrate child protection programming with prevention and treatment of

  15. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Influencing Employee Motivation: Lessons from AMREF Health Africa in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morangi Nyambegera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence employee motivation in Kenyan Organizations. The study was guided by the following research questions: (i what are the extrinsic factors that influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? (ii what intrinsic factors influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? A descriptive research design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 96 respondents. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire developed by the researchers.  A set of descriptive and correlation statistics were adopted for analysis. The study identified several intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation. These included employee achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement, salary structure, the level to which the employees feel appreciated, and the employee perception of their jobs among other factors. The study further, established that the intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation include empowerment and autonomy, employees’ view of their work, organization trust, skill variety requirements among others. The study recommends that the organization should acknowledge and make use of a proper mix of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in their human resource management practices to ensure that employees are well motivated to perform their tasks.

  16. Analysis of Factors Influencing Inpatient and Outpatient Satisfaction with the Chinese Military Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yipeng; Xue, Chen; Ge, Yang; Ye, Feng; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few articles have focused on exploring factors influencing soldiers' overall satisfaction and differences between inpatients' and outpatients' satisfaction, particularly in the Chinese army. Elucidating factors influencing military inpatient and outpatient care separately and analyzing their differences may provide more information for the health system. The Revised China National Health Service Survey questionnaire was used in the survey. The questionnaire included 5 sections and 32 items concerning demographic, inpatient, and outpatient characteristics and perception variables for both inpatients and outpatients. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relationships between satisfaction and the variables assessed. Outpatients' and inpatients' overall satisfaction rates were 19.0% and 18.5%, respectively. The strongest determinant of outpatients' satisfaction was satisfaction with doctor's communication regarding therapeutic regimen followed by length of military service, level of trust in medical staff, and disease severity. Determinants of inpatients' satisfaction included staff categories, satisfaction with environment, and satisfaction with medical quality. The factors influencing military outpatients' satisfaction differed from those of inpatients. Exploring the causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with military health institutions is important in their fulfillment of their responsibility to maintain soldiers' health.

  17. Analysis of Factors Influencing Inpatient and Outpatient Satisfaction with the Chinese Military Health Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Lv

    Full Text Available Relatively few articles have focused on exploring factors influencing soldiers' overall satisfaction and differences between inpatients' and outpatients' satisfaction, particularly in the Chinese army. Elucidating factors influencing military inpatient and outpatient care separately and analyzing their differences may provide more information for the health system.The Revised China National Health Service Survey questionnaire was used in the survey. The questionnaire included 5 sections and 32 items concerning demographic, inpatient, and outpatient characteristics and perception variables for both inpatients and outpatients. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relationships between satisfaction and the variables assessed.Outpatients' and inpatients' overall satisfaction rates were 19.0% and 18.5%, respectively. The strongest determinant of outpatients' satisfaction was satisfaction with doctor's communication regarding therapeutic regimen followed by length of military service, level of trust in medical staff, and disease severity. Determinants of inpatients' satisfaction included staff categories, satisfaction with environment, and satisfaction with medical quality.The factors influencing military outpatients' satisfaction differed from those of inpatients. Exploring the causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with military health institutions is important in their fulfillment of their responsibility to maintain soldiers' health.

  18. Metabolomic applications to decipher gut microbial metabolic influence in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre eMartin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary preferences and nutrients composition have been shown to influence human and gut microbial metabolism, which ultimately has specific effects on health and diseases’ risk. Increasingly, results from molecular biology and microbiology demonstrate the key role of the gut microbiota metabolic interface to the overall mammalian host’s health status. There is therefore raising interest in nutrition research to characterize the molecular foundations of the gut microbial mammalian cross-talk at both physiological and biochemical pathway levels. Tackling these challenges can be achieved through systems biology approaches, such as metabolomics, to underpin the highly complex metabolic exchanges between diverse biological compartments, including organs, systemic biofluids and microbial symbionts. By the development of specific biomarkers for prediction of health and disease, metabolomics is increasingly used in clinical applications as regard to disease aetiology, diagnostic stratification and potentially mechanism of action of therapeutical and nutraceutical solutions. Surprisingly, an increasing number of metabolomics investigations in pre-clinical and clinical studies based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS provided compelling evidence that system wide and organ-specific biochemical processes are under the influence of gut microbial metabolism. This review aims at describing recent applications of metabolomics in clinical fields where main objective is to discern the biochemical mechanisms under the influence of the gut microbiota, with insight into gastrointestinal health and diseases diagnostics and improvement of homeostasis metabolic regulation.

  19. What factors influence the decisions of mental health professionals to release service users from seclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Haley; Baker, John; Berzins, Kathyrn

    2018-06-22

    Mental health policy stipulates seclusion should only be used as an intervention of last resort and for the minimum possible duration. Current evidence details which service users are more likely to be secluded, why they are secluded, and what influences the decision to seclude them. However, very little is known about the decision to release service users from seclusion. An integrative review was undertaken to explore the decision-making processes of mental health professionals which guide the ending of seclusion. The review used a systematic approach to gather and thematically analyse evidence within a framework approach. The twelve articles identified generated one overriding theme, maintaining safety. In addition, several subthemes emerged including the process of risk assessing which was dependent upon interaction and control, mediated by factors external to the service user such as the attitude and experience of staff and the acuity of the environment. Service users were expected to demonstrate compliance with the process ultimately ending in release and reflection. Little evidence exists regarding factors influencing mental health professionals in decisions to release service users from seclusion. There is no evidence-based risk assessment tool, and service users are not routinely involved in the decision to release them. Support from experienced professionals is vital to ensure timely release from seclusion. Greater insight into influences upon decisions to discontinue episodes may support initiatives aimed at reducing durations and use of seclusion. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Powerlessness, destiny, and control: the influence on health behaviors of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B Lee; Lewis, Rhonda K; Wang, Min Qi; Person, Sharina; Rivers, Brian

    2004-02-01

    This study assessed the extent to which a belief in fate or destiny might explain certain health behaviors among African Americans. A survey of 1,253 African Americans in Alabama churches was conducted. Fifty-nine percent of the total sample indicated that they believe in fate or destiny. The findings of this study suggest that fate/destiny may influence health decisions. The study found a statistically significant difference between men and women regarding their belief in fate or destiny. Women reported believing in fate and destiny more than men. Surprisingly people with more education (i.e., college or postgraduate) believed in fate and destiny significantly more than high school dropouts and high school graduates. A belief in fate or destiny also varied by income level. Respondents who made more in annual income were more likely to believe in fate and destiny than people who made less. One behavior, breast exam had a statistically significant association with a belief in fate and destiny. Women who reported never having a breast exam were more likely to believe in fate and destiny than women who did not have a belief in fate or destiny. These findings highlight the need for practitioners to examine more closely the definition of fate and destiny and determine how this belief influences or does not influence health behaviors as once believed. The research suggests a closer examination of the role culture plays in health decision making which may be independent of a belief in fate and destiny.

  1. Influence of package and health-related claims on perception and sensory acceptability of snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vinícius Rodrigues Arruda; Freitas, Tamara Beatriz de Oliveira; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Melo, Laura Fernandes; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Bressan, Josefina

    2017-11-01

    Concerns for health can lead to healthier food choices, especially if the consumer is well informed. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of package and health-related claims on Brazilian consumers' acceptance of snack bars. In order to evaluate package attributes, in focus groups discussions, 19 consumers chose the most important factors that influence their purchase decisions. Next, 102 consumers evaluated six commercial brands of snack bars in a three-session acceptance test: the first with no information about the product, the second containing the product package and the third with information on health-related claims associated with consumption of the bar. In general, package attributes, price and flavor were the most important factors that influence the purchase of snack bars. Health claims positively influenced consumer acceptance, but information concerning the absence of gluten and lactose did not significantly alter sensory acceptance. The presence of omega-3s, sugars, preservatives, flavorings and colorings have the potential to improve acceptability, because they were able to raise the acceptance of the seed bar, removing it from the rejection region. Protein and nut bars are not well known to the general public and the lower mean acceptance of the seed and protein bars demonstrated the need for sensorial improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health, lifestyle and gender influences on aging well: An Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal eKendig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  3. Health, lifestyle, and gender influences on aging well: an Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well ("healthy," "active," and "successful" aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  4. Going viral in PNG - Exploring routes and circumstances of entry of a rabies-infected dog into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Victoria J; Degeling, Chris; Ward, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    In this qualitative study implemented in November 2016, we elicited narratives about fictional rabies incursions from key employees (n = 16) of the National Agriculture and Quarantine Inspection Authority in Papua New Guinea (PNG) to explore the potential circumstances and routes of entry of a rabies-infected dog, and direct rabies preparedness. Although PNG is rabies free, proximity to rabies-endemic Indonesia poses a risk of introduction and it is expected that an outbreak in PNG would have devastating human health impacts consistent with other countries with similarly low human development indices and abundant free-roaming dogs. Participants used their local and professional knowledge to create plausible narratives in response to contextual, but fictitious, newspaper stories. An ethnographic content analysis was used to extract themes and interpret the narratives. Themes were assessed in the context of their potential influence on rabies preparedness in PNG against the social and political background of PNG and relevant, published literature. Consistent themes included the ubiquity of trade and the complexity of routes between Indonesia and PNG. Dog ownership seemed pragmatic - actors in the narratives readily and rationally involved dogs in transactions in response to trade, exchange or gifting opportunities. Consequently, dogs changed ownership frequently. The findings of this study have important implications for rabies preparedness in PNG; there is potential for wide geographic dissemination of rabies in dogs before outbreak detection. However, common patterns of travel - trade of dogs via Papuan towns and use of traditional trade routes - do provide opportunity for targeted surveillance and response in the event of an incursion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New strategy of cancer therapy by targeting the hypoxic circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Meike, Shunsuke; Eitaki, Masato; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Inanami, Osamu; Iizuka, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Described are studies on the sensitization of tumor cells in hypoxic circumstances (known as radio-resistant cells) by authors' recent molecular targeting to adaptive response as well as by the usual agents like nitro-imidazole compounds, and on the intermittent hypoxia, a new topic in this field. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor and has been known to activate its many downstream genes to cause adoptive response of hypoxic cells. Authors have studied the anti-tumor and radiation sensitizing effects of ethynyl-cytidine (EC) which is found to suppress RNA synthesis through cytidine kinase (CK) inhibition, and the compound is of specificity to tumor cells as they have 5-10 times higher CK activity than normal cells. Authors have also found that EC is of the sensitizing efficacy to normoxic and hypoxic cells by enhancing the radiation-induced apoptosis essentially through inhibition of HIF-1 expression. Intermittent hypoxia in the tumor which has characteristic abnormal vascular morphology and function, occurs by the transient reduction of blood flow and occlusion of vessels in the tissue within minute to hour time cycles. Little is known about the regional hypoxic region and its distribution in the tumor due to difficulty of their detection and quantification. For this, authors have measured the temporal changes of oxygen levels in the mouse tumor with triaryl methyl radical, an oxygen-sensitive contrast compound continuously injected, by microwave-pulsed electron spin resonance imaging (EPRI). By superimposing the EPRI and T2-weighted MRI, the oxymetric imaging is possible in the tumor, which reveals the difference of oxygen level variation depending on the cell type and tissue size. Findings in the field are expected to give important information for more effective cancer therapy and its prognostic prediction in future. (T.T.)

  6. Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D; Kim, Young L; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2016-02-04

    As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users' health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data.

  7. The Influence of Work Characteristics in the Quality of Life of Mental Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health professionals are the main instrument for intervention in this area considered as a priority in Public Health and are subject to emotional exhaustion and stress that can negatively affect their quality of life. Aims: This study aims to assess the influence of job characteristics on health-related quality of life of health professionals.Methods: To address this it was decided to conduct a cross-sectional analytical study with a quantitative approach. SF-36v2 was used as a generic instrument for assessing quality of life, which is already validated for Portuguese population, complemented by a social and professional survey. Data collection took place from 28 January to 30 April 2013.Results and Conclusions: The sample comprised 201 mental health professionals in Portugal. Health-related quality of life shows statistically significant differences in the groups of studied professionals, according to the number of hours worked per week (p=0.04 and the degree of job satisfaction (p<0.001. The assessment of the quality of life of mental health professionals allows the implementation of changes in the organization of mental health services and may contribute to an improvement in the provision of healthcare services.

  8. Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2006-01-01

    the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other...... adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption......AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes...

  9. Health visitors and breastfeeding support: influence of knowledge and self-efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about what influences health visitors' breastfeeding support. The objective was to describe health visitors' breastfeeding experiences, beliefs, knowledge and self-efficacy in breastfeeding guidance and determine the impact of a training course on these factors, and how...... to learn the mechanisms of breastfeeding. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires before the intervention and after the follow-up period. One hundred and six (97%) health visitors and 1302 (82%) mothers responded. RESULTS: At baseline no substantial differences were seen between...... the two groups on years since education, own breastfeeding experiences, beliefs or self-efficacy in breastfeeding guidance except that health visitors in the intervention group, who had completed the course, demonstrated significantly higher scores on knowledge questions (P

  10. Influence of flexibility and variability of working hours on health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni; Sartori, Samantha; Akerstedt, Torbjorn

    2006-01-01

    Flexible working hours can have several meanings and can be arranged in a number of ways to suit the worker and/or employer. Two aspects of "flexible" arrangement of working hours were considered: one more subjected to company control and decision (variability) and one more connected to individual discretion and autonomy (flexibility). The aim of the study was to analyze these two dimensions in relation to health and well-being, taking into consideration the interaction with some relevant background variables related to demographics plus working and social conditions. The dataset of the Third European Survey on working conditions, conducted in 2000 and involving 21,505 workers, was used. Nineteen health disorders and four psycho-social conditions were tested by means of multiple logistic regression analysis, in which mutually adjusted odds ratios were calculated for age, gender, marital status, number of children, occupation, mode of employment, shift work, night work, time pressure, mental and physical workload, job satisfaction, and participation in work organization. The flexibility and variability of working hours appeared inversely related to health and psycho-social well-being: the most favorable effects were associated with higher flexibility and lower variability. The analysis of the interactions with the twelve intervening variables showed that physical work, age, and flexibility are the three most important factors affecting health and well-being. Flexibility resulted as the most important factor to influence work satisfaction; the second to affect family and social commitment and the ability to do the same job when 60 years old, as well as trauma, overall fatigue, irritability, and headache; and the third to influence heart disease, stomachache, anxiety, injury, and the feeling that health being at risk because of work. Variability was the third most important factor influencing family and social commitments. Moreover, shift and night work confirmed to

  11. Factors that influence the preventive care offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoe AV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem

  12. SYSTEM DYNAMICS OF MANAGEMENT OF "UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES" OF THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Владимирович ГАЙДАБРУС

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Approaches for project contingency management through risk management and influence of stakeholders. Proposed system dynamic contingency project management model. The model describes the effects of various factors on the phase of project management through contingency.

  13. SYSTEM DYNAMICS OF MANAGEMENT OF "UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES" OF THE PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Богдан Владимирович ГАЙДАБРУС; Евгений Анатольевич ДРУЖИНИН

    2015-01-01

    Approaches for project contingency management through risk management and influence of stakeholders. Proposed system dynamic contingency project management model. The model describes the effects of various factors on the phase of project management through contingency.

  14. A quantitative study on factors influencing enrolment of dairy farmers in a community health insurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greef, Tineke de Groot-de; Monareng, Lydia V; Roos, Janetta H

    2016-12-09

    Access to affordable and effective health care is a challenge in low- and middle- income countries. Out-of-pocket expenditure for health care is a major cause of impoverishment. One way to facilitate access and overcome catastrophic expenditure is through a health insurance mechanism, whereby risks are shared and financial inputs pooled by way of contributions. This study examined factors that influenced the enrolment status of dairy farmers in Western Kenya to a community health insurance (CHI) scheme. Quantitative, cross-sectional research was used to describe factors influencing the enrolment in the CHI scheme. Quota and convenience sampling was used, recruiting a sample of 135 farmers who supply milk to a dairy cooperation. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule and analysed using Stata SE, Data Analysis and Statistical Software, Version 12. Factors influencing non-enrolment were identified as affordability (40%; n = 47), unfamiliarity with the management of the scheme (37%; n = 44) and a lack of understanding about the scheme (41%; n = 48). An exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the variables to two factors: information provision and understanding community health insurance (CHI). Logistic regression identified factors associated with enrolment in the Tanykina Community Healthcare Plan (TCHP). Supplies of less than six litres of milk per day (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06-0.84) and information provision (OR: 8.77; 95% CI: 2.25-34.16) were significantly associated with enrolment in the TCHP. Nearly 30% (29.6%; n = 40) of the respondents remarked that TCHP is expensive and 17% (n = 23) asked for more education on CHI and TCHP in an open-ended question. Recommendations related to marketing strategies, financial approach, information provision and further research were outlined to be made to the management of the TCHP as well as to those involved in public health.

  15. Media and politics: Empirical data on their cross-influence in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the central influence of public policies on health and welfare, relatively little is known about actual health care policy-making processes. This presentation will offer preliminary results from a federally funded project aimed at gaining insights into the interrelations among interest-group strategies, media discourses and political debates in health care. The policy debate on health care privatization in Quebec is used as a case study. APPROACH: Two sources of data were used: media sources and political debates. Media sources were the six main provincial newspapers in Quebec, two national newspapers and The Canadian Press, as well as transcripts from specific news-related programs of three national television stations and two national radio stations. Political debates were obtained through transcripts of all question periods in the Parliament and debates in the standing committee on health. Sources were systematically searched to identify all relevant data. Multiple search syntaxes were developed and tested to maximize sensitivity and specificity. All data was entered and coded into qualitative analysis software. RESULTS: Data was analyzed longitudinally from June 2005 to January 1, 2010. Four levels of results will be presented: 1) Descriptive analysis of the interest groups involved, their policy preferences and the rhetoric they employed to support their views. 2) Descriptive analysis of the main policy proposals that structured the debate as well as of the coalition of groups behind those proposals. 3) Graphic longitudinal analysis of the intensity of the debate and of the relative importance and evolution of various policy proposals. 4) Preliminary results on the nature, direction and level of inter-influence between the policy and media agendas. CONCLUSION: This presentation provides empirical evidence on current policy-making processes in health care. It shows, unsurprisingly, that policy-making is a circumvoluted process of inter-influence

  16. Sustaining the edge: factors influencing strategy selection in academic health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne M; Szabat, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Competition within the acute care sector as well as increased penetration by managed care organizations has influenced the structure and role of academic health centers during the past decade. The market factors confronting academic health centers are not dissimilar from conditions that confront other organizations competing in mature industries characterized by declining profitability and intense rivalry for market share. When confronted with intense competition or adverse external events, organizations in other industries have responded to potential threats by forming alliances, developing joint ventures, or merging with another firm to maintain their competitive advantage. Although mergers and acquisitions dominated the strategic landscape in the healthcare industry during the past decade, recent evidence suggests that other types of strategic ventures may offer similar economic and contracting benefits to member organizations. Academic health centers have traditionally been involved in network relationships with multiple partners via their shared technology, collaborative research, and joint educational endeavors. These quasi-organizational relationships appear to have provided a framework for strategic decisions and allowed executives of academic health centers to select strategies that were competitive yet closely aligned with their organizational mission. The analysis of factors that influenced strategy selection by executives of academic health centers suggests a deliberate and methodical approach to achieving market share objectives, expanding managed care contracts, and developing physician networks.

  17. Who are health influencers? Characterizing a sample of tobacco cessation interveners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jean; Mays, Mary Z; Yuan, Nicole P; Muramoto, Myra L

    2007-01-01

    To describe characteristics of health influencers (HIs) prior to training in brief tobacco cessation interventions (BI). HIs (n=910) in Arizona were recruited for a randomized controlled trial comparing training modalities. Typically middle-aged (M=43, SD=14), non-Hispanic white (68%), female (77%), non-tobacco users (93%), most identified personal (89%) rather than job-related (3%) motivators for becoming cessation interveners. Confidence about intervention ability was high (93%); knowledge scores, however, were low (M=55%, SD=13%). HIs exhibiting high motivation to intervene but lacking knowledge about BI strategies may be an untapped resource for tobacco cessation and a variety of other health promotion interventions.

  18. Health care prioritization in ageing societies: influence of age, education, health literacy and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Benise; Woo, Jean; Bowling, Ann; Wong, Florens; Chau, Pui Hing

    2011-05-01

    To examine how Chinese people in Hong Kong view health care prioritization and to compare the findings with those from a United Kingdom survey. A cross-sectional opinion survey was conducted in Hong Kong and 1512 participants were interviewed. Data show that the highest rankings were accorded to "treatment for children" and "high technology services." Services for the elderly, whether in the community or in hospitals, and including end-of-life care, were ranked among the lowest. This view was also shared by healthcare professionals. Compared with the UK findings, there are stark contrasts in the low ranking of end-of-life care and the high ranking of high technology services among the HK population. It is evident that most people would give priority to the young over the old in distributing a given amount of healthcare services. To meet the needs of ageing societies and to meet the needs of all users equitably, health care policy needs to acknowledge constraints and the needs for prioritization. Both the public and professionals should engage with policy makers in formulating a policy based on cost benefit considerations as well as overall societal view of prioritization that is not based on age alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sports celebrities and public health: Diego Maradona's influence on drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J; de Matviuk, Marcela Alejandra Chavan

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to a sports celebrity through media and sporting events can have important influences on a public health issue associated with that celebrity. The battle against drug use by Argentinean soccer icon Diego Maradona has provoked concerns about drug abuse and prevention in Argentina, particularly among young people. The present study analyzes how two forms of involvement with Maradona affected the public's concern and perceptions of drug use after Maradona's drug-related health crisis in 2004. Results indicate that those who had a greater degree of parasocial interaction with Maradona were more likely to have an increased awareness of drug abuse, a greater personal concern about drug abuse, abstained from drug use, and more strongly support drug abuse prevention programs. In contrast, identification with Maradona had a mitigating effect on drug use prevention. Implications of these findings regarding the influence of sports celebrities on substance abuse are discussed.

  20. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  1. Model Minority Stereotype: Influence on Perceived Mental Health Needs of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.

  2. The influence of organizational commitment and health on sickness absenteeism: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René

    2011-07-01

    The prevention of sickness absenteeism of nurses is an important issue for organizations in health care as well as for nurses. The role of work-related attitudes, such as organizational commitment, as a cause of absenteeism is still unclear. To examine the influence over time of organizational commitment, health complaints, and visits to a general practitioner on sickness absenteeism. This was a longitudinal, three-wave study in two nursing homes in the Netherlands among 224 nurses. Questionnaire data (self reports of organizational commitment, health complaints, visits to a general practitioner), as well as absenteeism data retrieved from personnel files was used. Health complaints and visits to a general practitioner were found to predict absenteeism behaviour. Commitment was related to health complaints at the same point in time, but did not predict future sickness absenteeism. With respect to managing sickness absenteeism of nurses it should be acknowledged by managers that nurses call in sick when they perceive that there is a real health problem, not because of negative work attitudes. It is important, however, for managers to signal signs of decreasing organizational commitment because this is associated with increases in health complaints. This can eventually result in increases in absenteeism. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Fodder quality influence on thorough-bred horses’ health and sport skills

    OpenAIRE

    Babrauskas, Giedrius

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: - To investigate jumping sport horses health conditions influence on sport skills; - To investigate blood parameters in Lithuanian jumping sport horses before and after an active training period. Eight healthy horses ranging in age from 6 to 8 with a mean body weight o 607 +/- 86,9 kg were used in experiment. Blood samples were collected from well trained Lithuanian sport horses and tested before and after an intensive period of competition of 2006. Bi...

  4. Influences on the implementation of TQM in health care organizations: professional bureaucracies, ownership and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrick, T; Preston, A

    2001-01-01

    TQM is introduced into many organisations in an attempt to improve productivity and quality. There are a number of organisational variables that have been recognised as influencing the success of TQM implementation including leadership, teamwork, and suppliers. This paper presents findings of a study of the implementation of TQM in Australian health care organisations. Structural factors were observed to affect the progress of TQM. Professional bureaucracies were less successful than machine bureaucracies. Private organisations were more successful than their public counterparts.

  5. The influence of health care policies and health care system distrust on willingness to undergo genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Putt, Mary; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Grande, David; Schwartz, Jerome Sanford; Liao, Kaijun; Marcus, Noora; Demeter, Mirar Bristol; Shea, Judy

    2012-05-01

    As the potential role of genetic testing in disease prevention and management grows, so does concern about differences in uptake of genetic testing across social and racial groups. Characteristics of how genetic tests are delivered may influence willingness to undergo testing and, if they affect population subgroups differently, alter disparities in testing. Conjoint analysis study of the effect of 3 characteristics of genetic test delivery (ie, attributes) on willingness to undergo genetic testing for cancer risk. Data were collected using a random digit dialing survey of 128 African American and 209 white individuals living in the United States. Measures included conjoint scenarios, the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale (including the values and competence subscales), health insurance coverage, and sociodemographic characteristics. The 3 attributes studied were disclosure of test results to the health insurer, provision of the test by a specialist or primary care doctor, and race-specific or race-neutral marketing. In adjusted analyses, disclosure of test results to insurers, having to get the test from a specialist, and race-specific marketing were all inversely associated with willingness to undergo the genetic test, with the greatest effect for the disclosure attribute. Racial differences in willingness to undergo testing were not statistically significant (P=0.07) and the effect of the attributes on willingness to undergo testing did not vary by patient race. However, the decrease in willingness to undergo testing with insurance disclosure was greater among individuals with high values distrust (P=0.03), and the decrease in willingness to undergo testing from specialist access was smaller among individuals with high competence distrust (P=0.03). Several potentially modifiable characteristics of how genetic tests are delivered are associated with willingness to undergo testing. The effect of 2 of these characteristics vary according to the level of

  6. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling of the Influences of Family-Centered Care on Parent and Child Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. M...

  7. The Influence of Social Networking Photos on Social Norms and Sexual Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two studies tested whether online social networking technologies influence health behavioral social norms, and in turn, personal health behavioral intentions. In Study 1, experimental participants browsed peers' Facebook photos on a college network with a low prevalence of sexually suggestive content. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers who have sex without condoms, and rated their own future intentions to use condoms. Experimental participants, compared to controls who did not view photos, estimated that a larger percentage of their peers use condoms, and indicated a greater intention to use condoms themselves in the future. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to view sexually suggestive or nonsexually suggestive Facebook photos, and responded to sexual risk behavioral questions. Compared to participants viewing nonsuggestive photos, those who viewed sexually suggestive Facebook photos estimated that a larger percentage of their peers have unprotected sexual intercourse and sex with strangers and were more likely to report that they themselves would engage in these behaviors. Thus, online social networks can influence perceptions of the peer prevalence of sexual risk behaviors, and can influence users' own intentions with regard to such behaviors. These studies suggest the potential power of social networks to affect health behaviors by altering perceptions of peer norms. PMID:23438268

  8. Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J

    2017-03-01

    Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mental Health of the Prison Medical Workers (PMWs and Influencing Factors in Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prison medical workers (PMWs are critically important, but they are also vulnerable to psychological problems. Currently, there is no study on examining PMWs’ mental health conditions and possible influencing factors in China. Hence, we conducted this cross-sectional survey, aiming to understand the mental health status of the PMWs and related impact factors in Jiangxi province of China. We employed the Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R to assess the mental disorders and psychological health conditions of PMWs in Jiangxi. The t tests were used to compare the differences for the average score of SCL-90-R between the Chinese general population and targeted PMWs of this study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the main factors associated with overall detection rate of PMWs’ psychological health conditions. The scores of four dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and paranoid ideation were significantly higher than the Chinese national norm, and the total positive rate was 49.09% among the PMWs. Gender, marital status, age, and length of employment are identified to be the most significant predictors to affect PMWs’ mental health. Positive correlations between each of the nine dimensions of the SCL-90-R have been verified. This study demonstrated for the first time that PMWs are facing mental health risk and suffering serious psychological problems with psychopathology symptoms, which has become a growing concern in China. Our current findings suggest a need for more in-depth studies on this subject going forward to validate our conclusions and also to identify more impact factors, since such studies and knowledge of PMWs’ mental health and influencing factors are very limited in China.

  10. Mental Health of the Prison Medical Workers (PMWs) and Influencing Factors in Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Dongdong; Hou, Zhaoxun; He, Meikun; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu

    2017-11-26

    Prison medical workers (PMWs) are critically important, but they are also vulnerable to psychological problems. Currently, there is no study on examining PMWs' mental health conditions and possible influencing factors in China. Hence, we conducted this cross-sectional survey, aiming to understand the mental health status of the PMWs and related impact factors in Jiangxi province of China. We employed the Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to assess the mental disorders and psychological health conditions of PMWs in Jiangxi. The t tests were used to compare the differences for the average score of SCL-90-R between the Chinese general population and targeted PMWs of this study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the main factors associated with overall detection rate of PMWs' psychological health conditions. The scores of four dimensions (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and paranoid ideation) were significantly higher than the Chinese national norm, and the total positive rate was 49.09% among the PMWs. Gender, marital status, age, and length of employment are identified to be the most significant predictors to affect PMWs' mental health. Positive correlations between each of the nine dimensions of the SCL-90-R have been verified. This study demonstrated for the first time that PMWs are facing mental health risk and suffering serious psychological problems with psychopathology symptoms, which has become a growing concern in China. Our current findings suggest a need for more in-depth studies on this subject going forward to validate our conclusions and also to identify more impact factors, since such studies and knowledge of PMWs' mental health and influencing factors are very limited in China.

  11. [Influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Z X; Wang, S L; Chen, Z L; He, Y H; Yu, W L; Mei, L Y; Zhang, H D

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive health status of female workers in petrochemical industry, and to provide a reference for improving reproductive health status and developing preventive and control measures for female workers in petrochemical industry. Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey was performed from January to October, 2016. The Questionnaire on Women's Reproductive Health was used to investigate the reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. Results: Among the 7485 female workers, 1 268 (40.9%) had abnormal menstrual period, 1 437 (46.4%) had abnormal menstrual volume, 177 (28.5%) had hyperplasia of mammary glands, and 1 807 (24.6%) had gynecological inflammation. The reproductive system diseases in female workers in petrochemical industry were associated with the factors including age, marital status, education level, unhealthy living habits, abortion, overtime work, work shift, workload, video operation, occupational exposure, positive events, and negative events, and among these factors, negative events (odds ratio[ OR ]= 1.856) , unhealthy living habits ( OR =1.542) , and positive events ( OR =1.516) had greater impact on reproductive system diseases. Conclusion: Many chemical substances in the occupational environment of petrochemical industry can cause damage to the reproductive system, which not only affects the health of the female workers, but also poses potential threats to the health of their offspring. Occupational exposure, unhealthy living habits, overtime work, and work shift have great influence on reproductive system diseases in female workers.

  12. Toward a Resident Personal Finance Curriculum: Quantifying Resident Financial Circumstances, Needs, and Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Ryan; Ernst, Michael; Ahn, James; Tekian, Ara; Shappell, Eric

    2018-04-26

    Introduction Resident financial health has been linked to wellness and resiliency, yet financial literacy among residents is highly variable. While some medical school curricula include budgeting and student loan education, content on managing finances as a resident is usually lacking. We sought to quantitatively assess residents' financial circumstances, needs, and interests to inform the design of a resident personal finance curriculum. Methods Surveys were sent to residents in eight specialties at an academic medical center. Likert-type responses allowed respondents to rate their level of comfort (1 = Very Uncomfortable, 7 = Very Comfortable) and interest (1 = Very Uninterested, 7 = Very Interested) in various personal finance topics including budgeting, loan repayment, disability insurance, life insurance, home buying, and retirement planning. Details regarding financial circumstances, including assets, liabilities, and insurance, were also collected. Results of questions that utilized a Likert-type scale are reported as median (interquartile range). Results Of 346 residents surveyed, 144 (41.6%) responded. Residents were from Internal Medicine (56, 38.9%), Pediatrics (34, 23.6%), Emergency Medicine (18, 12.5%), and other specialties (36, 25.0%). Ninety-one (63.2%) reported educational loans, with an average balance of $191,730. Credit card balances exceeding $3,000 were reported by 11 (7.6%) respondents. One-hundred-two (70.1%) reported emergency savings, but only 65 (45.1%) reported having a retirement account (average balance $27,608). Respondents rated highest comfort levels with budgeting (5[4-6]), and lowest level of comfort with disability insurance (2[2-4]) and home buying (2[2-5]). Interest in learning each topic was high (6[5-7]), with retirement planning (6[5-7]), investing (6[5-7]), and home buying (6[5-7]) the topics of highest interest. Conclusion These results highlight the deficits in personal finance literacy among residents. Future work should

  13. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent-child connectedness: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent-child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent-child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents' understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 10 households, 9 focus group discussions and 60 in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO qualitative data analysis software. The structural factors with greatest influence on connectedness were economic circumstances, gender, social status, state education, and globalisation. Economic circumstances impacted on parent-child connectedness through parents' ability to provide for their children's material needs, and the time their occupation allowed for them to spend with their children and monitor their activities. Appropriate parent-child interactions were shaped by gender norms and by social status in the form of respectability, adolescents' adherence to norms of respect/obedience shaping their parents' affection. State education affected parents' preferences between children but also undermined parental authority, as did broader globalisation. Connectedness was related to SRH in a bi-directional way: lack of connectedness was linked to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned pregnancies seriously undermined young women's connectedness with their parents. Since material provision was perceived to be a central element of parent-child connectedness, structural factors limiting provision made transactional sex more likely both through direct material pathways and emotional ones. Motives for transactional sex were said to be material needs and to feel loved and cared for. An important pathway by which structural factors shape

  14. What factors influence health professionals to use decision aids for Down syndrome prenatal screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Johanie; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Esther; Delanoë, Agathe; Robitaille, Hubert; Lévesque, Isabelle; Rousseau, François; Wilson, Brenda J; Giguère, Anik M C; Légaré, France

    2016-09-05

    Health professionals are expected to engage pregnant women in shared decision making to help them make informed values-based decisions about prenatal screening. Patient decision aids (PtDAs) foster shared decision-making, but are rarely used in this context. Our objective was to identify factors that could influence health professionals to use a PtDA for decisions about prenatal screening for Down syndrome during a clinical pregnancy follow-up. We planned to recruit a purposive sample of 45 health professionals (obstetrician-gynecologists, family physicians and midwives) involved in the care of pregnant women in three clinical sites (15 per site). Participating health professionals first watched a video showing two simulated consecutive prenatal follow-up consultations during which a pregnant woman, her partner and a health professional used a PtDA about Down syndrome prenatal screening. Participants were then interviewed about factors that would influence their use of the PtDA. Questions were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. We performed content analyses of transcribed verbatim interviews. Out of 42 eligible health professionals approached, 36 agreed to be interviewed (86 % response rate). Of these, 27 were female (75 %), nine were obstetrician-gynecologists (25 %), 15 were family physicians (42 %), and 12 were midwives (33 %), with a mean age of 42.1 ± 11.6 years old. We identified 35 distinct factors reported by 20 % or more participants that were mapped onto 10 of the 12 of the Theoretical Domains Framework domains. The six most frequently mentioned factors influencing use of the PtDA were: 1) a positive appraisal (n = 29, 81 %, beliefs about consequences domain); 2) its availability in the office (n = 27, 75 %, environmental context and resources domain); 3) colleagues' approval (n = 27, 75 %, social influences domain); 4) time constraints (n = 26, 72 %, environmental context and resources domain); 5) finding it a

  15. Perceived Socioeconomic Status: A New Type of Identity which Influences Adolescents’ Self Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Huang, Bin; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive, social, and biological transitions of adolescence suggest that subjective perceptions of social position based on the socioeconomic hierarchy may undergo important changes during this period, yet how such perceptions develop is poorly understood and no studies assess if changes in such perceptions influence adolescents’ health. This study describes adolescents’ subjective perceptions of familial socioeconomic status (SSS), how SSS changes over time, and how age, race, and objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators influence SSS. In addition, the study determines if SSS independently influences adolescents’ self-rated health, an important predictor of morbidity and health service utilization. Methods 1179 non-Hispanic black and white baseline 7–12th graders from a Midwestern public school district completed a validated, teen-specific measure of SSS annually for 4 consecutive years. A parent provided information on SES. Markov modeling assessed transitions in SSS over time. Results SSS declined with age (p=.001) and stabilized among older teens. In addition to age, SES and race, but not gender, were significant correlates of SSS, but the relationships between these factors were complex. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black teens from families with low parent education had higher SSS than white teens from similarly educated families, while white teens from highly educated families had higher SSS than black teens from highly educated families. Lower SSS and changes in SSS predicted poor self rated health even when adjusting for race and objective SES measures. Conclusion Subjective evaluations of socioeconomic status predict adolescents’ global health ratings even when adjusting for the sociodemographic factors which shape them. PMID:17950168

  16. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Amany

    2013-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural), household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73%) of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37%) and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.78) meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.72). When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.

  17. The influence of social anchorage on the gender difference in the use of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Aline; Boyer, Richard; Lesage, Alain

    2009-07-01

    Overall, women are more likely than men to seek professional care when they face light or moderate mental health problems. This difference is usually attributed to culture-related factors, but neither women nor men form a homogeneous cultural group. The help-seeking behavior may reflect not only the cultural values and expectations associated with a specific gender but also those associated with specific social roles endorsed by women and men. In addition, the influence of these culture-related factors on the help-seeking behavior is constrained by barriers to care, which apply similarly to women and men. In consequence, the gender difference in the use of mental health services should vary across social roles and types of service. This hypothesis was tested on data from the cycle 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Logistic regression analyses show that, although women are more likely than men to use mental health services, this gender difference is larger for general services than for psychiatric and psychological services whose access in Canada is constrained, respectively, by systemic and financial barriers to care. They also suggest that holding the role of worker tends to foster the use of psychological services in women, especially in married women, and to a lesser degree in men, whereas it tends to hinder the use of general and psychiatric services in men but to exert no or less influence in women. Thus, professional anchorage seems to be an important source of the societal norms that influence the decision of women and men to seek or not to seek medical care for mental health problems.

  18. Influence of Race, Ethnicity and Social Determinants of Health on Diabetes Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Strom Williams, Joni; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-04-01

    There is strong evidence that race, ethnicity and social determinants of health significantly influence outcomes for patients with diabetes. A better understanding of the mechanisms of these relationships or associations would improve development of cost-effective, culturally tailored programs for patients with diabetes. This article reviews the current state of the literature on the influence of race and ethnicity and social determinants of health on process of care, quality of care and outcomes for diabetes, with particular emphasis on the rural South to give an overview of the state of the literature. The literature review shows that racial or ethnic differences in the clinical outcomes for diabetes, including glycemic, blood pressure (BP) and lipid control, continue to persist. In addition, the literature review shows that the role of social determinants of health on outcomes, and the possible role these determinants play in disparities have largely been ignored. Psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, depression, social support and perceived stress, show consistent associations with self-care, quality of life and glycemic control. Neighborhood factors, such as food insecurity, social cohesion and neighborhood esthetics have been associated with glycemic control. Perceived discrimination has also been associated with self-care and the psychological component of quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to be skilled in assessing social determinants of health and taking them into consideration in clinical care. In addition, more research is needed to identify the separate and combined influence of race and ethnicity and social determinants of health on process of care, quality of care and outcomes in diabetes, especially in the South, where the burden of disease is particularly high. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. All rights reserved.

  19. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Refaat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural, household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Results: Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73% of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37% and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.78 meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.72. When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusion and recommendations: Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.

  20. Factors That Influence Enrolment and Retention in Ghana' National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoh, Agnes Millicent; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Van der Geest, Sjaak

    2017-10-17

    The government of Ghana introduced the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 with the goal of achieving universal coverage within 5 years. Evidence, however, shows that expanding NHIS coverage and especially retaining members have remained a challenge. A multilevel perspective was employed as a conceptual framework and methodological tool to examine why enrolment and retention in the NHIS remains low. A household survey was conducted after 20 months educational and promotional activities aimed at improving enrolment and retention rates in 15 communities in the Central and Eastern Regions (ERs) of Ghana. Observation, indepth interviews and informal conversations were used to collect qualitative data. Forty key informants (community members, health providers and district health insurance schemes' [DHISs] staff) purposely selected from two casestudy communities in the Central Region (CR) were interviewed. Several community members, health providers and DHISs' staff were also engaged in informal conversations in the other five communities in the region. Also, four staff of the Ministry of Health (MoH), Ghana Health Service (GHS) and National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) were engaged in in-depth interviews. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic content analysis. The results show that factors that influence enrolment and retention in the NHIS are multi-dimensional and cut across all stakeholders. People enrolled and renewed their membership because of NHIS' benefits and health providers' positive behaviour. Barriers to enrolment and retention included: poverty, traditional risk-sharing arrangements influence people to enrol or renew their membership only when they need healthcare, dissatisfaction about health providers' behaviour and service delivery challenges. Given the multi-dimensional nature of barriers to enrolment and retention, we suggest that the NHIA should engage DHISs, health

  1. Two types of health care systems and their influence on the introduction of perinatal care: an epidemiological twin model in Berlin from 1950 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabin, B; Raum, E; Mohnhaupt, A; Schwartz, F W

    1999-06-01

    or West Berlin. The results of this study may serve as a basis for reflection on how different social circumstances and health care policies can influence the improvement of maternal and child health care.

  2. Republic of the Marshall Islands Changed Circumstances Petition to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lum, Thomas; Thomas, Kenneth; Redhead, C. S; Bearden, David; Holt, Mark; Lazzari, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    .... The Petition requests additional compensation for personal injuries and property damages and restoration costs, medical care programs, health services infrastructure and training, and radiological monitoring. According to U.S...

  3. Influence of mHealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Gagliardi, Laina

    2013-10-16

    Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women's empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women's interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study's characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple's health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women's decision-making, social status, and access to health resources. However

  4. Health professionals' perceptions of cultural influences on stroke experiences and rehabilitation in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Onutobor; Reynolds, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of health professionals who treat stroke patients in Kuwait regarding cultural influences on the experience of stroke and rehabilitation in Kuwait. Health professionals interviewed were from a variety of cultural backgrounds thus providing an opportunity to investigate how they perceived the influence of culture on stroke recovery and rehabilitation in Kuwait. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 health professionals with current/recent stroke rehabilitation experience in Kuwait, followed by thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts. The health professionals identified several features of the Kuwaiti culture that they believed affected the experiences of stroke patients. These were religious beliefs, family involvement, limited education and public information about stroke, prevailing negative attitudes toward stroke, access to finances for private treatment, social stigma and the public invisibility of disabled people, difficulties identifying meaningful goals for rehabilitation, and an acceptance of dependency linked with the widespread presence of maids and other paid assistants in most Kuwaiti homes. To offer culturally sensitive care, these issues should be taken into account during the rehabilitation of Kuwaiti stroke patients in their home country and elsewhere.

  5. How Religious Beliefs and Practices Influence the Psychological Health of Catholic Priests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Anthony; Sahker, Ethan; Krinock, Elizabeth; Sim, Wonjin; Hamilton, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    Roman Catholic diocesan priests are a subgroup of men with unique religious and spiritual roles, beliefs, and practices. This qualitative study of 15 priests from the mid-Atlantic area of the United States focused on how priests' relationship with God and promises of celibacy and obedience influenced their psychological health. Using a consensual qualitative research (CQR) design, the analysis revealed that participants described their relationship with God as central to their health and contributing to positive outcomes (e.g., sense of connection and support). The influence of their promises of celibacy and obedience were linked to both positive outcomes (e.g., decreased stress, improved relationships) and negative outcomes (e.g., internal conflict, depression/loneliness). This study highlighted the central role that priests' relationship with God has on positive psychological health. Future research is necessary to understand how to maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of priests' promises of celibacy and obedience, which would benefit programs aimed at supporting priests' psychological health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Factors influencing health care workers’ implementation of tuberculosis contact tracing in Kweneng, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlale, Lebapotswe; Frasso, Rosemary; Kgosiesele, Onalenna; Selemogo, Mpho; Mothei, Quirk; Habte, Dereje; Steenhoff, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction TB contact tracing rates remain low in high burden settings and reasons for this are not well known. We describe factors that influence health care workers' (HCW) implementation of TB contact tracing (CT) in a high TB burden district of Botswana. Methods Data were collected using questionnaires and in-depth interviews in 31 of the 52 health facilities in Kweneng East Health District. Responses were summarized using summary statistics and comparisons between HCW groups were done using parametric or non-parametric tests as per normality of the data distribution. Results One hundred and four HCWs completed questionnaires. Factors that influenced HCW TB contact tracing were their knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as personal factors including decreased motivation and lack of commitment. Patient factors included living further away from the clinic, unknown residential address and high rates of migration and mobility. Administrative factors included staff shortages, lack of transport, poor reporting of TB cases and poor medical infrastructure e.g. suboptimal laboratory services. A national HCW strike and a restructuring of the health system emerged as additional factors during in-depth interviews of TB coordinators. Conclusion Multiple factors lead to poor TB contact tracing in this district. Interventions to increase TB contact tracing will be informed by these findings. PMID:27800084

  7. [Mental health status in railway female workers and its occupational influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, F L; Liu, Z M; Liu, Z S; Zou, J F; Yu, W L; Li, H M; Li, J; Kong, L M; Jiang, Q

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental health status of railway female workers and related influencing factors, and to provide a scientific strategy for labor protection regulations in railway female workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 5033 female workers from Jinan, Nanning, Qinghai-Tibet, and Wuhan railway systems in China from January to August, 2016. A uniform reproductive health questionnaire, as well as the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , was used to investigate their general information (age, marital status, education level, and family income) , work type (day shift, night shift, or work on shift) , work position, and the presence or absence of exposure to occupational hazardous factors. The score on each factor of SCL-90 and the positive rate of mental health status were calculated. Results: The positive rate of mental health status was 10.6% in railway female workers. The workers exposed to occupational hazardous factors had a significantly higher positive rate of mental health status than those not exposed to occupational hazardous factors (14.20% vs 8.02%, P mental health status between workers with different ages, marital status, education levels, histories of abortion, or annual family income levels ( P mental health problems ( OR =1.797, 95% CI : 1.393-2.318; OR =0.641, 95% CI : 0.498-0.827; OR =0.586, 95% CI : 0.439-0.783; OR =0.580, 95% CI : 0.378-0.890) . Conclusion: Railway female workers have lower levels of mental health than the general population and are under significant occupational stress. Exposure to occupational hazardous factors, night shift, overwork, and carrying heavy objects are associated with the development of mental health problems in railway female workers.

  8. College Students' Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma: The Influence on Help-Seeking Attitudes and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Despite being vulnerable to mental health problems, college students are a population that is especially influenced by perceptions of peer mental health stigmatization (Quinn, Wilson, MacIntyre, & Tinklin, 2009), a known barrier to seeking mental health services (Corrigan, 2004a; Komiya, Good, & Sherrod, 2000; Vogel, Wade, & Haake,…

  9. How does context influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? : Evidence from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maryse C; Kane, Sumit; Tulloch, Olivia; Ormel, Hermen; Theobald, Sally; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors intersect to influence CHW performance. A systematic review with a narrative

  10. Which intervention design factors influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maryse C; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kane, Sumit; Ormel, Hermen; Tijm, Mandy M; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors influence CHW performance. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention design

  11. [Influences of Oral Health Behaviors, Depression and Stress on Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jin; Lee, Hae Jung; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influences of oral health behaviors, depression, and stress on periodontal disease in pregnant women. The participants in this study were 129 pregnant women. Data were collected using questionnaires which included individual characteristics, oral health care behaviors, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), a global measure of perceived stress, and pregnancy stress. A dentist measured periodontal probing depth and classified stages of periodontal disease according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression. Periodontal disease had significant correlations with oral health care behaviors (r=-.56, pstress (r=.44 pstress (r=.37 phealth behaviors (β=-.30, pstress (β=.17, p=.028). The explanation power of this regression model was 61.6% (F=15.52, phealth care behaviors and reducing perceived stress are indicated as effective strategies to reduce periodontal disease in pregnant women.

  12. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  13. [Characterization, influence and manipulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mazcorro, José F; Garza-González, Elvira; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia G; Tamayo, José L

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of microorganisms that are indispensable for health. The gastrointestinal microbiota can be studied using culture and molecular methods. The applications of massive sequencing are constantly increasing, due to their high yield, increasingly accessible costs, and the availability of free software for data analysis. The present article provides a detailed review of a large number of studies on the gastrointestinal microbiota and its influence on human health; particular emphasis is placed on the evidence suggesting a relationship between the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem and diverse physiological and immune/inflammatory processes. Discussion of the articles analyzed combines a medical approach and current concepts of microbial molecular ecology. The present revision aims to be useful to those interested in the gastrointestinal microbiota and its possible alteration to maintain, re-establish and enhance health in the human host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between locus of control and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship.

  15. Measuring virtues--development of a scale to measure employee virtues and their influence on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnå-Furu, Carola; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Santavirta, Nina

    2010-12-01

    The objectives of this article are to present a measurement instrument for virtues, and to examine the link between virtues and health. The instrument was tested by the occupational health care at a large Finnish pulp and paper manufacturer and was shown to be consistent, valid and reliable. In developing the scale, we had two samples of employees and used factor analysis and partial least squares modelling (PLS) on both samples. Factor analysis showed that pride is the most important virtue, followed by love and generosity. In the PLS analysis, we found virtues to significantly reduce the number of sick days. In addition, we found significant relationships between virtues and fatigue, depression and happiness. Virtuous behaviour decreased sick leave and depression. The virtues had a positive influence on happiness and on improvement in one's health. The results show that by taking into account virtues in working life, companies can significantly improve their employees' well-being. The measurement instrument helps broaden the traditional view on health and is meant to be used by health care professionals in their daily practice. By addressing a person's physical, mental and virtual well-being, health care practitioners can take care of employees on a broader level than before. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Influence of occupational stress on mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qing; Wong, Tze-Wai; Yu, Tak-Sun

    2009-09-01

    To explore the influence of occupational stress on mental health in off-shore oil production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 561 Chinese off-shore oil workers. The workers were invited to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stress levels, and 12-item general health questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression procedure was used to assess the effects of occupational stress on mental health. After controlling for age, educational level, marital status and years of off-shore work, poor mental health was found to have a significant positive association with seven of the nine identified sources of occupational stress. They were: conflict between job and family/social life, poor development of career and achievement at work, safety problems at work, management problems and poor relationship with others at work, poor physical environment of the work place, uncomfortable ergonomic factors at work, and poor organizational structure at work. All of these occupational stress sources together explained 19.9% of the total variance. The results confirmed that occupational stress was a major risk factor for poor mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers. Reducing or eliminating occupational stressors at work would benefit workers' mental health.

  17. Health Literacy among Medically Underserved: The Role of Demographic Factors, Social Influence, and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Gwede, Clement K; Sutton, Steven K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-01

    The current study examined the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that predicted being at risk for low health literacy among a population of racially and ethnically diverse patients accessing primary care services at community-based clinics. Participants (N = 416) were aged 50-75 years, currently not up-to-date with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, at average CRC risk, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at promoting CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline interview that assessed health literacy as measured by Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, sociodemographic factors, and psychosocial variables (e.g., health beliefs) prior to randomization and receipt of an intervention. Thirty-six percent of the participants were found to be at risk for low health literacy. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were assessed as predictors of being at risk for low health literacy using logistic regression. In the final model, predictors were male gender, being from a racial/ethnic minority group, being unable to work, having higher social influence scores, and having higher religious belief scores. These findings suggest several patient characteristics that may be associated with low health literacy, and highlight the importance of supporting all patients through simplified and clear communications and information to improve understanding of CRC screening information.

  18. The influence of global warming on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be warming due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will warm or on the true impact of global warming on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global warming on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on environmentally associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, environmental, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures.

  19. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Family health and family physician’s influence on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for

  1. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-08-01

    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing the introduction of physical activity interventions in primary health care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; van der Zouwe, Nicolette; Crone, Mathilde R; Verheijden, Marieke W; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Gebhardt, Winifred A

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore stakeholders' perceptions on factors influencing the introduction, i.e., adoption, implementation, and continuation, of PA interventions in PHC. Twenty-eight semistructured interviews were held with intervention managers, PHC advisors, intervention providers, and referring general practitioners of five PA interventions delivered in PHC. A theoretical framework on the introduction of innovations in health care was used to guide the data collection. Influencing factors were identified using thematic analysis. Stakeholders reported preconditions for the introduction of PA interventions in PHC (e.g., support, resources, and networks and collaborations), in addition to characteristics of PA interventions (e.g., compatibility, flexibility, and intervention materials) and characteristics of PHC professionals (e.g., knowledge, positive attitudes, and beliefs about capabilities) perceived to enhance the introduction process. Furthermore, they proposed strategies for the development of PA interventions (e.g., involvement of future stakeholders, full development, and refinement) and strategies to introduce PA interventions in PHC (e.g., training, assistance, and reinforcement). The majority of the influencing factors were discussed specifically in relation to one or two stages. This study presents an overview of factors that are perceived to influence the introduction of PA interventions in PHC. It underscores the importance of taking these factors into account when designing introduction strategies and of giving special attention to the distinct stages of the process.

  3. Occupational sitting: practitioner perceptions of health risks, intervention strategies and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Nicholas; Straker, Leon; Parry, Sharon

    2012-12-01

    Workplace practitioners are well placed to provide practical insights on sedentary behaviour issues in the workplace. This study consulted occupational health and safety (OHS) practitioners, examining their perceptions of sedentary health risks and views on strategies and influences to reduce and break prolonged occupational sitting. Three focus groups were conducted with convenience samples of OHS practitioners (n=34; 6 men; 46.4 ± 9.6 years) attending an Australian national conference in November 2010. Open-ended questions concerning health risks, sitting reduction strategies and influences were posed by lead researchers and practitioners invited to express opinions, viewpoints and experiences. Audio-recordings and summary notes of focus group discussions were reviewed by researchers to identify key response themes. OHS practitioners were well informed about the chronic disease and musculoskeletal risks associated with prolonged occupational sitting, but noted the importance of not replacing one workplace health issue (too much sitting) with another (too much standing). Ideas for strategies were diverse and explored the dichotomy between providing choices for employees to stand and move more (e.g. sit-stand desks), as opposed to obligating change through adapting job and office design (e.g. centralising printers and scanners). Productivity concerns were cited as a major influence for change. OHS practitioners also highlighted the value of using cross-disciplinary expertise to bridge the gap between research and practice. This study identified that OHS practitioners in Australia have a good understanding of the risks of prolonged occupational sitting and potential strategies to manage these risks.

  4. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, André; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Alaux, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens) and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet) on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level), and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification), phenoloxidase (immunity) and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism)). We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context) of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  5. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  6. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5... antidumping order on fresh and chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic...

  7. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80.73 Section 80.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. In appropriate...

  8. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteynberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG) [de

  9. Stakeholder views on factors influencing the wellbeing and health sector engagement of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation.

  10. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Scott

    Full Text Available Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures. However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74, focus groups (n = 18 and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups

  11. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Ved, Rajani; Garimella, Surekha; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-01-01

    Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership) and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures). However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC) functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74), focus groups (n = 18) and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups) presented

  12. Do peer relations in adolescence influence health in adulthood? Peer problems in the school setting and the metabolic syndrome in middle-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Gustafsson

    Full Text Available While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n = 881, 82% of the original cohort. A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers' assessment of each student's isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health.

  13. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  14. Nature versus nurture segues to choice versus circumstance in the new millennium: one consideration for an integrative biopsychosocial philosophy, art, and science of chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Monica

    2009-12-01

    This commentary discusses the evolving sociocultural roles and sociocultural authority of chiropractic. The complex interconnectivity of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of our individual and collective well-being has occupied centuries of "nature versus nurture" philosophical debate, creative art, and scientific work. What has emerged is a better understanding of how our human development is affected by the circumstances of what we are born with (ie, nature) and how we are shaped by the circumstances that we are born into (ie, nurture). In the new millennium, a cumulative challenge to the emerging integrative biopsychosocial health care disciplines is one of reconciling "circumstance versus choice"; that is, advancing individually and collectively the fullest actualization of human potential through the philosophy, art, and science of autonomy and empowerment.

  15. Diet, risk of obesity and socioeconomic circumstances of individuals in the UK: A seemingly unrelated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Olajide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Understanding the link between diet, risk of obesity and the underlying socioeconomic circumstances of the individual is useful for health promotion and improvement interventions. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic factors that jointly affect food consumption choices and risk of obesity. We analyse the National Dietary and Nutrition Survey (2000/01 of adults aged 19-64 years living in private households in the UK, using a health production framework. We used information on the complete food history on individuals in the previous week to create eight common food groups. We estimated a system of linear risk of obesity (as measured by Body Mass Index and eight diet equations with error terms that are correlated across equations for a given individual, but are uncorrelated across individuals, using the seemingly unrelated regression method. Our findings indicate that the socioeconomic factors (e.g. income and education associated with sources of healthy eating differ. While increasing household purchasing power may be more effective for increasing consumption of healthier foods such as fruit and vegetables, more knowledge and information about healthy eating may be more effective for cutting down on consumption of less healthy foods (e.g. preserves and savoury foods. An understanding of these different healthy eating contexts is essential for the development of effective targeted food based policies aimed at reducing the risk of obesity. Link to Appendix

  16. Environment Biological and Health Care Efforts Influenced of Lymfatic Filariasis Incidence, Sarmi Distric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sipayung

    2014-05-01

    District Sarmi is the most endemic area of filariasis in Papua which has rate of microfilaria (mf (47.06% up to the year 2012. In the Province Papua filarial worm is Wuchereria bancrofti and is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito vectors. Lymphatic filariasis does not cause death, but in chronic cases it causes disability, psychosocial problems, stigma, and decreased productivity. This study was aimed to analyze environment biological and health care efforts that influence the incidence of lymphatic filariasis. This study used case-control method. Samples comprised 32 case samples (mf + and 32 control samples (mf-. Primary data were collected through interviews and observation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square and continued with multivariate Logistic Regression. Statistical analysis obtained indicated two variables on the incidence of lymphatic filariasis limfatik in District Sarmi (health care efforts pvalue = 0.002, OR: 7.779, as well as the biological environment pvalue= 0.008, OR: 5.841. Significant variables were health services with sub-variables promotion, prevention and the environmental biology. Suggestion: Mosquito bites should be avoided, the vector should be controlled through mutual cooperation and health promotion should be implemented. Keywords: Wuchereria bancrofti, lymphatic filariasis, vector, health care,                         Sarmi Distric

  17. Globalisation and local power: influences on health matters in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tal; Gilbert, Leah

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews some of the multiple influences on health issues in South Africa, placing them in the context of globalisation. By examining the complexity of factors, both domestic and global, which impact on these issues, it questions the extent to which global patterns in areas such as health policy, HIV/AIDS, health care pluralism, and neo-liberal macroeconomic policy have played out in South Africa. The identification of some of the multiple and complex forces in each case reveals a relatively consistent story of global pressures interacting with domestic realities, with some recognizably local results. There is no doubt that a full and nuanced understanding of health in South Africa requires an appreciation of developments in the global political economy, international organizations such as the WHO and World Bank, and forces which operate outside of institutions. In each case, however, the specific opportunities available to actors within the country, as well as the relative power of those actors, should be given their due consideration in analysing their potential impact on health matters.

  18. The influence of workload and health behavior on job satisfaction of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Musselmann, Berthold; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie

    2013-02-01

    Workload, personal health behavior, and job satisfaction of the physicians are crucial aspects for the quality of care they provide. The aim of our study was to identify influencing factors on job satisfaction with regard to general practitioners' (GPs) characteristics such as age, gender, health behavior, body mass index (BMI), and workload. A cross-sectional survey with a sample of 1,027 German GPs was used. Job satisfaction was measured according to a modified version of the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. Further, we collected data about health behavior and BMI of GPs and demographic data. Group comparison was evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for post-hoc tests. A linear regression analysis was performed in which each of the job satisfaction items were handled as a dependent variable. The response rate was 34.0%. GPs were rather satisfied with their job with the exception of "hours of work," "physical working condition," and "income." GPs working in cities had less working hours per week, less number of patients per day, longer consultation times, and a higher proportion of privately insured patients compared to GPs working in rural areas. Being female, a higher age, a good health behavior, a lower BMI, and a high proportion of privately insured patients were positively associated with job satisfaction. Our results suggest that job satisfaction depends on different aspects of working conditions and individual characteristics. Therefore, strategies to improve job satisfaction should target improving working conditions and activating physicians' health resources.

  19. Exploring physicians' extended use of electronic health records (EHRs): A social influence perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiping; Sun, Jinglei; Zhou, Guangquan

    2016-12-01

    Once electronic health records (EHRs) have been fully implemented and integrated into the daily work of a healthcare organisation/hospital, there is considerable pressure on management to demonstrate the benefits that these systems can deliver to the organisation. One practical way to maximise the value and highlight the benefits of EHRs is to encourage physicians to increase and extend their use of EHR functions. This study used a social influence theory context to examine the impact of mechanisms of social influence on the intentions of physicians to extend their use of EHRs. A survey of physicians (n = 205) in a first-class comprehensive hospital in southern China was conducted approximately 2 years after the hospital's introduction of EHRs. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to measure the impact of four social influence factors (reward, punishment, social image and group norm) on physicians' intentions to extend their use of EHRs. The research model included two additional control variables (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) to account for potential covariance among social influence measures. The study's research model showed significant relationships between physicians' responses on two of the social influence measures (rewards and group norm) and their intentions to extend their use of EHRs. Punishment and social image measures did not influence physicians' intentions to increase their use of EHRs. These findings have suggested that for healthcare organisations to maximise the benefits of EHRs, the efforts of hospital management should be directed towards rewarding those physicians who increase their use of EHRs; and to promoting and reinforcing the increased usage of EHRs among physicians as a group norm. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Mental Health of Children: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Hou, Xiao; Qin, Qing; Deng, Wei; Hu, Hua; Luo, Qinghua; Du, Lian; Qiu, Haitang; Qiu, Tian; Fu, Yixiao; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    The current study explored the influences of genetic and environmental factors on the mental health of twins between ages 6 and 16. A total of 41 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 35 dizygotic twins were recruited. The psychological attributes and environmental information of children were evaluated. A significant correlation was found between twins in the diagnostic categories of any psychiatric disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/hyperkinesis based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scale in MZ twins. Furthermore, fathers' authoritarian parenting style was positively correlated with the probability of any psychiatric disorders and oppositional/conduct disorders, whereas mothers' authoritative parenting style was negatively correlated with the probability of any psychiatric disorders and ADHD/hyperkinesis. The probability of emotional disorders was negatively correlated with scores on the Stressful Life Events Scale. These results collectively suggest that genetic and environmental elements, such as parental rearing style and stressful life events, may influence children's mental health. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 29-34.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. What Factors Influence Employee Service Recovery Performance and What Are the Consequences in Health Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Halil; Tanova, Cem

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the extent to which the service recovery performance of frontline employees in private health care institutions is influenced by employee perceptions of manager attitudes toward service quality, workplace support, and manager fairness and organizational commitment. We also examined the relationship of service recovery performance to employee job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Partial least square path modeling of data from 178 frontline employees in private health care institutions in North Cyprus was utilized. Although empowerment and role clarity were positively related to service recovery performance, perceived managerial attitudes toward hospital customer service, teamwork, and customer service-oriented training as indicators of workplace support were not related to frontline employees' service recovery performance. Organizational justice was related to affective commitment, which in turn was related to service recovery performance. Although service recovery performance was not related to employee turnover intentions, it was related to job satisfaction. Managerial implications of these study findings are presented in the light of the cognitive evaluation theory. Health services differ from other service organizations in the way that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards influence the service recovery efforts of frontline employees. To ensure high quality services, managers should focus on intrinsic rewards, empower and give more autonomy to staff.

  2. Impostor phenomenon and mental health: The influence of racial discrimination and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Donte L; Lige, Quiera M; Willis, Henry A; Sosoo, Effua E; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-03-01

    The impostor phenomenon (IP), or feelings of intellectual incompetence, reflects a maladaptive set of cognitions, which pose a significant psychological risk for African American emerging adults. In light of recent evidence suggesting that personal and sociocultural factors may influence the association between IP and psychological adjustment, this study used 2 waves of data to examine the extent to which gender and racial discrimination moderated the association between IP and indices of mental health among 157 African American college students (69% women; mean age = 18.30) attending a predominantly White institution. Analyses revealed that young African American women reporting higher frequencies of racial discrimination and women reporting lower levels of distress resulting from racial discrimination were most vulnerable to negative mental health outcomes, particularly at higher levels of IP. These findings suggest that IP may interact with gender and racial discrimination experiences to influence mental health outcomes. We discuss how these findings can be utilized to inform treatment of African American emerging adults experiencing IP and the importance of considering how gender and discrimination may intersect to exacerbate feelings of intellectual incompetence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction among supervisors of community health workers in marginalized communities in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai

    2016-01-01

    Background Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are?critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations i...

  4. Political influence associates with cortisol and health among egalitarian forager-farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher R.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L.; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low social status increases risk of disease due, in part, to the psychosocial stress that accompanies feeling subordinate or poor. Previous studies report that chronic stress and chronically elevated cortisol can impair cardiovascular and immune function. We test whether lower status is more benign in small-scale, relatively egalitarian societies, where leaders lack coercive authority and there is minimal material wealth to contest. Methodology: Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia, we compare informal political influence among men with urinary cortisol, immune activation (innate and acquired), and morbidity as assessed during routine medical exams. Results: After controlling for potential confounds, we find that politically influential men have lower cortisol, and that this association is partly attributable to access to social support. Cortisol is positively associated with men’s income, which may reflect chronic psychosocial stress from market involvement. Greater influence is also associated with lower probability of respiratory infection, which is a frequent source of morbidity among Tsimane’. Among men who lost influence over a 4-year period, cortisol and probability of respiratory infection were higher the greater the decline in influence. Conclusions and implications: Deleterious effects of low status on health are not merely ‘diseases of civilization’ but may result from how (even subtle) status differences structure human behavior. PMID:25214482

  5. Factors that influence the approach to leadership: directors of nursing working in rural health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2015-04-01

    To identify factors that influence directors of nursing in their approach to leadership when working in rural Victoria, Australia. In rural areas, nurses account for the largest component of the health workforce and must be equipped with leadership knowledge and skills to lead reform at a service level. A qualitative descriptive design was used. In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with directors of nursing from rural Victoria. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a thematic network was developed. Empowerment emerged as the highest order category in the thematic network. This was derived from three organising themes: influence, capital and contextual understanding and the respective basic themes: formal power, informal power, self-knowledge; information, support, resources; and situational factors, career trajectory, connectedness. Rural nurse leaders contend with several issues that influence their approach to leadership. This study provides a platform for further research to foster nurse leadership in rural healthcare services. Acknowledgement of what influences the rural nurse leaders' approach to leadership may assist in the implementation of initiatives designed to develop leadership in a manner that is contextually sensitive. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Empirical Analysis of Farmers' Drought Risk Perception: Objective Factors, Personal Circumstances and Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drought-induced water shortage and salinization are a global threat to agricultural production. With climate change, drought risk is expected to increase as drought events are assumed to occur more frequently and to become more severe. The agricultural sector's adaptive capacity largely depends on

  7. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators that influence implementation of zoonotic control programs on cattle farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to

  8. The possible influence of noise frequency components on the health of exposed industrial workers - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Mahendra Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is a common occupational health hazard in most industrial settings. An assessment of noise and its adverse health effects based on noise intensity is inadequate. For an efficient evaluation of noise effects, frequency spectrum analysis should also be included. This paper aims to substantiate the importance of studying the contribution of noise frequencies in evaluating health effects and their association with physiological behavior within human body. Additionally, a review of studies published between 1988 and 2009 that investigate the impact of industrial/occupational noise on auditory and non-auditory effects and the probable association and contribution of noise frequency components to these effects is presented. The relevant studies in English were identified in Medknow, Medline, Wiley, Elsevier, and Springer publications. Data were extracted from the studies that fulfilled the following criteria: title and/or abstract of the given study that involved industrial/occupational noise exposure in relation to auditory and non-auditory effects or health effects. Significant data on the study characteristics, including noise frequency characteristics, for assessment were considered in the study. It is demonstrated that only a few studies have considered the frequency contributions in their investigations to study auditory effects and not non-auditory effects. The data suggest that significant adverse health effects due to industrial noise include auditory and heart-related problems. The study provides a strong evidence for the claims that noise with a major frequency characteristic of around 4 kHz has auditory effects and being deficient in data fails to show any influence of noise frequency components on non-auditory effects. Furthermore, specific noise levels and frequencies predicting the corresponding health impacts have not yet been validated. There is a need for advance research to clarify the importance of the dominant noise frequency

  9. How Home Health Caregivers’ Perceive the Influence of Professionalism on Their Experienced Work Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange

    2017-01-01

    contributes by emphasizing an individual perspective of engagement and by providing empirical evidence of links between professionalism and engagement. Additionally, by focusing on relatively low-educated employees, the article highlights how professionalism challenges the perception of caregiving as a job......This article explores how the perception of increasing professionalism of home health-care influences caregivers’ experienced work engagement. A qualitative study including 24 interviews, 85 hr of observations and the think-aloud technique was applied in three Danish caregiving organizations. Using...... a consensual qualitative research approach, analysis of the data suggests that increasing professionalism is experienced among caregivers and influences caregivers’ engagement in three distinct ways: through their identification with their work, psychological safety, and feelings of insecurity. This article...

  10. Influence of physical culture and sports on health status of pupils of industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov S.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study in the city with large enterprises of ferrous metallurgy and coke health of schoolchildren under the influence of physical education and sports. The research of blood pressure and heart rate (HR were 295 pupils aged 15-17 years, 390 - anthropometric study of body length, body weight, chest circumference and head, while the 584 teenagers - the prevalence of dental caries. HR assessment is made by comparing with the age norms, and indicators of physical development of pupils - centile method. It is shown that under the influence of employment morning gymnastics school students marked normalization of their heart rate. Waiver of physical exercise leads to a decrease in students in body length and circumference of the chest. Classes in morning exercises and sports are the factors antirisk caries among high school students. Proposed preventive recommendations.

  11. Considerations the Media Influence of the Alcohol Drinking and Its Relation to the Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bozelli Ciarlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to alcohol consumption are frequent, especially among young people. Alcohol beverage advertisements influence its consumption and is one of the liable to modification factors. In this work, it was carried out a bibliographical review of works that investigated, from several points of view, the relationship between media and consumption. We have used Scielo database and Google Academic for scientific works, searching for the keywords media, alcohol consumption and advertising, as well as articles and books of reference in the area. The reading of the texts has allowed us to reflect on the influence of media in alcohol consumption, and we can also verify the high exposition of youth to alcohol advertisements, becoming relevant a discussion on the subject, particularly regarding protection policies, as well as self-regulamentation advertising rules in public health policies.

  12. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  13. The influence of social capital and socio-economic conditions on self-rated health among residents of an economically and health-deprived South African township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramm Jane M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting self-rated health outcomes and the role of social capital on health in developing countries, a prerequisite to strengthening our understanding of the influence of social and economic conditions on health and the most effective aid. Our study aimed to identify social and economic conditions for health among residents of an economically and health-deprived community. Methods Data were gathered through a survey administered to respondents from 1,020 households in Grahamstown a suburb in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (response rate 97.9%. We investigated the influence of social and economic conditions (education, employment, income, social capital, housing quality and neighborhood quality on self-rated health. We used ordinal logistic regression analyses to identify the relationship of these conditions and self-rated health. Results Our study found that education and social capital positively correlated with health; unemployment, poor educational level and advanced age negatively correlated. We found no significant correlations between self-rated health and housing quality, neighbourhood quality, income, gender, or marital status. Conclusion We highlight the possible impacts of social capital, employment, and education on health, and suggest that health outcomes may be improved through interventions beyond the health system: creating job opportunities, strengthening social capital, bettering educational systems, and promoting educational access. Policymakers should consider the benefits of such programmes when addressing health outcomes in financially distressed districts.

  14. Age and health jointly moderate the influence of flexible work arrangements on work engagement: Evidence from two empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Cort W; Baltes, Boris B

    2017-01-01

    Research and theory support the notion that flexible work arrangements (i.e., job resources in the form of formal policies that allow employees the latitude to manage when, where, and how they work) can have a positive influence on various outcomes that are valued both by organizations and their constituents. In the present study, we integrate propositions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate how flexible work arrangements influence work engagement. Then, in 2 studies we test this association and model the influence of different conceptualizations of health and age as joint moderators of this relationship. Study 1 focuses on functional health and chronological age in an age-diverse sample, whereas study 2 focuses on health symptom severity and subjective age in a sample of older workers. In both studies, we demonstrate that the influence of flexible work arrangements on work engagement is contingent upon age and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and continuation of physical activity interventions in primary health care: A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity interventions in primary health care is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of effective introduction strategies. This Delphi study aimed to identify factors most relevant for the

  16. Types of Lay Health Influencers in Tobacco Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Wind, Steven; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Castañeda, Heide; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify types of health influencers in tobacco cessation based on the frequency and characteristics of brief intervention activities. Methods Longitudinal qualitative interviews were completed with 28 individuals post-training. Results Four individuals were categorized as Rarely Active, 5 as Active with Family and Friends, 9 as Active in the Workplace, and 10 as Proactive in Multiple Settings. Unique motivators, intervention behaviors, and barriers were documented. Some individuals displayed high levels of self-efficacy necessary for expanding the reach of community-based interventions. Conclusion Training programs need to address the impact of contextual factors on initiating and sustaining intervention activities. PMID:20524890

  17. Types of lay health influencers in tobacco cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Wind, Steven; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Castañeda, Heide; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-01-01

    To identify types of health influencers in tobacco cessation based on the frequency and characteristics of brief intervention activities. Longitudinal qualitative interviews were completed with 28 individuals posttraining. Four individuals were categorized as Rarely Active, 5 as Active With Family and Friends, 9 as Active in the Workplace, and 10 as Proactive in Multiple Settings. Unique motivators, intervention behaviors, and barriers were documented. Some individuals displayed high levels of self-efficacy necessary for expanding the reach of community-based interventions. Training programs need to address the impact of contextual factors on initiating and sustaining intervention activities.

  18. The influence of the work environment on cardiovascular health: a historical, conceptual, and methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasl, S V

    1996-01-01

    The framework of psychosocial epidemiology is used to examine research developments that characterize the accumulation of knowledge regarding the role of the work environment in cardiovascular health and disease. The discussion of current programs of research focuses on the work of T. Theorell and R. Karasek (1996) and J. Siegrist (1996) as exemplars of European and American studies that have contributed the most to the understanding of occupational cardiovascular health. It is argued that researchers need to maintain and nurture relatively broad conceptual models of etiology because cardiovascular disease involves multiple biomedical risk factors and because specific aspects of the work environment are embedded in a large, complex matrix of other psychosocial influences. At the same time, investigators need to push ahead with focused research strategies to clarify the precise nature of the work environmental risk factors that emerge in the broad, somewhat imprecise epidemiologic study designs.

  19. Does grandchild care influence grandparents' self-rated health? Evidence from a fixed effects approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Merih

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to identify, whether and how supplementary grandchild care is causally related to grandparents' self-rated health (SRH). Based on longitudinal data drawn from the German Aging Survey (DEAS; 2008-2014), I compare the results of pooled OLS, pooled OLS with lagged dependant variables (POLS-LD), random and fixed effects (RE, FE) panel regression. The results show that there is a positive but small association between supplementary grandchild care and SRH in POLS, POLS-LD, and RE models. However, the fixed effects model shows that the intrapersonal change in grandchild care does not cause a change in grandparents' SRH. The FE findings indicate that supplementary grandchild care in Germany does not have a causal impact on grandparents' SRH, suggesting that models with between-variation components overestimate the influence of grandchild care on grandparents' health because they do not control for unobserved (time-constant) heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizational influences on the work life conflict and health of shiftworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarski, Anne; Lawrence, Sandra A; Bohle, Philip; Brook, Christine

    2008-09-01

    This study examined organizational factors affecting the impact of shiftwork on work life conflict and subjective health. A model was proposed in which support from supervisors, support from colleagues, and team identity influence time-based work life conflict through two mediating variables: team climate and control over the working environment. Reduced conflict, in turn, produces enhanced psychological well-being and diminished physical symptoms. A structural equation model based on survey data from 530 nurses supported the proposed model. It also identified unpredicted direct links between team identity and physical symptoms, and between supervisor support and both control over the work environment and psychological well-being. The results indicate that organizational interventions focused on social support, team identity, team climate, and control can diminish the negative effects of shiftwork on work life conflict and health in shiftworkers.

  1. Hispanic women's health care provider control expectations: the influence of fatalism and acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Berenson, Abbey B

    2011-05-01

    In order to understand how culture influences Hispanic women's views about their health care provider (HCP), we examined the relationship between acculturation and fatalism in the HCP control expectations of Hispanic women. (A HCP control expectation is the extent to which an individual believes that her HCP has control over her health.) We predicted that acculturation would be negatively associated with HCP control expectations, and fatalism would be positively associated with HCP control expectations. A group of 1,027 young Hispanic women (mean age 21.24 years; SD=2.46) who were University of Texas Medical Branch clinic patients completed a comprehensive survey. Structural equation modeling was employed and, as predicted, acculturation was negatively associated with HCP control expectations (pexpectations will help us understand this population's perceptions of their HCPs. This knowledge will assist HCPs in providing culturally competent care which will increase adherence to medical treatment and screening guidelines.

  2. Influence of social class perceptions on attributions among mental health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi; Diestelmann, Jacob; Cole, Odessa; Keller, Abiola; Minami, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    A vignette-based study assessed the influence of social class attributions toward a hypothetical client's difficulty. 188 licensed mental health professionals who were recruited through professional listservs completed an online survey after reviewing one of two versions of a vignette describing a hypothetical client that varied based on social class cues. As expected, this sample of licensed mental health practitioners detected social class differences based on the descriptors of the hypothetical client across the two vignettes. These perceived social class differences, however, did not impact participants' attributions toward the client for causing or solving her problems, level of Global Assessment of Functioning score ascribed to the client, or willingness to work with the client. There was no evidence that participants differentially ascribed attributions based on social class. Implications and directions for future research are provided.

  3. Influence of women health care adoption on contraceptive use: utilization of prenatal and postnatal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.U.; Abbasi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of women heat seeking behaviour during pregnancy and post delivery period on contraceptive use and family size are important dimension of female fertility. These determinants of female fertility have rarely been explored, particularly in developing countries confronting problems of rising population growth. A study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan to explore the influence of pre and postnatal care on contraceptive use. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from the urban and rural areas of the district through formal survey. It was found that contraceptive use is associated with pre-and postnatal care. Minimum of 5-7 prenatal and at least 2 postnatal visit have been identified as effective to promote contraceptive use. Involvement of health professional, motivation through mass media and improved access to health care services during the period of pregnancy and after childbirth are the measures suggested to enhance contraceptive use in the society to curtail family size. (author)

  4. SIRS Model of Passengers’ Panic Propagation under Self-Organization Circumstance in the Subway Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subway emergency may lead to passengers’ panic, especially under self-organizing circumstance, which will spread rapidly and have an adverse impact on the society. This paper builds an improved SIRS model of passengers’ panic spread in subway emergency with consideration of passengers’ density, the characteristic of subway car with the confined space, and passengers’ psychological factors. The spread of passengers’ panic is simulated by use of Matlab, which draws the rules of how group panic spreads dynamically. The trend of stable point of the infection ratio is analyzed by changing different parameters, which help to draw a conclusion that immunization rate, spontaneous immune loss rate, and passenger number have a great influence on the final infected ratio. Finally, we propose an integrated control strategy and find the peak of passengers’ panic and the final infected ratio is greatly improved through the numerical simulation. The research plays a vital role in helping the government and subway administration to master the panic spread mechanism and reduce the panic spread by improving measures and also provides certain reference significance for rail system construction, emergency contingency plans, and the construction and implementation of emergency response system.

  5. Reasons, Circumstances and Innovative Trends in Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the reasons why the sale of mobile devices has greatly increased in the last period. It is presented the evolution of mobile devices sales in the last 20 years. The main types of applications used today and how it will evolve in the near future. Development and using trends in mobile computing are presented. Key aspects of quality assurance in mo-bile application development projects are presented. Factors that influence the management process of a project are highlighted. A comprehensive analysis of the positive or negative im-pact that these factors exerts on the quality of the project is performed. Tools and methods used in the quality assurance process for mobile applications development are presented. The importance of quality assurance testing process is underlined.

  6. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  7. Influence of 'soft' versus 'scientific' health information framing and contradictory information on consumers' health inferences and attitudes towards a food supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    It is a requirement that health claims be scientifically founded. However, their phrasing is criticised for being unappealing and cumbersome to communicate to consumers. Instead, it has been found that consumers respond favourably to non-scientifically phrased ‘soft’ health information. We aimed...... were presented in a between subjects experimental design conducted in the US and Denmark. Furthermore, respondents were shown mock-up media reports contradicting the earlier information and asked to repeat their assessment of health inferences and their attitude. This was done to assess how robust...... consumers’ health inferences and attitudes are in an environment of contradictory information. Results show that the soft information positively influences health inferences and attitudes in Denmark, while in the US, scientific information positively influences health inferences but not attitudes. Faced...

  8. The Influence of Violence Victimization on Sexual Health Behaviors and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Jennifer; Fleckman, Julia; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the implications of a history of personal violence on health and health behaviors. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data involving adults (n = 214) from a semirural area in southern Louisiana between October 2008 and December 2010 was conducted to ascertain the association between a personal history of violence victimization and indicators of sexual health behaviors and outcomes: communication with sexual partners about HIV status, consistent condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI). While violence victimization is widely accepted as a risk factor for high-risk sex behavior, the mechanisms underlying violence victimization's influence on sexual health outcomes remain unclear. Bivariate analyses demonstrated a significant positive association between experience of physical abuse and lifetime history of STI. Surprisingly, respondents reporting lifetime physical violence were more than two times more likely to ask sexual partners about HIV status [odds ratio (OR) for physical attack = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00-4.97; OR for physical injury = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.79-11.85]. Consistent condom use was not significantly associated with violence exposure in adjusted models. There was no evidence that communication with sexual partners mediated the relationship between experiences of violence and condom use. The link between personal history of violence and condom use may be mediated through alternative pathways beyond communication.

  9. Influence of environmental factors on mental health within prisons: focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Jo; Woodcock, Paul; Ormsby, Jim

    2003-08-30

    To increase understanding of how the prison environment influences the mental health of prisoners and prison staff. Qualitative study with focus groups. A local prison in southern England. Prisoners and prison staff. Prisoners reported that long periods of isolation with little mental stimulus contributed to poor mental health and led to intense feelings of anger, frustration, and anxiety. Prisoners said they misused drugs to relieve the long hours of tedium. Most focus groups identified negative relationships between staff and prisoners as an important issue affecting stress levels of staff and prisoners. Staff groups described a "circle of stress," whereby the prison culture, organisation, and staff shortages caused high staff stress levels, resulting in staff sickness, which in turn caused greater stress for remaining staff. Staff shortages also affected prisoners, who would be locked up for longer periods of time, the ensuing frustration would then be released on staff, aggravating the situation still further. Insufficient staff also affected control and monitoring of bullying and reduced the amount of time in which prisoners were able to maintain contact with their families. Greater consideration should be given to understanding the wider environmental and organisational factors that contribute to poor mental health in prisons. This information can be used to inform prison policy makers and managers, and the primary care trusts who are beginning to work in partnership with prisons to improve the mental health of prisoners.

  10. Symposium on understanding and influencing consumer food behaviours for health: executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Yee, Yeong Boon; Drewnowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption patterns in Asia are rapidly changing. Urbanization and changing lifestyles have diminished the consumption of traditional meals based on cereals, vegetables and root crops. These changes are accompa-nied by an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among Asian populations. ILSI Southeast Asia and CSIRO, Australia jointly organized the Symposium on Understanding and Influencing Food Behaviours for Health, focusing on the use of consumer science to improve food behaviour. The goals of the Symposium were to present an understanding of Asian consumers and their food choices, examine the use of consumer research to modify food choices towards better health, illustrate how health programs and food regulations can be utilized effectively to promote healthier choices, and identify knowledge gaps regarding the promotion of healthy food behaviour in Asian populations. There is no difference in taste perception among Asians, and Asian preference for certain tastes is determined by exposure and familiarity largely dictated by culture and its underlying values and beliefs. Cross-cultural validity of consumer science theories and tools derived from western populations need to be tested in Asia. Information on consumption levels and substitution behaviours for foods and food products, obtained using consumer research methods, can guide the development of food regulations and programs that will enable individuals to make healthier choices. Existing knowledge gaps include consumer research techniques appropriate for use in Asian settings, diet-health relationships from consumption of traditional Asian diets, and methods to address the increasing prevalence of over- and undernutrition within the same households in Asia.

  11. The Influence of Regional Social Inequality and Labour Market Characteristics on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Gross

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of contextual factors on individual health status has been demonstrated by a number of studies even when controlling for the individual socio-economic situation (and other relevant factors. The article examines whether and to what extent variables of the place of residence have an effect on individual health status. We do not only refer to income levels and inequality, but also to effects of the educational level and inequality and the regional unemployment rate. As data basis for the individual level, we use the 2006 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP and add regional information on the aggregate level based on the regional units (Raumordnungsregionen of the Microcensus of 2005. These data will be analysed using multilevel models. The results reveal that regional educational inequality intensifies the individual educational effect, whereby members of less-educated groups in educationally disparate regions exhibit particularly low health chances. In addition, a high regional unemployment rate intensifies the negative effect of individual unemployment on men’s health.

  12. Factors influencing the demand of the service of community based animal health care in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambara, J; Dube, I; Matangi, E; Majeke, F

    2013-11-01

    This study was done to find out about animal health service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animal health from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animal health service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate change and health: global to local influences on disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, J A; Olson, S H

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization has concluded that the climatic changes that have occurred since the mid 1970s could already be causing annually over 150,000 deaths and five million disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), mainly in developing countries. The less developed countries are, ironically, those least responsible for causing global warming. Many health outcomes and diseases are sensitive to climate, including: heat-related mortality or morbidity; air pollution-related illnesses; infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted, indirectly, via water or by insect or rodent vectors; and refugee health issues linked to forced population migration. Yet, changing landscapes can significantly affect local weather more acutely than long-term climate change. Land-cover change can influence micro-climatic conditions, including temperature, evapo-transpiration and surface run-off, that are key determinants in the emergence of many infectious diseases. To improve risk assessment and risk management of these synergistic processes (climate and land-use change), more collaborative efforts in research, training and policy-decision support, across the fields of health, environment, sociology and economics, are required.

  14. Contextualizing acculturation: gender, family, and community reception influences on Asian immigrant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Janxin; Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates differences in the mental health among male and female immigrants from an ecological perspective, testing the influences of both individual acculturation domains and social contexts. Data from the first nationally representative psychiatric survey of immigrant Asians in the US is used (N = 1,583). These data demonstrate the importance of understanding acculturation domains (e.g., individual differences in English proficiency, ethnic identity, and time in the US), within the social contexts of family, community, and neighborhood. Results demonstrate that among immigrant Asian women, the association between family conflict and mental health problems is stronger for those with higher ethnic identity; among immigrant Asian men, community reception (e.g., everyday discrimination) was more highly associated with increases in mental health symptoms among those with poor English fluency. Findings suggest that both individual domains of acculturation and social context measures contribute to immigrant mental health, and that it is important to consider these relationships within the context of gender.

  15. HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS AT WORKERS AND THEIR INFLUENCES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

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    Paulo Sérgio Cardoso da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Checking the studies on the Health Promotion Programs at Workers (HPPW, identifying their influences on organizations and on quality of life of workers, according to the literature. Methods: A systematic review in PUBMED and in Scientific Electronic Library Online, in Portuguese, English and Spanish languages, from January 2000 to January 2012, containing two search steps. At the first, was used as descriptors "Occupational Health and health promotion", resulting in 406 articles. In the second, were used as descriptors the intersection of keywords found in the previous step. After careful analysis and inclusion of articles suggested by experts in the field, 27 studies were selected. Results: 59.3% of the studies have been published 2008 until 2012, with 63% in Brazil. The designs most found were the literature reviews and the "HPPW" more recurring were campaigns/programs. In the workers were found, among other gains, a improving health and the quality of life, and in the organizations was verified the improvement at productivity and absenteeism. Few disadvantages were found. Conclusion: There was an increase in the number of publications on the subject, even though the “HPPW” are still presented on a segmented basis. Few studies have shown about disadvantages of the implementation of the PPSTs, suggesting a publication bias. However, further studies are recommended to addressing this subject.

  16. Performance of the local health system and contingent influences in Northeast-Brazil: breaking vicious and virtuous circles

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    Regianne Leila Rolim Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational theory has long emphasized the importance of contingent, environmental influences on organizational performance. Similarly, research has demonstrated the importance of local political culture and informal management on the performance of the local health system, establishing vicious and virtuous circles of influence that contribute to increasing inequalities in performance among decentralized local health systems. A longitudinal ethnography studied the relationship between these elements in the same rural municipality in Northeast Brazil after a four-year interval. The second study found the local health system performance much improved. Two main factors appear to have interacted to bring this about: leadership vision and power to implement of one individual; professionalization of the local health system by hiring a significant number of senior health staff. The origins of these influences combine initiatives at local, state and federal levels.

  17. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers’ performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Idzwan Mohd Salleh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Methods: Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Results and conclusions: Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider’s performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers’ performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients’ needs that eventually increased their productivity. Keywords: Electronic health records system, System quality characteristics, Care providers’ performance, Evaluation, Partial least squares-structural equation modeling

  18. ‘BRICS without straw’? A systematic literature review of newly emerging economies’ influence in global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as ‘BRICS’ (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? Methods We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Results Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS’ collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries’ material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily ‘opportunity seekers’ and region mobilisers but with potential to become ‘issue leaders’ and region organisers. Conclusion Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has

  19. Community perceptions and factors influencing utilization of health services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare utilization has particular relevance as a public health and development issue. Unlike material and human capital, there is little empirical evidence on the utility of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization in a developing country context. We sought to assess the relevance of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization. Study Objective To explore community perceptions among three different wealth categories on factors influencing healthcare utilization in Eastern Uganda. Methods We used a qualitative study design using Focus Group Discussions (FGD to conduct the study. Community meetings were initially held to identify FGD participants in the different wealth categories, ('least poor', 'medium' and 'poorest' using poverty ranking based on ownership of assets and income sources. Nine FGDs from three homogenous wealth categories were conducted. Data from the FGDs was analyzed using content analysis revealing common barriers as well as facilitating factors for healthcare service utilization by wealth categories. The Health Access Livelihood Framework was used to examine and interpret the findings. Results Barriers to healthcare utilization exist for all the wealth categories along three different axes including: the health seeking process; health services delivery; and the ownership of livelihood assets. Income source, transport ownership, and health literacy were reported as centrally useful in overcoming some barriers to healthcare utilization for the 'least poor' and 'poor' wealth categories. The 'poorest' wealth category was keen to utilize free public health services. Conversely, there are perceptions that public health facilities were perceived to offer low quality care with chronic gaps such as shortages of essential supplies. In addition to individual material resources and the availability of free public healthcare services, social resources are perceived as

  20. Nutrition warnings as front-of-pack labels: influence of design features on healthfulness perception and attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Manuel; Machín, Leandro; Arrúa, Alejandra; Antúnez, Lucía; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-12-01

    Warnings are a new directive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling scheme that highlights products with high content of key nutrients. The design of warnings influences their ability to catch consumers' attention and to clearly communicate their intended meaning, which are key determinants of their effectiveness. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of design features of warnings as a FOP nutrition labelling scheme on perceived healthfulness and attentional capture. Five studies with a total of 496 people were carried out. In the first study, the association of colour and perceived healthfulness was evaluated in an online survey in which participants had to rate their perceived healthfulness of eight colours. In the second study, the influence of colour, shape and textual information on perceived healthfulness was evaluated using choice-conjoint analysis. The third study focused on implicit associations between two design features (shape and colour) on perceived healthfulness. The fourth and fifth studies used visual search to evaluate the influence of colour, size and position of the warnings on attentional capture. Perceived healthfulness was significantly influenced by shape, colour and textual information. Colour was the variable with the largest contribution to perceived healthfulness. Colour, size and position of the warnings on the labels affected attentional capture. Results from the experiments provide recommendations for the design of warnings to identify products with unfavourable nutrient profile.

  1. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Stephen

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health.

  2. Programming of respiratory health in childhood: influence of outdoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rosalind J; Brunst, Kelly J

    2013-04-01

    This overview highlights recent experimental and epidemiological evidence for the programming effects of outdoor air pollution exposures during early development on lung function and chronic respiratory disorders, such as asthma and related allergic disorders. Air pollutants may impact anatomy and/or physiological functioning of the lung and interrelated systems. Programming effects may result from pollutant-induced shifts in a number of molecular, cellular, and physiological states and their interacting systems. Specific key regulatory systems susceptible to programming may influence lung development and vulnerability to respiratory diseases, including both central and peripheral components of neuroendocrine pathways and autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning which, in turn, influence the immune system. Starting in utero, environmental factors, including air pollutants, may permanently organize these systems toward trajectories of enhanced pediatric (e.g., asthma, allergy) as well as adult disease risk (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Evidence supports a central role of oxidative stress in the toxic effects of air pollution. Additional research suggests xenobiotic metabolism and subcellular components, such as mitochondria are targets of ambient air pollution and play a role in asthma and allergy programming. Mechanisms operating at the level of the placenta are being elucidated. Epigenetic mechanisms may be at the roots of adaptive developmental programming. Optimal coordinated functioning of many complex processes and their networks of interaction are necessary for normal lung development and the maintenance of respiratory health. Outdoor air pollution may play an important role in early programming of respiratory health and is potentially amenable to intervention.

  3. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16–18 in Beijing, China (n = 1070, Mumbai area, India (n = 1012, Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 1018, and Republic of Korea (n = 1362. Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing, Bangladesh (Dhaka, and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings. Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known.

  4. Parents' childhood socioeconomic circumstances are associated with their children's asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Shalowitz, Madeleine U; Story, Rachel E; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Manczak, Erika M; Ham, Paula J; Le, Van; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-09-01

    Previous literature documents associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor health outcomes, including asthma. However, this literature has largely focused on the effects of current family circumstances. We sought to test an intergenerational hypothesis, that the childhood SES that parents experience will be associated with asthma outcomes in their children, independent of effects of current family SES. Second, we aimed to test whether this association is in part due to difficulties in current parent-child relationships. This was an observational study, whereby 150 parents were interviewed about their childhood SES and their children (physician-diagnosed asthma, ages 9-17 years) were interviewed about current family stress. Asthma control was assessed by parent report and child report (primary outcome), and blood was collected from children to measure cytokine production relevant to asthma (secondary outcomes). To the degree that parents had lower childhood SES, their offspring showed worse asthma outcomes across multiple indicators. This included lower asthma control scores (parent and child report, Ps childhood SES had current family relationships that were more stressful, and these difficulties, in turn, related to worse asthma control and greater cytokine production in children. These results suggest the potential "long reach" of low SES across generations, and the importance of expanding theories of how the social environment can affect childhood asthma to include characteristics of earlier generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Circumstances leading to injurious falls in older men and women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Nicole D A; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; De Vries, Oscar J; Hartholt, Klaas A; Kerver, Albert J H; Bruijninckx, Milko M M; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Patka, Peter; Van Beeck, Ed F

    2014-08-01

    Fall-induced injuries in persons aged 65 years and older are a major public health problem. Data regarding circumstances leading to specific injuries, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hip fractures in older adults are scarce. To investigate the activity distributions leading to indoor and outdoor falls requiring an emergency department (ED) visit, and those resulting in TBIs and hip fractures. 5880 older adults who visited the ED due to a fall. Data is descriptive and stratified by age and gender. Two-thirds of all falls occurred indoors. However, there were higher proportions of outdoor falls at ages 65-79 years (48%). Walking up or down stairs (51%) and housekeeping (17%) were the most common indoor activities leading to a TBIs. Walking (42%) and sitting or standing (16%) was the most common indoor activities leading to a hip fracture. The most common outdoor activities were walking (61% for TBIs and 57% for hip fractures) and cycling (10% for TBIs and 24% for hip fractures). In the present study we found that the indoor activities distribution leading to TBIs and hip fractures differed. Notably, about half of the traumatic brain injuries and hip fractures in men and women aged 65-79 years occurred outdoors. This study provides new insights into patterns leading to injurious falls by age, gender and injury type, and may guide the targeting of falls prevention at specific activities and risk groups, including highly functional older men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Online Health-Information Seeking Among Older Populations: Family Influences and the Role of the Medical Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dillon, Jeanette M; Billotte Verhoff, China; Faulkner, Sandra L

    2018-02-23

    There are myriad technological devices, computer programs, and online information sources available for people to manage their health and the health of others. However, people must be technologically and health literate and capable of accessing, analyzing, and sharing the information they encounter. The authors interviewed middle-aged and older adults about their online health information seeking behavior and discovered that technology and health literacy are influenced by a collective ability to manage the health and technological needs of a family. We used information management theory to frame participants' experiences of their self-efficacy using technology to manage the health of loved ones. Findings suggest that health can be co-managed if at least one person in a family unit is technologically "savvy" and able to effectively share health information. However, individuals' confidence in their own literacy often depends on others, usually family members who tend to "do" instead of "teach."

  7. An extension of the extended parallel process model (EPPM) in television health news: the influence of health consciousness on individual message processing and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of health consciousness in processing TV news that contains potential health threats and preventive recommendations. Based on the extended parallel process model (Witte, 1992), relationships among health consciousness, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and message acceptance/rejection were hypothesized. Responses collected from 175 participants after viewing four TV health news stories were analyzed using the bootstrapping analysis (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results confirmed three mediators (i.e., perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy) in the influence of health consciousness on message acceptance. A negative association found between health consciousness and perceived susceptibility is discussed in relation to characteristics of health conscious individuals and optimistic bias of health risks.

  8. Husbandry factors and health conditions influencing the productivity of French rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huneau-Salaün

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 productivity data from 95 kindling to finishing rabbit farms in France were analysed to identify rearing factors and health conditions that influenced their productivity. Farm productivity, expressed on a yearly basis, was described with 4 productivity indices: doe fertility and prolificacy, viability of young rabbits in the nest and mortality during the fattening period. The productivity data were obtained with the technical support of the farm and expressed in a standardised way. The average numerical productivity observed in the sample of farms was 50.9 rabbits produced per doe and per year (CI95% [49.6-52.2]. The husbandry management and health conditions were described based on a questionnaire filled out during an interview with the farmer and a farm visit. Explanatory data were organised into meaningful blocks relative to biosecurity measures, del using a Partiamaternity management, the sanitary context and the farm structure. The relationship between the 4 thematic blocks and the productivity indices was studied in a single mol Least Squares (PLS regression model. Fertility (81.0%, CI95% [80.0-82.0] and viability of young at nest (85.1%, CI95% [85.0-85.3] and mortality rate during fattening: 7.2%, CI95% [6.4-7.9] were significantly associated with common factors relative to maternity management and the health context whereas prolificacy (9.7 live kits per parturition, CI95% [9.5-9.9] was mostly influenced by a specific set of variables pertaining to those 2 blocks. Farm structure and biosecurity measures had a limited impact on fertility and on kit viability before weaning. The health conditions of the doe herd and the fattening rabbits were found to be significantly associated with several productivity indexes, but their impacts on productivity were as high as the impact of the other blocks. Genetic strain of the females, doe replacement strategy and nursing and weaning practices appeared to significantly influence reproductive

  9. [Influence of school health promotion on the life habits of schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado Alsina, D; Muros Molina, J J; Zabala Díaz, M; Dalmau Torres, J M

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, attention has been directed at global theories that attempt to prevent childhood obesity by exposing them to healthy environments. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of health-promoting environments in primary schools in Logroño (La Rioja, Spain) on the habits of school children. The directors of the 31 primary schools in the city completed a questionnaire which examined the health promotion activities of their schools. In addition, anthropometric measurements, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and sedentary and physical activity habits were recorded from a representative sample of 329 schoolchildren in the sixth year of primary education (11-12 year-olds). The majority of schools had developed nutritional and/or physical activity programs (77.4% and 61.3%, respectively); however, teachers had generally not received specific training in that area. Guidelines regarding healthy habits were not formally included in the School Educational Project. Physical activity, which was greater amongst boys (P<.001), was mostly promoted after school hours. The major influences on school children's physical activity and dietary habits of the children were training of teachers, existence of guidelines, and access to sports grounds (P<.05). Although further research is required, this study shows that certain modifiable aspects in the organizational or school environment can influence the habits of school children at a fundamental stage of their development. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Influence of overweight on the health-related quality of life in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz Barbero, A; López de Mesa, Ma R; Azcona San Julián, C

    2015-03-01

    Changes in lifestyle and diet have led to a progressive increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. This disorder can lead to significant physical and psychosocial effects that affect the health related quality of life (HRQOL). Adolescence is a time of great vulnerability and very decisive in personality development. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of weight status on HRQoL in adolescents. A cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents of 12-16 years old and an assessment of HRQOL using the CHIP-Adolescents Edition questionnaires. Out of a total of 89 adolescents included, 60.7% had a normal weight and 39.3% were overweight-obese. The normal weight participants had a higher mean age than overweight-obesity participants, 14.2 vs. 13.6 years old, respectively. There were no other differences in sociodemographic characteristics between groups. Overweight-obese adolescents had a worse HRQoL, specifically as regards less resilience, lower capacity for physical activity, less family involvement, and greater peer influence. Moreover, the girls showed a lower self-esteem, satisfaction, resilience and physical activity than boys. Furthermore, less home safety and health, higher individual risk and greater peer influence was reported with increasing age of participants. Overweight-obesity negatively affects the HRQoL of adolescents. It is important to evaluate the psychosocial aspects from the perspective of the adolescents, in order to offer them a complete, personalized and multidisciplinary care. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions of Provider Communication Among Vulnerable Patients With Diabetes: Influences of Medical Mistrust and Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard O; Chakkalakal, Rosette J; Presley, Caroline A; Bian, Aihua; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Wallston, Kenneth A; Barto, Shari; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Patient-provider communication is modifiable and is linked to diabetes outcomes. The association of communication quality with medical mistrust is unknown. We examined these factors within the context of a low-literacy/numeracy-focused intervention to improve diabetes care, using baseline data from diverse patients enrolled in a randomized trial of a health communication intervention. Demographics, measures of health communication (Communication Assessment Tool [CAT], Interpersonal Processes of Care survey [IPC-18]), health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), depression, medical mistrust, and glycemic control were ascertained. Adjusted proportional odds models were used to test the association of mistrust with patient-reported communication quality. The interaction effect of health literacy on mistrust and communication quality was also assessed. A total of 410 patients were analyzed. High levels of mistrust were observed. In multivariable modeling, patients with higher mistrust had lower adjusted odds of reporting a higher CAT score (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.52, 0.86], p = .003) and higher scores on the Communication (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.55, 0.88], p = .008), Decided Together (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.59, 0.93], p = .02), and Interpersonal Style (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.53, 0.90], p = .015) subscales of the IPC-18. We observed evidence of an interaction effect of health literacy for the association between mistrust and the Decided Together subscale of the IPC-18 such that patients with higher mistrust and lower literacy perceived worse communication relative to mistrustful patients with higher literacy. In conclusion, medical mistrust was associated with poorer communication with providers in this public health setting. Patients' health literacy level may vary the effect of mistrust on interactional aspects of communication. Providers should consider the impact of mistrust on communication

  13. Factors that influence the professional resilience of occupational therapists in mental health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Samantha E; Ryan, Susan; Gray, Mel; James, Carole

    2013-04-01

    Mental health practice can create challenging environments for occupational therapists. This study explores the dynamic processes involved in the development and maintenance of professional resilience of experienced mental health occupational therapy practitioners. It presents the PRIOrity model that summarises the dynamic relationship between professional resilience, professional identity and occupation-based practice. A narrative inquiry methodology with two phases of interviews was used to collect the data from nine experienced mental health practitioners. Narrative thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Professional resilience was linked to: (i) professional identity which tended to be negatively influenced in contexts dominated by biomedical models and psychological theories; (ii) expectations on occupational therapists to work outside their professional domains and use generic knowledge; and (iii) lack of validation of occupation-focussed practice. Professional resilience was sustained by strategies that maintained participants' professional identity. These strategies included seeking 'good' supervision, establishing support networks and finding a job that allowed a match between valued knowledge and opportunities to use it in practice. For occupational therapists professional resilience is sustained and enhanced by a strong professional identity and valuing an occupational perspective of health. Strategies that encourage reflection on the theoretical knowledge underpinning practice can sustain resilience. These include supervision, in-service meetings and informal socialisation. Further research is required into the role discipline-specific theories play in sustaining professional values and identity. The development of strategies to enhance occupational therapists' professional resilience may assist in the retention of occupational therapists in the mental health workforce. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012

  14. Does nurses' role, health or symptoms influence their personal use of ingestible complementary and alternative medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrelis, Sofia; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Nicholls, Rachel; Xu, Xiaoyue

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of work-related characteristics, health, health behaviours and symptoms on ingestible biologically-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use within the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce. CAM use is widespread worldwide, but there is little research into nurses' and midwives' personal use of ingestible CAM in Australia. An online survey in 2014-15 used validated instruments and items to examine use of ingestible biologically-based CAM (herbs, foods and vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and other supplements), and the health and work-related characteristics of 5041 nurses and midwives recruited through the New South Wales Nurses and Midwives Association and professional networks. A small proportion of nurses (6.8%) identified as personal CAM users. Most were female, older, worked in foundational roles (frontline Registered and Enrolled Nurses/Midwives) and used one CAM, most commonly a multivitamin, although Vitamin D, Fish Oil, Calcium and Glucosamine±Chondroitin were also common. In comparison to non-users, CAM users were less likely to take sick days or indulge in risky drinking, but more likely to be symptomatic (with stiff joints, bodily/joint pain, severe tiredness, allergies, indigestion/heartburn), diagnosed with osteoarthritis and to adhere to healthy diet recommendations. Findings showed a credible pattern of front line workers with physically demanding workloads that impact their physical health and are linked to frequent symptoms, using CAM treatments and achieving some success in being able to continue working and avoid sickness absence. Further investigation is warranted to protect and maintain the health of the nursing and midwifery workforce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of facility design and human resource management on health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John; Shepley, Mardelle M

    2015-01-01

    Cost control of health care services is a strategic concern for organizations. To lower costs, some organizations reduce staffing levels. However, this may not be worth the trade-off, as the quality of services will likely be reduced, morale among health care providers tends to suffer, and patient satisfaction is likely to decline. The potential synergy between human resource management and facility design and operation was investigated to achieve the goal of providing cost containment strategies without sacrificing the quality of services and the commitment of employees. About 700 health care professionals from 10 acute-care hospitals participated in this cross-sectional study. The authors used structural equation modeling to test whether employees' evaluations of their physical work environment and human resource practices were significantly associated with lower job-related anxiety, higher job satisfaction, and higher organizational commitment. The analysis found that employees' evaluations of their physical work environment and human resource practices influenced their job-related feelings and attitudes. Perceived organizational support mediated this relationship. The study also found a small but positive interaction effect between the physical work environment and human resource practices. The influence of physical work environment was small, mainly because of the high predictive value of human resource practices and strong confounding variables included in the analysis. This study specifically showed the role of facility design in reducing job-related anxiety among caregivers. Preliminary evidence is provided that facility design can be used as a managerial tool for improving job-related attitudes and feelings of employees and earning their commitment. Providing a healthy and safe work environment can be perceived by employees as an indication that the organization respects them and cares about their well-being, which might be reciprocated with higher levels

  16. Factors influencing consumer adoption of USB-based Personal Health Records in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wen-Shan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usually patients receive healthcare services from multiple hospitals, and consequently their healthcare data are dispersed over many facilities’ paper and electronic-based record systems. Therefore, many countries have encouraged the research on data interoperability, access, and patient authorization. This study is an important part of a national project to build an information exchange environment for cross-hospital digital medical records carried out by the Department of Health (DOH of Taiwan in May 2008. The key objective of the core project is to set up a portable data exchange environment in order to enable people to maintain and own their essential health information. This study is aimed at exploring the factors influencing behavior and adoption of USB-based Personal Health Records (PHR in Taiwan. Methods Quota sampling was used, and structured questionnaires were distributed to the outpatient department at ten medical centers which participated in the DOH project to establish the information exchange environment across hospitals. A total of 3000 questionnaires were distributed and 1549 responses were collected, out of those 1465 were valid, accumulating the response rate to 48.83%. Results 1025 out of 1465 respondents had expressed their willingness to apply for the USB-PHR. Detailed analysis of the data reflected that there was a remarkable difference in the “usage intention” between the PHR adopters and non-adopters (χ2 =182.4, p  Conclusions Higher Usage Intentions, Perceived Usefulness and Subjective Norm of patients were found to be the key factors influencing PHR adoption. Thus, we suggest that government and hospitals should promote the potential usefulness of PHR, and physicians should encourage patients' to adopt the PHR.

  17. Parental influence on children's answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Dantas, Laíza Rocha; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; da Silva, Bruno Rafael Cruz; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Siqueira, Maria Betânia Lins Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children's answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children's self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents' version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children's responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children's OHRQoL.

  18. The effects of summer temperature, age and socioeconomic circumstance on Acute Myocardial Infarction admissions in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapper Nigel J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published literature detailing the effects of heatwaves on human health is readily available. However literature describing the effects of heat on morbidity is less plentiful, as is research describing events in the southern hemisphere and Australia in particular. To identify susceptible populations and direct public health responses research must move beyond description of the temperature morbidity relationship to include social and spatial risk factors. This paper presents a spatial and socio-demographic picture of the effects of hot weather on persons admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Melbourne. Results In this study, the use of a spatial and socio-economic perspective has identified two groups within the population that have an increased 'risk' of AMI admissions to hospital during hot weather. AMI increases during hot weather were only identified in the most disadvantaged and the least disadvantaged areas. Districts with higher AMI admissions rates during hot weather also had larger proportions of older residents. Age provided some explanation for the spatial distribution of AMI admissions on single hot days whereas socio-economic circumstance did not. During short periods (3-days of hot weather, age explained the spatial distribution of AMI admissions slightly better than socioeconomic circumstance. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that both age and socioeconomic inequality contribute to AMI admissions to hospital in Melbourne during hot weather. By using socioeconomic circumstance to define quintiles, differences in AMI admissions were quantified and demographic differences in AMI admissions were described. Including disease specificity into climate-health research methods is necessary to identify climate-sensitive diseases and highlight the burden of climate-sensitive disease in the community. Cardiac disease is a major cause of death and disability and identifying cardiac

  19. Factors influencing primary health care professionals' physical activity promotion behaviors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Verheijden, Marieke W; van der Zouwe, Nicolette; de Vries, Juriena D; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Crone, Mathilde R

    2015-02-01

    Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of interventions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in primary health care (PHC), the translation of these interventions to PHC practice does not always happen as desired. To help understand why efficacious PHC-based PA interventions are not effectively translated to practice, this study systematically reviewed the literature on factors influencing PHC professionals' PA promotion practices. Literature searches were conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed articles published in English from 1990 onwards. Studies were included that met the following criteria: (1) involving PHC-based PA interventions, and (2) reporting factors influencing PHC professionals' PA promotion behaviors. Two researchers independently screened studies and extracted data. A narrative synthesis using thematic analysis was conducted to identify factors. Of the 4,469 identified articles, 59 were included in the review. Factors were identified by qualitative methods, barrier/facilitator ratings, and the examination of the relationship between factors and PA promotion, and the effectiveness of introduction strategies. Many factors related to the development, delivery, and effects of the innovation, the sociopolitical and organizational culture, resources, and support, patient and PHC professional characteristics, and innovation strategies were identified as potential influences on PHC professionals' PA promotion practices. However, the lack of evidence on the relationship between factors and PA promotion indicated insufficient evidence on PA promotion determinants. This extensive overview of potential factors can inform intervention developers and implementers on which factors may play a role when introducing PA interventions in PHC. Future research should further investigate relationships between factors and PA promotion, which should be guided by qualitative in-depth knowledge on influencing factors.

  20. Antibiotic use by farmers to control mastitis as influenced by health advice and dairy farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizat, A; Bonnet-Beaugrand, F; Rault, A; Fourichon, C; Bareille, N

    2017-10-01

    Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments. Research was based on 51 individual semi-structured interviews with farmers and their corresponding veterinarians and farm advisors. Based on verbatim, the use of antibiotics and alternative medicine by farmers for mastitis treatment, the vet-farmers interactions, and the dairy farming systems are described. The advisory relationships between farmers and farm advisors and between farmers and veterinarians influenced the implementation of selective dry cow therapy, but had very little effect on the use of alternative medicines by farmers, who were more willing to experiment alternative medicines than their advisors. The dairy farming system had very little influence on antibiotic use: some misuse of antibiotics was found whatever the farming system. Systematic dry cow therapy was also a widespread habit in all dairy farming systems except organic. The use of alternative medicine was common in all farming systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 49477 - Consideration of Extenuating Circumstances for Implementation of Modification of Annual National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS11-23] Consideration of Extenuating Circumstances for Implementation of Modification of Annual National Registry Fee AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: The ASC is providing...

  2. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  3. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  4. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2011-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured i...

  5. Influence of family environment on children's oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review current models and scientific evidence on the influence of parents’ oral health behaviors on their children's dental caries. Sources: MEDLINE articles published between 1980 and June, 2012. Original research articles on parents’ oral health behavior were reviewed. A total of 218 citations were retrieved, and 13 articles were included in the analysis. The studies were eligible for review if they matched the following inclusion criteria: (1 they evaluated a possible association between dental caries and parents’ oral-health-related behaviors, and (2 the study methodology included oral clinical examination. The main search terms were “oral health”, “parental attitudes”, “parental knowledge”, and “dental caries”. Summary of the findings: : 13 experimental studies contributed data to the synthesis. Original articles, reviews, and chapters in textbooks were also considered. Conclusion: Parents’ dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits. Resumo: Objetivo: Envolver modelos atuais e comprovações científicas sobre a influência de comportamentos de saúde bucal dos pais na cárie dentária de suas crianças. Fontes: Artigos do MEDLINE publicados entre 1980 e junho de 2012. Foram analisados artigos de pesquisa originais tratando do comportamento dos pais quanto à saúde bucal. Um total de 218 citações foi analisado e 13 artigos foram incluídos na análise. Os estudos foram considerados elegíveis para análise se atendessem aos seguintes critérios de inclusão: (1 avaliassem uma possível associação entre cáries dentárias e o comportamento dos pais relacionado à saúde bucal; e (2 se a metodologia do estudo incluísse exame

  6. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. lita

    2002-11-01

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method. The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely: • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged. Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  7. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly.

  8. The influence of oral health on patients' food perception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, C; Bonnet, G; Eschevins, C; Hennequin, M; Nicolas, E

    2017-12-01

    Oral food perception depends on somatosensory information that includes taste and can be modified by oral components and/or functions such as mastication. The purpose of this study was to describe the interplay between oral health, mastication and taste. A review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was conducted on 615 publications found by both PubMed and backward research. Thirty-one studies have been included. The results showed that the decline in taste ability observed during the healthy ageing process could be potentiated by the deterioration of oral health and poor oral hygiene. Prosthetic treatment could modify taste ability and oral food perception. A palatal covering with removable dentures can have an impact on taste perception which may depend on taste modality. During the mastication sequence, taste is apparently scattered throughout the oral cavity, probably through saliva. The deterioration of masticatory function modifies taste perception. Oral health and oral care should consider factors influencing patients' food perception and relations between taste and mastication. Therefore, dentists may modulate these factors to improve food perception and patients' eating pleasure and quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Individual and contextual factors influencing dental health care utilization by preschool children: a multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Agostini, Bernardo Antonio; Michel-Crosato, Edgard

    2017-03-30

    The effect of contextual factors on dental care utilization was evaluated after adjustment for individual characteristics of Brazilian preschool children. This cross-sectional study assessed 639 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years from Santa Maria, a town in Rio Grande do Sul State, located in southern Brazil. Participants were randomly selected from children attending the National Children's Vaccination Day and 15 health centers were selected for this research. Visual examinations followed the ICDAS criteria. Parents answered a questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Contextual influences on children's dental care utilization were obtained from two community-related variables: presence of dentists and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to describe the association between outcome and predictor variables. A prevalence of 21.6% was found for regular use of dental services. The unadjusted assessment of the associations of dental health care utilization with individual and contextual factors included children's ages, family income, parents' schooling, mothers' participation in their children's school activities, dental caries, and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood as the main outcome covariates. Individual variables remained associated with the outcome after adding contextual variables in the model. In conclusion, individual and contextual variables were associated with dental health care utilization by preschool children.

  10. Individual and contextual factors influencing dental health care utilization by preschool children: a multilevel analysis

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    Chaiana PIOVESAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of contextual factors on dental care utilization was evaluated after adjustment for individual characteristics of Brazilian preschool children. This cross-sectional study assessed 639 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years from Santa Maria, a town in Rio Grande do Sul State, located in southern Brazil. Participants were randomly selected from children attending the National Children’s Vaccination Day and 15 health centers were selected for this research. Visual examinations followed the ICDAS criteria. Parents answered a questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Contextual influences on children’s dental care utilization were obtained from two community-related variables: presence of dentists and presence of workers’ associations in the neighborhood. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to describe the association between outcome and predictor variables. A prevalence of 21.6% was found for regular use of dental services. The unadjusted assessment of the associations of dental health care utilization with individual and contextual factors included children’s ages, family income, parents’ schooling, mothers’ participation in their children’s school activities, dental caries, and presence of workers’ associations in the neighborhood as the main outcome covariates. Individual variables remained associated with the outcome after adding contextual variables in the model. In conclusion, individual and contextual variables were associated with dental health care utilization by preschool children.

  11. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

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    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  12. Digital Health Communication and Global Public Influence: A Study of the Ebola Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hal; Seymour, Brittany; Fish, Sands Alden; Robinson, Emily; Zuckerman, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and health communication professionals expressed frustration over the relationship between misinformation circulating on the Internet and global public perceptions of and responses to the Ebola epidemic originating in West Africa. Using the big data platform Media Cloud, we analyzed all English-language stories about keyword "Ebola" published from 1 July 2014 to 17 November 2014 from the media sets U.S. Mainstream Media, U.S. Regional Media, U.S. Political Blogs, U.S. Popular Blogs, Europe Media Monitor, and Global Voices to understand how social network theory and models of the networked global public may have contributed to health communication efforts. 109,400 stories met our inclusion criteria. The CDC and WHO were the two media sources with the most inlinks (hyperlinks directed to their sites). Twitter was fourth Significantly more public engagement on social media globally was directed toward stories about risks of U.S. domestic Ebola infections than toward stories focused on Ebola infections in West Africa or on science-based information. Corresponding public sentiments about Ebola were reflected in the policy responses of the international community, including violations of the International Health Regulations and the treatment of potentially exposed individuals. The digitally networked global public may have influenced the discourse, sentiment, and response to the Ebola epidemic.

  13. Lifecourse socioeconomic circumstances and multimorbidity among older adults

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    Li Yi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older adults manage multiple chronic conditions (i.e. multimorbidity; and many of these chronic conditions share common risk factors such as low socioeconomic status (SES in adulthood and low SES across the lifecourse. To better capture socioeconomic condition in childhood, recent research in lifecourse epidemiology has broadened the notion of SES to include the experience of specific hardships. In this study we investigate the association among childhood financial hardship, lifetime earnings, and multimorbidity. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 7,305 participants age 50 and older from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study (HRS who also gave permission for their HRS records to be linked to their Social Security Records in the United States. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to simultaneously model the likelihood of the absence of morbidity and the expected number of chronic conditions. Results Childhood financial hardship and lifetime earnings were not associated with the absence of morbidity. However, childhood financial hardship was associated with an 8% higher number of chronic conditions; and, an increase in lifetime earnings, operationalized as average annual earnings during young and middle adulthood, was associated with a 5% lower number of chronic conditions reported. We also found a significant interaction between childhood financial hardship and lifetime earnings on multimorbidity. Conclusions This study shows that childhood financial hardship and lifetime earnings are associated with multimorbidity, but not associated with the absence of morbidity. Lifetime earnings modified the association between childhood financial hardship and multimorbidity suggesting that this association is differentially influential depending on earnings across young and middle adulthood. Further research is needed to elucidate lifecourse socioeconomic pathways associated with the absence of morbidity and the presence

  14. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

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    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  15. The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Rural Parents' Health Decision Making and Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami; Blumling, Amy; Delaney, Augustina

    2015-01-01

    General health implications of religiosity and spirituality on health have been associated with health promotion, so the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of religiosity and spirituality on rural parents' decision making to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV). The associations of religiosity and spirituality with parental HPV vaccine decisions were examined in a sample of parents residing in small rural communities (N = 37). Parents of children aged 9 to 13 years participated in focus groups held in rural community contexts. Religiosity (i.e., participation in religious social structures) was a recurring and important theme when discussing HPV vaccination. Spirituality (i.e., subjective commitment to spiritual or religious beliefs) was found to influence the ways in which parents perceived their control over and coping with health issues potentially related to HPV vaccination. Together, religiosity and spirituality were found to play integral roles in these parents' lives and influenced their attitudes toward HPV vaccination uptake for their children.

  16. Patients' perceptions of their general practitioner's health and weight influences their perceptions of nutrition and exercise advice received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sally E; Leveritt, Michael D; Ball, Lauren E

    2013-12-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in the management of patients who are overweight or obese. Previous research suggests that GPs' physical characteristics may influence patients' perceptions of health care received during consultations, mediating the likelihood of patients following health advice provided by GPs. This study aimed to explore patients' perceptions of their GP's health status and its influence on patients' perceptions of healthy eating and exercise advice. An interpretive approach to phenomenology underpinned the qualitative inquiry and study design. Twenty-one participants (aged 55.9 ± 6.5 years; 14 females, 7 males) who had previously received healthy eating and/or exercise advice from a GP participated in an individual semi-structured interview. A constant comparison approach to thematic analysis was conducted. Participants identified three key indicators of perceived health of their GP. These included the GP's physical appearance, particularly weight status; perceived absence of ill health; and disclosure of a GP's health behaviours. Participants expressed favourable perceptions of the weight status of their GP. Participants expected their GP to be a healthy role model and often, but not always, felt more confident receiving advice from a GP that they perceived as healthy. The findings highlight that a GP's perceived health status influences patients' perceptions of the health advice received during consultations. These findings provide a foundation for future research that may allow GPs to modify patients' perceptions of their health status in order to facilitate behaviour change in overweight or obese patients.

  17. The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren's happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchtenhagen, Simone; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Tomazoni, Fernanda; da Rosa, Guilherme Nascimento; Del Fabro, Joana Possamai; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2015-01-23

    Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as "the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably". It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11-14-ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants' parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11-14-ISF: 16. A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment

  18. How does context influence performance of community health workers in low- and middle-income countries? Evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Kane, Sumit S; Tulloch, Olivia; Ormel, Hermen; Theobald, Sally; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; de Koning, Korrie A M

    2015-03-07

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as an integral component of the health workforce needed to achieve public health goals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many factors intersect to influence CHW performance. A systematic review with a narrative analysis was conducted to identify contextual factors influencing performance of CHWs. We searched six databases for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies that included CHWs working in promotional, preventive or curative primary health care services in LMICs. We differentiated CHW performance outcome measures at two levels: CHW level and end-user level. Ninety-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were double read to extract data relevant to the context of CHW programmes. Thematic coding was conducted and evidence on five main categories of contextual factors influencing CHW performance was synthesized. Few studies had the influence of contextual factors on CHW performance as their primary research focus. Contextual factors related to community (most prominently), economy, environment, and health system policy and practice were found to influence CHW performance. Socio-cultural factors (including gender norms and values and disease related stigma), safety and security and education and knowledge level of the target group were community factors that influenced CHW performance. Existence of a CHW policy, human resource policy legislation related to CHWs and political commitment were found to be influencing factors within the health system policy context. Health system practice factors included health service functionality, human resources provisions, level of decision-making, costs of health services, and the governance and coordination structure. All contextual factors can interact to shape CHW performance and affect the performance of CHW interventions or programmes. Research on CHW programmes often does not capture or explicitly discuss the context in which CHW

  19. Sociodemographic Factors and Health-Related Characteristics That Influence the Quality of Life of Grandparent Caregivers in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magen Mhaka-Mutepfa PhD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have examined quality of life (QOL in elderly carers of orphaned children in African settings. This study explored sociodemographic factors and health-related characteristics that influence QOL of grandparent carers in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study stratified by district was done to collect information on socioeconomic factors, health-related characteristics, and QOL of grandparent carers ( N = 327; age: M = 62.4, SD = 11.2. Data were collected on socioeconomic factors, self-perceived health, health care access, chronic disease condition, health insurance status, types of health care services, and medications taken using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the associations between QOL and the predictor variables. Caregivers’ level of education (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; confidence interval [95% CI] = [1.0, 27], fostering orphans only (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = [0.2, 0.7], self-perceived health (OR = 10.2; 95% CI = [4.5, 25], medical insurance (OR = 9.8; 95% CI = [1.9, 54], and satisfaction with health care services (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = [1.2, 4.4] were associated with QOL, after adjusting for all influencing factors. The results confirm that QOL is compromised by specific demographic and self-rated health characteristics. Thus, eradicating poverty and providing services and changing caregiver’s perceptions about self-rated health may enhance QOL among grandparent caregivers.

  20. An exploratory study of factors influencing resuscitation skills retention and performance among health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods for enhancing retention. A mixed-methods, explanatory study design was undertaken utilizing focus groups and an online survey-questionnaire of rural and urban health care providers. Rural providers reported less experience with real codes and lower abilities across a variety of resuscitation areas. Mock codes, practice with an instructor and a team, self-practice with a mannequin, and e-learning were popular methods for skills updating. Aspects of team performance that were felt to influence resuscitation performance included: discrepancies in skill levels, lack of communication, and team leaders not up to date on their skills. Confidence in resuscitation abilities was greatest after one had recently practiced or participated in an update or an effective debriefing session. Lowest confidence was reported when team members did not work well together, there was no clear leader of the resuscitation code, or if team members did not communicate. The study findings highlight the importance of access to update methods for improving providers' confidence and abilities, and the need for emphasis on teamwork training in resuscitation. An eclectic approach combining methods may be the best strategy for addressing the needs of health professionals across various clinical departments and geographic locales. Copyright © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  1. Mixed Influence of Electronic Health Record Implementation on Diabetes Order Patterns for Michigan Medicaid Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, William; Yuan, Sha

    2015-08-20

    These 2011-2013 analyses examined the authors' hypothesis that relative diabetes care order changes would be measured after electronic health record (EHR) implementation for 291 Medicaid adults who received all of their office-based care at one midwestern federally qualified health center (FQHC) over a 24-month period (n = 2727 encounters, 2489 claims). Beneficiary sociodemographic, clinical, and claims data were validated with clinic EHR and state Medicaid claims linked to providers' national identifier numbers. Overall pre-post order rate comparisons, and a series of controlled within group binary logistic models were conducted under penalized maximum likelihood estimation terms. After EHR implementation, both the overall order rates and odds ratios of per beneficiary hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) orders increased significantly (ie, from mean of 0.65 [SD = 1.19] annual tests to 0.96 tests [SD = 1.24] [P order rates of dilated eye exams and microalbumin urine tests appeared fairly stable, the odds of eye exam orders being placed at the claims level decreased significantly (OR = 0.774, P = .0030). These mixed results provide evidence of the varied diabetes care ordering patterns likely seen from increased office use of EHR technologies. The authors attempt to explain these post-EHR differences (or lack of) that generally resemble some of the authors' results from another funded project. Ideally, these findings provide Medicaid and health care officials with a more realistic indication of how EHRs may, or may not, influence diabetes care ordering patterns for vulnerable lower-income primary health care consumers. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the influence of trust relationships on motivation in the health sector: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Dickson R O; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-03-31

    Dedicated and motivated health workers (HWs) play a major role in delivering efficient and effective health services that improve patients' experience of health care. Growing interest in HW motivation has led to a global focus on pay for performance strategies, but less attention has been paid to nurturing intrinsic motivation. Workplace trust relationships involve fair treatment and respectful interactions between individuals. Such relationships enable cooperation among HWs and their colleagues, supervisors, managers and patients and may act as a source of intrinsic motivation. This paper presents findings from a qualitative systematic review of empirical studies providing evidence on HW motivation, to consider what these studies suggest about the possible influence of workplace trust relationships over motivation. Five electronic databases were searched for articles reporting research findings about HW motivation for various cadres published in the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 and with available full free text in the English language. Data extraction involved consideration of the links between trust relationships and motivation, by identifying how studies directly or indirectly mention and discuss relevant factors. Twenty-three articles from low- and middle-income countries and eight from high-income countries that met predetermined quality and inclusion criteria were appraised and subjected to thematic synthesis. Workplace trust relationships with colleagues, supervisors and managers, employing organisation and patients directly and indirectly influence HW motivation. Motivational factors identified as linked to trust include respect; recognition, appreciation and rewards; supervision; teamwork; management support; autonomy; communication, feedback and openness; and staff shortages and resource inadequacy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic review on trust and motivation in the health sector. Evidence indicates that workplace trust

  4. Organizational Influences on Health Professionals' Experiences of Moral Distress in PICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah; Austin, Wendy J; Garros, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative study (secondary analysis) that explored the organizational influences on moral distress for health professionals working in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) across Canada. Participants were recruited to the study from PICUs across Canada. The PICU is a high-tech, fast-paced, high-pressure environment where caregivers frequently face conflict and ethical tension in the care of critically ill children. A number of themes including relationships with management, organizational structure and processes, workload and resources, and team dynamics were identified. This study provides a rare and important multi-disciplinary perspective on this topic and the findings have implications for administrators and leaders who seek to improve the moral climate of healthcare delivery.

  5. Influencing the political process through coalitions: the Michigan Council for Maternal and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R S; Shaheen, P N

    1995-08-01

    Building a coalition with others is an effective tool for increasing influence at the state level of the political process. It allows for the hiring of a staff who are able to maintain a constant presence in the ever-changing state political arena, which individual physicians and other caregivers simply cannot do. It allows for the development of increased sophistication among its members, which likewise increases the ability to affect the political process. It should be done with a philosophical set of standards that preserves its integrity and focuses on its goals, which must be carefully delineated from the inception. Coalitions are an effective way to deal with public issues of maternal and child health.

  6. The Influence of the Devotion Movement on the Health Care in North Korea

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    KIM Soo-Youn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1960s, North Korea has conducted 'devotion movement' under the directorship of Kim Il Sung across the nation. As a matter of fact, the movement was not a novel invention at all. When North Korean Temporary People's Polity was established in 1946, North Korea emphasized the importance of the devoted care of health personnel. It meant to reform the people's thought and mind along with complementing the lack of human and material resources. Thought reform was not a peculiar phenomenon observed in North Korea only. It was particularly stressed out among communist countries, including the Soviet Union. However any other communist country stresses the importance of thought reform. Devotion movement should be viewed as part of this process. As shown in many cases, the extent and degree of devotion movement and care are beyond our imagination, which does not intend to mean that North Korean health personnel's attitude towards patients is superior to the counterparts in South Korea. Indeed human being's behavior cannot be understood without taking account of society in general. The question can be raised as to whether or not North Korean health personnel's devoted care is really voluntary. To put aside the testimony that the most powerless group in a society can fall prey to victims, if social environment, whether directly or indirectly, is action on the people's thought and mind even in a subtle way and thus influence one's decision power, it is hard to highly evaluate the devoted care in North Korea. Moreover it seems like that the internal conflict exists surrounding devotion. In conclusion, I think that North Korean devotion movement has enforced health personnel to reform their thought and mind to adapt to North Korean regime and has played an important role to accomplish the purpose of North Korean Labor Party to realize essential constituents of its health system, in such a situation in which essential medical supplies are severely

  7. From 'circumstances' to 'environment': Herbert Spencer and the origins of the idea of organism-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Trevor

    2010-09-01

    The word 'environment' has a history. Before the mid-nineteenth century, the idea of a singular, abstract entity--the organism--interacting with another singular, abstract entity--the environment--was virtually unknown. In this paper I trace how the idea of a plurality of external conditions or circumstances was replaced by the idea of a singular environment. The central figure behind this shift, at least in Anglo-American intellectual life, was the philosopher Herbert Spencer. I examine Spencer's work from 1840 to 1855, demonstrating that he was exposed to a variety of discussions of the 'force of circumstances' in this period, and was decisively influenced by the ideas of Auguste Comte in the years preceding the publication of Principles of psychology (1855). It is this latter work that popularized the word 'environment' and the corresponding idea of organism--environment interaction--an idea with important metaphysical and methodological implications. Spencer introduced into the English-speaking world one of our most enduring dichotomies: organism and environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health-Seeking Behaviors of Filipino Migrants in Australia: The Influence of Persisting Acculturative Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Salamonson, Yenna; Poudel, Chandra; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationships among the constructs of acculturative stress, depression, English language use, health literacy, and social support and the influence of these factors on health-seeking behaviors of Filipino Australians. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 552 respondents were recruited from November 2010 to June 2011. Structural equation modelling was used to examine relationships. A direct and negative relationship between health-seeking behaviors and depression, and an indirect relationship with acculturative stress, was observed mediated through depression. Social support had an important moderating influence on these effects. Although there was an inverse relationship between age and English language usage and depression, age was positively related to health-seeking behavior. Despite their long duration of stay, Filipino Australian migrants continue to experience acculturative stress and depression leading to lower health-seeking behaviors. This study highlights the importance of screening for acculturative stress and depression in migrants and fostering social support.

  9. Muscle strength and regional lean body mass influence on mineral bone health in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bianca Rosa; Pimenta, Luciana Duarte; Massini, Danilo Alexandre; Dos Santos, Daniel; Siqueira, Leandro Oliveira da Cruz; Simionato, Astor Reis; Dos Santos, Luiz Gustavo Almeida; Neiva, Cassiano Merussi; Pessôa Filho, Dalton Muller

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between muscle strength and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) is supposed from the assumption of the mechanical stress influence on bone tissue metabolism. However, the direct relationship is not well established in younger men, since the enhancement of force able to produce effective changes in bone health, still needs to be further studied. This study aimed to analyze the influence of muscle strength on BMC and BMD in undergraduate students. Thirty six men (24.9 ± 8.6 y/o) were evaluated for regional and whole-body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). One repetition maximum tests (1RM) were assessed on flat bench-press (BP), lat-pull down (LPD), leg-curl (LC), knee extension (KE), and leg-press 45° (LP45) exercises. Linear regression modelled the relationships of BMD and BMC to the regional body composition and 1RM values. Measurements of dispersion and error (R2adj and standard error of estimate (SEE)) were tested, setting ρ at ≤0.05. The BMD mean value for whole-body was 1.12±0.09 g/cm2 and BMC attained 2477.9 ± 379.2 g. The regional lean mass (LM) in upper-limbs (UL) (= 6.80±1.21 kg) was related to BMC and BMD for UL (R2adj = 0.74, pBMC and BMD for LL (R2adj = 0.68, pBMC (R2adj = 0.47, pBMC (R2adj = 0.36, pBMC and BMD in young men, strengthening the relationship between force and LM, and suggesting both to parametrizes bone mineral health.

  10. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  11. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  13. Factors influencing deliveries at health facilities in a rural Maasai Community in Magadi sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Sarah; Gichuki, Richard; Igunza, Patrick; Muhula, Samuel; Ofware, Peter; Lesiamon, Josephine; Leshore, Lepantas; Kyomuhangi-Igbodipe, Lenny Bazira; Nyagero, Josephat; Binkin, Nancy; Ojakaa, David

    2018-01-03

    In response to poor maternal, newborn, and child health indicators in Magadi sub-county, the "Boma" model was launched to promote health facility delivery by establishing community health units and training community health volunteers (CHVs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as safe motherhood promoters. As a result, health facility delivery increased from 14% to 24%, still considerably below the national average (61%). We therefore conducted this study to determine factors influencing health facility delivery and describe barriers and motivators to the same. A mixed methods cross-sectional study involving a survey with 200 women who had delivered in the last 24 months, 3 focus group discussions with health providers, chiefs and CHVs and 26 in-depth interviews with mothers, key decision influencers and TBAs. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression were calculated to identify predictive factors for health facility delivery. Thematic analysis was done to describe barriers and motivators to the same. Of the women interviewed, 39% delivered at the health facility. Factors positively associated with health facility deliveries included belonging to the highest wealth quintiles [aOR 4.9 (95%CI 1.5-16.5)], currently not married [aOR 2.4 (95%CI 1.1-5.4)] and living near the health facility [aOR 2.2 (95%CI 1.1 = 4.4)]. High parity [aOR 0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9)] was negatively associated with health facility delivery. Barriers to health facility delivery included women not being final decision makers on place of birth, lack of a birth plan, gender of health provider, unfamiliar birthing position, disrespect and/or abuse, distance, attitude of health providers and lack of essential drugs and supplies. Motivators included proximity to health facility, mother's health condition, integration of TBAs into the health system, and health education/advice received. Belonging to the highest wealth quintile, currently not married and

  14. Examining direct and indirect pathways to health behaviour: the influence of cognitive and affective probability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to extricate the influence of rational (e.g., 'I think …') and intuitive (e.g., 'I feel …') probability beliefs in the behavioural decision-making process regarding skin cancer prevention practices. Structural equation modelling was used in two longitudinal surveys (sun protection during winter sports [N = 491]; sun protection during summer [N = 277]) to examine direct and indirect behavioural effects of affective and cognitive likelihood (i.e. unmediated or mediated by intention), controlled for attitude, social influence and self-efficacy. Affective likelihood was directly related to sun protection in both studies, whereas no direct effects were found for cognitive likelihood. After accounting for past sun protective behaviour, affective likelihood was only directly related to sun protection in Study 1. No support was found for the indirect effects of affective and cognitive likelihood through intention. The findings underscore the importance of feelings of (cancer) risk in the decision-making process and should be acknowledged by health behaviour theories and risk communication practices. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Social and Contextual Influences on Mental Health Following an Episode of Mass Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika D; Moore, Stephanie A; Meskunas, Haley; Terzieva, Antoniya

    2017-11-01

    Few studies explore how the recovery context following an episode of mass violence affects posttragedy mental health (MH), despite clear implications for developing posttrauma supports. Following a mass murder, this prospective, longitudinal study examined how reactions to media coverage, family reactions, and disappointment in social support influenced posttragedy MH (posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety), above and beyond the influence of pretragedy MH, pretragedy victimization, and objective exposure. University students who participated in a study of college adjustment prior to the mass murder ( n = 593) were recontacted and provided information on their posttragedy life ( n = 142). Students ( n = 84) also responded to open-ended questions about what was the most stressful part of the tragedy and psychological effects of the mass murder. After accounting for pretragedy victimization and MH, and objective exposure to events, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that distress related to media coverage and stronger family reactions contributed to higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety, but not depression. Disappointment with social support was not significantly related to posttragedy MH. Common themes in student comments include grief, feeling vulnerable/unsafe, concern for the impact on others, stress related to media coverage, proximity to the events, changes in psychosocial adjustment, and returning to daily life. Results suggest that negative reactions to media coverage and family reactions that are overprotective or distressing negatively affect survivors' MH, beyond their objective exposure to the violence, pretragedy MH, and pretragedy victimization.

  16. Environmental and parental influences on offspring health and growth in great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R A Pickett

    Full Text Available Sexual selection requires both that there is heritable variation in traits related to fitness, and that either some of this variation is linked to traits of the parents, and/or that there are direct benefits of choosing particular individuals as mates. This suggests that if direct benefits are important offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the rearing adults. But if indirect benefits are more significant offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the adults at the nest-of-origin. We conducted cross-fostering experiments in great tits (Parus major over four years, in two of which we manipulated environmental conditions by providing supplemental food. In a third year, some nestlings were directly supplemented with carotenoids. Nestlings in broods whose rearing adults received supplemental food were heavier and had improved immune responses even when controlling for body mass. Nestling immune function was related to measures of the yellow plumage color of both the rearing male and the putative father. Nestling body mass was influenced by the coloration of both the rearing female and the genetic mother. Our results suggest that features of both their social and putative genetic parents influence nestling health and growth. From this it would appear that females could be gaining both direct and indirect benefits through mate choice of male plumage traits and that it would be possible for males to similarly gain through mate choice of female traits.

  17. DIETARY FRUCTANS AND THEIR POTENTIAL BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETRS IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOGUSŁAWSKA-TRYK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fructans, which include inulin and fructooligosaccharides, are non-digestible carbohydrates that are fermented in the large intestine. This review focuses on the effect of these prebiotics on gut microflora, fermentation characteristics, gut morphology, enzymes activity, nutrients digestibility and absorption, lipids metabolism and performance parameters in broiler chickens. Inulin-type fructans can improve performance of birds and health by affecting microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, gut morphology and nutrient digestion. It is documented that dietary fructans influence the intestinal gut microflora of broiler chickens by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium spp. while decreasing the concentration of Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli in the large intestine and caeca. The supplementation of poultry diets with inulin or oligofructose can lead to an increase of the length of small and large intestines in broilers, elongation of the villus in the chickens jejunal mucosa and increase in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. The beneficial effect of inulin-type fructans on performance parameters in broilers may be partially explained by the elevated intestinal enzymatic activity under the influence of the fructooligosaccharides and increase of digestibility and absorption of nutrients, mainly protein and fat. The prebiotic effectiveness of inulin-type fructans in broilers depends on a number of factors, like the type of supplement (inulin vs. oligofructose, inclusion level, composition of the basal diet, animal characteristics (age, sex, stage of production and hygienic conditions (i.e. stress factors.

  18. The influence of active coping and perceived stress on health disparities in a multi-ethnic low income sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has shown that ethnic health disparities are prevalent and many psychological and social factors influence health disparities. Understanding what factors influence health disparities and how to eliminate health disparities has become a major research objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of coping style, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, and discrimination on health disparities in a large urban multi-ethnic sample. Methods Data from 894 participants were collected via telephone interviews. Independent variables included: coping style, SES, sex, perceived stress, and perceived discrimination. Dependent variables included self-rated general and oral health status. Data analysis included multiple linear regression modeling. Results Coping style was related to oral health for Blacks (B = .23, p Conclusion Our results indicate that perceived stress is a critical component in understanding health outcomes for all ethnoracial groups. While SES related significantly to general health for Whites and Hispanics, this relationship was mediated by perceived stress. Active coping was associated only with oral health.

  19. Exploring the influence of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance on health systems in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeti; Cummings, Rachael; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) respond to high-impact communicable diseases in resource-poor countries, including health systems support, and are major actors in global health. GHIs could play an important role in countries affected by armed conflict given these countries commonly have weak health systems and a high burden of communicable disease. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of two leading GHIs, the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance, on the health systems of conflict-affected countries. This study used an analytical review approach to identify evidence on the role of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance with regards to health systems support to 19 conflict-affected countries. Primary and secondary published and grey literature were used, including country evaluations from the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance. The WHO heath systems building blocks framework was used for the analysis. There is a limited evidence-base on the influence of GHIs on health systems of conflict-affected countries. The findings suggest that GHIs are increasingly investing in conflict-affected countries which has helped to rapidly scale up health services, strengthen human resources, improve procurement, and develop guidelines and protocols. Negative influences include distorting priorities within the health system, inequitable financing of disease-specific services over other health services, diverting staff away from more essential health care services, inadequate attention to capacity building, burdensome reporting requirements, and limited flexibility and responsiveness to the contextual challenges of conflict-affected countries. There is some evidence of increasing engagement of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance with health systems in conflict-affected countries, but this engagement should be supported by more context-specific policies and approaches.

  20. Quantifications of dendrochronological information from contrasting microdensitometric measuring circumstances of experimental wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helama, S.; Bégin, Y.; Vartiainen, M.; Peltola, H.; Kolström, T.; Meriläinen, J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed how the pretreatment method of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood specimens together with X-ray methodology applied for density analyses affect resulting tree-ring data and derived proxy-based climate information. We also evaluated whether these results from two contrasting laboratory circumstances could be homogenized by applying dendroclimatic statistical methods. For this study, we measured a pair of X-ray based microdensitometry datasets using double samples of subfossil and recent wood specimens. Dendrochronological information of earlywood and latewood series was examined to determine for alterations in the resulting data. We found that the level of overall density, its trend over cambial ages and the growth amplitude altered due to the sample pretreatment/density measuring exercise, which means that comparisons of heterogeneous datasets should be, in general, regarded cautiously. Dendrochronological standardization did, however, even out several potentially biasing influences from the differing overall densities and their trends. The two latewood (maximum) density chronologies yielded paleoclimatic reconstructions which both calibrated and verified satisfactorily with the instrumental warm-season (March–September) mean temperatures. The transfer functions were found to further equalize the differences between the two proxy records. We recommend (if no strictly homogenous data are available) reconciling similar data assemblages through transfer functions with multiple independent variables. - Highlights: ► We applied X-ray microdensitometry to treering analysis of modern and subfossil wood. ► We reveal the spectrum of methodology-dependent differences. ► We evaluate the climate change signals in X-ray based data of modern and subfossil tree-rings. ► Data homogenization was done using standardization and transfer function techniques. ► Methods allow careful utilization of tree-ring databases for climate change studies.

  1. Influence of Cancer Worry on Four Cancer Related Health Protective Behaviors among a Nationally Representative Sample: Implications for Health Promotion Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O; Mkuu, Rahma S; Jacobs, Wura; Ejembi, Agbenu Z

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess what sociodemographic characteristics are associated with cancer worry and what the influence of cancer worry is on four cancer-related protective health behaviors. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (4th cycle of the 4th iteration) were used. Multiple regression models were used for all analyses. Behaviors analyzed were as follows: physical activity, diets, smoking, and routine medical screening. Demographics controls included participant age, income, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and education. N = 2630, Older participants (OR = .99, p health behavior and may be short-lived, the influence of worry on health-related decision making is likely to be lasting even when the emotions are no longer present.

  2. Factors influencing the provision of public health services by village doctors in Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Smith, Helen J; Fei, Yang; Xu, Biao; Nie, Shaofa; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dong, Hengjin

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese central government launched the Health System Reform Plan in 2009 to strengthen disease control and health promotion and provide a package of basic public health services. Village doctors receive a modest subsidy for providing public health services associated with the package. Their beliefs about this subsidy and providing public health services could influence the quality and effectiveness of preventive health services and disease surveillance. To understand village doctors' perspectives on