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Sample records for circulating sex hormones

  1. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.; Strickler, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concen

  2. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

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    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001. Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp. and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp. when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007. Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  3. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  4. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

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    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  5. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Coviello (Andrea); R. Haring (Robin); M. Wellons (Melissa); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Keildson (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); C. He (Chunyan); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Mangino (Massimo); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); B. Chen (Benjamin); J. Eriksson (Joel); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y. Liu (Yongmei); A. Koster (Annemarie); K. Lohman (Kurt); L.-P. Lyytikäinen; A.K. Petersen; C.A.J. Prescott; L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); A.R. Wood (Andrew); W.V. Zhuang; A. Ruokonen (Aimo); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Brabant (Georg); D.G. Cox (David); S. Cummings; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M.J. Gunter (Marc J.); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); H. Martikainen (Hannu); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Illig (Thomas); J.O. Jansson; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); M. Karlsson (Magnus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); P. Kraft (Peter); O.̈. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); M. Maggio (Marcello); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); D. Mellström (Dan); I. Miljkovic (Iva); D. Mirel (Daniel); S. Nelson (Sarah); L. Morin Papunen (Laure); P.H.M. Peeters; I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); M. Reincke (Martin); A.P. Reiner (Alex); K. Rexrode (Kathryn); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); D. Stöckl (Doris); S. Tworoger (Shelley); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.H. van Gils (Carla); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); G. Zhai (Guangju); S. Bhasin (Shalender); M. Bidlingmaier; S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); M. Kähönen (Mika); P. Ouyang (Pamela); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J. Viikari (Jorma); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); S. Franks (Steve); M.R. Jarvelin; F.A. de Jong (Floris); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Teumer (Alexander); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.R.B. Perry (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers s

  6. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  7. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  8. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-01

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk.

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  10. Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Ardanaz, Eva; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loïc; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Hunter, David J.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17β-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 × 10−21), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 × 10−15), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 × 10−6) and SRD5A2 with 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 × 10−6). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones. PMID:19574343

  11. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  12. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M.; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sex hormones, in particular the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiological evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterised variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5–10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men (association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292–rs727479 (A–A) versus noncarriers; P=1 × 10−5), and withinverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterised by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk for prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  13. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit;

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...

  14. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  15. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  16. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...

  17. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

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    Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584

  18. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed.

  19. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  20. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  1. Anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women in relation to other hormones, fetal sex and in circulation of second trimester fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, Melissa; Byskov, Anne Grete; Skouby, Sven Oluf;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) blood concentrations in mother and fetus during pregnancy. Serum concentrations of AMH, gonadotrophins, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in pregnant women in the first trimester and AMH concentrations...

  2. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  3. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...

  4. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...

  5. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  6. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  7. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  8. Sex in the brain: hormones and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Jordan; McEwen, Bruce S

    2016-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions.

  9. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  10. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  11. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  12. The impact of female sex hormones on competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Buser

    2009-01-01

    We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first

  13. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  14. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  15. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  16. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  17. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedtke, S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Vrieling, A.; Lukanova, A.; Becker, S.; Kaaks, R.; Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Benner, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate

  18. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  19. Heritability and cross-sex genetic correlations of early-life circulating testosterone levels in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavitt, Alyson T; Walling, Craig A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone is an important hormone that has been shown to have sex-specific links to fitness in numerous species. Although testosterone concentrations vary substantially between individuals in a population, little is known about its heritable genetic basis or between-sex genetic correlations that determine its evolutionary potential. We found circulating neonatal testosterone levels to be both heritable (0.160 ± 0.064 s.e.) and correlated between the sexes (0.942 ± 0.648 s.e.) in wild red deer calves (Cervus elaphus). This may have important evolutionary implications if, as in adults, the sexes have divergent optima for circulating testosterone levels.

  20. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  1. Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

  2. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E

    2015-03-01

    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

  3. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  4. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, d...

  5. The influence of sex hormones on brain lateralization : Research Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to te

  6. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions.

  7. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  8. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, T; Christensen, E;

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  9. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  10. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  11. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerd, Elizabeth; Dowsett, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The study of large prospective collections of plasma samples from women prior to the development of breast cancer has firmly established certain sex steroids as being significantly associated with risk. The strongest associations have been found in postmenopausal women in whom the within person variability of most hormones is markedly reduced but some positive associations have also been seen in premenopausal women. Plasma estrogens show the strongest correlations with risk and these are strengthened by measurement or calculation of the proportion of estradiol that circulates free of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), consistent with this being the most active fraction. The relationships have been reported to potentially explain virtually all of the association of breast cancer with body mass index in postmenopausal women; this is likely to be due to non-ovarian estrogen synthesis being prominent in subcutaneous fat. These strong relationships have led to plasma and urine estrogen levels being used as intermediate end-points in the search for genes that affect breast cancer risk via their role in steroid disposition. Plasma androgen levels also show a relationship with breast cancer risk that is weakened but not eliminated by 'correction' for estrogen levels. This has been argued to be evidence of the local production of estrogens being important in the etiology of breast cancer. Given that plasma steroid levels do not correlate closely with mammographic density, which is strongly associated with risk, the opportunity exists to combine the two factors in assessing breast cancer risk but the low availability of suitable estrogen assays is a major impediment to this. In established breast cancer, plasma estrogens have been found to correlate with gene expression of estrogen dependent genes and the expression of these varies across the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. There is infrequently a need for routine measurement of plasma estrogen levels but it has

  12. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiologi...

  13. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress.

  14. Methods to quantify sex steroid hormones in bone: applications to the study of androgen ablation and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Lipinska, Judyta A; Santillana, Cesar A; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2010-11-01

    Bone may contain an intraskeletal reservoir of sex steroids that is capable of producing biological effects. The purposes of these experiments were to 1) establish and validate methods to extract and measure intraskeletal sex hormones, 2) compare serum and intraskeletal sex hormone abundance, and 3) determine the impact of testosterone-enanthate administration and orchiectomy on intraskeletal sex hormone concentrations. Tibiae from male F344 rats were crushed, suspended in an aqueous buffer, disrupted mechanically and sonically, extracted with organic solvents, dried, and reconstituted in assay buffer appropriate for measurement of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol by immunoassay. Prior to extraction, bone homogenate was spiked with [³H]testosterone, [³H]dihydrotestosterone, or [³H]estradiol, and >80% of each ³H-labeled sex hormone was recovered. Extracted bone samples were also assayed with and without known amounts of unlabeled sex hormones, and >97% of the expected hormone concentrations were measured. Administration of testosterone-enanthate increased intraskeletal testosterone 11-fold and intraskeletal dihydrotestosterone by 82% without altering intraskeletal estradiol (P < 0.01). Conversely, orchiectomy did not alter intraskeletal testosterone or estradiol but increased intraskeletal dihydrotestosterone by 39% (P < 0.05). In intact rats, intraskeletal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were directionally higher than in serum, whereas intraskeletal estradiol was directionally lower than serum. Serum androgens were positively correlated with intraskeletal androgens (r = 0.74-0.96, P < 0.001); however, neither serum nor intraskeletal androgens nor serum estradiol were correlated with intraskeletal estradiol. We report the validation of a novel method for measuring intraskeletal sex hormones. Our findings demonstrate that the intraskeletal sex steroid reservoirs are modifiable and only partially influenced by circulating sex hormones.

  15. Neural growth hormone: regional regulation by estradiol and/or sex chromosome complement in male and female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quinnies, Kayla M; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Harris, Erin P; Shetty, Savera RJ; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) are well documented and coordinate maturation and growth. GH and its receptor are also produced in the brain where they may impact cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and estradiol produces Gh sex differences in rat hippocampus. In mice, circulating estradiol increases Gh mRNA in female but not in male medial preoptic area (mPOA); therefore, additional factors regulate sexually dimorphic Gh expression in the brain. Thus, we h...

  16. Sex bias in paediatric autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their impact on immune system function is well recognised. While for paediatric-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on paediatric autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences.

  17. Sexually dimorphic cognitive style, female sex hormones, and cortical nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, L; Yilmaz, O; Taskiran, D; Kulali, B; Furedy, J J; Demirgören, S; Pögün, S

    Recent studies using the water maze (WM) found marked sex differences in behavioral strategy employed in place learning tasks in adult rats. When a change in the platform position is introduced following learning the place of a platform (visible or hidden) in a different position, female rats escape to the newly positioned visible platform faster than males. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in place learning, and there are regional sex differences in its stable metabolites, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), in rat brain. Furthermore, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels are sensitive to ovariectomy in female rats. The effect of sex hormones on brain development and function is well documented. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of ovariectomy and hormonal manipulations on cognitive performance in a WM task designed to test differences in behavioral strategy in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) of both sexes. Some of the females rats were ovariectomised and received either hormone replacement (estrogen or progesterone alone or in combination) or the vehicle. Cortical and hippocampal NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels were determined after behavioral testing. There were no group differences in cognitive ability or non-cognitive factors such as motivation or swim speed. Males and intact females differed in their cognitive style, but hormonal manipulations in female rats did not affect this relative use of behavioral strategy. There was a correlation between performance on the trial where sex differences were most prominent and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels in the cortex. Our results suggest that the activational effects of circulating gonadal hormones do not play a major role in sexually dimorphic cognitive styles.

  18. Hormones and Sex-Specific Transcription Factors Jointly Control Yolk Protein Synthesis in Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Siegenthaler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the housefly Musca domestica, synthesis of yolk proteins (YPs depends on the level of circulating ecdysteroid hormones. In female houseflies, the ecdysterone concentration in the hemolymph oscillates and, at high levels, is followed by expression of YP. In male houseflies, the ecdysterone titre is constantly low and no YP is produced. In some strains, which are mutant in key components of the sex-determining pathway, males express YP even though their ecdysterone titre is not significantly elevated. However, we find that these males express a substantial amount of the female variant of the Musca doublesex homologue, Md-dsx. The dsx gene is known to sex-specifically control transcription of yp genes in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data suggest that Md-dsx also contributes to the regulation of YP expression in the housefly by modulating the responsiveness of YP-producing cells to hormonal stimuli.

  19. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  20. Sex Steroid Hormones and Reproductive Disorders : Impact on Women's Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Moley, Kelle H.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Taylor, Robert N.; Berga, Sarah L.; Mermelstein, Paul G.; Devroey, Paul; Gianaroli, Luca; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vercellini, Paolo; Hummelshoj, Lone; Rubin, Susan; Goverde, Angelique J.; De Leo, Vincenzo; Petraglia, Felice

    2011-01-01

    The role of sex steroid hormones in reproductive function in women is well established. However, in the last two decades it has been shown that receptors for estrogens, progesterone and androgens are expressed in non reproductive tissue /organs (bone, brain, cardiovascular system) playing a role in

  1. Study on two steroidal sex hormones in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOYoubuo

    1998-01-01

    Steroidal sex hormones including androgens and estrogens are important in the reproductive development of mammals. A number of studies suggested that these steroids might have similar functions in plants, A latest research on Nongken 58s, a photoperiod-sensitive genie male sterile rice (PGMR),

  2. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  3. MicroRNA: sex steroids, hormonal carcinogenesis, hormonal sensitivity of tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones, regulating normal physiological processes of most tissues and organs, are considered to be one of the key factors in the development and progression of the reproductive system cancer. Recently, the importance of the system for post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by short single-stranded RNA molecules (microRNA became evident. This system is involved in regulation of normal physiological processes and in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In review we discuss the relationship between the two regulatory systems – sex hormones and microRNAs. The relationship of these systems is considered in the context of two tumors – breast and prostate cancer. In particular, the history of research on the role of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and prostate cancer is briefly covered. Additionally, modern scientific data on the biogenesis and biological role of microRNAs are presented in more detail. In the cells of the hormone-sensitive tissues, sex hormones regulate the microRNA-mediated machinery of gene expression control by two known ways: specifically, affecting the activity of individual microRNA molecules and non-specifically by altering the efficiency of microRNA biogenesis and activity of RNA-induced silencing complex. This downstream regulatory network substantially enhances biological effects of sex hormones at physiological conditions. Malignant transformation leads to a distortion of the regulatory effects of sex hormones that crucially influence the system of microRNA-regulated post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The most established and clinically significant example of such phenomenon is the loss of sensitivity of cells to the regulatory action of these hormones. As a consequence, cancer cells acquire the ability to active proliferation without stimulation with sex hormones. This effect is partly mediated by microRNAs. Also, relevant experimental data

  4. Pain and sex hormones: a review of current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Adrian J; Lissounov, Alexei; Knezevic, Ivana; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-01-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence for women in several chronic pain disorders. Clinical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated sex-specific differences in pain sensitivity and pain threshold. Even though the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences have not yet been elucidated, the logical possibility of gonadal hormone influence on nociceptive processing has garnered recent attention. In this review, we evaluated the complex literature regarding gonadal hormones and their influence on pain perception. We reviewed the numerous functions of gonadal hormones, discussed the influence of these hormones on several common chronic pain syndromes (migraine, tension and cluster headaches, fibromyalgia, temporomandibular syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and back pain, among others), and have attempted to draw conclusions from the available data.

  5. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF). Serum testosterone levels were equivalent in adult XXM and XYM, as was serum estrogen in XXF and XYF mice. To remove the effects of gonadal hormones, gonadectomized FCG mice were subjected to MCAO. Gonadectomy significantly increased infarct volumes in females, while no change was seen in gonadectomized males, indicating that estrogen loss increases ischemic sensitivity. Estradiol supplementation in gonadectomized FCG mice rescued this phenotype. Interestingly, FCG male mice were less sensitive to effects of hormones. This may be due to enhanced expression of the transgene Sry in brains of FCG male mice. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity appear to be shaped by organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, rather than sex chromosomal complement.

  6. Genes and sex hormones interaction in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emilia; Cosentino, Livia; Laviola, Giovanni; De Filippis, Bianca

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset and symptomatology of many neurodevelopmental disorders strongly differ between genders. This review examines sex biases in human neurodevelopmental disorders and in validated animal models. A focus is made on disorders of well-established genetic origin, such as Rett syndrome, CDKL5-associated disorders, Fragile X and Down syndrome. Autism is also addressed, given its paradigmatic role as a sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorder. Reviewed literature confirms that a complex interaction between genetic factors and sex hormones may underlie the differential susceptibility of genders and may impact the severity of symptoms in most of the analyzed neurodevelopmental disorders. Even though further studies addressing the advantages and disadvantages conferred by biological sex in this class of disorders are needed to disentangle the underlying mechanisms, present findings suggest that modulation of sex steroid-related pathways may represent an innovative approach for these diseases. Much effort is now expected to unravel the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeting sex hormones-related signaling pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders of well-established genetic origin.

  7. The relationship between sex hormones and extent of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odgerel Tumur; HAN Jiang-li; YANG Chi-sun; MAO Jie-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women increases with menopause. Results from the studies on the role of endogenous sex hormones on CAD in postmenopausal women are conflicting.1,2 The present study evaluated the relationship between endogenous sex hormones and extent of CAD in postmenopausal women and the associations of sex hormones with CAD risk factors.

  8. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  9. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  10. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women...... regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...

  11. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-07-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones (estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)) can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 Ci Na2V CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones.

  12. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-06-13

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016.

  13. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  14. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  15. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  16. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. Setting: The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. Participants: A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Intervention: Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Main Outcome Measures: Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). Results: In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P < .05). PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P < .05). Women with the greatest reduction in estradiol since baseline had greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction (P = .02). Conclusions: Late peri-/postmenopausal women have greater volumes of heart fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. PMID:26176800

  17. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  18. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm: the role of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Courtois, Audrey; Drion, Pierre; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in men, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature, we examined human and animal in vivo and in vitro studies to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17β-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in men and women, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA.

  19. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis....

  20. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  1. Determination of SHBG-bound sex hormones by selective ammonium sulphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, T; Monaco, E M; Hähnel, R

    1981-03-05

    This paper describes a direct method for determining sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-bound sex hormones in human plasma after separation of SHBG-bound and unbound hormone fractions by selective precipitation with ammonium sulphate. In normal women variations in SHBG-bound and -free hormone generally paralleled fluctuations in total hormone. Changes in SHBG-free estradiol did not have any marked effect on plasma SHBG and sHBG-free testosterone. Our results suggest a buffer role for SHBG through which the biological response to sudden changes in sex hormone concentration is moderated.

  2. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  3. Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqian Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid uptake, while enhancing lipolysis, cholesterol secretion, and glucose catabolism. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis.

  4. Sex hormones and oxytocin augmentation strategies in schizophrenia : A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Sophie M; Begemann, Marieke J H; Goverde, Angelique J; Sommer, Iris E C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in incidence, onset and course of schizophrenia suggest sex hormones play a protective role in the pathophysiology. Such a role is also proposed for oxytocin, another important regulator of reproduction function. Evidence on the efficacy of sex hormones and oxytocin in

  5. Effect of female sex hormones on cardiorespiratory parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A. R.; Vaidya, Savita M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone regulate various phases of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes tend to affect various parameters of physical fitness. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a measure of aerobic power. This study was planned to assess effect of different phases of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max. Methods: 100 female medical students in the age group of 17-22 years were studied for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Weight, resting pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max were measured during premenstrual phase (20th-25th day) and postmenstrual phase (5th to 10th day). Results: It was observed that there was a significant increase in body weight, pulse rate, and respiratory rate during premenstrual phase. There was a decrease in VO2 max during the premenstrual phase. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is decreased cardio-respiratory efficiency during premenstrual phase.

  6. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  7. Concomitant therapies (glucocorticoids and sex hormones) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaroni, C; Ceccato, F; Rizzati, S; Mantero, F

    2008-09-01

    Adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD), mostly due to organic lesions of the pituitary-hypothalamic region, is frequently associated with multiple anterior pituitary deficiencies that need long-term substitutive treatment. The GH-IGF-I axis may play an important role in modulating peripheral metabolism of hormones (adrenal, thyroid, and sex hormones) and these interactions may have clinically significant implications on the phenotypes of adult GHD patients and on the effects of the combined replacement hormonal treatment of this condition. By accelerating the peripheral metabolism of cortisol, GH therapy may precipitate adrenal insufficiency in susceptible hypopituitary patients; estrogen replacement blunts the response to GH in women whereas in men with androgen substitution the responsivity increases over time. Endocrinologists should be mindful of these phenomena when starting patients with hypopituitarism on GH replacement therapy.

  8. Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2007-11-01

    Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5alpha-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ERalpha (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ERalpha protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ERalpha, AR, and 5alpha-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

  9. Effects of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on androgen bioactivity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Michael R.; Helsen, Christine; Antonio, Leen; Schollaert, Dieter; Joniau, Steven; Vos, Michel J.; Decallonne, Brigitte; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical assessments of androgen status (hyper- or hypoandrogenism) are usually based on serum testosterone concentrations. According to the free hormone hypothesis, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) determines free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations. Previous studies have suggested t

  10. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2013-01-01

    Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay...... and conversion factors for the DSL and Generation II assays. With this tool in hand, the pediatrician can use serum concentrations of AMH when determining the presence of testicular tissue in patients with bilaterally absent testes or more severe Disorders of Sex Development (DSD). Furthermore, AMH can be used...

  11. Animal models of absence epilepsies: what do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of sex hormone receptors in two Raillietina tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Sun, Y M; Mu, L; Zeng, Y; Li, H Y; Yang, T H

    2017-03-08

    Sex hormone receptors play critical roles in development and reproduction. However, it is not known whether they exist in Raillietina tapeworms, and if they do, whether they have a similar function to that in vertebrates. We examined the immunohistochemical distributions of androgen receptors (ARs), estrogen receptors (ERs), and progesterone receptors (PRs) in the tissues of two tapeworm species: Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Immunopositive ARs were found in the entire reproductive system of R. echinobothrida, including the testes, ovaries, and oocysts, and weakly immunopositive ERs and PRs were found in the testes, ovaries, and oocysts. Immunopositive ARs were also found throughout the entire reproductive system of R. tetragona, including the testes, ovaries, and oocysts, and weakly immunopositive ERs were in the testes and oocysts; the PRs were distributed in an immunonegative manner. The results show that androgens and their receptors play critical roles in reproductive system development in the two tapeworms. The immunoreactivity and tissue localizations of the sex hormone receptors suggest that, in both species, they have similar functions as in vertebrates, and modulate reproduction.

  13. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.

  14. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carl D., E-mail: carl.d.smith179.mil@mail.mil; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female

  15. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable.

  16. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  17. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women after caloric restriction in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, SG; Onland-Moret, NC; Peeters, PHM; Rinaldi, S; Kaaks, R; Grobbee, DE; van Noord, PAH

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the 1944-1945 Dutch famine has affected postmenopausal sex hormone concentrations with data from 163 women (young adults during the famine). Urinary sex hormone concentrations showed modest elevations with increasing famine exposure. Effects were absent in parous women, but m

  18. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  19. [SEX HORMONE INFLUENCE ON PERIPHERAL NATURAL KILLER CELLS COUNT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P; Konova, E; Blajeva, Sv; Lukanov, Tsv; Angelova, P; Georgieva, V; Totev, V; Komsa-Penkova, R

    2015-01-01

    Proper evaluation of immunological factors connected with pregnancy establishment increased the possibility for exact treatment in high risk gestation cases. Hormonal changes during an ovarian cycle may affect immune response, which is crucial for the embryonic implantation. Peripheral Natural killer (pNK) cells are key components of immune systems and their activities could be regulated by sex hormones. In the present study we investigated the effects of estrogen fluctuation on the number of NK cells in vivo during the early follicular and middle luteal phase of menstrual cycle. In 63 healthy women with at least one full term pregnancy and regular menstrual cycle with duration between 24 and 32 days, blood samples have been collected twice for investigation of CD3/CD16/CD56 positive lymphocytes. The mean pNK count in follicular phase was 11.6% with 4.7% variation. The median was 10.6%. The mean pNK count in luteal phase was 12.1% with 5.1% variation, respectively median for cell number 11.8%. The two-tailed t-test comparison did not find any statistical difference despite the slight elevation of pNK cells count in luteal phase. The insignificant variation in pNK cells count objected the suggestion to evaluate immunological status in women with adverse pregnancy outcome in specific phase of menstrual cycle.

  20. C-peptide, IGF-I, sex-steroid hormones and adiposity : a cross-sectional study in healthy women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, ID; Rinaldi, S; Dossus, L; van Gils, CH; Peeters, PHM; Noord, PAH; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Johnsen, SP; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjonneland, A; Boeing, H; Lahmann, PH; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Allen, N; Roddam, A; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Kesse, E; Tehard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Agudo, A; Ardanaz, E; Quiros, [No Value; Amiano, P; Martinez-Garcia, C; Tormo, MJ; Pala, [No Value; Panico, S; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Baibas, N; Zilis, D; Hemon, B; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the Europe

  1. Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Sex and gender effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported in epidemiological, physiological, and clinical treatment studies. The potential role of gonadal hormones is discussed based on the female predominance in IBS and the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status. Several different models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function, including changes in GI symptoms during the menstrual cycle and differences in sympto...

  2. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of cr

  3. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome : The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CA

  4. Endogenous sex hormones, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, whereas lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation.

  5. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl D.; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females’ sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD50) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD50 of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD50s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. PMID:26079828

  6. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-02-28

    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones.

  7. Circulating hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: a randomized trial of low-dose tamoxifen and fenretinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Harriet; Bonanni, Bernardo; Gandini, Sara; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Serrano, Davide; Macis, Debora; Puccio, Antonella; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Gulisano, Marcella; Formelli, Franca; Decensi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Tamoxifen and fenretinide have been extensively studied and exhibit breast cancer-preventing activity. We aimed to assess their effect on sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and retinol, and their association with mammographic density (MD) and breast cancer events. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to tamoxifen 5 mg/day, fenretinide, both agents, or placebo for 2 years. We measured MD and circulating concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydro-epiandrosteronesulfate, prolactin, SHBG, and retinol at baseline and on yearly intervals. The associations with breast cancer events were evaluated through competing risk and Cox regression survival models. Low-dose tamoxifen markedly and enduringly increased SHBG, whereas the increases in testosterone, estradiol, and prolactin and reduction in LH weakened after 1 year. Fenretinide increased testosterone and androstenedione and decreased retinol. MD correlated directly with SHBG and inversely with retinol. After a median follow-up of 12 years, the 10-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer events was 37 % in women with SHBG ≤ 59.3 nmol/L, 22 % in women with SHBG between 59.3 and 101 nmol/L, and 19 % in women with SHBG > 101 nmol/L (P = 0.018). The difference among SHBG tertiles remained statistically significant at multivariable analysis: HR = 2.26 (95 % CI 1.04, 4.89) for the lowest versus the highest tertile. We conclude that low-dose tamoxifen or fenretinide exhibits favorable hormonal profiles as single agents, further supporting their administration for prevention of breast cancer in premenopause. Notably, SHBG levels were inversely associated with breast neoplastic events.

  8. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  9. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-06-01

    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart.

  10. SHBG, Sex Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cattabiani, Chiara; Parrino, Stefano; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceresini, Graziano; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Context: In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between SHBG, total testosterone, total E2, and inflammatory markers in older women. Design and Patients: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 433 women at least 65 yr old from the InCHIANTI Study, Italy, who were not on hormone replacement therapy or recently hospitalized and who had complete data on SHBG, testosterone, E2, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and TNF-α. Relationships between sex hormones and inflammatory markers were examined by multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, insulin, physical activity, and chronic disease. Results: In fully adjusted analyses, SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 ± 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 ± 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. Conclusion: In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state. PMID:21239514

  11. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  12. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  13. Experimental Benefits of Sex Hormones on Vascular Function and the Outcome of Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Reagan L.; Serock, Michelle R; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Experimental data have shown beneficial vascular effects of estrogen including stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vascular relaxation. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women, and ...

  14. Associations of sex steroid hormones with mortality in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Catherine; Stanczyk, Frank; Campbell, Kristin; Neuhouser, Marian L; Baumgartner, Richard N; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between circulating levels of sex steroid hormones and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, data on associations with breast cancer survival are limited. We measured levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), in serum collected on average 30 months after diagnosis from 358 postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer between 1995 and 1998 who participated in a multiethnic, prospective cohort study. Women were followed through December, 2012. We evaluated associations between log-transformed analytes and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality fitting multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Over a median of 14.5 years of follow-up, 102 deaths occurred; 43 of these were due to breast cancer. In models adjusted for ethnicity/study site, age, body mass index, and tumor stage, increased levels of log-transformed SHBG were associated with reduced risk of both breast cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, HR 0.48; 95 % confidence interval, CI 0.26-0.89) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.43-0.97). There were no associations between levels of estradiol, estrone, or testosterone for either endpoint. In subgroup analyses, after correction for multiple testing, increased estrone was significantly associated with reduced risk for breast cancer-specific mortality among participants with ER-negative tumors (HR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.05-0.63) but not among participants with ER-positive tumors. Increased serum levels of SHBG were associated with decreased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in women with breast cancer. These results should be confirmed in larger breast cancer survivor cohorts.

  15. CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  16. Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönekopp, Johannes; Bartholdt, Luise; Beier, Lothar; Liebert, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    The relative length of the second (index) to the fourth (ring) finger (2D:4D) is a putative negative correlate of prenatal testosterone (T) exposure. Therefore, 2D:4D (and to a lesser extent D(r-l), the difference between 2D:4D in the right hand and in the left hand) has often been used to study effects of prenatal androgenization on human behavior and cognition. However, evidence suggests that 2D:4D may also be related to levels of circulating sex hormones in adults. This would question the validity of 2D:4D as a means of studying the effects of prenatal sex hormones. Here we present new data from two non-clinical samples (64 women and 102 men) regarding the relationships of 2D:4D and D(r-l) with circulating sex hormone levels. We then present a meta-analytic review of all the present evidence regarding this issue. The results suggest that, in the normal population, 2D:4D and D(r-l) are not associated with adult sex hormone levels. The findings from this current study add to the growing body of evidence demonstrating that 2D:4D is a suitable tool to study the effects of prenatal androgenization on human behavior and cognition.

  17. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure.

  18. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  19. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedick Nicole M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from observational studies suggest that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and endogenous sex hormones may be mediators of the putative relation between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormone levels. Findings After a two-week run-in phase with caffeine abstention, we conducted an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Healthy adults (n = 42 were recruited from the Boston community who were regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight. Participants were randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water (control group per day consumed with each meal, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon. The main outcome measures were SHBG and sex hormones [i.e., testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate]. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for any of the studied outcomes at week 8. At 4 weeks, decaffeinated coffee was associated with a borderline significant increase in SHBG in women, but not in men. At week 4, we also observed several differences in hormone concentrations between the treatment groups. Among men, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol. Among women, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased total testosterone. Conclusions Our data do not indicate a consistent effect of caffeinated coffee consumption on SHBG in men or women, however results should be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. This is the first randomized trial investigating the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormones and our findings necessitate further examination in a larger intervention trial.

  20. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  1. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  2. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lindhardt Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay and conversion factors for the DSL and Generation II assays. With this tool in hand, the pediatrician can use serum concentrations of AMH when determining the presence of testicular tissue in patients with bilaterally absent testes or more severe Disorders of Sex Development (DSD. Furthermore, AMH can be used as a marker of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI in both Turner Syndrome patients and in girls with cancer after treatment with alkylating gonadotoxic agents. Lastly, its usefulness has been proposed in the diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and ovarian granulosa cell tumors and in the evaluation of patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  3. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  4. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler;

    2015-01-01

    serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised.......6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p...

  5. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  6. In vitro effects of sex hormones in human meibomian gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Antje; Abrar, Daniel B; Hampel, Ulrike; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Garreis, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is considered the most common cause of dry eye disease (DED). Sex hormones seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MGD although their involvement is not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosteron (DHT) and estradiol (β-Est) on an immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC). Protein expression of sex hormone receptors in HMGEC was investigated by western blot. Ultrastructural morphology, Sudan III lipid staining, cell proliferation as well as vitality assays were performed. Furthermore, expression of MGD-associated markers for keratinization (hornerin, involucrin and CK6), proliferation (CK5 and CK14) and lipid synthesis (fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Western blot revealed presence of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and -β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) in HMGEC. PR, ERα and ERβ expression was significantly induced under cultivation with serum, whereas sex hormones stimulation showed no further effect on protein expression of PR, ERα and ERβ. Our results showed no impact of MGD-associated sex hormones to cellular morphology and lipid accumulation in HMGEC. Cell proliferation was slightly induced through application of sex hormones and supplementation of calcium. However, both sex hormones and calcium altered gene expression of MGD-associated markers. Especially keratinization genes hornerin (HRNR) and cornulin (COR) were induced after application of sex hormones and calcium in serum-free cultivated HMGEC. This may promote keratinization processes that are associated with MGD. Further investigations are necessary to analyze the (hyper)keratinization processes that occur during MGD and using HMGEC as an in vitro model.

  7. Influences of biological variables and geographic location on circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Patricia A; Montie, Eric; Balthis, Len; Reif, John S; Bossart, Gregory D

    2011-11-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are key regulators of metabolism and development, yet our understanding of the variability in serum TH concentrations in free-ranging marine mammals is limited. Thus, we examined the interrelationships between TH and age, sex, reproductive status, geographic location, and ocean temperatures in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Circulating concentrations of TH (total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), and total triiodothyronine (tT(3))) were determined in a total of 195 dolphins; 80 from the coastal waters of Charleston, South Carolina (CHS) and 115 from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (IRL). Age had the most influence on circulating TH concentrations in dolphins at both sites with decreasing concentrations (p<0.0001) observed with increasing age for all TH. No significant differences were found between males and non-reproductive females. Geographic location significantly influenced tT(4) and tT(3) concentrations; CHS dolphins had higher concentrations than IRL animals. These TH differences between CHS and IRL dolphins may be attributed to the colder year-round water temperature that CHS dolphins inhabit compared to IRL dolphins and could constitute an adaptive response to their colder environment. Results from this study highlight the importance of establishing reference values for dolphins in different geographic locations to support valid comparisons. This initial assessment provides a foundation of how biological and environmental variables could affect circulating TH in dolphins, which will help to elucidate the impacts of disease, pollution, and climate change on the thyroid hormone system of aquatic mammals.

  8. Effect of sex steroid hormones on the number of serotonergic neurons in rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Yuyu; Iwata, Kinuyo; Iijima, Norio; Kobayashi, Makito; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Disorders caused by the malfunction of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system show sex-specific prevalence. Many studies have reported a relationship between sex steroid hormones and the brain serotonergic system; however, the interaction between sex steroid hormones and the number of brain neurons expressing serotonin has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether sex steroid hormones altered the number of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of adult rat brains. Animals were divided into five groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+low estradiol (E2), OVX+high E2, castrated males, and intact males. Antibodies against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), an enzyme for 5-HT synthesis, were used as markers of 5-HT neurons, and the number of 5-HT-immunoreactive (ir) or Tph-ir cells was counted. We detected no significant differences in the number of 5-HT-ir or Tph-ir cells in the DR among the five groups. By contrast, the intensity of 5-HT-ir showed significant sex differences in specific subregions of the DR independent of sex steroid levels, suggesting that the manipulation of sex steroid hormones after maturation does not affect the number and intensive immunostaining of serotonergic neurons in rat brain. Our results suggest that, the sexual dimorphism observed in the serotonergic system is due to factors such as 5-HT synthesis, transportation, and degradation but not to the number of serotonergic neurons.

  9. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex bias of melanoma in a fish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David L; Fernandez, André A; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-Hsiang; Person, Maria D; Earley, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model, we show a strong male bias for sunlight-induced malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sublethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24-h period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreases for all free sex steroids at 6 and 24 h and increases in conjugated 2-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone at 6 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas ARα expression increased in male and female skin, neither ARβ nor either of the ERs showed significant responses to UVB in either sex. The rapid response of male androgens and their receptors in the skin after UVB irradiation implicates hormones in the male bias of skin cancer and suggests that the photoendocrine response immediately after UV exposure may be relevant to melanomagenesis.

  10. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex-bias of melanoma in a fish model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David L.; Fernandez, André A.; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-hsiang; Person, Maria D.; Earley, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model we show a strong male bias for cutaneous malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sub-lethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24 hour period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreases for all free sex steroids at 6 and 24 h and increases in conjugated 2-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone at 6 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas ARα expression increased in male and female skin, neither ARβ nor either of the ER’s showed significant responses to UVB in either sex. The rapid response of male androgens and their receptors in the skin after UVB irradiation implicates hormones in the male-bias of skin cancer and suggests that the photoendocrine response immediately after UV exposure may be relevant to melanomagenesis. PMID:24406016

  11. Integrating insulin-like growth factor 1 and sex hormones into neuroprotection: Implications for diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jacob; Hoffmann, Christina; Taylor, George T

    2017-01-01

    Brain integrity and cognitive aptitude are often impaired in patients with diabetes mellitus, presumably a result of the metabolic complications inherent to the disease. However, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated the central role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its relation to sex hormones in many neuroprotective processes. Both male and female patients with diabetes display abnormal IGF1 and sex-hormone levels but the comparison of these fluctuations is seldom a topic of interest. It is interesting to note that both IGF1 and sex hormones have the ability to regulate phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal-related kinase signaling cascades in animal and cell culture models of neuroprotection. Additionally, there is considerable evidence demonstrating the neuroprotective coupling of IGF1 and estrogen. Androgens have also been implicated in many neuroprotective processes that operate on similar signaling cascades as the estrogen-IGF1 relation. Yet, androgens have not been directly linked to the brain IGF1 system and neuroprotection. Despite the sex-specific variations in brain integrity and hormone levels observed in diabetic patients, the IGF1-sex hormone relation in neuroprotection has yet to be fully substantiated in experimental models of diabetes. Taken together, there is a clear need for the comprehensive analysis of sex differences on brain integrity of diabetic patients and the relationship between IGF1 and sex hormones that may influence brain-health outcomes. As such, this review will briefly outline the basic relation of diabetes and IGF1 and its role in neuroprotection. We will also consider the findings on sex hormones and diabetes as a basis for separately analyzing males and females to identify possible hormone-induced brain abnormalities. Finally, we will introduce the neuroprotective interplay of IGF1 and estrogen and how androgen-derived neuroprotection operates through

  12. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  13. Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    Sex and gender effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported in epidemiological, physiological, and clinical treatment studies. The potential role of gonadal hormones is discussed based on the female predominance in IBS and the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status. Several different models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function, including changes in GI symptoms during the menstrual cycle and differences in symptom expression in pre- and post-menopausal women as well as changes during pregnancy, hormonal treatment, or after ovariectomy. Gonadal hormones, in particular estrogens, can significantly modulate various clinical manifestations of IBS, including alterations in GI motility and visceral hypersensitivity. Additionally, sex differences in the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system are considered to be contributing factors in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders. The modulatory effects of estrogens on visceral pain may result from interactions with numerous neurotransmitters at different levels of the brain-gut axis, with a pivotal role of estrogens' interactions with the serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling systems. Estrogens can also modulate neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress via the brain-gut axis. Sex differences in the biological actions, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy of serotonergic medications clearly suggest sex differences in pain pathways that have to be taken into consideration in therapeutic interventions.

  14. Circulating levels of GH-releasing hormone and GH during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, M; Spence-Jones, C; Chard, T; Landon, J; McLean, C

    1990-04-01

    To study the potential role of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in maintaining circulating levels of GH during pregnancy, 302 maternal plasma samples were collected from non-fasted subjects at various stages of pregnancy and assayed for GHRH using a 'two-site' immunoradiometric assay. The GH and placental lactogen levels were also determined. In addition, maternal plasma samples taken during labour, amniotic fluid and cord blood were also assayed for these hormones. Maternal plasma GHRH levels were similar to non-pregnant levels throughout gestation despite fluctuations in GH values which were always higher than non-pregnant levels. There was no significant difference between GHRH levels in maternal plasma and cord blood although high GH levels were observed in the latter. These findings suggest that peripheral GHRH levels do not play an important role in maintaining circulating GH levels during pregnancy.

  15. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

  16. Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

    2014-03-01

    From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders.

  17. Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan Barbara D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development, and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that fluctuating sex hormone levels in young females and loss of ovarian sex hormone production due to menopause likely contribute to observed sex differences in knee joint function and risk for loss of function. In studies of osteoarthritis, however, there is a general lack of appreciation for the heterogeneity of hormonal control in both women and men. Progress in this field is limited by the relatively few preclinical osteoarthritis models, and that most of the work with established models uses only male animals. To elucidate sex differences in osteoarthritis, it is important to examine sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues and the sexual dimorphism in the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels. There is a need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role. This paper discusses these gaps in knowledge and suggests remedies.

  18. Modulation of experimental renal dysfunction of hereditary fructose intolerance by circulating parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R C; McSherry, E; Sebastian, A

    1971-01-01

    In a woman with hereditary fructose intolerance and intact parathyroid function, the experimental administration of fructose at different dosage schedules invariably induced the dose-dependent, complex dysfunction of the proximal renal tubule now recognized as characteristic. But in a woman with hereditary fructose intolerance and hypoparathyroidism given similar amounts of fructose, the experimental dysfunction was strikingly attenuated or nondemonstrable unless or until fructose and parathyroid hormone were administered in sustained combination. Thereupon, a renal dysfunction of characteristic type and severity occurred invariably and almost immediately. Thus, the concentration of circulating parathyroid hormone can modulate the functional expression of the experimental renal disorder. This effect of parathyroid hormone, which appears to involve more than simple physiologic summation, may have important clinical implications.

  19. Determination of Sex Hormones in Antler Velvet by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chun-mei; WANG Ming-tai; MU Jun; BAI Yu-ping; DU Jian-shi; ZHANG Han-qi; WANG Jian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen sex hormones in antler velvet were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.The solid phase extraction was applied to eliminating the matrix effect.The experimental conditions were examined and optimized.Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method provides the good linearities and determination limits(0.2-1.0 μg/kg)of the analytes investigated.The recoveries ranging from 72.3% to 149.5% were obtained for the target analytes at two concentration levels.This method was applied to the determination of eighteen sex hormones in different kinds of antler velvet samples and the obtained results are satisfactory.The results indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of sex hormones in antler velvet samples.

  20. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms.

  1. Relationship between serum sex hormones levels and degree of benign prostate hyperplasia in Chinese aging men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Song Zeng; Zheng Li; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Chuan-Liang Xu; Zhi-Yong Liu; Hui-Qing Wang; Bo Yang; Wei-Dong Xu; Tai-Le Jin; Cheng-Yao Wu; Gang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common medical conditions in middle aged and older men.This study investigated the relationship between serum levels of sex hormones and measures of BPH in the aging male population of China.Prostate symptoms were assessed as part of a free health screening program for men ≥40 years of age.The examination included digital rectal examination,determination of serum prostate-specific antigen levels,International Prostate Symptom Scorn (IPSS) and transrectal ultrasonography.Serum levels of total testosterone (TT),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),free testosterone (FT),luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) were evaluated.The men also completed a health and demographics questionnaire and received a detailed physical examination.The final study population consisted of 949 men with a mean age of 58.9 years.Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations between age and levels of all sex hormones except TT,and between age and prostate volume (PV; r=-0.243; P<0.01) or IPSS (r=0.263; P<0.01 ).Additional significant correlations were found between IPSS and serum levels of LH (r=0.112; P<0.01 ) and FSH (r=0.074; P<0.05),but there were no significant correlations between sex hormone levels and PV.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between age and body mass index (BMI) with PV (P<0.0001).In addition,there was a significant correlation between age and PV with IPSS (P<0.0001).Serum sex hormone levels did not correlate with PV or IPSS.The effects of endocrine changes on measures of BPH in aging men require further investigation in longitudinal and multicenter studies that include patients with all severities of BPH.

  2. FEMALE SEX HORMONES AS MODULATORS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE TO PHARMACOTHERAPY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tereshchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular morbidity in developed countries has decreased, but only in men and it has increased in women. The risk of cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women is 2-4 times less than this in men. A role of hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is reviewed. The results of retrospective and plaсebo-controlled trials are presented. Cellular cardioprotective mechanisms of action of female sex hormones are shown.

  3. Wellness in women after 40 years of age: the role of sex hormones and pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, W B; Genovese-Stone, E

    1998-09-01

    In the past twenty years hundreds of peer-reviewed studies have provided a significant body of information to guide the health care of women in the second halves of their lives. The harmonic nature of the fertile reproductive system forms the background against which hormonal replacement therapy can be understood to best serve women. In addition, the 1986 discovery of human pheromones and the subsequent 1998 confirmation of their existence increases certain sexual options for maturing women. Not all hormonal replacement therapies and wellness regimens serve women well. Some regimens have the potential to produce disease, especially over-the-counter remedies like dehydroepiandrosterone and the formulas that contain estrogen. Some regimens profoundly improve the quality of life of many women; some women do not need or want such regimens. All sex hormones affect physiologic systems including the cardiovascular system, bone metabolism, cognitive function, sexual response, and sexual attractiveness. The 7 years before menopause have recently been revealed to be an extremely complex era. During this period, some women increase their estrogen levels to new lifetime highs; others start an unequivocal decline, and still others vary from month to month. Coupled to this variability in estrogen is an equally variable set of changes in progesterone secretion by the ovary as androgen secretion patterns also change. Many women show increases in circulating androgens while many others show deficiencies. Both the adrenal and the ovarian sources of these hormones show age-related changes that alter a woman's capacity to attract sexual attention through both her physical appearance (and condition) and her pheromonal excretions. The complex contributions to the overall health of a woman may not always be understood. Often a hysterectomy can exacerbate--rather than ameliorate--the conditions that led to the surgery. One in 2 American women is offered a hysterectomy, a rate 5 times

  4. Sex differences in stress responses : Focus on ovarian hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Gerrits, Marjolein; Westenbroek, Christel; Lin, Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    Women in the reproductive age are more vulnerable to develop affective disorders than men. This difference may attribute to anatomical differences, hormonal influences and environmental factors such as stress. However, the higher prevalence in women normalizes once menopause is established, suggesti

  5. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal contraceptiv

  6. How to explore the effects of sex hormone on blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Mei-li; Nie Min; Liu Bing; Du Zhi-jun; Ge Qin-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease increases along with aging. There are increasing interests in researches on the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)on cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women. In this article we will review how we have explored the evidence of different sex hormones on blood vessels since 1996. The results showed that low-dose HRT significantly protected cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.However, the high-dose 17β-estradiol (E2), with or without progesterone (P) or testosterone (T), or any hormone alone, as their concentrations increase, may even inhibit the protective effects of low-dose HRT on blood vessels.

  7. Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender.

  8. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  9. Sex specificity of hormone synthesis in Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, M

    1975-01-01

    Sex specificity is observed in mating types of the fungus Oucor mucedo with respect to the production of 4-hydroxy methltrisporates (plus mating type) and trisporins (minus mating type), and in the conversion of these metabolites to trisporic acids by the mating partner. These compounds induce zygophores on the opposite mating type only.

  10. Circulating nucleic acids in the assessment of endogenous growth hormone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, H; Butt, A N; Powrie, J; Holt, R; Swaminathan, R

    2008-08-01

    There is growing concern about the use of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) by individuals taking part in competitive sports. Although rhGH is banned by the international organizations, the detection of GH doping is difficult. We postulated that rhGH will suppress endogenous GH production, which can be assessed by the measurement of mRNA for GH and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). In order to prove this concept, we undertook a pilot study to examine whether circulating nucleic acids are useful in the detection of endogenous GH production. Blood samples were collected into PAXgene tubes from 37 healthy controls and 12 acromegalic patients. RNA was extracted from the samples, cDNA was obtained, and the quantities of mRNA for GH and GHRH were measured using real-time PCR. In acromegalic patients, median mRNA concentration for GHRH (corrected for beta-actin mRNA) was 30.7 times lower than in controls (median delta C(T)) value of -0.128 versus 3.927, P 50 years) compared to the younger age group (<34 years). These results show that mRNA for GH and GHRH can be detected in the peripheral circulation and raises the possibility of using these markers in the detection of exogenously administered GH.

  11. Design of the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters Petra HM; Monninkhof Evelyn M; Schuit Albertine J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physi...

  12. Sex hormones and gene expression signatures in peripheral blood from postmenopausal women - the NOWAC postgenome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylander Charlotta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT influences endogenous hormone concentrations and increases the risk of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling may reveal the mechanisms behind this relationship. Our objective was to explore potential associations between sex hormones and gene expression in whole blood from a population-based, random sample of postmenopausal women Methods Gene expression, as measured by the Applied Biosystems microarray platform, was compared between hormone therapy (HT users and non-users and between high and low hormone plasma concentrations using both gene-wise analysis and gene set analysis. Gene sets found to be associated with HT use were further analysed for enrichment in functional clusters and network predictions. The gene expression matrix included 285 samples and 16185 probes and was adjusted for significant technical variables. Results Gene-wise analysis revealed several genes significantly associated with different types of HT use. The functional cluster analyses provided limited information on these genes. Gene set analysis revealed 22 gene sets that were enriched between high and low estradiol concentration (HT-users excluded. Among these were seven oestrogen related gene sets, including our gene list associated with systemic estradiol use, which thereby represents a novel oestrogen signature. Seven gene sets were related to immune response. Among the 15 gene sets enriched for progesterone, 11 overlapped with estradiol. No significant gene expression patterns were found for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Conclusions Distinct gene expression patterns associated with sex hormones are detectable in a random group of postmenopausal women, as demonstrated by the finding of a novel oestrogen signature.

  13. Effects of female sex hormones on expression of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas-R/nNOS pathways in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yidan; Wen, Quan; Zhao, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Female sex hormones are considered to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. As a part of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has recently been reported to play a role in protecting neuronal tissues from ischemic stroke. Thus, we examined the effects of female sex hormones on the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its downstream pathways in the brain. Female rats were ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol (17β-EST), progesterone (PGR), or a combination of 17β-EST plus PGR were administered. Our data demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly decreased the levels of Ang-(1-7) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area. Also, we observed a linear relationship between cortex levels of Ang-(1-7) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (as an indicator for risk of ischemic stroke). We further showed that lack of female sex hormones decreased the expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas-receptor (Mas-R), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Overall, our findings show for the first time that Ang-(1-7) and Mas-R/nNOS in the cortex are influenced by circulating 17β-EST and (or) PGR, whereas Ang-(1-7) and its pathways in the hippocampal CA1 area are primarily altered by 17β-EST. This suggests that female sex hormones play a role in regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) and its pathways during ischemic brain injuries.

  14. The importance of the derivative in sex-hormone cycles: a reason why behavioural measures in sex-hormone studies are so mercurial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam McNamara

    Full Text Available To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3-4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase to low progesterone (follicular phase to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How

  15. Low level of serum sex hormone binding globulin is associated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese young population.Methods A total of 797 patients were enrolled and subdivided into MS group (n=377) and non-MS group (n=420) .Body height and weight were measured for body

  16. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: Implications for clinical tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramsey (Jordan); J.D. Cooper (Jason); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFew serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum protein

  17. A Brief Review on How Pregnancy and Sex Hormones Interfere with Taste and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Melgert, Barbro N.; de Vos, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physiological and behavioral changes take place during pregnancy, including changes in taste and an increase in food intake. These changes are necessary to ensure growth and development of a healthy fetus. Both hyperphagia and taste changes during pregnancy may be induced by sex hormones estrog

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones: requirements for pregnancy and relevance in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Holtan, Shernan G; Creedon, Douglas J; Dronca, Roxana S; Nevala, Wendy K; Ognjanovic, Simona; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2014-04-01

    Similarities between the pathologic progression of cancer and the physiologic process of placentation (eg, proliferation, invasion, and local/systemic tolerance) have been recognized for many years. Sex hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone, and others contribute to induction of immunologic tolerance at the beginning of gestation. Sex hormones have been shown to play contributory roles in the growth of cancers such as breast cancer, prostrate cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer, but their involvement as putative mediators of the immunologic escape of cancer is still being elucidated. Herein, we compare the emerging mechanism by which sex hormones modulate systemic immunity in pregnancy and their potentially similar role in cancer. To do this, we conducted a PubMed search using combinations of the following keywords: "immune regulation," "sex hormones," "pregnancy," "melanoma," and "cancer." We did not limit our search to specific publication dates. Mimicking the maternal immune response to pregnancy, especially in late gestation, might aid in design of better therapies to reconstitute endogenous antitumor immunity and improve survival.

  19. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of ...

  20. Sex hormone binding globulin and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Majon; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that low levels of estradiol and testosterone increase dementia risk. However, results of the existing observational studies examining associations of endogenous sex hormones with cognition and dementia are conflicting. A possible explanation for these inconsistent findings cou

  1. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  2. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eZierau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Female sex hormones have long been suspected to have an effect on mast cell (MC behaviour. This assumption is based on the expression of hormone receptors in MCs as well as on the fact that many MC-related pathophysiological alterations have a different prevalence in females than in males. Further, serum IgE levels are much higher in allergic female mice compared to male mice. Ovariectomized rats developed less airway inflammation compared to sham controls. Following estrogen replacement ovariectomized rats re-established airway inflammation levels’ found in intact females. In humans, a much higher asthma prevalence was found in women at reproductive age as compared to men. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone have been directly correlated with the clinical and functional features of asthma. Around 30 to 40% of women who have asthma experienced worsening of their symptoms during the perimenstrual phase, the so-called perimenstrual asthma. Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of new onset of asthma. Beside, estrus cycle dependent changes on female sex hormones are related to changes on MC number in mouse uterine tissue and estradiol and progesterone were shown to induce uterine MC maturation and degranulation. We will discuss here the currently available information concerning the role of these female sex hormones on MC behavior.

  3. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence.

  4. Obesity and sex hormones%肥胖与性激素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新丽; 赵家军

    2011-01-01

    肥胖与包括性激素异常在内的内分泌紊乱密切相关,因为激素的分泌方式和(或)代谢途径或其在靶器官的作用水平在肥胖的状态下发生了改变,长期以来,这些改变被认为继发于肥胖,肥胖影响性激素的水平,但是,肥胖与性激素在体内的相互作用的关系相当复杂.近年来的研究揭示性激素的变化也可能是在脂肪的分布、不同类型的肥胖的病理生理及其相关的代谢异常中起着重要的作用.%Obesity is closely related to endocrine disorders including sex hormone abnormalities.Over a long time, changes in the secretory pathways and/or metabolism of hormones, and altered hormone-related effects at the level of target organs have been considered to be secondary to obesity.While obesity affects sex hormone levels,the interaction between obesity and sex hormones in the body may actually be very complicated.In recent years, studies have revealed that alterations in sex hormone may also play a major role in the distribution of adipose tissues,pathophysiology of obesity phenotypes, and metabolic abnormalities associated obesity.

  5. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  6. Reassessing the role of growth hormone and sex steroids in thymic involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyeyoung; Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The concomitant decline in growth hormone (GH) and increase in sex steroid production with age is thought to be responsible for thymic involution. If changes in the production of these hormones trigger or sustain thymic involution, that process should be accelerated in little mice, which have a genetic deficiency resulting in reduced production of thymopoietic GH, and delayed in the hypogonadal strain, which fails to produce thymocytotoxic sex steroids. The results indicated that thymic involution in both strains progressed in a manner similar to their normal littermates. That blocking sex steroid production did not delay thymic involution was surprising since castration reportedly increases thymus cellularity. Re-examination of that phenomenon revealed that, while gonadectomy results in increased thymus size, its effects are transient, and the thymus ultimately undergoes involution. Taken together, these data suggest that age-related changes in the endocrine system do not underlie thymic involution.

  7. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tseng

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD.One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67, non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37, and Barrett's esophagus (BE, n = 8. Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects.All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile, 80.1 (49.8-108.3 vs. 99.4 (65.8-131.9 pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0-120.8 vs. 32.8 (28.7-84.5 pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6-9.3 vs. 9.9 (9.6-10.6 μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1-9.2 vs. 9.2 (7.1-11.2 μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE.Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD. Further studies to clarify the exact role of these hormones

  8. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz, E-mail: graci_ju@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos, E-mail: jgsantosbr@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega, E-mail: hmatsu@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Limeira, Larissa, E-mail: larissa.limeira07@gmail.com [Centro Universitario FIEO (UNIFIEO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L{sup -1} for estrone, 0.13 μg. L{sup -1} for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L{sup -1} for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L{sup -1} for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L{sup -1} for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  9. Sex Differences in the Pharmacokinetics of Antidepressants : Influence of Female Sex Hormones and Oral Contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, Valerie A.; Proost, Johannes H.; Jiawan, Vincent C. R.; Melgert, Barbro N.

    2014-01-01

    Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men. Moreover, the symptoms they experience also show sex differences: women tend to develop depression at an earlier age and show more severe symptoms than men. Likewise, the response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy appears to have sex difference

  10. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  11. Sex-specific developmental profiles of juvenile hormone synthesis in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna

    1993-02-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.

  12. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...... than 0.001, respectively). There was a significant increase in SSR from prepuberty to puberty (p less than 0.001) for both sexes. The children with GH deficiency, all pre-pubertal, showed significantly reduced SSR (p less than 0.001) compared with the healthy children (median values: 32.8 vs 80.0 mg 30...... (GH) deficiency (aged 4.2 to 13.5 years, mean age 8.9 years). Boys had higher median values for SSR than girls (pre-pubertal children: 92.7 vs 64.5 mg 30 min-1 pubertal children: 110.3 vs 73.1 mg 30 min-1), and men showed higher values than women (135.5 vs 49.2 mg 30 min-1). In addition, the change...

  13. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena

    2014-09-01

    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  14. CONTENTS BASAL LEVELS of SEX HORMONES and PITUITARY HORMONES IN PATIENTS DEMODECOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnya K. I.; Revenko Zh. A.

    2014-01-01

    The regularities of changes in the nature and dynamics of clinical – hormonal parameters are revealed in this research that are not being specific they expand knowledge of the pathogenesis of demodicosis and create certain conditions for the directed correction of compensatory and adaptive capabilities of the host and open up prospect for improvement – pathogenetic treatment of demodicosis and its complications.

  15. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  16. Sleep, sex steroid hormones, sexual activities, and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H-H; Tong, Terry Y-Y

    2010-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to examine the different associations of age and sleep duration with sex steroid hormones and sexual activities in 531 Asian Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Sleep duration and sexual activities were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire, and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured by established immunoassay methods in a single blood sample collected between 8:00 and 11:00 am. Bioavailable T (BioT) was calculated using the Vermeulen formula. Age was a major determinant of sleep, sex steroid hormones, and sexual activities in men. BioT, DHEAS, coital frequency, masturbation, and sleep duration declined with age. On the other hand, SHBG and E2 increased with age. Sleep duration, independently of age, aerobic exercise, and body fat, was positively associated with T and BioT, but not with DHEAS, E2, or any of the sexual activities studied. Men who masturbated had higher levels of both T and BioT. DHEAS was significantly associated with coital frequency and desire for sex. The present study showed that besides age, sleep duration was associated with androgen concentrations in men, and thus the evaluation of sleep hygiene may be beneficial in the management of men with low androgen concentrations. DHEAS may be independently associated with some sexual functions in men.

  17. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwurugwu, J N; Ifedi, C U; Uchefuna, R C; Ezeokafor, E N; Alagwu, E A

    2013-06-30

    This study assessed the effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in male albino wistar rats. Forty rats weighing between 150- 210g, grouped into 5 of 8 rats each, were used for the research that lasted for six weeks. Group I, the control group, received normal rat chow and water ad libitum. The four test groups II-V, received 20g, 40g, 60g and 80g of zinc sulphate mixed with their rat chow respectively in addition to water for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone and oestradiol. Semen was also analysed for sperm motility, sperm count and morphology. Results showed statistically significant decrease in serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (pzinc concentrations. There was statistically significant dose dependent decrease in sperm motility and morphology in the test groups compared with the control (pzinc sulphate has some significant positive effects on male sex hormones and sperm quality at doses within physiological levels but harmful at higher doses.

  18. Effect of matricaria recutita on acute pain in the presence and absence of sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Chamomile is a beneficial herbal drug that is used as an anti-inflammatory, sedative and anti-allergic agent. The mechanism of action of matricaria recutita (MR, a specious of chamomile, in nociception in male and female animals is not fully understood. In this study, the sedative effect of a species of chamomile, MR, on acute pain was investigated in both male and female adult mice in the presence and absence of sex hormones.
    METHODS: Male and female NMRI mice weighing 28 ± 3 grams were used. Animals of each sex were divided into intact and gonadectomized groups. Intact group received saline or MR extract (10, 30, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Gonadectomized group contained two subgroups: a group that received saline or MR hydro alcoholic extract (50 mg/kg, I.P., and b group that received sex hormones (testosterone in male mice and estradiol benzoate and progesterone in female mice, both with and without MR extract (50mg/kg, IP. The analgesia times in all groups were evaluated by hot plate test.
    RESULTS: MR increased analgesia time both in intact and gonadectomized male and female mice, but had no effect in the presence of pharmacological doses of testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous in male mice, and estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg, SC and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg, SC in female mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: It seems that MR can induce a pain-relieving effect with and without physiological doses of sex hormones in male and female mice, but sex hormones probably interact with its analgesic effect in their pharmacological doses.
    KEY WORDS: Matricaria recutita, pain, testosterone, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, hot plate.

  19. Hormones and sex differences: changes in cardiac electrophysiology with pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Glenna C L

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of cardiac electrical activity resulting in palpitations and syncope is often an early symptom of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a time of dramatic and dynamic physiological and hormonal changes during which numerous demands are placed on the heart. These changes result in electrical remodelling which can be detected as changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). This gestational remodelling is a very under-researched area. There are no systematic large studies powered to determine changes in the ECG from pre-pregnancy, through gestation, and into the postpartum period. The large variability between patients and the dynamic nature of pregnancy hampers interpretation of smaller studies, but some facts are consistent. Gestational cardiac hypertrophy and a physical shift of the heart contribute to changes in the ECG. There are also electrical changes such as an increased heart rate and lengthening of the QT interval. There is an increased susceptibility to arrhythmias during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Some changes in the ECG are clearly the result of changes in ion channel expression and behaviour, but little is known about the ionic basis for this electrical remodelling. Most information comes from animal models, and implicates changes in the delayed-rectifier channels. However, it is likely that there are additional roles for sodium channels as well as changes in calcium homoeostasis. The changes in the electrical profile of the heart during pregnancy and the postpartum period have clear implications for the safety of pregnant women, but the field remains relatively undeveloped.

  20. Sex hormone-binding globulin and antithrombin III activity in women with oral ultra-low-dose estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Sumika; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Kana; Keyama, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kanako; Kato, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-03-20

    Oral oestrogen increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and increases production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in a dose-dependent manner. SHBG has been suggested to be involved in venous thromboembolism. We examined the effects of oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol on circulating levels of SHBG and coagulation parameters, and we compared the effects to those of transdermal oestradiol. Twenty women received oral oestradiol (500 μg) every day (oral ultra-low-dose group) and 20 women received a transdermal patch (50 μg) as a transdermal group. In addition, the women received dydrogesterone continuously (5 mg) except for women who underwent hysterectomy. Circulating SHBG, antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex were measured before and 3 months after the start of treatment. SHBG was significantly increased at 3 months in the oral ultra-low-dose group, but not in the transdermal group. However, percent changes in SHBG were not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, ATIII was significantly decreased at 3 months. In conclusion, even ultra-low-dose oestradiol orally increases circulating SHBG level. However, the magnitude of change in SHBG caused by oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol is small and is comparable to that caused by transdermal oestradiol. Impact statement Oral oestrogen replacement therapy increases production of SHBG which may be related to increase in VTE risk. However, the effect of oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol on SHBG has not been clarified. Even ultra-low-dose oestradiol orally increases circulating SHBG levels, but the magnitude of change in SHBG caused by oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol is small and is comparable to that caused by transdermal oestradiol. VTE risk in women receiving oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol may be comparable to that in women receiving transdermal oestradiol.

  1. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  2. CONTENTS BASAL LEVELS of SEX HORMONES and PITUITARY HORMONES IN PATIENTS DEMODECOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnya K. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of changes in the nature and dynamics of clinical – hormonal parameters are revealed in this research that are not being specific they expand knowledge of the pathogenesis of demodicosis and create certain conditions for the directed correction of compensatory and adaptive capabilities of the host and open up prospect for improvement – pathogenetic treatment of demodicosis and its complications.

  3. Circulating microRNA as a biomarker of human growth hormone administration to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian N; Haverstick, Doris M; Lee, Jae K; Thorner, Michael O; Vance, Mary Lee; Xin, Wenjun; Bruns, David E

    2014-03-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma are being studied for use as biomarkers of specific diseases and as markers of administration of pharmaceutical agents. Administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is prohibited by sporting authorities, but it continues to be used by athletes attempting to gain an unfair advantage in athletic competition. Current methods for detection of rhGH use rely on immunoassay technology and are limited by a short time-frame in which detection of rhGH is possible. We hypothesized that administration of rhGH would alter expression of circulating miRNAs and that any changes could be detected. To identify potential miRNA targets, we utilized miRNA microarrays for screening. Confirmatory testing used real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays of selected miRNAs in 35 plasma samples obtained from (1) individuals with no known pituitary disorders, (2) patients with excess GH production, and (3) patients receiving therapeutic replacement doses of rhGH. We identified and confirmed four miRNAs that were differentially expressed in all individuals using therapeutic replacement doses of rhGH when compared to individuals with naturally high levels of GH and normal controls. This study further develops the hypothesis that circulating miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for detection of doping in sports.

  4. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  5. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  6. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  7. Developmental link between sex and nutrition; doublesex regulates sex-specific mandible growth via juvenile hormone signaling in stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphisms in trait expression are widespread among animals and are especially pronounced in ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, which can attain exaggerated sizes. Expression of exaggerated traits is usually male-specific and nutrition sensitive. Consequently, the developmental mechanisms generating sexually dimorphic growth and nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity are each likely to regulate the expression of extreme structures. Yet we know little about how either of these mechanisms work, much less how they might interact with each other. We investigated the developmental mechanisms of sex-specific mandible growth in the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on doublesex gene function and its interaction with juvenile hormone (JH signaling. doublesex genes encode transcription factors that orchestrate male and female specific trait development, and JH acts as a mediator between nutrition and mandible growth. We found that the Cmdsx gene regulates sex differentiation in the stag beetle. Knockdown of Cmdsx by RNA-interference in both males and females produced intersex phenotypes, indicating a role for Cmdsx in sex-specific trait growth. By combining knockdown of Cmdsx with JH treatment, we showed that female-specific splice variants of Cmdsx contribute to the insensitivity of female mandibles to JH: knockdown of Cmdsx reversed this pattern, so that mandibles in knockdown females were stimulated to grow by JH treatment. In contrast, mandibles in knockdown males retained some sensitivity to JH, though mandibles in these individuals did not attain the full sizes of wild type males. We suggest that moderate JH sensitivity of mandibular cells may be the default developmental state for both sexes, with sex-specific Dsx protein decreasing sensitivity in females, and increasing it in males. This study is the first to demonstrate a causal link between the sex determination and JH signaling pathways, which clearly interact to

  8. Circulating thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypothyroid status and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Mondul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer incidence in male smokers, 402 prostate cancer cases were sampled. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prostate cancer were estimated for quintiles of serum total and free thyroxine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG, and by categories of thyroid status. RESULTS: Men with serum higher TSH had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to men with lower TSH (Q5 vs. Q1-4: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97, p = 0.03. When the T4 and TSH measurements were combined to define men as hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid, hypothyroid men had a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to euthyroid men (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81, p = 0.006. We observed no association between hyperthyroid status and risk, although the number of hyperthyroid men with prostate cancer was small (n = 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of smokers, men with elevated TSH and those classified as being in a hypothyroid state were at decreased risk of prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the association in other populations, particularly non-smokers and other racial/ethnic groups.

  9. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S

    1991-01-01

    significantly (p less than 0.05) younger at the time of natural menopause than controls. Compared to controls, non-cirrhotic alcoholic women had significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced levels of DHAS, significantly (p less than 0.05) more alcoholic cirrhotic women had detectable oestradiol concentrations......In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were......, elevated concentrations of oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and reduced levels of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), while women with non-alcoholic cirrhosis had significantly elevated concentrations of SHBG and reduced levels of oestrone sulphate, DHT, androstenedione...

  10. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence.

  11. Down regulation of gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway in mouse testes by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2011-12-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on enzymes involved in sex-hormone synthesis pathway in male C57BL/6 mice were investigated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expressions of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD1, and CYP17 while CYP19 mRNA expression was slightly decreased. In addition, the expression of 17β-HSD2 was induced in correlation with those did by estradiol. These observations supported that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol could exhibit the same effect as estradiol regarding regulation of testicular gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  13. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

    2008-06-01

    (-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters.

  14. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John R B

    2016-02-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7,879,351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (Phormone regulation.

  15. The pregnancy-induced increase in baseline circulating growth hormone in rats is not induced by ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kasti, M M; Christian, H C; Huerta-Ocampo, I; Stolbrink, M; Gill, S; Houston, P A; Davies, J S; Chilcott, J; Hill, N; Matthews, D R; Carter, D A; Wells, T

    2008-03-01

    The elevation in baseline circulating growth hormone (GH) that occurs in pregnant rats is thought to arise from increased pituitary GH secretion, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Distribution, Fourier and algorithmic analyses confirmed that the pregnancy-induced increase in circulating GH in 3-week pregnant rats was due to a 13-fold increase in baseline circulating GH (P hormone mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (P produce 'pituitary' GH. Although not excluding the possibility that the pregnancy-associated elevation in baseline circulating GH could arise from alternative extra-pituitary sources (e.g. the ovary), our data indicate that this phenomenon is most likely to result from a direct alteration of somatotroph function.

  16. Sex, stress and the brain: interactive actions of hormones on the developing and adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, B S

    2014-12-01

    The brain is a target of steroid hormone actions that affect brain architecture, molecular and neurochemical processes, behavior and neuroprotection via both genomic and non-genomic actions. Estrogens have such effects throughout the brain and this article provides an historical and current view of how this new view has come about and how it has affected the study of sex differences, as well as other areas of neuroscience, including the effects of stress on the brain.

  17. Optical properties of two types of sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkin, Yu. P.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Pomogaev, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    The spectral and luminescent characteristics of estradiol and testosterone—two basic sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series—are calculated by employing quantum-chemical methods. The results of calculations are in good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that fluorescence observed in estrogens is associated with the occurrence of the lowest ππ state, while the absence of fluorescence in androgens is attributed to the existence of the lowest nπ state, from which fluorescence is forbidden.

  18. A Brief Review on How Pregnancy and Sex Hormones Interfere with Taste and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Faas, Marijke M.; Melgert, Barbro N.; De Vos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Many physiological and behavioral changes take place during pregnancy, including changes in taste and an increase in food intake. These changes are necessary to ensure growth and development of a healthy fetus. Both hyperphagia and taste changes during pregnancy may be induced by sex hormones estrogen and progesterone that are increased during pregnancy. Indeed, it has been shown that estrogen decreases food intake, while progesterone increases food intake. This is for instance apparent from ...

  19. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  20. Cutaneous microvascular response during local cold exposure - the effect of female sex hormones and cold perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Music, Mark; Finderle, Zare

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that differences exist between males and females with regard to sensitivity to cold. Similar differences even among females in different hormonal balance might influence microvascular response during cold provocation testing. The aim of the present study was to measure sex hormone levels, cold and cold pain perception thresholds and compare them to cutaneous laser-Doppler flux response during local cooling in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. In the luteal phase a more pronounced decrease in laser-Doppler flux was observed compared to follicular phase during local cooling at 15°C (significant difference by Dunnett's test, psex hormone levels is related to the cold-provocation temperature.

  1. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Onat, F.Y.; Gallagher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, t

  2. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients.

  3. Measures of bioavailable serum sex hormone levels in aging Chinese by protein chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong; DU Guanhua; CHANG Shuying; MENG Xiaoluo; YU Huafeng; WANG Luning; HE Jinggui; ZHANG Baohe; ZHANG Juntian; GENG Meiyu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a protein chip technique based on receptor binding assays to measure bioavailable serum sex hormone levels (BSSHL). 224 aging healthy Chinese were investigated to get the referenced values of BSSHL for the first time. In the assays recombined sex hormone receptor proteins were jointed to polysaccharide coated slides to make protein chip, and the dose-dependence curves of sex hormone on chip were prepared. The data showed that this method had good precision (CV<16%) and accuracy (Bias<10%), and the sensitivity could reach 1 pmol/L. From the results, BSSHL of men and women declined with aging, but no significant differences were observed. The BSSHL of aging men were higher than those of women. The bioavailable serum androgen level of men was 52―112 pmol/L, women's was 3―70 pmol/L and the whole group was 41.9―81.4 pmol/L. The bioavailable serum estrogen level of men was 0.8―3.0 pmol/L, women's was 1.2―2.5 pmol/L and the whole group was 0.6―2.64 pmol/L. Based on the assays, BSSHL measurement by protein chip can meet the needs of epidemiological studies in terms of speed, accuracy and sample volume required, and was helpful in quantitative assessment of aging people's health.

  4. Sex and stress hormone influences on the expression and activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D L; Handa, R J

    2013-06-03

    The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is recognized as a key component in the regulation of CNS ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity. The importance of BDNF in CNS development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of CNS physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete. However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but also in mechanisms of signaling associated with it. In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and GCs, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the CNS.

  5. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  6. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-05-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneous crying was sampled in 18 healthy infants, averaging two samples taken at four and eight weeks, respectively. Blood samples were taken within a day of the crying samples. The fundamental frequency contour (melody) was analysed quantitatively and the infants' frequency modulation skills expressed by a melody complexity index (MCI). These skills provide prosodic primitives for later language. A hierarchical, multiple regression approach revealed a significant, robust relationship between the individual MCIs and the unbound, bioactive fraction of oestradiol at four weeks as well as with the four-to-eight-week difference in androstenedione. No robust relationship was found between the MCI and testosterone. Our findings suggest that oestradiol may have effects on the development and function of the auditory-vocal system in human infants that are as powerful as those in vocal-learning animals.

  7. The dermatoglyphic characteristics of transsexuals: is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbekoorn, D; van Goozen, S H; Sanders, G; Gooren, L J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2000-05-01

    It has been proposed that gender identity and sexual orientation are influenced by the prenatal sex steroid milieu. Human dermatoglyphics and brain asymmetry have also been ascribed to prenatal hormone levels. This study investigated dermatoglyphics (total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry) in 184 male-to-female transsexuals and 110 female-to-male transsexuals. In a subgroup, the relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and spatial ability was tested. All investigations included controls. For all subjects hand preference and sexual orientation were noted. We hypothesized that the dermatoglyphics of male-to-female transsexuals would show similarities with control women and those of female-to-male transsexuals with control men. Our results showed a trend for a sex difference in total ridge count (Pasymmetry was found. Contrary to our expectations, the total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry of transsexuals were similar to their genetic sex controls. Additionally, directional asymmetry was neither related to sexual orientation, nor to different aspects of spatial ability. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that our chosen dermatoglyphic variables, total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry are related to gender identity and sexual orientation in adult transsexuals. Hence, we found no support for a prenatal hormonal influence on these characteristics, at least insofar as dermatoglyphics may be regarded as a biological marker of organizing hormonal effects.

  8. Contribution of sex hormones to gender differences in schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tricia L; Ravindran, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Female patients with schizophrenia tend to have a more benign course and better outcomes than males. One proposed explanation is the differential influence of male and female sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Such benefit may be mediated by their effects on neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. Besides altered estrogen and DHEA/DHEAS levels in female patients, data is equivocal on hormonal differences between patients and controls. However, several reports note a mostly negative correlation between estrogen levels and symptom severity in both genders, and a positive correlation between estrogen levels and neurocognition but mainly in females. Adjunctive estrogen appears to improve symptoms in both genders. Progesterone levels have inconsistent links to symptom severity in both genders, and correlate positively with neurocognition but only in males. Estrogen-progesterone combination shows preliminary benefits as augmentation for both symptoms and neurocognition in females. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with negative symptoms in males and have inconsistent associations with neurocognition in both genders. Testosterone augmentation reduced negative symptoms in male patients in a pilot investigation, but has not been evaluated for neurocognition in either gender. DHEA/DHEAS have mixed results for their association with, and clinical utility for, symptoms and neurocognition in both genders. Overall, data on the impact of sex hormones on clinical course or as treatment for schizophrenia is limited, but estrogen has most evidence for positive influence and clinical benefit. The possibly greater tolerability and broader impact of these hormones versus existing medications support further exploration of their use.

  9. Comparison on the Effects of Three Sex Hormones on the Fetal Rat Calvarial Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lulu; ZENG Tianshu; XIA Wenfang; KE Li

    2000-01-01

    17β-estradiol(E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were investigated for their effects on the proliferation and differentiation of primary rat calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. Rat calvarial osteoblasts were cultured with l0-10 mol/L E2, 10-9-10-6 mol/L P and l0-10 mol/L T for 20days. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Cell differentiation was examined by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin gene expression and production, bone nodule formation in different periods of culture. Our results showed that no effect of three sex hormones was observed on cell proliferation, but, the responses of cell differentiation to the hormones were more or less different. Among these three hormones used in this study, P appeared to have multi-stimulating effect on cell differentiation. Effect of T seemed not so significant as that of P on cell differentiation. Although ALP activity and osteocalcin production were increased significantly by T, it had slight effect on osteocalcin mRNA and bone nodule formation. Besides, E2 did not demonstrate any effect on cell differentiation. It is concluded that the proliferation of rat calvarial osteoblasts was independent of the presence of sex hormones. However, the differentiation of these cells were stimulated in different levels and to different extent either by P or T. P appeared to be a multi-stimulator on differentiation of such cells.

  10. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels (i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone) in Louisiana barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that were...

  11. Sex differentiation disorders (SDD) prenatal sonographic diagnosis, genetic and hormonal work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katorza, Eldad; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Mazkereth, Ram; Gilboa, Yinon; Achiron, Reuven

    2009-09-01

    Gender is determined by the genetic, gonadal and hormonal/ phenotypic sex. Genetic sex is determined at conception. The establishment of the gonadal sex (ovary/testis) and the phenotypic sex (external and internal genitalia) is a complicated multistep process which is determined during fetal life mainly during the first trimester. Recently more genes have been found to be involved in this process. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal gender can be made using ultrasound technology, genetic and hormonal examinations. Nowadays using a vaginal and abdominal transducer for US examination recognition of external and internal genitalia of both genders is possible. The determination of gender during fetal life is important not only as a matter of curiosity; in some cases of ambiguity (for example congenital adrenal hyperplasia) prenatal treatment can change the natural history of the disease. Prenatal diagnosis can also subtype the ambiguity, and its severity can be established. In this review we describe our experience in prenatal diagnosis and establishment of the fetal gender, the subtypes of ambiguity and our suggestion for the process of diagnostic work-up.

  12. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  13. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  14. Analysis of the effects of sex hormone background on the rat choroid plexus transcriptome by cDNA microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Quintela

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (CP are highly vascularized branched structures that protrude into the ventricles of the brain, and form a unique interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the blood-CSF barrier, that are the main site of production and secretion of CSF. Sex hormones are widely recognized as neuroprotective agents against several neurodegenerative diseases, and the presence of sex hormones cognate receptors suggest that it may be a target for these hormones. In an effort to provide further insight into the neuroprotective mechanisms triggered by sex hormones we analyzed gene expression differences in the CP of female and male rats subjected to gonadectomy, using microarray technology. In gonadectomized female and male animals, 3045 genes were differentially expressed by 1.5-fold change, compared to sham controls. Analysis of the CP transcriptome showed that the top-five pathways significantly regulated by the sex hormone background are olfactory transduction, taste transduction, metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and circadian rhythm pathways. These results represent the first overview of global expression changes in CP of female and male rats induced by gonadectomy and suggest that sex hormones are implicated in pathways with central roles in CP functions and CSF homeostasis.

  15. A liver metalloendopeptidase which degrades the circulating hypotensive peptide hormones bradykinin and atrial natriuretic peptide

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    Carvalho K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new metalloendopeptidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a homogenate of normal human liver using successive steps of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed the Pro7-Phe8 bond of bradykinin and the Ser25-Tyr26 bond of atrial natriuretic peptide. No cleavage was produced in other peptide hormones such as vasopressin, oxytocin or Met- and Leu-enkephalin. This enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 mM divalent cation chelators such as EDTA, EGTA and o-phenanthroline and was insensitive to 1 µM phosphoramidon and captopril, specific inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1, respectively. With Mr 85 kDa, the enzyme exhibits optimal activity at pH 7.5. The high affinity of this endopeptidase for bradykinin (Km = 10 µM and for atrial natriuretic peptide (Km = 5 µM suggests that it may play a physiological role in the inactivation of these circulating hypotensive peptide hormones.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of eleven sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Mingtai; Mu, Jun; Lu, Lijun; Zhou, Xiao

    2011-06-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. The sex hormones in antler velvet were enriched and purified by solid phase extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA). A DB-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm) with nonlinear gradient program was used in GC separation. The sex hormones were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method realized the complete separation of 11 sex hormones. The limits of detection of this method were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg for the 11 sex hormones. The correlation coefficients were between 0.991 6 and 0.999 9. The recoveries were in the range of 67.4% - 99.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.6% - 13%. This method is accurate and reliable for the determination of the sex hormones in antler velvet health products.

  17. Equine fetal sex determination using circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Deschamps, João Carlos; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Collares, Tiago

    2012-02-01

    In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reamplification of the first PCR product (2nd-PCR) and a qPCR assay were used to detect the sex determining region Y (SRY) gene from circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) in blood plasma of pregnant mares to determine fetal sex. The ccffDNA was isolated from plasma of 20 Thoroughbred mares (5-13 y old) in the final 3 mo of pregnancy (fetal sex was verified after foaling). For controls, plasma from two non-pregnant mares and two virgin mares were used, in addition to the non-template control. The 182 bp nucleotide sequence corresponding to the SRY-PCR product was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Based on SRY/PCR, 8 of 11 male and 9 of 9 female fetuses were correctly identified, resulting in a sensitivity of 72.7% (for male fetuses) and an overall accuracy of 85%. Furthermore, using SRY/2nd-PCR and qPCR techniques, sensitivity and accuracy were 90.9 and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, this study is apparently the first report of fetal sex determination in mares using ccffDNA.

  18. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  19. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  20. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  1. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and "life-history" etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R; Largaespada, Leah L

    2006-01-01

    When dental caries rates are reported by sex, females are typically found to exhibit higher prevalence rates than males. This finding is generally true for diverse cultures with different subsistence systems and for a wide range of chronological periods. Exceptions exist, but are not common. In this paper, we present new data for sex differences in dental caries rates among the Guanches (Tenerife, Canary Islands), summarize results of meta-analyses of dental caries prevalence, and emphasize new research that stresses the critical role of female hormones and life-history events in the etiology of dental caries. Among the Guanches, corrected tooth-count caries rates for females (8.8%, 158/1,790) are approximately twice the frequency of caries among males (4.5%, 68/1,498). Higher caries prevalence among females is often explained by one of three factors: 1) earlier eruption of teeth in girls, hence longer exposure of girls' teeth to the cariogenic oral environment, 2) easier access to food supplies by women and frequent snacking during food preparation, and 3) pregnancy. Anthropologists tend to favor explanations involving behavior, including sexual division of labor and women's domestic role in food production. By contrast, the causal pathways through which pregnancy contributes to poorer oral health and higher caries rates are deemphasized or discounted. This paper presents recent research on physiological changes associated with fluctuating hormone levels during individual life histories, and the impact these changes have on the oral health of women. The biochemical composition of saliva and overall saliva flow rate are modified in several important ways by hormonal fluctuations during events such as puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy, making the oral environment significantly more cariogenic for women than for men. These results suggest that hormonal fluctuations can have a dramatic effect on the oral health of women, and constitute an important causal factor in

  2. Individual exercise sessions alter circulating hormones and cytokines in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Wesley David; Phillips, Kenneth Doyle; Durstine, John Larry; Burgess, Stephanie E; Lyerly, George William; Davis, John Mark; Hand, Gregory Allen

    2010-08-01

    Exercise has the potential to impact disease by altering circulating anabolic and catabolic factors. It was the goal of this study to determine how different regimens of low-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise affected circulating levels of these anabolic and catabolic factors in HIV-infected men. Exercise-naive, HIV-infected men, medically cleared for study participation, were randomized into one of the following groups: a moderate-intensity group (MOD, who completed 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic training followed by 30 min of moderate-intensity resistance training; a low-intensity group (LOW), who completed 60 min of treadmill walking; or a control group (CON), who attended the clinic but participated in no activity. Blood and saliva samples were collected at selected time points before, during, and after each of the 3 required sessions. Compared with baseline, the MOD group (n=14) had a 135% increase in growth hormone (GH) (pexercise, and a 23% increase in IL-6 (pexercise. The LOW (n=11) group had a 3.5% decrease in sTNFrII (exercise compared with baseline and a 49% decrease (pexercise. The CON group (n=13) had a decrease in GH at 30-min (62%, pexercise compared with baseline. The increase in GH from baseline to post was greater in the MOD group (pexercise can alter circulating anabolic and catabolic factors in HIV-infected men. The changes in the MOD group present potential mechanisms for the increases in lean tissue mass seen with resistance exercise training.

  3. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eDerntl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed a novel computerized decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010, which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors.Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors.

  4. Sex differences in hormone-sensitive lipase expression, activity, and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Donsmark, Morten; Thiele, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Women have been shown to use more intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during exercise than men. To investigate whether this could be due to sex-specific regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and to use sex comparison as a model to gain further insight into HSL regulation, nine women and e...

  5. The Relationship between Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Sex Hormones during the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavilani, H. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in female reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes during menstrual cycle. In addition, the relationship between activity of antioxidant enzyme and sex hormones was evaluated. Material and Methods: In this study the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in twenty women with regular menstrual cycle were studied. Furthermore, the correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (P>0.05. We found significant correlation, in luteal phase, between superoxide dismutase and FSH (P<0.05، r=0.44 and LH P<0.05،r=0.54. Also it is observed between LH and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05، r=0.44. Conclusion: Based on the results, there is no significant difference between antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma during menstrual cycle. In other words, physiologic system of women with regular menstrual cycle can protect body against oxidative stress and this is probably performed due to action of FSH and LH hormones. Keywords: Antioxidants; Menstrual cycle; Sex hormones

  6. Antioxidant status in women with uterine leiomyoma: relation with sex hormones

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    SNEŽANA PEJIĆ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUterine leiomyomas are benign soft-tissues tumors that arise from uterine smooth muscle tissue. Etiopathogenesis of leiomyomas is not well understood. We aimed to examine whether antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid hydroperoxides level in patients with leiomyoma are influenced by changes in sex hormones and gonadotropins (estradiol (E2, progesterone, FSH, and LH during menstrual cycle and in postmenopause. The material consisted of blood and uterine tissue specimens. Hormone concentrations were determined and assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and lipid hydroperoxides concentration were performed. In blood of examined women, a significant difference in catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was recorded among the phases. There was also a positive correlation between the estradiol/progesterone concentration and the catalase activity. Progesterone negatively correlated with lipid hydroperoxides level. In myoma tissue, we recorded a phase-related difference in lipid hydroperoxides level and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione reductase. Negative correlation was observed between FSH and glutathione peroxidase. The results suggest that antioxidant status in patients with uterine leiomyoma is influenced by the changes in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopause, indicating a role of the observed relationship in the leiomyoma etiology.

  7. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling.

  8. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  9. Is a sex-determining gene(s) necessary for sex-determination in amphibians? Steroid hormones may be the key factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians have 2 genetic sex-determining systems, one with male (XX/XY) and one with female (ZZ/ZW) heterogamety. While the ancestral state of sex-determination is thought to be female heterogamety, male and female heterogametic types were probably once interchangeable. The Japanese frog Rana rugosa has both XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems within a single species in certain local populations. However, steroid hormones can alter the phenotypic sex epigenetically. In R. rugosa, steroidogenic enzyme expression starts before sex-determination in the indifferent gonad, and these enzymes become active in both male and female tadpoles. Androgens are produced in the indifferent gonad of male tadpoles at high levels, whereas estrogens are synthesized in females. In this regard, the observed enhanced expression of the hormone-metabolizing genes, CYP19 in the female gonad and CYP17 in males, may be crucial for sex-determination. Moreover, with FSH known to increase estrogen synthesis in the vertebrate ovary, observed upregulation of FSH receptor (FSHR) expression in the indifferent gonad of female tadpoles is intriguing. These data suggest that steroid hormones could be crucial for sex-determination in R. rugosa, with the consequence that upregulation of CYP19 and FSHR expression is necessary for female and CYP17 for male sex-determination.

  10. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S.; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do variants of the genes encoding follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit (B) and FSH receptor (R) impact circulating reproductive hormone levels and ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: FSHB and FSHR genetic variants exert, alone...... or their combination, distinct effects on reproductive hormone levels as well as ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FSHB and FSHR genetic variants impact reproductive hormone levels as well as associated pathologies in women. While FSHR c. 2039A>G is known to alter...... as pathological conditions is being increasingly elucidated. The variant triplet set might serve as diagnostic and pharmacogenetic marker. For the first time, we show an additional effect of FSHR c.-29G>A on serum FSH levels in healthy girls. Moreover, morphological data suggest impaired FSH-induced maturation...

  11. Extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones, ischemic heart disease, and death in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Voss, Sidsel Skou; Holmegard, Haya N;

    2015-01-01

    of ischemic heart disease and death in women. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a nested prospective cohort study, we measured plasma estradiol in 4600 and total testosterone in 4716 women not receiving oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy from the 1981 to 1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart......OBJECTIVE: Sex hormones may be critical determinants of ischemic heart disease and death in women, but results from previous studies are conflicting. To clarify this, we tested the hypothesis that extreme plasma concentrations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone are associated with risk......%-81%) higher; however, plasma estradiol concentrations did not associate with death. Also, in women with a plasma testosterone concentration at or above the 95th percentile compared with between the 10th and 89th percentiles, multifactorially adjusted risk was 68% (34%-210%) higher for ischemic heart disease...

  12. Sex-different and growth hormone-regulated expression of microRNA in rat liver

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    Tollet-Egnell Petra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs playing an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We have previously shown that hepatic transcript profiles are different between males and females; that some of these differences are under the regulation of growth hormone (GH; and that mild starvation diminishes some of the differences. In this study, we tested if hepatic miRNAs are regulated in a similar manner. Results Using microarrays, miRNA screening was performed to identify sex-dependent miRNAs in rat liver. Out of 324 unique probes on the array, 254 were expressed in the liver and eight (3% of 254 of those were found to be different between the sexes. Among the eight putative sex-different miRNAs, only one female-predominant miRNA (miR-29b was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, 1 week of continuous GH-treatment in male rats reduced the levels of miR-451 and miR-29b, whereas mild starvation (12 hours raised the levels of miR-451, miR-122a and miR-29b in both sexes. The biggest effects were obtained on miR-29b with GH-treatment. Conclusion We conclude that hepatic miRNA levels depend on the hormonal and nutritional status of the animal and show that miR-29b is a female-predominant and GH-regulated miRNA in rat liver.

  13. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  14. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens.

  15. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bortolin Lodi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n=108 were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx, orchiectomized (Orx, or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution, isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX. Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones.

  16. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  17. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  18. Gonadotropin-induced changes in oviducal mRNA expression levels of sex steroid hormone receptors and activin-related signaling factors in the alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Forouhar, Sara; Kohno, Satomi; Botteri, Nicole L.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    Oviducts respond to hormonal cues from ovaries with tissue proliferation and differentiation in preparation of transporting and fostering gametes. These responses produce oviducal microenvironments conducive to reproductive success. Here we investigated changes in circulating plasma sex steroid hormones concentrations and ovarian and oviducal mRNA expression to an in vivo gonadotropin (FSH) challenge in sexually immature, five-month-old alligators. Further, we investigated differences in these observed responses between alligators hatched from eggs collected at a heavily-polluted (Lake Apopka, FL) and minimally-polluted (Lake Woodruff, FL) site. In oviducts, we measured mRNA expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors and also beta A and B subunits which homo- or heterodimerize to produce the transforming growth factor activin. In comparison, minimal inhibin alpha subunit mRNA expression suggests that these oviducts produce a primarily activin-dominated signaling milieu. Ovaries responded to a five-day FSH challenge with increased expression of steroidogenic enzyme mRNA which was concomitant with increased circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. Oviducts in the FSH-challenged Lake Woodruff alligators increased mRNA expression of progesterone and androgen receptors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and the activin signaling antagonist follistatin. In contrast, Lake Apopka alligators displayed a diminished increase in ovarian CYP19A1 aromatase expression and no increase in oviducal AR expression, as compared to those observed in Lake Woodruff alligators. These results demonstrate that five-month-old female alligators display an endocrine-responsive ovarian-oviducal axis and environmental pollution exposure may alter these physiological responses. PMID:22154572

  19. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  20. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... a behavioral response of A. ipsilon males to sex pheromone....

  1. Do sex hormones influence emotional modulation of pain and nociception in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; Martin, Satin L; Delventura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones may contribute to inter- and intra-individual differences in pain by influencing emotional modulation of pain and nociception. To study this, a well-validated picture-viewing paradigm was used to assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiologic measure of nociception) during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy normally cycling women (n=40). Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were assessed at each testing session. Emotional modulation of pain/NFR did not differ across menstrual phases, but low estradiol was associated with weaker emotional modulation of NFR (during all phases) and emotional modulation of pain (ovulatory and late-luteal phases). Given evidence that a failure to emotionally modulate pain might be a risk factor for chronic pain, low estradiol may promote chronic pain via this mechanism. However, future research is needed to extend these findings to women with disturbances of pain, emotion, and/or sex hormones.

  2. Sexual fantasies and gender/sex: a multimethod approach with quantitative content analysis and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M

    2014-01-01

    Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex.

  3. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

  4. Skin test reactivity to female sex hormones in women with primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Fathi, Hesham M; Farres, Mohamed N; Taha, Marwa S

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to examine the hypothesis that primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss might be associated with an inappropriate immunologically mediated response to progesterone and/or estrogen. This prospective study included 47 women with two or more documented consecutive early pregnancy losses of unknown etiology, and no previous history of deliveries. Intradermal skin testing was performed in the luteal phase of the cycle (days 16-20) using estradiol benzoate, progesterone, and a placebo of refined sesame oil. Immediate (20 min) and late (24h and 1 week) skin test readings for all cases were compared with those of 12 parous women of comparable age with no history of spontaneous miscarriages, premenstrual disorders, pregnancy, or sex hormone-related allergic or autoimmune diseases. Main outcome measure was skin test reactivity to estradiol and/or progesterone. Immediate skin test reactivity to both hormones was observed among half of the cases at 20 min. A papule after 24h, which persisted for up to 1 week, was observed among 32 (68.1%) and 34 (72.3%) cases at the sites of estrogen and progesterone injection, respectively. 55.3% of cases had combined skin test reactivity to both estradiol and progesterone at 1 week. All women in the control group showed absence of skin test reactivity for both estradiol and progesterone at 20 min, 24h, and 1 week. None of the subjects in either group showed skin test reactivity to placebo. There is an association between primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and skin test reactivity to female sex hormones.

  5. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

    1988-07-01

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  6. Do the interactions between glucocorticoids and sex hormones regulate the development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marià eAlemany

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response don't seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release. These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e. levels of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment. Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.

  7. Maternal iron deficiency alters circulating thyroid hormone levels in developing neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency and iron deficiency (FeD) during fetal and neonatal life are both similarly deleterious to mammalian development suggesting a possible linkage between iron and thyroid hormone insufficiencies. Recent published data from our laboratory demonstrate a r...

  8. Absorption and metabolization of sex hormones and their transformation into contraceptive technologies: the paths taken by medical thought in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Claudia; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Nakano, Andreza Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses knowledge assimilation and the development of clinical and research practices relating to sex hormones among Brazilian gynaecologists. It discusses the paths taken by medical thought from the reception of the hormones to their transformation into contraceptives. Our objective is to comprehend styles of introducing and disseminating medical technologies in the area of reproductive health in Brazil. It uses methods of historical analysis and takes as its source the Anais Brasileiros de Ginecologia, a journal published between 1936 and 1970. From the outset, the accompaniment of scientific breakthroughs in relation to sex hormones and their use to treat diverse female illnesses played a key role in the rapid medical acceptance of hormonal contraception. Scientific and technical questions (side effects, dosages) and the demographic issue formed part of the majority of the debates. Objections from the Catholic Church were considered but did not set the agenda of medical thought on contraceptives. The quest to consolidate gynaecology as a scientific, modern and cosmopolitan area of expertise, along with sanitary and demographic motives that allowed contraceptives to be classed as ethical drugs, are identified as processes underlying the assimilation and metabolization of sex hormones as hormonal contraceptives.

  9. Sex Steroid Hormone Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Pesticide Use, and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Carol H.; Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Cook, Michael B.; Kelly, Scott P.; Burdett, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Koutros, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation, and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here, we evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1,444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation (N = 1,100), as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations, as identified by genome-wide association studies (N = 17). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction = 4.0 × 10−5; q-value = 0.03), such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR = 0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and high use of dicamba (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68), compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is

  10. Sex Steroid Hormone Gene Variants, Pesticide Use and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol H Christensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism and regulation (N=1100, as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations as identified by genome-wide association studies (N=17. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction=4.0x10-5; q-value=0.03, such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR=0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93, and high use of dicamba (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68, compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both

  11. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeager Meredith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

  12. Influence of age on pulsatile luteinizing hormone release and responsiveness of the gonadotrophs to sex hormone feedback in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslypere, J P; Kaufman, J M; Vermeulen, T; Vogelaers, D; Vandalem, J L; Vermeulen, A

    1987-01-01

    The influence of aging on serum LH and testosterone (T) pulse frequency and gonadotroph sensitivity to androgen and estrogen feedback was studied in young (less than 55 yr old) and elderly (greater than 65 yr) Trappist monks. LH pulse frequency (sampling interval, 20 min) was significantly lower [0.25 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.38 +/- 0.02 pulses/h; P less than 0.01] in elderly (n = 21) than in young monks (n = 27); the pulse amplitudes were similar. Similarly, T pulse frequency was lower in the elderly than in the young monks (0.13 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.02 pulses/h; P less than 0.01). In elderly men, the hypothalamo-pituitary complex was more sensitive to 5 alpha-androstan-17 beta-ol-3-one feedback, as determined by the decrease in serum LH and T levels. Moreover, during 5 alpha-androstan-17 beta-ol-3-one (125 mg/day, percutaneously, for 10 days) administration, the LH response to LHRH (100 micrograms, iv) was significantly higher in the elderly men compared to the pretreatment response. During estradiol (1.5 mg/day, percutaneously for 10 days) administration, the LH response to LHRH was decreased in the elderly men, but unchanged in the young men, suggesting greater responsiveness to estradiol in the elderly men. We conclude that in aged men, decreased testicular androgen secretion is not exclusively the consequence of a primary testicular alteration, but that important changes occur in hypothalamo-pituitary function, specifically decreased LH pulse frequency and increased LH responsiveness to sex hormone feedback.

  13. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  14. Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Sairam, M Ram

    2014-02-01

    Sex hormone imbalance is causally related with visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction and visceral obesity - an etiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), associated with high risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In general, premenopausal women appear to be protected from CVD and the dramatic decline in sex steroid hormone occurring during menopausal transitions or other sex-related disorders influence the regional distribution, function, and metabolism of AT and increase the risk of CVD. Visceral AT dysfunction, manifesting as abnormality of fatty acid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MetS. However, direct evidence of molecular mechanisms of depot-specific AT alterations, and dysfunction causally related to MetS is limited in studies on postmenopausal women due to difficulty in collecting discrete AT specimens at different ages and repeated sampling from different fat depots. This can be overcome using animal models that can mimic the cluster of pathology leading to MetS and help establish the molecular basis of links between loss of gonadal function on various AT depots and their contribution to MetS. Our group used sex hormone imbalance FSH receptor knock out (FORKO) female mice to recapitulate different aspects of the MetS and addressed the mechanism of visceral obesity related to MetS and discover two novel sex steroid hormone-regulated deep mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDAs) genes. Taken together, such recent studies raise hopes for pharmacologic intervention strategies targeting sex steroid hormone signaling in AT to provide protection against AT dysfunction.

  15. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  16. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  17. Effect of chemotherapy on sex hormone levels in perimenopause women with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Jun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of chemotherapy on the sex hormone levels in perimenopause women with breast cancer.Methods:A total of 90 perimenopause women after breast cancer surgery who were admitted in our hospital from November, 2014 to November, 2015 were included in the study. Those whose PR and ER were positive served as the observation group and were given TAM. Those whose PR and ER were negative served as the control group and were not given TAM. The chemiluminescence method was used to determine the levels of LH, FSH, and E2. The Doppler ultrasound device was used to measure the endometrial thickness and intrauterine depth before and after menopause. After fractional curettage by hysteroscopy, the patients in the observation group were performed with pathological examinations. The pathological change of endometrium before and after menopause was observed.Results:LH and FSH levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, while E2 level was significantly higher than that in the control group. The comparison of endometrial thickness and intrauterine depth before and after menopause was not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of endometrial polyps, endometrial carcinoma, simple hyperplasia, and atypical hyperplasia in patients before menopause was significantly less than that in patients after menopause.Conclusions:Due to be in a special endocrine environment, during TAM administration period for perimenopause women with breast cancer, a regular determination of sex hormone levels, adoption of B ultrasound and hysteroscope to detect the endometrial thickness and pathological change are required in order to guide the clinical medication.

  18. Association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and metabolic syndrome among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sá

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70 who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII. Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT. The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association.

  19. Sex hormone influence on hepatitis in young male A/JCr mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theve, Elizabeth J; Feng, Yan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Cormier, Kathleen S; Bell, David R; Fox, James G; Rogers, Arlin B

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma, is especially virulent in males infected at an early age. Likewise, the murine liver carcinogen Helicobacter hepaticus is most pathogenic in male mice infected before puberty. We used this model to investigate the influence of male sex hormone signaling on infectious hepatitis. Male A/JCr mice were infected with H. hepaticus or vehicle at 4 weeks and randomized into surgical and pharmacologic treatment groups. Interruption of androgen pathways was confirmed by hormone measurements, histopathology, and liver gene and Cyp4a protein expression. Castrated males and those receiving the competitive androgen receptor antagonist flutamide had significantly less severe hepatitis as determined by histologic activity index than intact controls at 4 months. Importantly, the powerful androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone did not promote hepatitis. No effect on hepatitis was evident in males treated with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist bezafibrate, or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid. Consistent with previous observations of hepatitis-associated liver-gender disruption, transcriptional alterations involved both feminine (cytochrome P450 4a14) and masculine (cytochrome P450 4a12 and trefoil factor 3) genes, as well gender-neutral (H19 fetal liver mRNA, lipocalin 2, and ubiquitin D) genes. Hepatitis was associated with increased unsaturated C(18) long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) relative to saturated stearic acid. Our results indicate that certain forms of androgen interruption can inhibit H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis in young male mice, whereas androgen receptor agonism does not worsen disease. This raises the possibility of targeted hormonal therapy in young male patients with childhood-acquired HBV.

  20. Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats

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    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.

  1. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  2. Effect of the Combined Extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on Sex Hormone Functional Levels in Osteoporosis Rats

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    RenHui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi has been used to treat osteoporosis for almost 50 years by Professor Shizeng Li, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, it is unclear whether the combination of the effective constituents of the two herbs may have a protective influence on the skeleton. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid by gavage. With administrations of the combination extracts of the two herbs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day via oral gavage for 3 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD, femur histomorphometry, some sex hormones, and sex hormone receptors were measured. Results showed that the combined extracts could increase BMD, affect bone histomorphometry, coordinate the sex hormones at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and increase the protein and mRNA expressions of sex hormone receptors. The findings suggested that the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the male face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F. R.; Coetzee, V.; Contreras-Garduño, J.; Debruine, L. M.; Kleisner, K.; Krams, I.; Marcinkowska, U.; Nord, A.; Perrett, D. I.; Rantala, M. J.; Schaum, N.; Suzuki, T. N.

    2013-01-01

    Women in the UK prefer the faces of men with low levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and the relationship is moderated by the sex hormone testosterone. In a Latvian sample, however, women's preferences were not affected by cortisol, and the interaction with testosterone differed from that of the UK. To further explore cross-cultural variation in preferences for facial cues to sex- and stress-hormones, we tested the preferences of women from 13 countries for facial composites constructed to differ in combinations of the hormones. We found significant relationships between a measure of societal development (the United Nations human development index 2011) and preferences for cues to testosterone in the face, and the interaction between preferences for cues to testosterone and cortisol. We also found a significant relationship between preferences for cues to testosterone and a societal-level measure of parasite stress. We conclude that societal-level ecological factors influence the relative value of traits revealed by combinations of sex- and stress-hormones. PMID:23536442

  4. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  5. Metabolic profiling of cholesterol and sex steroid hormones to monitor urological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jayoung

    2016-10-01

    Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive. In order to further evaluate the problem, we have taken an interest in metabolomics; a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of biologically active metabolites in cells, tissues, hair and biofluids. Recently, we provided evidence that a quantitative measurement of cholesterol and sex steroid metabolites can be successfully achieved using hair of human and mouse models. The overall goal of this short review article is to introduce current metabolomic technologies for the quantitative biomarker assay development and also to provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition. Furthermore, this review will place a particular emphasis on how to prepare biospecimens (e.g., hair fiber), quantify molecular profiles and assess their clinical significance in various urological diseases.

  6. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  7. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, S.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Pinborg, A.

    2015-01-01

    resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 +/- 3 days post intervention. At both......Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic...... sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol...

  8. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  9. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  10. Effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Jie Sun; The authorsi-heng Yu; Yun-hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris.Methods: 185 patients with acne vulgaris included in the study the authorsre divided into the observation group (85 cases) and the control group (80 cases), the observation group was given the treatment of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid, and the control group was treated with benzoyl peroxide. To observe the change of hormones (T, FSH, LH, E2) and immune indexes (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, IL-2, sIL-2R) after 1 month of treatment.Results: After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 of the observation group the authorsre significantly different than those before trteatment(P0.05); After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 level of two groups the authorsre statistically significant (P<0.05).Where the authorsre no significant difference on sex hormones betthe authorsen the two groups before and after treatment.Conclusion:Benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid has certain effects on immune function for the patients with acne vulgaris, and may be related to therapeutic effect, but no obvious effect on sex hormone.

  11. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosalia Costa,1 Marco Colizzi2 1Gender Identity Development Service, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tavistock Centre, 2Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect

  12. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  13. Isoflavone supplementation reduced serum sex hormone-binding globulin concentration in postmenopausal women

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    ML. Edy Parwanto

    2015-12-01

    The bone loss that occurs with ageng in postmenopausal women is related to a decrease in serum levels of bioavailable estrogen and testosterone, which are mainly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and albumin. Phytoestrogens are thought to exert hormonal effects in the body due to their structural resemblance to 17â-estradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of isoflavone supplementation on levels of SHBG in postmenopausal women aged 47- 60 years. Methods A study of pre and post test design with controls was conducted in 70 women aged 47- 60 years. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups, the isoflavone group received 100 mg isoflavones/day + calcium 500 mg/day and the control group calcium 500 mg/day for 6 months. Measurement of bone mineral density was performed prior to supplementation, and serum SHBG levels before and after supplementation. Results Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months reduced the SHBG levels by 31.1% in the isoflavone group (p=0.000, whereas supplementation of calcium for 6 months did not affect the levels of SHBG in the control group (p=0.359. Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months reduced SHBG levels of postmenopausal women in the isoflavone group with either osteopenia (p=0.028 or osteoporosis (p=0.008. Conclusion Supplementation of isoflavones for 6 months decreased the SHBG levels of postmenopausal women in the isoflavone group with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens may significantly decreased SHBG levels in postmenopausal women.

  14. Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y; McQuillan, G M; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S; Bradwin, G; McGlynn, K A

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that male testosterone concentrations have declined over time. To explore this in a large US population, we examined testosterone and free testosterone concentrations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004. We also examined sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol, and androstanediol glucuronide (3α-diol-G) over the same period. Non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American men from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 NHANES surveys who were ≥20 years old and had serum from morning blood draws were included in this analysis (1988-1991: N = 1,413; 1999-2004: N = 902). Testosterone, estradiol and SHBG were measured by competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassays and 3α-diol-G was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Free testosterone was calculated using testosterone and SHBG values. Adjusted mean hormone concentrations were estimated using linear regression, accounting for NHANES sampling weights and design, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol use and smoking. Differences in adjusted mean concentrations (Δ) and two-sided p-values were calculated; p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004, but there was little change in testosterone, free testosterone, or SHBG (Δ: 3α-diol-G = -1.83 ng/mL, p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 in the US general population. Subgroup analyses suggest that SHBG and 3α-diol-G declined in young white men, estradiol declined in white and Mexican-American men, and free testosterone increased in young black men. These changes may be related to the increasing prevalence of reproductive disorders in young men.

  15. Neonatal sex-steroid hormones and timidity in 6-18-month-old boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, C N; Maccoby, E E; Doering, C H

    1983-05-01

    Five sex-steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone) are assayed in umbilical cord blood. Timidity is assessed in home and laboratory observations by reactions to a range of novel toys in children from 6 to 18 months of age. Significant short- (1 week) and long- (several months) term stability in timidity is demonstrated. Girls have higher mean scores on observed timidity than do boys in 2 of the 3 samples tested. An across-age timidity score is computed which shows significant correlations with neonatal progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol for boys, but is not significantly predicted by hormone concentrations in girls.

  16. Asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka eSavic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  17. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  18. Urinary hormone metabolites identify sex and imply unexpected winter breeding in an endangered, subterranean-nesting frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, J M; Molinia, F C; Bishop, P J; Bell, B D; Cree, A

    2012-02-01

    Urinary hormone analysis has proved accurate for identifying sex and breeding periods in dimorphic amphibians with known reproductive cycles. We examined whether these techniques could provide this much needed information for a monomorphic anuran with an unconfirmed mating season in the wild. We analysed urinary estrone conjugate, testosterone, and progesterone metabolites to infer the time of breeding and to identify sex in the endangered Maud Island frog, Leiopelma pakeka. Testosterone metabolites in males and estrone and progesterone metabolites in females were at their peak during winter for both wild and captive frogs. These urinary metabolite patterns were consistent with the high proportion of females exhibiting enlarged ovarian follicles in winter months. Sex identification based on urinary estrone metabolite levels was 94% correct in this monomorphic species, in which the sexes overlap in snout-to-vent length (SVL) for over half of their adult size range and in which no other sexually dimorphic trait is known. The seasonal profiles imply unexpected winter or early spring breeding in L. pakeka. Overall, these results demonstrate use of urinary hormone metabolites for reproductive monitoring and sex identification in one of the world's most threatened and evolutionarily distinct amphibians.

  19. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  20. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  1. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-04-01

    Estrogen (E2 )-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2 -based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2 , T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59-64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80-83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging.

  2. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF.

  3. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones (progesterone and estradiol change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month. Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD, bleeding index (BI, gingival index (GI, clinical attachment level (CAL, and plaque index (PLI were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF.

  4. Pharmacologically Induced Sex Hormone Fluctuation Effects on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in a Risk Model for Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Larsen, Camilla Borgsted; Beliveau, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by marked fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute......RHa-provoked depressive symptoms associations with change in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in 58 healthy women for six seeds (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal raphe, median raphe, and posterior cingulate cortex). GnRHa intervention did not significantly affect rs-FC in any seeds....... Considering the GnRHa group only, the emergence of depressive symptoms following intervention was positively associated with amygdala-right temporal cortex and negatively associated with hippocampus-cingulate rs-FC. A test for mediation suggested that rs-FC changes in these networks marginally mediated...

  5. Circulating levels of pegvisomant and endogenous growth hormone during prolonged pegvisomant therapy in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Fisker, Sanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pegvisomant treatment in acromegaly induces gradual elevations in endogenous serum growth hormone (GH) levels and whether serum pegvisomant levels predict the therapeutic outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (6 women), mean age 46·3 years (range: 23...... correlated with baseline growth hormone levels, whereas no associations between serum pegvisomant and either dose, gender, age or body weight were found. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Serum GH levels increased initially, but remained stable during prolonged pegvisomant treatment in patients with acromegaly, (2) serum...

  6. Dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with women with non-PCOS-related infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Hui; Wang, Ting-Wen; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Ho, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Hua; Young, Robert; Liaw, Chian-Mey; Chao, Jane C-J

    2013-06-28

    The present study investigated dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of forty-five women (aged 25–40 years) with PCOS and 161 control women (aged 25–43 years) with non-PCOS-related infertility were recruited. Anthropometry, glucose tolerance and sex hormones were determined and dietary intake was assessed. Women with PCOS had lower serum sex hormone-binding globulin and increased BMI, waist:hip ratio, luteinising hormone, ratio of luteinising hormone: follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and free androgen index (FAI). Postprandial glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance were elevated in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS had reduced energy and carbohydrate intake but higher fat intake. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin level was negatively associated with BMI in both groups and negatively correlated with macronutrient intake in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism. However, FAI was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose metabolic parameters in both groups. Therefore, women with PCOS consume lower energy and carbohydrate compared with those with non-PCOS-related infertility and macronutrient intake is only negatively associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin level in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism.

  7. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  8. First pregnancy characteristics, postmenopausal breast density, and salivary sex hormone levels in a population at high risk for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mockus

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk.

  9. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-05

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system.

  10. Effects of sex and pregnancy hormones on growth hormone and prolactin receptor gene expression in insulin-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1993-01-01

    of islet cells to these hormones is regulated on the receptor level, GH and PRL receptor gene expression was studied in pancreata from male rats and virgin, pregnant, and lactating female rats and in cultured islets and insulinoma cells (RIN-5AH) in response to various hormones. The mRNA levels were...... quantitated by ribonuclease protection assay, using probes specific for mRNA encoding, extracellular and intracellular domains of the GH receptor, and short and long forms of the PRL receptor, respectively. Specific transcripts for the GH receptor were present in pancreas, islets, and RIN-5AH cells...

  11. A comparison of circulating and regional growth hormone-binding protein in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Fisker, S; Becker, U;

    2001-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is disturbed in cirrhosis, with elevated basal GH and low IGF-I levels relating to liver function and prognosis. In plasma, GH is bound to a high-affinity GH-binding protein (GHBP), which has been found to be slightly reduced...

  12. Ovarian steroidogenesis and the role of sex steroid hormones on ovarian growth and maturation of the Japanese eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Ijiri, Shigeho; Adachi, Shinji

    2011-11-01

    Three sex steroid hormones, estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), are well established as primary estrogen, androgen, and progestin, respectively, in teleost fish. Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, would be a suitable candidate to study ovarian steroid physiology of fish because the ovarian growth and steroidogenesis is dormant under laboratory condition but can be induced by administration of exogenous gonadotropic reagents. In this review, we summarized our work on the function and production of sex steroid hormones in the ovary of the Japanese eel during ovarian growth and oocyte maturation artificially induced by treatment with extract of salmon pituitary. In vitro and in vivo assays suggest that 11-KT and E2 play primary roles in previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth of oocytes, respectively, whereas DHP is essential for induction of final oocyte maturation. We also reviewed the correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis to produce these sex steroid hormones, serum titers and gene expression.

  13. Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nabeel Althaf, M. S.; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Kashyap S.; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen. PMID:27994419

  14. Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Hosadurga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen.

  15. Influence of short-term changes in sex hormones on serum concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules in young healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Begić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine if short-term changes in sex hormones (such as cyclic changes within the menstrual cycle can influence the serumconcentration of soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs.Methods Sixteen healthy young women with normal cycles participated in this study. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were determined in three different phases of the menstrual cycle: a early follicular (EF phase, b ovulatory (O phase and c midluteal (ML phase, by standardized ELISA-based kits. To confirm the exact assessment of menstrual cycle phases, serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH were measured. Results There were significant oscillations in serum female sex hormones concentration over the cycle duration, as expected the level of estrogen (E2 and progesterone (PROG was the lowest in EF phase, the highest E2 appeared in O phase, and both E2 and PROG were present in high concentrations during ML phase. There was a significant positive correlation between E2 and serum soluble ICAM -1 concentrations (p=0,041, correlation coefficient 0,306. However, there was no significant change in other soluble CAMs concentration during the menstrual cycle. Conclusion Results of our study suggest that short-term changes in female sex hormone levels could modulate expression of soluble ICAM-1, but not VCAM -1 or E-selectin in extent that would affect a young woman’s health.

  16. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a role for hormonal factors in the aetiology of asthma. METHODS: Data from a large study of women selected from the general population were used to relate treatment with oral hormonal contraceptives (OCP) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT...

  17. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  18. Expression of S100A10 gene and its regulation by sex hormones in mouse uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; LIU Jing; LI Feixue; SUN Xiaoyang; ZHANG Huaiyun; WANG Yanling

    2005-01-01

    S100A10 belongs to the S100 calcium binding protein superfamily, and functions as one of the mediators of calcium-dependent signaling pathway. Recently, S100A10 gene was proved to be significantly up-regulated at the implantation site. In the present study, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization are used to investigate the tissue-specificity of S100A10 expression and the expression pattern of S100A10 in the uteri during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Meanwhile, the regulation of S100A10 expression by sex steroid hormones is studied in ovariectomized mice. The results show that S100A10 could be detected in various kinds of tissues, with relatively high expression in reproductive tracts including ovary, uterus, testis and epididymis.During pregnancy, the expression of S100A10 in the uteri is significantly up-regulated on the 4th day. The transcript is strongly detected in endometrial stromal cells and weakly in luminal epithelium cells at the implantation site, but almost not at the inter-implantation site.From gestational day 5 till labor, S100A10 mRNA maintains a certain level in both uteri and placentae. During the estrous cycle, expression of S100A10 is up-regulated in the uteri at proestrus and estrus. Estradiol significantly induces the expression of S100A10, while progesterone can abolish the effect of estradiol. The data suggests that S100A10 may be involved in preventing luminal epithelial cells from over-apoptosis, inducing proliferation and decidualization of stromal cells during implantation, and responding to reproductive stress triggered by copulation.

  19. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (the Life Orientation Test Revised), the Social Functioning Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey 36 assessing their profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Furthermore, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about eight times and five times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia.

  20. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  1. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  2. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate-for- ......-for- gestational-age girls (n = 355) hormones showed a marked interindividual variation, with concentrations up to pubertal values [medians (95% confidence intervals): inhibin B, 82 pg/ml (...

  3. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M;

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate......-for- gestational-age girls (n = 355) hormones showed a marked interindividual variation, with concentrations up to pubertal values [medians (95% confidence intervals): inhibin B, 82 pg/ml (...

  4. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, S; Madsen, K H; Pinborg, A; Heede, M; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood−oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16±3 days post intervention. At both sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol to menopausal levels, which was accompanied by an increase in subclinical depressive symptoms relative to placebo. Women who displayed larger GnRHa-induced increase in depressive symptoms had a larger increase in both negative and positive emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula. When considering the post-GnRHa scan only, depressive responses were associated with emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula and amygdala. The effect on regional activity in anterior insula was not associated with the estradiol net decline, only by the GnRHa-induced changes in mood. Our data implicate enhanced insula recruitment during emotional processing in the emergence of depressive symptoms following sex-hormone fluctuations. This may correspond to the emotional hypersensitivity frequently experienced by women postpartum. PMID:26624927

  5. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  6. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome%Turner综合征患者的性激素替代治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文慧

    2012-01-01

    特纳综合征的基本特征是矮身材、先天畸形、性腺发育不足.其性激素分泌不足导致无第二性征发育、不孕症,并与骨质疏松症频繁发生、心血管疾病风险增加、身体健康状态及身体结构改变、胰岛素抵抗、自身免疫病发病率增加等相关.最近的研究强调特纳综合征女性患者需要终身的性激素替代治疗,以改善其生活质量.该文对雌激素和雄激素不足及性激素替代治疗对于特纳综合征患者的全身影响做一综述.%The cardinal features of Turner syndrome(TS) are short stature,congenital abnormalities,gonadal dysgenesis.The sex hormone insufficiency lead to infertility and lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics,it also involves in the frequent osteoporosis and increased cardiovascular risk,state of physical fitness,insulin resistance,body composition,and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity.Recent researches emphasize the TS patients need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy to improve their quality of life.This review summarizes the effects of estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex hormone replacement therapy on the whole body of Turner syndrome.

  7. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON and H2O2-challenged control (BD groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU or 2% aspartate (ASP. The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level in serum (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in the epididymis and testis (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate.

  8. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  9. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether repatriated populations are cycling naturally.

  10. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  11. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  12. Role of Sex Hormones in the Development and Progression of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Maurizio Montella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in developed countries. Epidemiological reports indicate that the incidence of HBV-related HCC is higher in males and postmenopausal females than other females. Increasing evidence suggests that sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens play an important role in the progression of an HBV infection and in the development of HBV-related HCC. While androgen is supposed to stimulate the androgen signaling pathway and cooperate to the increased transcription and replication of HBV genes, estrogen may play a protecting role against the progression of HBV infections and in the development of HBV-related HCC through decreasing HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels. Additionally, sex hormones can also affect HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing epigenetic changes such as the regulation of mRNA levels by microRNAs (miRNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modification in liver tissue. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender disparity in HBV-related HCC with the aim of improving the understanding of key factors underneath the sex disparity often observed in HBV infections. Furthermore, the review will propose more effective prevention strategies and treatments of HBV-derived diseases.

  13. Finding a Needle in a Haystack: the Advantages of Liquid Chromatography--Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in Determination of Sex Hormones in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Shira; Ben-Dor, Anat

    2016-06-01

    Determination of steroid sex hormones concentrations in children is very important for diagnosis of a wide range of pubertal, adrenal and sex development disorders. The majority of hormone measurements are carried out using traditional immunoassays, due to their technical simplicity, cost and availability of commercial reagents. But, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, traditional immunoassays often fail to determine low concentration analytes such as sex hormones in pediatric blood. In the last decade, the LC-MS/MS assay has risen as a new player in the analytic diagnostic field. The assay has proven appropriate for detection of very low hormones concentrations in blood, is quite easy to perform and can detect multiple steroids from a single sample. For the routine determination of an individual or panel of steroids, LC-MS/MS is now the recommended method for most diagnostic laboratories.

  14. The Influence of Sex Hormones on Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ulrike; Erdmann, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating changes in functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) with hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle in young women have led to controversial hypotheses about an influence of estrogen (E) and/or progesterone (P) on FCAs. Based on methodical, but also on principal problems in deriving conclusions about hormone effects from…

  15. PET imaging of brain sex steroid hormone receptors and the role of estrogen in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayum, Mohamed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens are steroid hormones that are involved in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Decreased levels of steroid hormones are associated with e.g. decreased cognition, anxiety and depression. Androgens and estrogens exert their biological effects through their corre

  16. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog. PMID:27297418

  17. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism.

  18. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

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    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  19. Effect of mifepristone combined with San Jie Capsule on the level of sex hormones in patients with endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Li Zhang; Li-Li Zhai; Jie Liu; Wen-Bin Hao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of mifepristone combined with loose joint capsule on the treatment of endometriosis (EMS) and its effect on sex hormone levels.Methods:A total of 140 cases of EMS in our hospital from Feb 2015 to Feb 2016 were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group; Control group in menstrual cramps on the 5th day oral mifepristone 12.5 mg each time, once daily, and even served 3 months, the treatment group in the control group based on the combined with Sanjie Zhentong capsule 1.6 g/ time, 3 times daily, even served three months; Acquisition of two groups of patients before treatment and after treatment in the morning fasting venous blood, using ELISA method for the detection of two groups before and after treatment serum follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) and adiponectin (ADP) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and observe the incidence of clinical adverse reactions in two groups.Results:FSH, LH, E2 and P levels in the two groups after treatment than before treatment was significantly lower, the treatment group after treatment FSH, LH, E2 and P levels was significantly lower than that of the control group; after treatment in the two groups was increased compared with before treatment, the level of ADP and HGF treatment level is decreased, the treatment group after treatment level of ADP and HGF improved better than control group. Treatment of adverse reactions in the treatment group was lower than control group.Conclusions:Mifepristone combined with scattered knot analgesia capsule can regulate sex hormone level in patients with EMS and inhibit the growth of ectopic endometrium, and decrease the recurrence rate and improve the pregnancy rate.

  20. Effect of invigorating kidney and invigorating bone decoction on sex hormones and cytokines in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hong Sun; Zheng-Yun Han; Jian-Min Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of Bushen Jiangu decoction (kidney invigorating and bone invigorating decoction) on sex hormones and cytokines in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP).Methods:From February 2014 to May 2016, 98 PMOP patients were selected as the research objects, randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=49). Two groups were given oral alendronate 70 mg/ times, 1 time/week, Caltrate D 1 tablets, 2 times/d. The observation group was given Bushen Jiangu decoction, daily 1 agent. The treatment period was 6 months. The fasting peripheral venous blood was collected before and after treatment and analyzed by automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer for determination of serum estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T) and type I collagen carboxy terminal peptide (CTX), type I precollagen (PINP); using radioimmunoassay method of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1).Results:The E2 and T levels of the observation group after treatment were significantly increased compared with before treatment (P<0.05). The IL-6 and TNF-alpha of the observation group after treatment were lower than before treatment, while IGF-1 increased than that before treatment, significantly better than the control group (P<0.05); The CTX, P of NP of the observation group after treatment was significantly lower than the control group during the same period (P<0.05).Conclusions:The combination of Bushen Jiangu decoction combined with sodium hyaluronate can effectively improve the level of sex hormones in patients with PMOP, regulate the level of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IGF-1, inhibit the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption, and improve the treatment effect of osteoporosis.

  1. A Large Study of Androgen Receptor Germline Variants and Their Relation to Sex Hormone Levels and Prostate Cancer Risk. Results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sara; Ma, Jing; Altshuler, David; Giovannucci, Edward; Riboli, Elio; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Martínez, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kraft, Peter; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Androgens are key regulators of prostate gland maintenance and prostate cancer growth, and androgen deprivation therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for many years. A long-standing hypothesis has been that inherited variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene plays a role in prostate cancer initiation. However, studies to date have been inconclusive and often suffered from small sample sizes. Objective and Methods: We investigated the association of AR sequence variants with circulating sex hormone levels and prostate cancer risk in 6058 prostate cancer cases and 6725 controls of Caucasian origin within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We genotyped a highly polymorphic CAG microsatellite in exon 1 and six haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and tested each genetic variant for association with prostate cancer risk and with sex steroid levels. Results: We observed no association between AR genetic variants and prostate cancer risk. However, there was a strong association between longer CAG repeats and higher levels of testosterone (P = 4.73 × 10−5) and estradiol (P = 0.0002), although the amount of variance explained was small (0.4 and 0.7%, respectively). Conclusions: This study is the largest to date investigating AR sequence variants, sex steroid levels, and prostate cancer risk. Although we observed no association between AR sequence variants and prostate cancer risk, our results support earlier findings of a relation between the number of CAG repeats and circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol. PMID:20534771

  2. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

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    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  3. Perfil hormonal sexual de mulheres em programa crônico de diálise em tratamento com eritropoetina humana recombinante Sex hormones in women on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Conceição Graçaplena Dal Maso

    2003-01-01

    evaluate the pattern of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL and estradiol (E2 in 47 women with end stage renal disease (ESRD, on regular dialysis and receiving recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO. METHODS: One patient was on intermitent peritoneal dialysis, 4 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 42 on maintenance haemodialysis. They were divided into: Group I consisted of 10 women with regular menses, aged lesser than 48 years; Group II consisted of 15 women with amenorrhea, aged lesser than 48 years and; Group III, consisted of 22 women with amenorrhea, aged 48 years or more. Levels of FSH, LH, PRL e E2 were obtained by ELISA. RESULTS: All groups showed FSH, LH and E2 levels in the normal range for normal women without renal failure, and there was no statistical significance in the levels of these hormones between women with regular menses or women with amenorrhea aged lesser than 48 years. The serum concentrations of PRL were above the normal range in all groups. The patients aged 48 or more showed hormonal profile consistent with post-menopausal (i.e. high FSH, high LH and low estradiol. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ovarian function is intact on ESRD and we have to search for other causes for amenorrhea in women that do not have na abnormal hormonal sex profile.

  4. Effects of growth hormone and/or sex steroid administration on whole-body protein turnover in healthy aged women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Blackman, Marc R; Herreman, Karen; Pabst, Katharine M; Harman, S Mitchell; Caballero, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Aging is associated with reduced activities of the growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and sex steroid axes, and with decreased lean body mass and protein synthesis. Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, we studied the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone, sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate [T] in men), or GH plus sex hormone on protein turnover in healthy men (n=60) and women (n=43), aged 65 to 88 years (mean, 71+/-4.4 years). Growth hormone administration significantly increased IGF-I levels in both sexes, more markedly in men. Sex steroid administration increased the levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P=.05). Protein turnover was measured before and after the 26-week treatment period by means of a primed, constant l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusion. In men, GH plus T administration increased leucine flux from 80.2+/-2.8 to 93.6+/-4.2 micromol.h-1.kg-1 (P=.02). Leucine oxidation did not change significantly after hormone treatment in either sex. Growth hormone treatment led to nonsignificant upward trends in nonoxidative leucine disposal in men (9.1+/-5.2 mol.h-1.kg-1) and women (7.6+/-7.1 mol.h-1.kg-1). Among all groups combined, changes in nonoxidative leucine disposal were directly related to those of serum IGF-I level (r=0.248, P<.02). Whole-body protein turnover increased in GH plus T-treated men (0.6+/-0.2 g protein.kg-1.d-1; P<.01). These data suggest that low-dose GH administration increases protein synthesis in healthy aged women and men, and that the coadministration of testosterone plus GH enhances this effect in elderly men.

  5. Changes in Female Sex Hormones in Patients with Intentional Drug and Chemical Poisoning

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    Saeed Afzali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal changes as a factor influencing the emotional state of women have an important role in the incidence of suicide. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in FSH-LH, Estrogen, and Progesterone hormones in women attempting suicide by drugs and chemicals. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, women of reproductive diagnosed with drug and chemical poisoning who were hospitalized in Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, were assessed regarding LH, FSH estrogen and progesterone hormones over a period of six months in 2011. Overall, 80 patients were studied with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The highest rate of suicide was in the age range of 14-25 years (47 patients, 60.1%. A significant relationship was observed among the blood levels of hormones FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen. The association of hormone levels and LMP and attempted suicide was significant. The LH level was significantly lower in patients with substance abuse. The estrogen level was significantly lower in patients with the history of self-injury. Most patients (67.5% were in the follicular phase which was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, there was a significant relationship between the levels of different hormones. The significant relationship was positive in some cases but negative in other.

  6. The role of sex hormones and the tissue environment in immune protection against HIV in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira, Charles R; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey; Fahey, John V

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive studies of the mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and its regulation by sex hormones, relatively little attention has been paid to the tissue environment in the FRT that regulates immune cell function. Consisting of secretions from epithelial cells (EC), stromal fibroblasts, and immune cells in tissues from the upper (Fallopian tubes, uterus, and endocervix) and lower (ectocervix and vagina) tracts, each tissue compartment is unique and precisely regulates immune cells to optimize conditions for successful pregnancy and protection against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Our goal in this review is to focus on the mucosal (tissue) environment in the upper and lower FRT. Specifically, this review will identify the contributions of EC and fibroblasts to the tissue environment and examine the impact of this environment on HIV-target cells. Much remains to be learned about the complex interactions with the tissue environment at different sites in the FRT and the ways in which they are regulated by sex hormones and chemical contraceptives. Awareness of the involvement of the tissue environment in determining immune cell function and HIV acquisition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that lead to HIV prevention, acquisition, and the development of new therapeutic modalities of immune protection.

  7. Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biga, Peggy R; Cain, Kenneth D; Hardy, Ronald W; Schelling, Gerald T; Overturf, Kenneth; Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W; Ott, Troy L

    2004-08-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42kDa) levels were elevated in rbGH treated fish compared to controls. In addition, circulating cortisol levels were elevated 71% following rbGH treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to MSTN1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between GH, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following rbGH administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between GH, cortisol, and muscle growth.

  8. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  9. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in pre-menarche girls in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Bahreyni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in girls between 9-13 years before age at menarche.This study was conducted on a sample of 58 subjects (age range: 9-13 years, who were divided intotwo groups of fasting (N=31 and non-fasting (N=27. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone and estradiol were measured in all the subjectsbefore and after Ramadan. Measurements were carried out three days before the start of Ramadan,and one day afterwards.In this study, FSH levels significantly increased in the non-fasting group (P=0.01, and the level ofDehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA had a significant decrease during the time of study in bothgroups (P=0.001, P=0.006. In addition, serum levels of LH significantly increased in the non-fastinggroup after Ramadan (P=0.006, and estradiol significantly increased in both groups (P=0.008,P=0.004.Given the similar changes in the levels of DHEA, progesterone and estradiol in both study groups, itcould be concluded that fasting has no effects on these parameters, and the changes in LH and FSHlevels could be due to other contributing factors.

  10. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk

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    Lauren C. Houghton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03 and 23.6% (p = 0.03 lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10 in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers, although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution; 17.1% difference (p = 0.001 for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index and 15.1% difference (p = 0.005 for waist-to-height ratio. Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women.

  11. 性激素对失代偿期肝硬化患者的影响探讨%Relationships between decompensated cirrhosis and sex hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 刘雄昌; 张月荣; 陈晓琴; 吴德明; 杨俊杰

    2015-01-01

    探讨性激素与失代偿期肝硬化患者关系的研究状况,性激素是肝硬化临床无创性诊断筛选出较敏感、特异的诊断标志,近年内国内外学者不断地研究,现就性激素与肝硬化的相关性作一综述讨论。%To investigate research status of the sex hormones and decompensated cirrhosis, sex hormones is non-invasive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in clinical screening, is more sensitive and specific diagnostic markers. Many scholars continue to research on sex hormones and correlation.

  12. Why are women so vulnerable to anxiety, trauma-related and stress-related disorders? The potential role of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sophie H; Graham, Bronwyn M

    2017-01-01

    Increased prevalence, severity, and burden of anxiety, trauma-related and stress-related disorders in women compared with men has been well documented. Evidence from a variety of fields has emerged suggesting that sex hormones, particularly oestradiol and progesterone, play a significant part in generation of these sex differences. In this Series paper, we aim to integrate the literature reporting on the effects of sex hormones on biological, behavioural, and cognitive pathways, to propose two broad mechanisms by which oestradiol and progesterone influence sex differences in anxiety disorders: augmentation of vulnerability factors associated with anxiety disorder development; and facilitation of the maintenance of anxious symptoms post-development. The implications for future research, along with novel approaches to psychological and pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, are also considered.

  13. Obesity and sarcopenia after menopause are reversed by sex hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rosenfalck, A M; Højgaard, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Menopause is linked to an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean mass exceeding age-related changes, possibly related to reduced output of ovarian steroids. In this study we examined the effect of combined postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the total and regional ......, which in turn, prevents disease in the elderly....

  14. Dynamics of circulating concentrations of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones throughout the menstrual cycle in the bonnet monkey: role of inhibin A in the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P S; Medhamurthy, R

    2009-10-01

    In higher primates, increased circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels seen during late menstrual cycle and during menstruation has been suggested to be necessary for initiation of follicular growth, recruitment of follicles and eventually culminating in ovulation of a single follicle. With a view to establish the dynamics of circulating FSH secretion with that of inhibin A (INH A) and progesterone (P(4)) secretions during the menstrual cycle, blood was collected daily from bonnet monkeys beginning day 1 of the menstrual cycle up to 35 days. Serum INH A levels were low during early follicular phase, increased significantly coinciding with the mid cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge to reach maximal levels during the mid luteal phase before declining at the late luteal phase, essentially paralleling the pattern of P(4) secretion seen throughout the luteal phase. Circulating FSH levels were low during early and mid luteal phases, but progressively increased during the late luteal phase and remained high for few days after the onset of menses. In another experiment, lutectomy performed during the mid luteal phase resulted in significant decrease in INH A concentration within 2 hr (58.3+/-2 vs. 27.3+/-3 pg/mL), and a 2- to 3-fold rise in circulating FSH levels by 24 hr (0.20+/-0.02 vs. 0.53+/-0.14 ng/mL) that remained high until 48 hr postlutectomy. Systemic administration of Cetrorelix (150 microg/kg body weight), a gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist, at mid luteal phase in monkeys led to suppression of serum INH A and P(4) concentrations 24 hr post treatment, but circulating FSH levels did not change. Administration of exogenous LH, but not FSH, significantly increased INH A concentration. The results taken together suggest a tight coupling between LH and INH A secretion and that INH A is largely responsible for maintenance of low FSH concentration seen during the luteal phase.

  15. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: what is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Thijssen, J.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Goozen, S.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic f

  16. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  17. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2016-01-01

    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... present in homozygotes. FSHB -211T carriers had smaller breast tissue size than girls who without a minor allele; GT+TT 10.5 (confidence interval 9.4 -11.5) mm vs GG 12.1 (confidence interval 11.4-12.8) mm, P = .014. Conclusions: Our study indicates that 3 genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...

  18. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P. M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women show increased risk of depressive symptoms in life phases where ovarian steroid hormone levels fluctuate or decline rapidly. The risk mechanisms may include changes in mental state and affective cognition possibly mediated by serotonergic neurotransmission. METHODS......: In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn...

  19. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Deficiency Due to a Homozygous Missense Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. J.; Mijnhout, G. S.; Rondeel, J. M. M.; Baron, W.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: SHBG is known as the major sex steroid binding protein in plasma, and it regulates the bioavailability of both T and estradiol levels required for effects on target tissues. We identified a man with an undetectable SHBG concentration in combination with low total T. He presented with a 7-ye

  20. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onland-Moret, N.C.; Kaaks, R.; Noord, P.A.H. van; Rinaldi, S.; Key, T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the relation between urinary endogenous sex steroid levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, a nested case–cohort study was conducted within a large cohort (the DOM cohort) in the Netherlands (n¼9 349). Until the end of follow-up (1 January 1996), 397 postmenopausal breast canc

  1. Treating animal behaviour problems with sex hormones: an animal welfare issue

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.E.; McBride, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    In England and Germany, the methods used to modify unwanted animal behaviour in veterinary practices were investigated by questionnaire. The samples were created by a systematic section. Of the 216 questionnaires posted in each country, 66 replies from Germany (30.5%) and 76 from the UK (35.2%) were obtained and evaluated. The majority of veterinarians in both countries considered hormones effective in treating behaviour problems, but English veterinarians do so significantly more for cats an...

  2. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  3. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT, ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  4. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT,ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  5. Sex hormones and expression pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in the rat brain throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; González-Flores, Oscar; Galván-Rosas, Agustín; Porfirio Gómora-Arrati; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy involves diverse changes in brain function that implicate a re-organization in neuronal cytoskeleton. In this physiological state, the brain is in contact with several hormones that it has never been exposed, as well as with very high levels of hormones that the brain has been in touch throughout life. Among the latter hormones are progesterone and estradiol which regulate several brain functions, including learning, memory, neuroprotection, and the display of sexual and maternal behavior. These functions involve changes in the structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity is regulated by estradiol and progesterone. We have found that the expression pattern of Microtubule Associated Protein 2, Tau, and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain of the rat throughout gestation and the start of lactation, suggesting that these proteins participate in the plastic changes observed in the brain during pregnancy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  6. Effects of heterotopic autotransplantation of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissues on sex hormone level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumana Jafarey; Jing Yang; Xiaoyan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to measure and compare the serum hormone level of transplant group with blank control and castrated control groups after heterotopic autotransplantation of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissues into back muscles. Methods:A total of 40 SPF-SD female rats (5-6 week-old) were randomly divided into three groups:blank control group (group A), castration control group (group B) and transplant group (group C). Ovaries were removed by surgical procedure, then after cryopreservation and thawing procedures the ovarian tissues were implanted into the back muscles of mice in group C. After 4 weeks of ovarian tissues transplantation, al rats blood sampling were measured for E2, LH and FSH hormone levels by ELISA. Results:E2 level was significantly higher in group C and group A than group B [(38.98 ± 5.66) pg/mL, (8.14 ± 3.24) pg/mL;P0.05), but compared with group B, FSH level was significantly reduced and being statistical y significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:Autotransplantation of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissue into back muscles can sustain fol icular development and re-establish endogenous hormone production by restoring the factors such as angiogenesis and innervations at the graft site.

  7. Role of sex hormones in hypercapnia-induced activation of the locus coeruleus in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, D; Marques, D A; Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Araújo-Lopes, R; Anselmo-Franci, J; Bícego, K C; Szawka, R E; Gargaglioni, L H

    2016-01-28

    The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. Most of the studies involving the role of the LC in hypercapnic ventilatory responses have been performed in males. Since ovarian steroids modulate the activity of LC neurons and females have a different respiratory response to CO2 than males, we evaluated the activity of LC noradrenergic neurons during normocapnia and hypercapnia in female and male rats with distinct sex hormone levels. Ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) and female rats on the diestrous day of the estrous cycle were evaluated. Concurrently, males were investigated as gonad-intact, orchidectomized (ORX), testosterone (T)-treated ORX (ORX+T), and E2-treated ORX (ORX+E2). Activation of LC neurons was determined by double-label immunohistochemistry to c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hypercapnia induced by 7% CO2 increased the number of c-Fos/TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the LC of all groups when compared to air exposure. Hypercapnia-induced c-Fos expression did not differ between diestrous females and intact male rats. In the OVX+E2 group, there was attenuation in the c-Fos expression during normocapnia compared with OVX rats, but CO2 responsiveness was not altered. Moreover, in ORX rats, neither T nor E2 treatments changed c-Fos expression in LC noradrenergic neurons. Thus, in female rats, E2 reduces activation of LC noradrenergic neurons, whereas in males, sex hormones do not influence the LC activity.

  8. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (Plight were significantly the lowest (Plight were the highest (Plight may maintain a better semen quality than that with red or blue lights in ganders.

  9. Effect of small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule on perimenopasual dysfunctional uterine bleeding and sex hormone levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Feng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule in the treatment of perimenopasual dysfunctional uterine bleeding and their effects on sex hormone levels. Methods: The perimenopasual women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding who were admitted in our hospital from October, 2014 to October, 2015 and received small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule were served as the observation group. They were orally administered with mifepristone, 6.25 mg/time, 1 time/d, taken before bedtime, and Gongxuening capsule, 2 pills/time, 3 times/d, for 7 d after each menstruation, and continuously for 3 months. The perimenopasual women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding who were received mifepristone were served as the control group. They were orally administered with mifepristone, 12.5 mg/time, 1 time/d, taken before bedtime, and continuously for 3 months. The HGB level and endometrial thickness before and after treatment were detected. The bleeding control time, total blood stopping time, and adverse reactions in the two groups were compared. The levels of FSH, E2, P, and LH before and after treatment in the two groups were determined. Results:After treatment, HGB level in the observation group was elevated, and the altered degree of endometrial thickness was significantly superior to that in the control group (P0.05). Conclusions: Small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule in the treatment of perimenopasual dysfunctional uterine bleeding can effectively improve the endometrial thickness, timely control bleeding, and improve the serum sex hormone levels, with a satisfactory effect;therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  10. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2013-02-01

    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them.

  11. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6, is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001 and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001 in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.

  12. Regulation of object recognition and object placement by ovarian sex steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jennifer J; Fortress, Ashley M; Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M

    2015-05-15

    The ovarian hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are potent modulators of hippocampal memory formation. Both hormones have been demonstrated to enhance hippocampal memory by regulating the cellular and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie memory formation. Behavioral neuroendocrinologists have increasingly used the object recognition and object placement (object location) tasks to investigate the role of E2 and P4 in regulating hippocampal memory formation in rodents. These one-trial learning tasks are ideal for studying acute effects of hormone treatments on different phases of memory because they can be administered during acquisition (pre-training), consolidation (post-training), or retrieval (pre-testing). This review synthesizes the rodent literature testing the effects of E2 and P4 on object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP), and the molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus supporting memory formation in these tasks. Some general trends emerge from the data. Among gonadally intact females, object memory tends to be best when E2 and P4 levels are elevated during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and in middle age. In ovariectomized females, E2 given before or immediately after testing generally enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged rats and mice, although effects are mixed in aged rodents. Effects of E2 treatment on OR and OP memory consolidation can be mediated by both classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), and depend on glutamate receptors (NMDA, mGluR1) and activation of numerous cell signaling cascades (e.g., ERK, PI3K/Akt, mTOR) and epigenetic processes (e.g., histone acetylation, DNA methylation). Acute P4 treatment given immediately after training also enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged ovariectomized females by activating similar cell signaling pathways as E2 (e.g., ERK, mTOR). The few studies that have administered both hormones in combination suggest that treatment can enhance OR and OP, but that effects

  13. Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Express Several Functional Sex Hormone Receptors—Novel Evidence for a Potential Developmental Link Between Hematopoiesis and Primordial Germ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia; Suszynska, Ewa; Suszynska, Malwina; Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Maj, Magda; Pedziwiatr, Daniel; Adamiak, Mateusz; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Kakar, Sham S.; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) share several markers with the germline, a connection supported by reports that prolactin, androgens, and estrogens stimulate hematopoiesis. To address this issue more directly, we tested the expression of receptors for pituitary-derived hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), on purified murine bone marrow (BM) cells enriched for HSPCs and tested the functionality of these receptors in ex vivo signal transduction studies and in vitro clonogenic assays. We also tested whether administration of pituitary- and gonad-derived sex hormones (SexHs) increases incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into HSPCs and expansion of hematopoietic clonogenic progenitors in mice and promotes recovery of blood counts in sublethally irradiated animals. We report for the first time that HSPCs express functional FSH and LH receptors and that both proliferate in vivo and in vitro in response to stimulation by pituitary SexHs. Furthermore, based on our observations that at least some of CD45− very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may become specified into CD45+ HSPCs, we also evaluated the expression of pituitary and gonadal SexHs receptors on these cells and tested whether these quiescent cells may expand in vivo in response to SexHs administration. We found that VSELs express SexHs receptors and respond in vivo to SexHs stimulation, as evidenced by BrdU accumulation. Since at least some VSELs share several markers characteristic of migrating primordial germ cells and can be specified into HSPCs, this observation sheds new light on the BM stem cell hierarchy. PMID:25607657

  14. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  15. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  16. Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men : An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Judith S.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Schneider, Harald J.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Haring, Robin; Corona, Giovanni; Onat, Altan; Maggio, Marcello; Bouchard, Claude; Tong, Peter C. Y.; Chen, Richard Y. T.; Akishita, Masahiro; Gietema, Jourik A.; Gannage-Yared, Marie-Helene; Unden, Anna-Lena; Hautanen, Aarno; Goncharov, Nicolai P.; Kumanov, Philip; Chubb, S. A. Paul; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Klotsche, Jens; Wallaschofski, Henri; Voelzke, Henry; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific

  17. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van Willemijn A.M.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Palen, van der Job; May, Anne M.; Iestra, Jolein I.; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk

  18. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A M; Schuit, Albertine J.; van der Palen, Job; May, Anne M.; Iestra, Jolein A; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer ris

  19. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  20. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2015-08-01

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens.

  1. Impact of Male Obesity on Semen Quality and Serum Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Eskandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To investigate the association of high Body Mass Index (BMI with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in men of reproductive age. Setting. The Saudi Center for Assisted Reproduction. Method. This study was conducted during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Subjects were exposed through medical history evaluation as well as physical examination. BMI was calculated. Two semen samples about 1 week apart were taken from each participant by masturbation after 2–5 days of abstinence. The samples were assessed according to the WHO Criteria. Blood samples (5 ml were withdrawn; centrifuged and the resulting sera were preserved at −4 degrees Centigrade. Serum FSH, LH, PRL, and Testosterone levels were estimated by the ELISA method. Results. There was no significant correlation between BMI and any of semen and hormonal parameters. There was significant negative correlation between age and total motility. Only the advanced paternal age has shown significant association with low motility (=0.007. Conclusion. Our study showed a significant effect of aging on sperm motility and concentration.

  2. Endogenous sex hormones and risk of venous thromboembolism in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, B G; Schnohr, P

    2014-01-01

    Heart Study, who had estradiol and testosterone concentrations measured. Of these, 636 developed VTE (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and/or pulmonary embolism [PE]) during a follow-up of 21 years (range, 0.02-32 years). Associations between endogenous estradiol and testosterone concentrations and risk......BACKGROUND: Use of oral contraceptives with estrogen and hormone replacement therapy with estrogen or testosterone are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, whether endogenous estradiol and testosterone concentrations are also associated with risk of VTE...... is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that elevated endogenous total estradiol and total testosterone concentrations are associated with increased risk of VTE in the general population. METHODS: We studied 4658 women, not receiving exogenous estrogen, and 4673 men from the 1981-1983 Copenhagen City...

  3. The effects of sex and hormonal status on restraint-stress-induced working memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Avis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restraint stress has been shown to elicit numerous effects on hippocampal function and neuronal morphology, as well as to induce dendritic remodeling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. However, the effects of acute restraint stress on PFC cognitive function have not been investigated, despite substantial evidence that the PFC malfunctions in many stress-related disorders. Methods The present study examined the effects of restraint stress on PFC function in both male rats and cycling female rats in either the proestrus (high estrogen or estrus (low estrogen phase of the estrus cycle. Animals were restrained for 60 or 120 minutes and then tested on spatial delayed alternation, a PFC-mediated task. Performance after stress was compared to performance on a different day under no-stress conditions, and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Sixty minutes of restraint impaired only females in proestrus, while 120 minutes of restraint produced significant impairments in all animals. Increases in task completion times did not affect performance. Conclusion These results demonstrate an interaction between hormonal status and cognitive response to stress in female rats, with high estrogen levels being associated with amplified sensitivity to stress. This effect has been previously observed after administration of a pharmacological stressor (the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142, and results from both studies may be relevant to the increased prevalence of stress-related disorders, such as major depressive disorder, in cycling women. Overall, the results show that restraint stress has important effects on the cognitive functions of the PFC, and that hormonal influences in the PFC are an important area for future research.

  4. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Parivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  5. Development of an LC-MS/MS method to quantify sex hormones in bovine milk and influence of pregnancy in their levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, P; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2012-01-01

    Hormones work in harmony in the body, and this status must be maintained to avoid metabolic disequilibrium and the subsequent illness. Besides, it has been reported that exogenous steroids (presence in the environment and food products) influence the development of several important illnesses in humans. Endogenous steroid hormones in food of animal origin are unavoidable as they occur naturally in these products. The presence of hormones in food has been connected with several human health problems. Bovine milk contains considerable quantities of hormones and it is of particular concern. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, based on hydroxylamine derivatisation, has been developed and validated for the quantification of six sex hormones in milk [pregnenolone (P₅), progesterone (P₄), estrone (E₁), testosterone (T), androstenedione (A) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)]. This method has been applied to real raw milk samples and the existence of differences between milk from pregnant and non-pregnant cows has been statistically confirmed. Basing on a revision of existing published data, it could be concluded that maximum daily intakes for hormones are not reached through milk ingestion. Although dairy products are an important source of hormones, other products of animal origin must be considered as well for intake calculations.

  6. Progression of research for the association between sex hormones and dry eye%性激素与干眼的相关性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林通; 龚岚

    2014-01-01

    Researches of the correlation between sex hormones and dry eye have been concerned early.Ocular surface inflammation,epithelial apoptosis and anormal expression of tear lipocalin and lipid may be important pathogenetic factors of various types of dry eye,and variedness of sex hormone level may have a certain correlation with these factors.The alteration of structure and function of tear film is the direct reason for dry eye.The change of sex hormone level likely gives influence to tear composition and pathological variation of related ocular surface tissues,then affects the structure and function of tear film,and finally lead to dry eye.Different sex hormones give certain different moderating effects to related ocular surface organization,so the recent correlational study of sex hormones and dry eye can be summarized in terms of androgen and estrogen,as these two sex hormones have certain impacts on tear composition and ocular surface organization respectively.%性激素与干眼的相关性研究较早就受到关注.眼表的炎症反应、上皮细胞凋亡、脂钙蛋白、脂质成分的表达异常可能是各种类型干眼发病的重要因素,而性激素水平的变化可能与这些改变有一定的相关性.泪膜结构和功能的异常是干眼发生的直接原因.性激素水平的变化可能对泪液成分和相关眼表组织的病理改变产生一定影响,进而影响泪膜的结构和功能,最终形成干眼.雄性和雌性激素对相关眼表组织的调节作用有一定的差异性,因此从雄激素和雌激素分别对泪液成分及相关眼表组织影响出发,对近年来性激素与干眼相关性研究进行概述.

  7. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  8. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  9. Relationships of circulating pregnanolone isomers and their polar conjugates to the status of sex, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Radmila; Hill, Martin; Cibula, David; Vceláková, Helena; Kancheva, Lyudmila; Vrbíková, Jana; Fait, Tomás; Parízek, Antonín; Stárka, Luboslav

    2007-10-01

    Pregnanolone isomers (PIs) and their polar conjugates (PICs) modulate ionotropic receptors such as gamma-aminobutyric acid or pregnane X receptors. Besides, brain synthesis, PI penetrates the blood-brain barrier. We evaluated the physiological importance of PI respecting the status of sex, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. Accordingly, circulating levels of allopregnanolone (P3alpha 5alpha ), isopregnanolone (P3beta 5alpha ), pregnanolone (P3alpha 5beta ), epipregnanolone (P3beta 5beta ), their polar conjugates, and related steroids were measured in 15 men (M), 15 women in the follicular phase (F), 16 women in the luteal phase (L), and 30 women in the 36th week of gestation (P) using GC-MS. The steroid levels were similar in M and F, increased about thrice in L and escalated in P (38-410 times compared with F). The PICs were prevalent over the PIs (16-150 times). Higher ratios of 5alpha-PIC to 5alpha-PI found in P indicate the more intensive conjugation of 5alpha-PI during pregnancy. This mechanism probably provides for the elimination of neuroinhibitory P3alpha 5alpha in the maternal compartment. Additionally, our result points to a limited sulfation capacity for neuroinhibitory P3alpha 5beta in P. In contrast to the situation in M, F, and L where the P3alpha 5beta C is the most abundant PIC, and P3alpha 5beta is present in minor quantities compared with the P3alpha 5alpha, P3alpha 5beta may acquire physiological importance during pregnancy, contributing to the sustaining thereof. On the other hand, the declining formation of P3alpha 5beta may participate in the initiation of parturition, given the relative abundance of the steroid, its potency to suppress the activity of oxytocin-producing cells and its effectiveness in uterine relaxation.

  10. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Madej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts. Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method, were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.

  11. Sex and seasonal differences in aggression and steroid secretion in Lemur catta: are socially dominant females hormonally 'masculinized'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Christine M

    2007-04-01

    Female social dominance characterizes many strepsirrhine primates endemic to Madagascar, but currently there is no comprehensive explanation for how or why female lemurs routinely dominate males. Reconstructing the evolutionary pressures that may have shaped female dominance depends on better understanding the mechanism of inheritance, variation in trait expression, and correlating variables. Indeed, relative to males, many female lemurs also display delayed puberty, size monomorphism, and 'masculinized' external genitalia. As in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), a species characterized by extreme masculinization of the female, this array of traits focuses attention on the role of androgens in female development. Consequently, I examined endocrine profiles and social interaction in the ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta) to search for a potential source of circulating androgen in adult females and an endocrine correlate of female dominance or its proxy, aggression. I measured serum androstenedione (A(4)), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E(2)) in reproductively intact, adult lemurs (10 females; 12 males) over four annual cycles. Whereas T concentrations in males far exceeded those in females, A(4) concentrations were only slightly greater in males than in females. In both sexes, A(4) and T were positively correlated, implicating the Delta(4)-biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, seasonal changes in reproductive function in both sexes coincided with seasonal changes in behavior, with A(4) and T in males versus A(4) and E(2) in females increasing during periods marked by heightened aggression. Therefore, A(4) and/or E(2) may be potentially important steroidal sources in female lemurs that could modulate aggression and underlie a suite of masculinized features.

  12. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to 17beta-estradiol and bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lisette Bachmann; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2008-05-01

    The impact of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestrogen metabolism was examined by measurements of whole body concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and its conjugation product bisphenol A glucuronic acid (BPAGA). Exposure to 500 ng E2/l led to an increase in E2 levels in the embryos and fry while 10 ng E2/l did not. Metabolic conversion of BPA to BPAGA began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were observed in all groups (in up to 50% of the female fish, independently of exposure regime). The fact that exposure to 500 ng E2/l only caused subtle effects in a small number of individuals indicates that exposure during early life stages results in little to no induction of endocrine disruption in brown trout.

  13. Changes in Testosterone Levels and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Extremely Obese Men after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery.

  14. Study of serum level of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明伟; 张玉健; 李忠民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the serum level of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone (SEL, SPL and STL) and the expression of the receptors of estradiol and progesterone (ER and PR) in 53 cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. Methods:ER and PR in the tissue of the carcinoma were determined with enzyme-linked affinity histochemical method. SEL, SPL and STL were measured with double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results: Most of ER and PR were present in the cytoplasm of the malignant cells (58.2 % ) and the positive rates of ER and PR were 49.1% and 54.7 % respectively. SEL and SPL were significantly higher in the patients with lung cancer than in the subjects of the control groups ( P < 0.05), no matter whether ER and PR were positive or negative. SEL and SPL were lower in the ER positive, PR positive and both ER and PR positive groups than in the ER negative, PR negative and both ER and PR negative groups. Conclusion: The existence of ER and PR in the patients with bronchogenic carcinoma indicates that the pathogenesis of bronchogenic carcinoma is sex hormone dependent to some extent. ER and SEL are negatively correlated with a correlative coefficient of - 1.

  15. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  16. Exploration of functional health, mental well-being and cross-sex hormone use in a sample of Thai male-to-female transgendered persons (kathoeys)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louis J Gooren; Tanapong Sungkaew; Erik J Giltay

    2013-01-01

    Transgender people sometimes use cross-sex hormones without medical supervision.The use of cross-sex hormones,as well as the functional health and mental well-being,among male-to-female transgendered people (‘kathoeys') in Chiang Mai,Thailand,was studied.Sixty kathoeys were interviewed regarding their use of cross-sex hormones and their family relationships.Individuals also completed the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R) to assess dispositional optimism,the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36).Three categories were established as follows:those who never cross-dress,those who sometimes cross-dress and those who always cross-dress in public.Of the 60 subjects,44 had used hormones for prolonged periods (9.7±6.1 years).Their use was related to the permanence of cross-dressing but unrelated to functional health and mental well-being.Fifty percent of subjects had overdosed on commonly used oral contraceptives.Three people used injectable oestrogen in a higher-than-recommended dose.Self-acceptance was high or reasonably good (83%) compared to no acceptance (17%),and neither was related to the permanence of cross-dressing.Their acceptance by parents and siblings was also relatively high (85% and 89%,respectively).The permanence of cross-dressing had no effect on the scores of optimism,SF-36 scores and social functioning.Acceptance by oneself or one's parents did not seem to affect most aspects of functional health and mental well-being,but non-acceptance by siblings generated lower scores on the social functioning and general mental health subscales.Stressors tended to include physical rather than social factors.In conclusion,the unsupervised use of cross-sex hormones was common among kathoeys,and 50% of the sample had overdosed on them.Acceptance was relatively good,except by siblings.New strategies are needed for a more responsible use of cross-sex hormones.

  17. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    detected in composite liver or whole-fish extracts and there was no evidence of isomerization of the {beta}-isomer to other isoforms in vivo. While there were occasional differences among treatment groups in circulating plasma E2, T and 11-KT levels there was no clear, temporal trend or dose-response.

  18. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai; Grand, Alison P; Fulks, Richelle; Graff, Anne; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates.

  19. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  20. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and fifty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG S if they harbored repeat length of ≤20 or as CAG long (CAG L if their CAG repeat length was >20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the specified physicians; CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method; and the serum levels of the sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Student's t-test or linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations among AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length. This investigation showed that the serum total testosterone (T level was positively associated with the AR CAG repeat length (P = 0.01; whereas, no significant correlation of T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism with the penile length was found (P = 0.593. Interestingly, an inverse association was observed between serum prolactin (PRL levels and penile length by linear regression analyses (β= −0.024, P = 0.039, 95% confidence interval (CI: −0.047, 0. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence that serum PRL, but not T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism, is correlated with penile length in the Han adult population from northwestern China.

  1. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Ning, Liang; Zeng, Jin; Kou, Bo; Xie, Hong-Jun; Ma, Zhen-Kun; Wang, Xin-Yang; Gong, Yong-Guang; He, Da-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and fifty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years) were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG S ) if they harbored repeat length of ≤ 20 or as CAG long (CAG L ) if their CAG repeat length was >20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the specified physicians; CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method; and the serum levels of the sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Student's t-test or linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations among AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length. This investigation showed that the serum total testosterone (T) level was positively associated with the AR CAG repeat length (P = 0.01); whereas, no significant correlation of T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism with the penile length was found (P = 0.593). Interestingly, an inverse association was observed between serum prolactin (PRL) levels and penile length by linear regression analyses (β= -0.024, P = 0.039, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.047, 0). Collectively, this study provides the first evidence that serum PRL, but not T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism, is correlated with penile length in the Han adult population from northwestern China.

  2. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China:a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanMin Ma; DaLin He; KaiJie Wu; Liang Ning; Jin Zeng; Bo Kou; HongJun Xie; ZhenKun Ma; XinYang Wang; YongGuang Gong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and iffty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years) were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if they harbored repeat length of≤20 or as CAG long (CAGL) if their CAG repeat length was>20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the speciifed physicians;CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method;and the serum levels of the sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Student’s t-test or linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations among AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length. This investigation showed that the serum total testosterone (T) level was positively associated with the AR CAG repeat length (P= 0.01); whereas, no signiifcant correlation of T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism with the penile length was found (P= 0.593). Interestingly, an inverse association was observed between serum prolactin (PRL) levels and penile length by linear regression analyses (b=-0.024, P= 0.039, 95%conifdence interval (CI):-0.047, 0). Collectively, this study provides the ifrst evidence that serum PRL, but not T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism, is correlated with penile length in the Han adult population from northwestern China.

  3. Intrinsic determinants and predictors of superovulatory yields in sheep: Circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones, ovarian status, and antral follicular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Franco Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Kridli, Rami T; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian superstimulation has contributed to small ruminant reproduction around the world, impacting genetic improvement and zoosanitary programs, contributing to the conservation of endangered species, and supporting other related biotechnologies. Advanced knowledge surrounding the superovulatory treatments in sheep has resulted in enhanced control of influencing factors and improved the protocols currently used. However, in spite of minimization of some adverse factors, superovulatory responses in ewes still remain variable, preventing the more widespread use of superovulation in commercial embryo transfer programs and reproductive research in this species. Recent evidence demonstrates that changes in antral follicular populations and blood supply, and circulating concentrations of certain reproductive hormones determined at the specific time points just before or during the superovulatory treatment are associated with superovulation success in ewes. This review attempts to compile the data from available literature to identify ovarian and hormonal determinants of the superovulatory outcome in ewes, which can be used to substantially improve the existing protocols and to reduce the extra cost and unnecessary stress imposed on poorly responding animals. An overview of most commonly used and some recently developed, FSH-based ovarian stimulation protocols is given at the outset to highlight variation in the frequency and timing of gonadotropin injections, estrus synchronization methods, and follicular wave synchronization and/or ovulation induction techniques during the superovulatory treatments in ewes.

  4. Allelic variant in the anti-Mullerian hormone gene leads to autosomal and temperature-dependent sex reversal in a selected Nile tilapia line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wessels

    Full Text Available Owing to the demand for sustainable sex-control protocols in aquaculture, research in tilapia sex determination is gaining momentum. The mutual influence of environmental and genetic factors hampers disentangling the complex sex determination mechanism in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Previous linkage analyses have demonstrated quantitative trait loci for the phenotypic sex on linkage groups 1, 3, and 23. Quantitative trait loci for temperature-dependent sex reversal similarly reside on linkage group 23. The anti-Müllerian hormone gene (amh, located in this genomic region, is important for sexual fate in higher vertebrates, and shows sexually dimorphic expression in Nile tilapia. Therefore this study aimed at detecting allelic variants and marker-sex associations in the amh gene. Sequencing identified six allelic variants. A significant effect on the phenotypic sex for SNP ss831884014 (p<0.0017 was found by stepwise logistic regression. The remaining variants were not significantly associated. Functional annotation of SNP ss831884014 revealed a non-synonymous amino acid substitution in the amh protein. Consequently, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET based genotyping assay was developed and validated with a representative sample of fish. A logistic linear model confirmed a highly significant effect of the treatment and genotype on the phenotypic sex, but not for the interaction term (treatment: p<0.0001; genotype: p<0.0025. An additive genetic model proved a linear allele substitution effect of 12% in individuals from controls and groups treated at high temperature, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the genotype on the male proportion was significantly higher in groups treated at high temperature, giving 31% more males on average of the three genotypes. In addition, the groups treated at high temperature showed a positive dominance deviation (+11.4% males. In summary, marker-assisted selection for amh variant ss831884014

  5. A Detailed Physiologically Based Model to Simulate the Pharmacokinetics and Hormonal Pharmacodynamics of Enalapril on the Circulating Endocrine Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Karina; Willmann, Stefan; Eissing, Thomas; Preusser, Tobias; Block, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension and is one of the most important targets for drugs. A whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (wb PBPK) model integrating this hormone circulation system and its inhibition can be used to explore the influence of drugs that interfere with this system, and thus to improve the understanding of interactions between drugs and the target system. In this study, we describe the development of a mechanistic RAAS model and exemplify drug action by a simulation of enalapril administration. Enalapril and its metabolite enalaprilat are potent inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). To this end, a coupled dynamic parent-metabolite PBPK model was developed and linked with the RAAS model that consists of seven coupled PBPK models for aldosterone, ACE, angiotensin 1, angiotensin 2, angiotensin 2 receptor type 1, renin, and prorenin. The results indicate that the model represents the interactions in the RAAS in response to the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enalapril and enalaprilat in an accurate manner. The full set of RAAS-hormone profiles and interactions are consistently described at pre- and post-administration steady state as well as during their dynamic transition and show a good agreement with literature data. The model allows a simultaneous representation of the parent-metabolite conversion to the active form as well as the effect of the drug on the hormone levels, offering a detailed mechanistic insight into the hormone cascade and its inhibition. This model constitutes a first major step to establish a PBPK-PD-model including the PK and the mode of action (MoA) of a drug acting on a dynamic RAAS that can be further used to link to clinical endpoints such as blood pressure. PMID:23404365

  6. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    . - Highlights: • Currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting (ED) potential in vitro. • ED effects can be mediated via sex hormone receptors and/or the aromatase enzyme. • Additive mixture effects on androgen receptor transactivity were observed.

  7. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Susceptibility to HSV-2 in Vaginal Cells Grown in Air-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung; Dizzell, Sara E; Leung, Vivian; Nazli, Aisha; Zahoor, Muhammad A; Fichorova, Raina N; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-08-30

    The lower female reproductive tract (FRT) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. Sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT to establish infection. The majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they employ a liquid-liquid interface (LLI), in which both apical and basolateral surfaces are submerged in growth medium. We designed the current study to simulate in vivo conditions by growing an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line (Vk2/E6E7) in culture with an air-liquid interface (ALI) and examined the effects of female sex hormones on their growth, differentiation, and susceptibility to HSV-2 under these conditions, in comparison to LLI cultures. ALI conditions induced Vk2/E6E7 cells to grow into multi-layered cultures compared to the monolayers present in LLI conditions. Vk2 cells in ALI showed higher production of cytokeratin in the presence of estradiol (E2), compared to cells grown in progesterone (P4). Cells grown under ALI conditions were exposed to HSV-2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the highest infection and replication was observed in the presence of P4. Altogether, this study suggests that ALI cultures more closely simulate the in vivo conditions of the FRT compared to the conventional LLI cultures. Furthermore, under these conditions P4 was found to confer higher susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in vaginal cells. The vaginal ALI culture system offers a better alternative to study host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  9. Platelet full length TFPI-α in healthy volunteers is not affected by sex or hormonal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckers, Kristien; Thomassen, Stella; ten Cate, Hugo; Hackeng, Tilman M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Only 10% of plasma TFPIα (TFPI) exists in the full length form, the rest circulates as a C-terminally truncated form. However, blood platelets exclusively contain full length TFPI, which is released at the site of injury upon platelet activation, and which could play an important local regulatory role in thrombin generation and prevention of thrombosis. Methods The anticoagulant activities of full length and truncated TFPI were investigated using thrombin generation assays. Blood samples were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers (10 male subjects, 10 female subjects, and 10 females using oral contraceptives). Platelet TFPI was released in platelet rich plasma and in platelet isolates using convulxin or thrombin, and measured by free TFPI ELISA and thrombin generation assays. Results Full length TFPI and platelet TFPI were much more potent inhibitors of thrombin generation than truncated TFPI, which was virtually inactive. Although mean plasma TFPI antigen levels decreased from men (0.30 nM) to women (0.20 nM) to women using oral contraceptives (0.11 nM), no relevant differences were found in platelet TFPI among those subgroups. Conclusions Platelets release similar amounts of TFPI regardless of plasma TFPI concentrations and is unaffected by sex or oral contraceptive use. We speculate that platelet TFPI is important to prevent systemic coagulation and thrombosis and restrict thrombus formation to the site of the growing platelet plug. The stable contribution of platelet TFPI to the anticoagulant potential in plasma is likely to become particularly relevant under conditions of low plasma TFPI levels in combination of oral contraceptives use. PMID:28158181

  10. Correlation between Female Sex Hormones and Electrodiagnostic Parameters and Clinical Function in Post-menopausal Women with Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Azam; Naseri, Mahshid; Namazi, Hamid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of sex-hormonal changes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among post-menopausal women through measuring estrogen receptor (ER) expression in their transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and serum estrogen level, as well as determine the correlation between these factors and electrodiagnostic parameters and Boston score. Methods Biopsy samples of TCL were collected from 12 postmenopausal women who had undergone surgery for severe idiopathic CTS; control specimens were collected from 10 postmenopausal women without CTS who had undergone surgery for the other hand pathologies. To determine the distributions of ER in TCL, histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Serum estrogen level was also measured. Electrodiagnosis and Boston questionnaire were used for CTS severity and determination of the patients' function. Results ER expression in TCL and serum estrogen level were not significantly different in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0.79 and P = 0.88, respectively). Also, there was no correlation between ER expression or serum estrogen level and electrodiagnostic parameters or Boston score. Conclusions Sex hormones cannot still be considered as the etiology of idiopathic CTS in postmenopausal women. The role of other factors such as wrist ratio and narrower outlet in females compared to the males should be considered along with hormonal changes. PMID:27617242

  11. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer.

  12. Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride, and their correlations together in clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius: Effects of season, sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of season, sex and age on serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride, and their correlations together in dromedarian camels, these parameters were measured in 180 clinically healthy dromedary camels. No significant difference was detected for the measured serum parameters between the two sexes and among the different age groups of camels and none of them had significant correlation with the age of the animals. There was a significant correlation between serum T4 and triglyceride (r = -0.243, p = 0.002. There were significant differences between summer and winter seasons in the serum concentrations of T4 (p < 0.001, T3 (p = 0.01 and triglyceride (p < 0.001. In winter, the serum concentration of triglyceride had a significant correlation with the age of the sampled camels (r = -0.235, p = 0.026. In male camels,T4had a marginally significant correlation with cholesterol (r= -0.158, p = 0.06.The effects of season, sex and age on the serum concentrations and relationships between thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride in dromedary camels can be proposed as the probable causes of the controversial findings in the previous studies.

  13. A Tandem Duplicate of Anti-Mullerian Hormone with a Missense SNP on the Y Chromosome Is Essential for Male Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway is emerging as an important mechanism by which gonadal sex determination is controlled in teleosts. Here we show that amhy, a Y-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh gene, induces male sex determination in Nile tilapia. amhy is a tandem duplicate located immediately downstream of amhΔ-y on the Y chromosome. The coding sequence of amhy was identical to the X-linked amh (amh except a missense SNP (C/T which changes an amino acid (Ser/Leu92 in the N-terminal region. amhy lacks 5608 bp of promoter sequence that is found in the X-linked amh homolog. The amhΔ-y contains several insertions and deletions in the promoter region, and even a 5 bp insertion in exonVI that results in a premature stop codon and thus a truncated protein product lacking the TGF-β binding domain. Both amhy and amhΔ-y expression is restricted to XY gonads from 5 days after hatching (dah onwards. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of amhy in XY fish resulted in male to female sex reversal, while mutation of amhΔ-y alone could not. In contrast, overexpression of Amhy in XX fish, using a fosmid transgene that carries the amhy/amhΔ-y haplotype or a vector containing amhy ORF under the control of CMV promoter, resulted in female to male sex reversal, while overexpression of AmhΔ-y alone in XX fish could not. Knockout of the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type II (amhrII in XY fish also resulted in 100% complete male to female sex reversal. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the duplicated amhy with a missense SNP is the candidate sex determining gene and amhy/amhrII signal is essential for male sex determination in Nile tilapia. These findings highlight the conserved roles of TGF-β signaling pathway in fish sex determination.

  14. Sex determination of ovine embryos by SRY and amelogenin (AMEL) genes using maternal circulating cell free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberivand, Adel; Ahsan, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Simple and precise methods for sex determination in animals are a pre-requisite for a number of applications in animal production and forensics. Some of the existing methods depend only on the detection of Y-chromosome specific sequences. However, the detection of Y and X-chromosome specific sequences is advantageous. In the present study the accuracy of sex determination by SRY (sex-determining region Y) and AMEL (Amelogenin) gene detection was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of DNA extracted from free fetal cells in maternal blood, which is noninvasive for fetus and easier to collect. The PCR amplification of SRY primers produced a single band of 171bp from ewes bearing a male fetus, whereas no band was amplified from the DNA extracted from ewes pregnant to a female fetus. Moreover, two bands of 182 and 242bp in male and a single band of 242 in female fetuses were produced by AMEL gene primers in the PCR reaction. Using this technique 100% of samples were successfully sexed, excluding twins. In conclusion, we demonstrated that sex determination using DNA of free fetal cells in maternal plasma is efficient using both SRY and AMEL gene sequences. It also is evident that this method is not suitable for sex determination of twin pregnancies.

  15. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  16. Antimüllerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caanen, Mirte R.; Soleman, Remi S.; Kuijper, Esther A. M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; De Roo, Chloe; Tilleman, Kelly; De Sutter, Petra; van Trotsenburg, Mick A. A.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of androgen-induc

  17. Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Torres Inés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A, contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate

  18. Establishing sex ratios of sea turtle foraging populations: validation of a novel testosterone hormone assay technology and sex assessment for five species.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Demographic data are essential for developing sound management and conservation plans for marine turtle populations. Sex ratios, even though they are an essential...

  19. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  20. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Min Ma; Kai-Jie Wu; Liang Ning; Jin Zeng; Bo Kou; Hong-Jun Xie; Zhen-Kun Ma; Xin-Yang Wang; Yong-Guang Gong; Da-Lin He

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and fifty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years) were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG S ) if they harbored repeat length of ≤20 or as CAG long (CAG L ) if their CAG repeat length was >20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the specified ...

  1. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Swora-Cwynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. Material and methods. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM, for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Results. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The con- centrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. Conclusion. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial e

  2. Complement Receptors C5aR and C5L2 Are Associated with Metabolic Profile, Sex Hormones, and Liver Enzymes in Obese Women Pre- and Postbariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction with sex differences and chronic, low-grade inflammation. We proposed that hepatic expression of immune complement C3 related receptors (C3aR, C5aR, and C5L2 would be associated with pre- or postmenopausal status and metabolic profile in severely obese women. We hypothesized that C5L2/C5aR ratio, potentially influencing the ASP/C5L2 metabolic versus C5a/C5aR immune response, would predict metabolic profiles after weight loss surgery. Materials and Methods. Fasting plasma (hormone, lipid, and enzyme analysis and liver biopsies (RT-PCR gene expression were obtained from 91 women during surgery. Results. Hepatic C5L2 mRNA expression was elevated in pre- versus postmenopausal women (P<0.01 and correlated positively with circulating estradiol, estrone, ApoB, ApoA1, ApoA1/B, waist circumference, age, and LDL-C (all P<0.05. While plasma ASP was lower in pre- versus postmenopausal women (P<0.01, the hepatic C5L2/C5aR mRNA ratio was increased (P<0.001 and correlated positively with estrone (P<0.01 and estradiol (P<0.001 and negatively with circulating ApoB and liver enzymes ALT, AST, and GGT (all P<0.05. Over 12 months postoperatively, liver enzymes in low C5L2/C5aR mRNA ratio group remained higher (ALP and ALT, P<0.05, AST and GGT, P<0.001 2-way-ANOVA. Conclusion. C5L2-C5aR association with other mediators including estrogens may contribute to hepatic metabolic and inflammatory function.

  3. Effect of Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang combined with GP chemotherapy on tumor markers and sex hormones in advanced lung cancer patients with Yin deficiency inner heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiang; Wei-Min Zhu; Yi-Jiao Huang; Qi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang combined with GP chemotherapy on tumor markers and sex hormone levels in yin deficiency type advanced lung cancer patients. Methods:A total of 105 patients with advanced lung cancer by Yin deficiency were divided into the observation group (55 cases) and control group (50 cases). The control group was given the standard GP chemotherapy, the observation group was given Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang on the basis of the control group. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, the levels of tumor markers (CEA, CA1125, CYFRA21, NES) and sex hormone (T, E2, FSH, LH) in the two groups were compared.Results:① After treatment, the level of CA125, CEA, NES and CYFRA21 in both two groups were significantly decreased (P0.05). E2 and FSH in the observation group were (85.71±33.57) pmol/L and (10.35±3.56) mU/mL, both were significantly lower than that in the control group after treatment; T and LH in the observation group were (12.33±3.62) nmol/L and (4.08±1.66) mU/mL, both were significantly higher than that in the control group after treatment, (P<0.05).Conclusions:Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang can inhibit tumor marker expression and regulate endocrine disorder.

  4. Ovine fetal sex determination using circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) and cervical mucous secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Asadpour; MH Asadi; R JafariJoozani; GH Hamidian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To use PCR to investigate the presence of fetal SRY gene in the ovine cervical secretions and maternal blood plasma, and to assess predict fetal sex at different times of gestation in the ewe. Methods: Fetal DNA was isolated from blood plasma and cervical secretions of 32 pregnant ewes during the 6 to 21 week of gestation. Overall, 15 male and 17 female fetuses were included in this study. After DNA extraction, the PCR amplified a 280 bp fragment from the X-chromosome and a 217 bp fragment from the Y-chromosome based on a sex-related polymorphism in the amelogenin locus. Results:The presence of fetal Y-chromosome was confirmed in 11 out of 15 cervical mucus and 12 out of 15 blood plasma samples collected from sheep with male fetuses. The sensitivity and specificity of tests were 70%with false negative results. Conclusion:This is the first report on validating the presence of fetal DNA material in the ovine cervical mucus and its potential usefulness for fetal sexing.

  5. The research progress of relationship between breast density,sex hormone,and breast cancer%乳腺密度、性激素和乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小娜; 王丽; 康欣梅

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic breast density( BD)is independent risk factor for breast cancer,sex hormones also play a role in the development of breast cancer,but it is unclear whether mammographic breast density associate with sex hormone. In this review,we describe the association of BD and sex hormone with breast cancer.%乳腺密度( mammographic breast density,BD)是乳腺癌危险性独立的预测指标,性激素也在乳腺癌的发展中扮演重要角色,而乳腺密度与性激素的关系仍不明确。本文将对乳腺密度,性激素,乳腺癌的关系进行综述。

  6. Determine sex ratios of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast through examinations of hormones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A testosterone (T) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was validated for use with green turtle plasma in order to determine the sex of juvenile turtles. We...

  7. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  8. Analysis on the relationship between adolescent myopia and serum sex hormone%青少年近视与血清性激素关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红莉; 毛欣杰; 杨海虹; 谢作楷; 潘妤; 高扬

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨青少年近视患者血清性激素的变化.方法 2013年1月在温州瓯海区某中学调查822例学生,其中男生432例,女生390例,设视力≥5.0为正常,分为近视组与非近视组,再用化学发光免疫分析仪分别检测上述2组青少年空腹血清的雌二醇(E2)、睾丸酮(T)、促卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)4项性激素浓度.结果 男性、女性促卵泡刺激素水平差异有统计学意义(Z=12.9,P<0.01),同时结合二者的平均水平,判断女性(均值为6.87)高于男性(均值为5.06);男性、女性促黄体生成素差异有统计学意义(Z=9.3,P<0.01),同时结合二者的平均水平,判断女性(均值为7.39)显著高于男性(均值为1.96).女性近视与非近视两组促黄体生成素水平差异有统计学意义(Z=-2.45,P<0.05),同时结合两组的均值水平,判断近视组(均值为8.21)大于非近视组(均值为5.54);女性近视与非近视两组促卵泡刺激素水平差异性有统计学意义(Z=-2.91,P<0.05),同时结合两组的均值水平,判断近视组(均值为7.27)大于非近视组(均值为5.96).男性近视组与非近视组间促黄体生成素水平差异有统计学意义(Z=-2.84,P<0.01),同时结合两组的均值水平,判断近视组(均值为2.06)大于非近视组(均值为1.78);两组睾丸酮水平差异有统计学意义(Z=-2.6,P<0.01),同时结合两组的均值水平,判断近视组(均值为2.11)大于非近视组(均值为1.79).结论 血清中性激素水平的高低及性别差异与青少年近视的发生与发展可能存在一定关联.%Objective To investigate the quantitative changes of the serum sex hormone levels in juvenile myopia patients.Methods In January 2013,investigation of wenzhou middle school 822 adolescents,including 432 male patients and 390 female patients were involved in the study Visual acuity ≥ 5 was set as the normal value.The subjects were divided into two groups,the myopia group and the non

  9. Plasma ghrelin in anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder: relations with eating patterns and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alfonso; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Lega, Ilaria; Tesauro, Manfredi; Bertoli, Aldo; Leo, Roberto; Iantorno, Micaela; Pecchioli, Chiara; Rizza, Stefano; Turriziani, Mario; Lauro, Renato; Siracusano, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in healthy control women, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and plasma concentrations of thyreotropin (TSH), free T3 and free T4, and positively correlated with plasma concentrations of cortisol. The ghrelin concentrations of women with binge-eating and purging behavior were significantly lower than those of women with anorexia nervosa, restricting type, and there was a negative relation between the frequency and severity of binge-eating and purging behavior, as measured by the BULIT-R total score, and ghrelin concentrations. In a multivariate regression model controlling for the confounding effects of body mass index (BMI) and age, higher ghrelin concentrations were correlated with lower BULIT-R total scores. The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis advanced in previous studies that ghrelin concentrations are higher in patients with binge-eating/purging forms of eating disorders. Based on these data, we suggest that, in women with eating disorders, ghrelin concentrations best reflect nutritional status rather than specific patterns of disordered eating behavior.

  10. Limited ability of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone to predict dominant follicular recruitment in PCOS women treated with clomiphene citrate: a comparison of two different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiarelli, Alberto; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Blockeel, Christophe; De Vos, Michel; van de Vijver, Arne; Camus, Michel; Cosyns, Stefan; Tournaye, Herman; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate whether serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, determined by either the Immunotech (IOT) or the second generation (Gen II) assay, can predict follicular recruitment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). Patients received 50 mg CC daily for ovulation induction followed by natural intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Overall, 84 women had their serum AMH levels tested before treatment [42 patients with Immunotech (IOT), and 42 patients with the Gen II assay]. The primary outcome was to determine dominant follicle (>10 mm) recruitment in relation to AMH levels. Thirty-three (79%) patients in the IOT and 34 (81%) patients in the Gen II assay group developed a dominant follicle within 15 days after initiation of CC. Circulating AMH levels did not differ between women with or without dominant follicular recruitment in the both groups. By using either the AMH IOT or the Gen II assay, serum AMH levels were not predictive of the development of a dominant follicle. In conclusion, serum AMH levels measured by IOT or Gen II assay, has limited value to predict PCOS patients who will develop a dominant follicle following ovulation induction with CC.

  11. 动物源食品中性激素残留及其检测方法概述%Detection methods of residual sex hormones in animal-origin food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳艺; 李洪军

    2012-01-01

    畜牧业生产中激素滥用现象屡禁不绝,动物源食品中性激素的残留问题已成为全球关注的食品安全问题。通过指出性激素在动物源食品生产中的应用现况,分析食品中性激素残留对人体可能造成的危害,并概述近年来国内外对于动物源食品中性激素残留检测方法的研究进展,旨在为今后的研究者提供参考。%Hormones have been abused in livestock production despite repeated prohibition.The problem of residual sex hormones in animal-origin food has become a global concern in food safety.Pointed out the current situation of residual sex hormones applied in animal-origin ,analyzed the hazards of residual sex hormones,gave an overview of detection methods of sex hormones in animal-origin food at home and abroad, and aimed at providing reference for researchers.

  12. Unaltered ratio of circulating levels of growth hormone/GH isoforms in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome after GHRH plus arginine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, A E; Grugni, G; Marazzi, N; Bini, S; Bidlingmaier, M; Sartorio, A

    2015-08-01

    Human growth hormone (GH) is a heterogeneous protein hormone consisting of several isoforms, the most abundant being 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH. The availability of analytical methods to measure these GH isoforms might represent a valuable diagnostic tool to investigate GH hyposecretory states, including Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), one of the most common causes of syndromic obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure circulating levels of 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH in PWS adults (n=14; M/F: 5/9; genotype DEL15/UPD15: 12/2; age: 19.0±3.7 years; BMI: 29.9±8.7 kg/m2) after combined GH releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine (ARG) administration. The results were analysed subdividing the study population in obese vs. nonobese (6/8) and GH deficient vs. nonGH deficient (GHD) (6/8) subjects, according to appropriate BMI-related diagnostic cut-off limits of GH peak response to the provocative test. Circulating levels of 22 kDa-GH were measured by a chemiluminescent method based on a detection monoclonal antibody targeting an epitope in the loop connecting helix 1 and 2 of GH, which is missing in 20 kDa-GH; the 20 kDa-GH was measured using a time resolved fluorescence assay based on two monoclonal antibodies with no cross-reactivity to 22-kDa GH. GHRH plus ARG significantly stimulated the secretions of 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH in nonobese (at 30, 45, 60 and 90 min and at 45, 60, 90 and 120 min vs. 0 min, pGH peaks of 15.8±10.3 ng/ml and 2.7±1.2 ng/ml, respectively) and in nonGHD PWS (at 30, 45 and 60 min and at 45, 60 and 90 min vs 0 min, pGH peaks of 12.5±9.0 ng/ml and 2.0±1.8 ng/ml, respectively). No significant GHRH plus ARG-induced changes in 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH were observed in obese or GHD PWS patients, the only exception being the increase of 22 kDa-GH (pGH peaks of 6.9±4.7 ng/ml and 0.8±0.6 ng/ml in obese subjects and 8.5±6.0 ng/ml and 1.2±1.0 ng/ml in GHD subjects for 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH, respectively). The GH responses for both isoforms were

  13. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    , antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone...

  14. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torq...

  15. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff Helge, E; Melin, Anna Katarina; Waaddegaard, M;

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...

  16. Tight hormonal phenotypic integration ensures honesty of the electric signal of male and female Brachyhypopomus gauderio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C; Stoddard, Philip K

    2011-09-01

    Hormones mediate sexually selected traits including advertisement signals. Hormonal co-regulation links the signal to other hormonally-mediated traits such that the tighter the integration, the more reliable the signal is as a predictor of those other traits. Androgen administration increases the duration of the communication signal pulse in both sexes of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio. To determine whether the duration of the signal pulse could function as an honest indicator of androgen levels and other androgen-mediated traits, we measured the variation in sex steroids, signal pulse duration, and sexual development throughout the breeding season of B. gauderio in marshes in Uruguay. Although the sexes had different hormone titres and signal characteristics, in both sexes circulating levels of the androgens testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were strongly related to signal pulse duration. Consequently, signal pulse duration can serve as an honest indicator of circulating androgens in males and females alike. Additionally, through phenotypic integration, signal pulse duration also predicts other sexual traits directly related to androgen production: gonad size in males and estradiol (E2) levels in females. Our findings show that tight hormonal phenotypic integration between advertisement signal and other sex steroid-mediated traits renders the advertisement signal an honest indicator of a suite of reproductive traits.

  17. Seasonal changes and sexual dimorphism in gene expression of StAR protein, steroidogenic enzymes and sex hormone receptors in the frog brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2016-12-24

    The brain of amphibians contains all the key enzymes of steroidogenesis and has a high steroidogenic activity. In seasonally-breeding amphibian species brain steroid levels fluctuate synchronously with the reproductive cycle. Here we report a study of gene expression of StAR protein, key steroidogenic enzymes and sex hormone receptors in the telencephalon (T) and diencephalon-mesencephalon (D-M) of male and female reproductive and post-reproductive Pelophylax esculentus, a seasonally breeding anuran amphibian. Significant differences in gene expression were observed between (a) the reproductive and post-reproductive phase, (b) the two brain regions and (c) male and female frogs. During the reproductive phase, star gene expression increased in the male (both T and D-M) but not in the female brain. Seasonal fluctuations in expression levels of hsd3b1, hsd17b1, srd5a1 and cyp19a1 genes for neurosteroidogenic enzymes occurred in D-M region of both sexes, with the higher levels in reproductive period. Moreover, the D-M region generally showed higher levels of gene expression than the T region in both sexes. Gene expression was higher in females than males for most genes, suggesting higher neurosteroid production in female brain. Seasonal and sex-linked changes were also observed in gene expression for androgen (ar) and estrogen (esr1, esr2) receptors, with the males showing the highest ar levels in reproductive phase and the highest esr1 and esr2 levels in post-reproductive phase; in contrast, females showed the maximum expression for all three genes in reproductive phase. The results are the first evidence for seasonal changes and sexual dimorphism of gene expression of the neurosteroidogenic pathway in amphibians.

  18. Clinical use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) determinations in patients with disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    Determination of postnatal AMH levels in circulation has been used for decades when evaluating a child with ambiguous genitalia. We describe the age- and gender-specific changes of postnatal AMH serum levels to enable an appropriate clinical use of AMH assessment in pediatric endocrinology. In ma...

  19. Raging Hormones and Powerful Cars: The Construction of Men's Sexuality in School Sex Education and Popular Adolescent Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues of men's sexuality in the context of school sex education, and analyzes units on human reproduction in secondary biology textbooks. Compares official school knowledge about men's sexuality with alternative sources, including progressive books and the films of John Hughes, to explore the overlapping and contradictory discourses…

  20. Ocorrência e tratamento de quadros depressivos por hormônios sexuais Occurrence and treatment of depression by sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio N Soares

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O processo de envelhecimento promove alterações significativas na produção e no equilíbrio dos níveis circulantes de diversos hormônios sexuais em homens e mulheres. Acredita-se que esses hormônios (estrógenos, progestógenos, testosterona, dehidroepiandrosterona [DHEA] exercem papel modulador sobre diversas funções psíquicas, particularmente sobre o humor e a cognição. Alterações nesse papel modulador causadas por variações abruptas dos hormônios sexuais circulantes -- como as que ocorrem, por exemplo, durante a transição menopausal -- favorecem o surgimento de queixas depressivas. No entanto, a utilização terapêutica de hormônios sexuais pode promover alívio ou mesmo remissão de sintomas depressivos, como já foi caracterizado com o uso de estradiol em mulheres em perimenopausa e com a administração de testosterona após a menopausa. Este artigo aborda, por revisão da literatura, os diversos papéis atribuídos aos hormônios sexuais no desenvolvimento e tratamento das queixas depressivas. Estudos sobre a eficácia terapêutica de estrógenos, testosterona e DHEA nos quadros depressivos são discutidos de forma crítica. Em essência, existem resultados preliminares bastante promissores, particularmente quanto ao uso de estradiol e testosterona em subpopulações específicas para alívio de sintomas depressivos. Futuras investigações devem melhor definir a utilização de hormônios como agente depressivo monoterápico ou adjuntivo, bem como delinear os riscos e as contra-indicações associados a seu uso.It has been demonstrated that aging has a significant impact on sex hormones production. It is now accepted that these hormones (including estrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] may play a pivotal role in the modulation of brain functioning, especially on mood and cognition. Changes in these modulatory effects due to abrupt sex hormonal fluctuations-as seen in the menopausal

  1. Relating circulating thyroid hormone concentrations to serum interleukins-6 and -10 in association with non-thyroidal illnesses including chronic renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the possible role of cytokines including interleukins (IL in systemic non-thyroidal illnesses' (NTI pathogenesis and consequently the frequently associated alterations in thyroid hormone (TH concentrations constituting the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, we aimed in this research to elucidate the possible relation between IL-6 & IL-10 and any documented ESS in a cohort of patients with NTI. Methods Sixty patients and twenty healthy volunteers were recruited. The patients were subdivided into three subgroups depending on their underlying NTI and included 20 patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI, congestive heart failure (CHF, and ICU patients with myocardial infarction (MI. Determination of the circulating serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as total T4 and T3 was carried out. Results In the whole group of patients, we detected a significantly lower T3 and T4 levels compared to control subjects (0.938 ± 0.477 vs 1.345 ± 0.44 nmol/L, p = 0.001 and 47.9 ± 28.41 vs 108 ± 19.49 nmol/L, p 2 = 0.338, p = 0.001 and not IL-10 was a predictor of low T3 levels with only a borderline significance for T4 (R2 = 0.082, p = 0.071. By subgroup analysis, the proportion of patients with subnormal T3, T4, and TSH levels was highest in the MI patients (70%, 70%, and 72%, respectively who displayed the greatest IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations (192.5 ± 45.1 ng/L & 122.95 ± 46.1 ng/L, respectively compared with CHF (82.95 ± 28.9 ng/L & 69.05 ± 44.0 ng/L, respectively and CRI patients (40.05 ± 28.9 ng/L & 30.4 ± 10.6 ng/L, respectively. Surprisingly, CRI patients showed the least disturbance in IL-6 and IL-10 despite the lower levels of T3, T4, and TSH in a higher proportion of them compared to CHF patients (40%, 45%, & 26% vs 35%, 25%, & 18%, respectively. Conclusion the high prevalence of ESS we detected in NTI including CRI may be linked to IL-6 and IL-10 alterations. Further

  2. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  3. Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Sex Hormone on Children with Turner Syndrome%基因重组人生长激素和雌/孕激素治疗Turner综合征患儿疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娜; 向承发

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基因重组人生长激素(recombinant human growth hormone,rhGH)及雌/孕激素(estrogen/progestogem,E/P)治疗对Turner综合征(Turner syndrome,TS)患儿身高及性征发育的影响.方法 2005年1月-2009年6月四川大学华西第二医院门诊就诊TS患儿22例,12例患儿接受rhGH治疗,年龄(13.58±2.23)岁,剂量0.15 U/(kg·d),睡前皮下注射,疗程4~24个月.16例年龄≥13岁、骨龄≥11岁的患儿接受E/P治疗,疗程3~30个月.结果 rhGH治疗后患儿身高、身高的标准差积分提高,生长速率达(9.33±2.39)cm/年;E/P治疗可促进患儿乳房发育及规律月经出现.结论 rhGH和E/P治疗对TS患儿身高增长及性征发育有明显疗效.%Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and sex hormone on the stature and sex feature of children with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods A total of 22 children with TS were selected in the outpatients department of West China Second Hospital between January 2005 and June 2009. Twelve children with TS the average age of (13. 58±2. 23) years] received rhGH [0. 15 U/(kg · d)] every night before sleep for 4-24 months. Sixteen children with TS (age≥14 years old, bone age≥ll years old) underwent estrogen and progestogen (E/P) treatment for 3-30 months. Results The height and height standard deviation score increased significantly in children with rhGH therapy (P<0. 01). The height velocity was (9. 33±2. 39)cm/year after the treatment. The treatment of estrogen and progestogen could promote the development of breast and establish menstrual cycle in children with TS. Conclusion rhGH and E/P can play a significant role in treatment of TS in children.

  4. 性激素与多发性硬化的研究进展%Research Progress of Sex Hormones and Multiple Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹社昌

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis( MS ) is one of the most common neurological disorders. It affects mainly women. This autoimmune disease of the central nervous system( CNS ) is characterized by intermittent or chronicdamage to the myelin sheaths( demyelination ), focal inflammation and axonal degeneration. During the early relapsing/remitting stages of MS,myelin can regenerate,but as the disease progresses the remyelination of axons becomes insufficient,leading to impaired axon conduction,neurodegeneration and the worsening of symptoms. Epidemiological study found that the symptom of MS will be alleviated during pregnancy, some basic research found that sex hormones especially progesterone can significantly reduce the disease severity, and sex hormone protective effect on the nervous system has become the research focus.%多发性硬化(MS)是一种最常见的神经系统疾病,主要累及女性.自身免疫性疾病的中枢神经系统的特点是间歇或慢性髓鞘损害(脱髓鞘反应)、局部炎症和突变性.在早期复发性/偿付阶段的MS髓鞘可以再生,但随着病情进展,再生的神经轴突的数目及活性下降,导致受损的轴突传导、神经性退化和恶化的症状.流行病学研究发现,女性在妊娠期间疾病会在一定时期出现明显的症状减轻.随后的基础研究表明,性激素特别是孕酮可明显减缓疾病严重程度,性激素对神经系统的保护作用成为研究的热点.

  5. Combined effect of tributyltin and benzo[a] pyrene on the levels of sex hormone and vitellogenin in female Sebastiscus marmoratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tributyltin(TBT), an organometal used as an antifouling biocide, has been reported to induce masculinization of fish. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been reported that its microsomal metabolites can produce an estrogenic response when tested in vitro. This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo influence of TBT, BaP and their mixture on sex hormone levels in serum of Sebastiscus marmoratus, which were given 2 separate intraperitoneally(ip) injections(a single injection every 7 d) of TBT(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg), BaP(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg), or both in combination(0.5,1, 5 and 10 mg/kg); control fish received olive oil vehicle only. Six days after the 2nd injection, serum samples were collected and analyzed for sex hormone levels and alkali labile protein phosphorus (ALPP), which is related to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin. The pollutants at all doses significantly reduced serum testosterone, estradiol and ALPP content after 2 injections compared with the corresponding controls. The reduction of the estradiol levels should be response for the decrease of the vitellogenin levels. The results in the present study suggested that aromatase seems not the major target acted by TBT and BaP in fish. This study demonstrated that TBT or BaP exposure both inhibit the reproductive potential in female Sebastiscus marmoratus. Combined effect of TBT and BaP on the serum testosterone, estradiol and ALPP was not antagonism from the anticipation.

  6. Sex-Steroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic QT-Interval Duration: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    The association between physiologic levels of sex hormones and QT-interval duration in humans was evaluated using data from 727 men enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2,942 men and 1,885 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum and free testosterone was calculated from those values. QT interval was measured using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. In men from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, the multivariate adjusted differences in average QT-interval duration comparing the highest quartiles with the lowest quartiles of total testosterone and free testosterone were −8.5 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): −15.5, −1.4) and −8.0 ms (95% CI: −13.2, −2.8), respectively. The corresponding differences were −1.8 ms (95% CI: −3.8, −0.2), and −4.7 ms (95% CI: −6.7, −2.6), respectively, in men from MESA and −0.6 ms (95% CI: −3.0, 1.8) and 0.8 ms (95% CI: −1.6, 3.3), respectively, in postmenopausal women from MESA. Estradiol levels were not associated with QT-interval duration in men, but there was a marginally significant positive association in postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that testosterone levels may explain differences in QT-interval duration between men and women and could be a contributor to population variability in QT-interval duration among men. PMID:21768401

  7. Regulation of mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract: the role of sex hormones in immune protection against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V

    2014-08-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets.

  8. Low Dose Sex Hormone Supplementary Therapy in Women's Anti-aging Treatment%小剂量性激素补充治疗在女性抗衰老中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泉梅; 周坚红; 周金玲

    2014-01-01

    众所周知,性激素补充治疗能够有效改善妇女的绝经相关症状,而小剂量性激素补充治疗较常规剂量性激素补充治疗的不良反应更少。故本文就小剂量性激素补充治疗在女性心血管衰老、外阴阴道萎缩、性功能减退、骨质疏松、认知功能减退等方面的改善作用及其不良反应进行综述。%As we all know sex hormone supplementary therapy can effectively improve women's menopause-related symptoms. Besides,low dose sex hormone supplementary therapy has less side effects compared with the conventional dose sex hormone supplementary therapy. This article reviews the effect and side effect of low dose sex hormone supplementary therapy in terms of cardiovascular aging,atrophy of vulva and vagina,sexual dysfunction,osteoporosis and cognitive decline.

  9. Sex and age differences in the impact of the forced swimming test on the levels of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mota, Lucía; Ulloa, Rosa-Elena; Herrera-Pérez, Jaime; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2011-10-24

    Compared with the adult disorder, depression in children exhibits differences in its neurobiology, particularly in the HPA axis regulation. The bases of such differences can be evaluated in animal models of depression. The objective of the present study was to determine age and sex differences of Wistar rats in the forced swimming test (FST). The influence of sex and age on corticosterone, estrogens and testosterone serum levels was also determined. Prepubertal rats showed immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors during the pre-test and test sessions. In addition, in the prepubertal animals, no sex differences were found during the pre-test and test sessions. Age comparisons indicated no differences in the female groups, however adult males exhibited more immobility and less swimming than young males, in both FST sessions. The young and female rats showed less immobility behavior and increased levels of estrogens after the FST. The present results indicate that the FST is an animal model suitable to evaluate depressive-like behaviors in prepubertal subjects and to explore behavioral changes related to neurodevelopment.

  10. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  11. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): absence of vasopressin expression in standard and wild-derived hamsters and galanin regulation by seasonal changes in circulating sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborea, M; Ansel, L; Weinert, D; Steinlechner, S; Pévet, P; Klosen, P

    2010-02-03

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a nucleus of the forebrain highly sensitive to sex steroids and containing vasopressin neurons implicated in several social- and reproduction-related behaviours such as scent-marking, aggression, pair bonding and parental behaviour. Sexually dimorphic vasopressin expression in BNST neurons has been reported in almost all rodents, with the notable exception of the Syrian hamster. In this species, vasopressin expression is completely absent in the BNST. Because almost all Syrian hamsters used in research are derived from a very small breeding stock captured in 1930, we compared commercially available Syrian hamsters with a recently captured, wild-derived breeding stock. We checked for vasopressin expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vasopressin expression in BNST neurons was completely absent in both breeding stocks, confirming the absence of BNST vasopressin expression in Mesocricetus auratus and ruling out a breeding artefact. Because vasopressin expression in BNST neurons appears to be strictly dependent on circulating sex steroids, the absence of vasopressin expression in Syrian hamster BNST neurons might be due to an insensitivity of these neurons to sex steroids. BNST vasopressin neurons also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian

  12. Premenopausal mammographic density in relation to cyclic variations in endogenous sex hormone levels, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Coupland, Ben; McCormack, Valerie A; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lorna; Hillier, Stephen G; Holly, Jeff M; Moss, Sue; Dowsett, Mitchell; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2009-08-15

    Mammographic density is strongly associated with breast cancer risk, and endogenous hormones, which are risk factors for breast cancer, may be involved in the mechanism. This cross-sectional study of 494 premenopausal women is the first to account for cyclic variations in estrogen levels, by measuring urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) in the periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and to assess the role of androgens. Computer-assisted density readings were obtained from digitized mammograms. Mean ovulatory E1G level and daily E1G load were both positively associated with percent density before adjustment for body mass index (BMI), with women in the top fourth having 10.2% (95% CI: 2.9%, 18.1%) and 8.9% (1.7%, 16.7%), respectively, higher density than those in the bottom fourth (Ptrend before/after BMI adjustment=0.006/0.11 and 0.01/0.13, respectively). Neither the peak nor luteal E1G levels were predictive of density after adjustment for E1G levels at other points in the cycle. The plasma androgens testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were negatively associated with density. In mutually adjusted analyses, density was positively associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and negatively with IGF-II (Ptrend=0.006 for both) but not with IGF binding protein-3. There was also weak evidence of a positive association of prolactin with density. The study supports the hypothesis that endogenous hormones affect density in premenopausal women; in particular, it shows a positive association between estrogen levels and density and suggests that the mean level throughout the cycle is the most biologically relevant measure. Most of these hormone-density associations were attenuated with further adjustment for BMI.

  13. Genomics of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray

    2014-04-01

    Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution.

  14. The association of concurrent vitamin D and sex hormone deficiency with bone loss and fracture risk in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Laughlin, Gail A; Li, Hong; Nielson, Carrie M; Wang, P Ying; Dam, Tien T; Cauley, Jane A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lau, Edith; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2012-11-01

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (VitD), low sex hormones (SH), and high sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are common in older men. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of low VitD, low SH, and high SHBG would have a synergistic effect on bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss, and fracture risk in older men. Participants were a random subsample of 1468 men (mean age 74 years) from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) plus 278 MrOS men with incident nonspine fractures studied in a case-cohort design. "Abnormal" was defined as lowest quartile for VitD (59 nM). Overall, 10% had isolated VitD deficiency; 40% had only low SH or high SHBG; 15% had both SH/SHBG and VitD abnormality; and 35% had no abnormality. Compared to men with all normal levels, those with both SH/SHBG and VitD abnormality tended to be older, more obese, and to report less physical activity. Isolated VitD deficiency, and low BioT with or without low VitD, was not significantly related to skeletal measures. The combination of VitD deficiency with low BioE and/or high SHBG was associated with significantly lower baseline BMD and higher annualized rates of hip bone loss than SH abnormalities alone or no abnormality. Compared to men with all normal levels, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident nonspine fracture during 4.6-year median follow-up was 1.2 (0.8-1.8) for low VitD alone; 1.3 (0.9-1.9) for low BioE and/or high SHBG alone; and 1.6 (1.1-2.5) for low BioE/high SHBG plus low VitD. In summary, adverse skeletal effects of low sex steroid levels were more pronounced in older men with low VitD levels. The presence of low VitD in the presence of low BioE/high SHBG may contribute substantially to poor skeletal health.

  15. Daily fecal sex steroid hormonal changes and mating success in captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Ohazama, M; Ishida, R; Kusunoki, H

    2011-05-01

    Daily fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay in five female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) for 4-6 months. The animals were housed under different conditions: (1) a female always housed in a group including one or more males; (2) two females isolated individually for short or long periods; (3) the other two females housed together. These females were separately housed with males for mating around the time of the estrogen peaks. The hormone profiles were similar in all five females regardless of the housing conditions. However, only the female that had been isolated from other cheetahs for over a year mated and reproduce cubs successfully, whereas the remaining four did not (one was isolated for only 6 weeks, another was always housed with males and the other two were housed together). In all females, the estrogen peaks were obtained at regular intervals of approximately 8-15 days. Unlike estrogen, the progestin concentrations were always low in all females except during pregnancy and they did not increase following the estrogen surges. These results showed that female cheetahs are typically reflex ovulators and female receptiveness may not be reflected to her hormonal states. It was also suspected that individual housing and long-term separation are advantageous for breeding this wild cat in captivity, mimicking the ecological/behavioral patterns in the wild, though housing condition might have no effect on the estrous cycle.

  16. [Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

    1975-01-01

    A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data.

  17. Effect of growth hormone administration to mature miniature Brahman cattle treated with or without insulin on circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and other metabolic hormones and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Elsasser, T H; Spicer, L J; Riley, D G; Lucy, M C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2011-07-01

    Previously, we determined that a primary cause of proportional stunted growth in a line of Brahman cattle was related to an apparent refractoriness in metabolic response to GH in young animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of administration of GH, insulin (INS), and GH plus INS to mature miniature Brahman cows (n = 6; 9.7 ± 2.06 y; 391 ± 48.6 kg) and bulls (n = 8; 9.4 ± 2.00 y; 441 ± 54.0 kg) on circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites, primarily IGF-I and IGF-I binding proteins. We hypothesized that IGF-I secretion could be enhanced by concomitant administration of exogenous GH and INS, and neither alone would be effective. Animals were allotted to a modified crossover design that included four treatments: control (CON), GH, INS, and GH + INS. At the start of the study, one-half of the cattle were administered GH (Posilac; 14-d slow release) and the other one-half served as CON for 7 d. Beginning on day 8, and for 7 d, INS (Novolin L) was administered (0.125 IU/kg BW) twice daily (7:00 AM and 7:00 PM) to all animals; hence, the INS and GH + INS treatments. Cattle were rested for 14 d and then were switched to the reciprocal crossover treatments. Blood samples were collected at 12-hour intervals during the study. Compared with CON, GH treatment increased (P < 0.01) mean plasma concentrations of GH (11.1 vs 15.7 ± 0.94 ng/mL), INS (0.48 vs 1.00 ± 0.081 ng/mL), IGF-I (191.3 vs 319.3 ± 29.59 ng/mL), and glucose (73.9 vs 83.4 ± 2.12 mg/dL) but decreased (P < 0.05) plasma urea nitrogen (14.2 vs 11.5 ± 0.75 mg/dL). Compared with INS, GH + INS treatment increased (P < 0.05) mean plasma concentration of INS (0.71 vs 0.96 ± 0.081 ng/mL), IGF-I (228.7 vs 392.3 ± 29.74 ng/mL), and glucose (48.1 vs 66.7 ± 2.12 mg/dL), decreased (P < 0.01) plasma urea nitrogen (13.6 vs 10.4 ± 0.76 mg/dL), and did not affect GH (13.5 vs 12.7 ± 0.95 ng/mL). In the miniature Brahman model, both the GH and GH + INS treatments

  18. The Daily Profiles of Circulating AMH and INSL3 in Men are Distinct from the Other Testicular Hormones, Inhibin B and Testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Harng Chong

    Full Text Available The testes secrete four hormones (anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin-like peptide 3, Inhibin B and testosterone from two endocrine cell types. It is unknown whether anti-Müllerian hormone and insulin-like peptide 3 levels have a diurnal variation, and if so, whether they covary during the day with testosterone and InhB. Sera were obtained from 13 men at 00:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 14:00, 17:00 and 19:00 hours and the levels of their testicular hormones measured by ELISA. A second cohort of 20 men was similarly examined with blood drawn at 19:00 and the following 06:00. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels exhibited a subtle diurnal pattern with a 19:00 peak that was 4.9% higher on average than the 06:00 nadir (p = 0.004. The decrease in anti-Müllerian hormone coincided with a rise in testosterone and InhB, but there was no association between the person-to-person variation in the diurnal patterns of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone or Inhibin B. Insulin-like peptide 3 had no diurnal pattern, with only minor sporadic variation between time points being observed in some men. In conclusion, the diurnal and sporadic variation of each testicular hormone is distinct, indicating that the major regulation is at the level of the hormone rather than at the endocrine cell type. Consequently, the balance of the hormones being released by the testes has complex variation during the day. The physiological significance of this will vary depending on which combinations of testicular hormones that the target cells respond to.

  19. Ovarian Sex Hormones Modulate Compulsive, Affective and Cognitive Functions in A Non-Induced Mouse Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarup; Bastos, Cristiane P.; Bates, Katherine; Pereira, Grace S.; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of understanding of how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX), which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After 7 days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4) could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background. PMID:27881956

  20. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  1. Histopathological and prognostic significance of the expression of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer: A meta-analysis of immunohistochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hiroki; Inoue, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Emerging preclinical evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormones and their receptor signals in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Meanwhile, previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results on the relationship between the status of sex hormone receptors in urothelial tumors and histopathological characteristics of the tumors or patient outcomes. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the clinicopathological impact of the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in bladder cancer. Methods A comprehensive literature search in databases (i.e. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane) was performed for all immunohistochemical studies stained for AR, ERα, and/or ERβ in surgically resected bladder cancer specimens and analyzed for patient outcomes. We selected eligible studies in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and analyzed data using R software. Results A total of 2,049 patients from 13 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. The difference in ERα expression between non-tumors and tumors was significant [odds ratio (OR) = 0.412; P<0.001], while those of AR (OR = 3.256; P = 0.336) or ERβ (OR = 0.580; P = 0.674) were not statistically significant. AR positivity in tumors was strongly correlated with gender (male vs. female: OR = 0.658; P = 0.027) or tumor grade (low-grade vs. high-grade: OR = 0.575; P<0.001). ERβ positive rates were significantly higher in high-grade (OR = 2.169; P<0.001) and muscle-invasive (OR = 3.104; P<0.001) tumors than in low-grade and non-muscle-invasive tumors, respectively. Survival analysis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer revealed associations between AR expression and better recurrence-free survival [hazard ration (HR) = 0.593; P = 0.006) as well as between ERβ expression and worse recurrence-free (HR = 1.573; P = 0.013) or progression-free (HR = 4.148; P = 0.089) survivals. Conclusions These data suggest down-regulation of ER

  2. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  3. The Effect of Zonisamide on Sex Hormones Level and Testis Histological Changes in Adult MaleRat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Zonisamide is an inhibitor for glutamate neurotransmitter and gamma aminobutiric acid (GABA-mediators. It also increases the total levels of serotonin. According to the importance of this drug in psychotherapy, its side effects on the endocrine system seem to be very important. This study was aimed to determine the effects of zonisamide on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten. The control group did not receive any medical treatment. The sham group received 1 ml distilled water as a solvent and three experimental groups were treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/ kg of zonisamide orally for 28 days.At the day of 29, blood samples and preparation of tissue section were taken from all groups. Serum concentrations of hormones were measured via Radio Immuno Assay (RIA. Using the SPSS software, the results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that 100 and 200(mg/kg.b.w of zonisamide could reduce the serum level of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, while it increased the LH concentration. It should be noted that 200(mg/kg.b.w of drug also enhanced the FSH level (P<0/001. Also, a considerable decline was observed in spermatogenesis chain at high doses of zonisamide. Conclusion: This study showed that high doses of zonisamide decrease the serum concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the number of spermatogenic cells. It also increased the serum FSH and LH levels. Therefore, it is proposed that zonisamide may decrease the function of reproductive activity. Key words: Zonisamide, Reproduction, Rat

  4. Effect of low B-Lynch suture on menstrual cycle recovery and sex hormone levels in patients after cesarean section for placenta previa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Lan Zhang; Wan-Cheng Feng; Yan Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of low B-Lynch suture on the menstrual cycle recovery and sex hormone levels in patients after cesarean section for placenta previa.Methods:A total of 40 patients who were admitted in our hospital from August, 2013 to August, 2015 for cesarean section due to placenta previa were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given low B-lynch suture, while in the control group, yarns were plugged in the uterus. The bleeding during operation and 24 h after operation, the postpartum lochia duration, and menstrual cycle recovery in the two groups were observed. The postpartum FSH, E2, and LH levels in the two groups were determined.Results:The amount of bleeding during operation and 24 h after operation in the observation group was significantly less than that in the control group (P0.05). The comparison of FSH, E2, and LH levels between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusions:Low B-Lynch suture can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding after cesarean section for placenta previa, and has no effect on the menstrual recovery and ovarian function with a simple operation and less postoperative complications; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  5. Transcriptional changes in steroidogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFOA and PFOS) regulate the synthesis of sex hormones in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae Soon; Choi, Jin-Soo; Park, June-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two of the most widely used perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Because of their strong persistence, they have become widely distributed throughout the environment and human bodies. PFOA and PFOS are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system based upon many in vivo studies, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the endocrine-related effects of PFOA and PFOS using in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivation assays and steroidogenesis assay. The results showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited weak antagonistic ER transactivation but did not exhibit agonistic ER or AR transactivation. In the steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS induced 17β-estradiol (E2) level and reduced testosterone level, which would be caused by the induction of aromatase activity. The qPCR analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis indicates that PFOA and PFOS associate with sex hormone synthesis by the transcriptional induction of two genes, cyp19 and 3β-hsd2. Moreover, the transcriptional induction of cyp11b2 by PFOS suggests that this chemical may underlie the disruption of several physiological functions related to aldosterone. The results of the current study suggest that PFOA and PFOS are potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and provide information for further studies on the molecular events that initiate the adverse endocrine effects.

  6. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Pedro; Silva, Roxana A.; Sanguinetti, Nicole K.; Venegas, Francisca C.; Riquelme, Raul; González, Luis F.; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M.; Moya, Pablo R.; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL); DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL); EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL); and control (sesame oil of 50 μL). At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase) and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area. PMID:26904299

  7. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  8. The relationships among bone health, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex hormones in adolescent female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruodyte, Rita; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and estradiol in pubertal female athletes. The participants were 170 healthy adolescent girls (13-15 years) who participated in competitive extramural athletic programs, i.e., sports games (n = 49), track sprinting (n = 24), rhythmic gymnastics (n = 23), swimming (n = 24) and cross-country skiing (n = 17). The control group (n = 33) consisted of girls who took part only in compulsory physical education classes at school. The whole-body BMD and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and BMC were measured using DXA, and the volumetric BMD was calculated. Venous blood samples to determine the concentration of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and estradiol were drawn after an overnight fasting. After adjusting for age, body height and body mass, the relationships among BMD variables, IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio remained significant only in the rhythmic gymnast group. BMDs at the femoral neck and lumbar spine were also related to estradiol levels (r = 0.45-0.60; p < 0.05) only in the rhythmic gymnast group. No relationships were found among the measured BMD, IGF axis and estradiol in other athletic groups. Only BMC at the femoral neck remained associated with the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in the rhythmic gymnast group after adjusting for age, body height and body mass. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that IGF-1 and estradiol together explained 42.6% (R(2) x 100) of total variance in the femoral neck BMD and IGF-1 alone 35.4% (R(2) x 100) of the total variance in the femoral neck BMC only in the rhythmic gymnast group. We conclude that femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD correlated with IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and estradiol in rhythmic gymnasts. No relationships were found between bone parameters and the hormones used in other athletic groups.

  9. Research Progress in Relationship between Sex Hormones and Coronary Heart Disease%性激素与冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病关系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease( CHD )is related to various factors such as age, gender, environmental and genetic factors, among which gender difference is related to great differences in the genesis and development of CHD. Studies have shown that physiological doses of sex hormones have cardiovascular protection to the men and women, while too much or little sex hormones bring harms to the cardiovascular, though the mechanisms involved are only partly understood. Until now, the preventive use of sex hormones in CHD is not established. Here is to make a review on the research progress in relationship between sex hormones and CHD.%冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(CHD)的发生与年龄、性别、环境和遗传等多种因素有关,其中男女性别不同,在冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病的发生、发展中存在着很大的不同.生理剂量的性激素对男女心血管起到保护作用,或多或少的性激素对心血管起到危害的作用,但具体发病机制还不完全清楚.目前性激素在CHD中的预防性作用仍存在争议.现就近几年关于性激素水平变化与CHD的关系的研究进展进行综述.

  10. In vitro study of the binding between chlorpyrfos and sex hormones using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography: A new aspect of pesticides and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, K; Tahmasebi, R; Biparva, P; Maleki, R

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system. Organophosphorus insecticides, as chlorpyrifos (CPS), receive an increasing consideration as potential endocrine disrupters. Physiological estrogens, including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) fluctuate with life stage, suggesting specific roles for them in biological and disease processes. There has been great interest in whether certain organophosphorus pesticides can affect the risk of breast cancer. An understanding of the interaction processes is the key to describe the fate of CPS in biological media. The objectives of this study were to evaluate total, bound, and freely dissolved amount of CPS in the presence of three estrogenic sex hormones (ESHs). In vitro experiments were conducted utilizing a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The obtained Scatchard plot based on the proposed SPME-HPLC method was employed to determine CPS-ESHs binding constant and the number of binding sites as well as binding percentage of each hormone to CPS. The number of binding sites per studied hormone molecule was 1.10, 1, and 0.81 for E1, E2, and DES, respectively. The obtained results confirmed that CPS bound to one class of binding sites on sex hormones.

  11. Multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid sex hormones in water and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Keren; Mei, Meng; Li, Haonan; Huang, Xiaojia; Wu, Cuiqin

    2016-02-01

    The development of a simple and sensitive analytical approach that combines multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction with liquid desorption followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed for the determination of trace levels of seven steroid sex hormones (estriol, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, ethinylestradiol, estrone, progesterone and mestranol) in water and urine matrices. To extract the target analytes effectively, multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid was used to concentrate hormones. Several key extraction parameters including desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix were investigated in detail. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.027-0.12 μg/L. The linear range was 0.10-200 μg/L for 17β-estradiol, 0.25-200 μg/L estriol, ethinylestradiol and estrone, and 0.50-200 μg/L for the other hormones. Satisfactory linearities were achieved for analytes with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. Acceptable method reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations of both less than 8%. The enrichment factors ranged from 54- to 74-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of steroid sex hormones in environmental water samples and human urines with spiking recoveries ranged from 75.6 to 116%.

  12. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny;

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  13. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ρ=-0.09; fT: ρ=-0.27; SHBG: ρ=0.21; PSA: ρ=0.32; and fPSA%: ρ=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (ρ=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (ρ=0.1) and fT (ρ=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs.

  14. Increased MMPs expression and decreased contraction in the rat myometrium during pregnancy and in response to prolonged stretch and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zongzhi; Sada, Alaa A; Reslan, Ossama M; Narula, Neha; Khalil, Raouf A

    2012-07-01

    sex hormones during pregnancy are associated with increased expression/activity of specific MMPs, which in turn inhibit uterine contraction and promote uterine relaxation.

  15. Annual changes in fecal sex hormones with corresponding changes in reproductive behaviors in Thai sarus crane, black-headed Ibis, and Lesser Adjutant Stork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Poothong, Songklod; Taksintum, Wut; Suekkhachat, Hataitip; Kanchanabanca, Pongvarut; Suwapat, Phongpipat

    2013-12-01

    We monitored annual fecal sex hormones and reproductive displays of five individuals of males and females Thai sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii), a flock of five males and females black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and five pair bonded lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), all maintained in captivity at Bangprha Waterbird Breeding Research Center. Reproductive behaviors were observed during 0600-1800 h, for four days during the second week of each month and feces were collected monthly to determine annual male total testosterone (mTT) and female estradiol (fE2) levels by radioimmunoassay. Thai sarus crane exhibited a peak mTT in August following a fE2, with a surge in July. Black-headed ibis demonstrated a peak mTT in January prior to a fE2 with a surge in March. Lesser adjutant stork showed a maximal mTT coincidently with fE2 with a surge in October. Thai sarus crane frequently displayed courtship in May-October, corresponding well with higher mTT rather than fE2 levels. Black-headed ibis showed courtship-copulation displays in January, simultaneously with mTT, but not with fE2 surge. Lesser adjutant stork often displayed courtship-copulation in October-January, seemingly corresponded with higher mTT and fE2 levels during October-December and October-November, respectively. Male and female lesser adjutant stork displayed egg-incubation and chick-rearing behaviors in November-January and December-June, respectively. We suggest that mTT and/or fE2 apparently played an important role in regulation of courtship-copulation displays but did not relate to both egg-incubation and chickrearing behaviors.

  16. Effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy on hippocampus and cognition of postmenopausal women of different apoE genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun YUE; Ping-ping ZUO; Ling HU; Qin-jie TIAN; Jing-mei JIANG; Yi-long DONG; Zheng-yu JIN; Yu-hang CHENG; Xia HONG; Qin-sheng GE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the volume and biochemical changes of the hippocampus in postmeno-pausal women carrying apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene ε3 or ε4. Methods: Eighty-three postmenopausal women who had used a low dose of HRT for over 4 years were selected as the HRT group, and 99 postmenopausal women with matched age and education were enrolled as the control group. ApoE alleles were analyzed by PCR. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to determine the volume of the brain hippocampus. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect the biochemical changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in apoE ε4 and ε3 carriers. Six common cognitive tests were used to make an overall evaluation of cognitive function. Results: Analysis with the apoE ε4 carriers showed that the volume of the hippocampus of the control group were significantly lower than those of the HRT group. The biochemical analysis showed that there was an increase of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/total creatine (tCr) and a decrease of myoinositol (mI)/tCr in the hippocampus of apoE ε4 carriers in the HRT group, compared with the control group. For the apoE ε3 carriers, the least squares means (LSMEAN) of the HRT group was higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: This study showed that long-term, low dose HRT might be beneficial for reducing the risk of AD development in vulnerable postmenopausal women. Meanwhile, HRT could increase the LSMEAN of apoE ε3 carriers.

  17. Relatively high levels of serum adiponectin in obese women, a potential indicator of anti-inflammatory dysfunction: Relation to sex hormone-binding globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Onat, Gülay Hergenç, Dursun Dursunoğlu, Zekeriya Küçükdurmaz, Serkan Bulur, Günay Can

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether serum adiponectin concentrations diminish linearly with increasing adiposity and, if not, which factors codetermine this association. These issues were investigated cross-sectionally in 1188 men and women, representative of middle-aged and elderly Turkish adults. Serum total adiponectin was assayed by ELISA. Serum adiponectin values in men, though declining significantly in transition from the bottom to the mid tertile of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, were similar in the two respective upper tertiles. In women, serum adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in any tertile of these indices, were significantly correlated with BMI or WC within the low tertiles and not within the two higher tertiles. In a linear regression analysis for WC (or BMI in a subset of the sample in which serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was available and which additionally comprised adiponectin, fasting insulin and other confounders, only insulin and, in women SHBG, were significantly associated, but not adiponectin. In linear regression analyses for covariates of adiponectin in two models comprising 12 variables, insulin and SHBG concentrations were significantly associated in both genders though not BMI. Whereas in men HDL-cholesterol and CRP were covariates of adiponectin (both p<0.01, SHBG and apolipoprotein B positively associated in women (p<0.001, independent of BMI and fasting insulin levels. Conclusions: Relationship between excess adiposity and adiponectin levels is inconsistent in Turkish adults. Independently from obesity and hyperinsulinemia, serum adiponectin discloses significant relationship with inflammatory markers and HDL only in men, not in women in whom it is influenced by SHBG, with consequent attenuation of its anti-inflammatory activities.

  18. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity both absolute and relative increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8 and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10 groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  19. 抗性激素依赖性肿瘤药物引起的骨丢失%Anti-sex hormone-dependent neoplasm agents-induced bone loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖二元

    2008-01-01

    Chemotherapy can induce bone loss. It is especially severe and the incidence of estimated bone loss may be as high as almost 100% for cancer patients treated with anti-sex hormone agents because of inhibition and deficiency of estrogens and/or androgens with the inappropriate ratio of two hormones during and "after therapy. Anti-sex hormone-dependent neoplasm agents-induced bone loss, characterized by an increase of bone turnover rate, should be treated in the early stage in order to prevent it from deterioration and bone fractures. The etiology, mechanism and clinical management of anti-sex hormone-dependent neoplasm agents-induced bone loss are briefly discussed in this review.%一般的抗肿瘤化疗药物可引起骨丢失,而抗性激素依赖性肿瘤药物因其抑制雌激素/孕激素或雄激素的合成与分泌,导致雌激素和(或)雄激素缺乏和两者比例失调,骨丢失的发生率几乎为100%.以骨转换升高为特征的抗性激素依赖性肿瘤药物治疗往往导致多发性脆性骨折,故必须注重其预防和治疗.本文重点评论该类物所致骨丢失的病因、发生机制和防治.

  20. Effect of growth hormone administration to mature miniature Brahman cattle treated with or without insulin on circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and other metabolic hormones and metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we determined that a primary cause of proportional stunted growth in a line of Brahman cattle was related to an apparent refractoriness in metabolic response to growth hormone (GH) in young animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of administration of GH, insulin...

  1. Dose-response effects of a new growth hormone receptor antagonist (B2036-PEG) on circulating, hepatic and renal expression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Neck (Han); N.F. Dits (Natasja); V. Cingel-Ristic; I.A. Hoppenbrouwers (Ilse); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); A. Flyvbjerg (Allan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of growth hormone (GH) in regulating the expression of the hepatic and renal GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were studied by administering a novel GH receptor antagonist (GHRA) (B2036-PEG) at different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10

  2. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  3. 急性短暂精神病性障碍患者血清性激素水平%Serum levels of sex hormone in patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严辞; 苑杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨急性而短暂的精神病性障碍患者血清性激素的水平。方法选择21例急性而短暂的精神病性障碍患者和21例健康对照为研究对象。采用放射免疫法分析测定其血清性激素水平并进行比较分析。结果无论男性组还是女性组血清催乳素水平与对照组相比均有升高,且有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论急性而短暂的精神病性障碍患者具有性激素代谢紊乱的现象,其特点是血清催乳素水平升高,血清卵泡刺激素、黄体生成素、雌二醇水平正常。%Objective To investigate the serum levels of sex hormone in patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders .Methods 21 acute and transient psychotic disorders patients and 21 health‐y controls were enrolled .Their sex hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay .Results The prolactin levels with acute and transient psychotic disorders were significant higher than that of the nor‐mal controls in both men and women group (P< 0 .05) .Conclusions Sexual hormone disorders exist in patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders .Acute and transient psychotic disorders has higher prolactin level ,however ,the luteotropic hormone levels ,the follicle-stimulating hormone levels and the estradiol levelsare normal .

  4. 痤疮中医分型与性激素水平变化关系%The Relationship between Pnenotypes of Differential Diagnosis in TCM of Acne and the Serum Sex Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆伟雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the TCM differentiation-types of acne and the serum sex hormone,and observe the change of the sex hormone after the Chinese medicine treatment.Methods The patients of acne were divited into the syndrome of liver-qi depression and the syndrome of Lung-stomach heat retention.Its serum level about the luteinizing hormone( LH), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), testosterone(T) ,estradiol( E2 ) ,prolactin (PRL) and sex hormone blinding globulin(SHBG) was tested and analysed before and after two months's treatment.Results Between the two types of patients, the hormone T,PRL,SHBL of male and female had a remarkable changes before and after the treatmet, and the differences was also obvious( P < 0.05).Conclusion There is obvious relationship between the TCM differentiation-types of acne and the serum sex hormone, while, the accommodation of traditional Chinese medicine to the sex hormone of acne is obvious.%目的 探讨痤疮的中医辨证分型与血清性激素水平的相关性,并观察中医辨证论治后,其性激素水平的变化.方法 将痤疮患者分为肝郁气滞型、肺胃蕴热型,检测其黄体生成素、卵泡刺激素、睾酮、雌二醇、催乳素、性激素结合球蛋白水平,分析中医分型与性激素水平的关系,两组证型患者经中药治疗2个月后,再观察睾酮、雌二醇的变化.结果 两证型所检测的六种性激素中,男性的睾酮(8.09±3.20,11.32±7.41)、催乳素(15.68±11.67,12.97±5.11)、性激素结合球蛋白(517.36±327.43,408.35±107.08)差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).女性的睾酮(0.510±0.203,0.631±0.399)、催乳素(22.75±11.87,18.66±5.30)、性激素结合球蛋白(397.63±198.24,313.52±102.79)差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).两型痤疮患者其治疗后的睾酮、雌二醇比治疗前明显改变,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 痤疮的中医分型与血清性激素水平有较明显的相关性,而中药对痤

  5. Gender and sex hormones influence the response to trauma and sepsis: potential therapeutic approaches Hormônios sexuais influenciam a resposta ao trauma e à sepsis: possíveis soluções terapêuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K. Angele

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated gender dimorphism in immune and organ responsiveness and in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses have been shown to be depressed in males following trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they were aintained/enhanced in proestrus females. Furthermore, sex hormones have been shown to be responsible for this gender-specific immune response following adverse circulatory conditions. More specifically, studies indicate that androgens produce immunodepression following trauma-hemorrhage in males. In contrast, female sex steroids appear to exhibit immunoprotective properties following trauma and severe blood loss. With regard to the underlying mechanisms, receptors for sex hormones have been identified on various immune cells suggesting direct effects of these hormones on the immune cells. Alternatively, indirect effects of sex hormones, ie, modulation of cardiovascular responses or androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes, might contribute to gender-specific immune responses. Recent studies indicate that sex hormones, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, also modulate the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in surgical patients. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of sex hormones/receptor antagonists/sex steroid synthesizing enzymes following trauma-hemorrhage suggests novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immunodepression in surgical patients.Uma série de estudos clínicos e experimentais demonstram a existência de dimorfismo sexual das respostas imunológicas e orgânicas, bem como da suscetibilidade e morbidade em relação ao choque, ao trauma e à sepse. Respostas imunes celularmente mediadas apresentam-se deprimidas em machos em resposta ao binômio trauma-hemorragia, mas conservados/enaltecidos em fêmeas em proestro. Adicionalmente demonstra-se que os hormônios sexuais são responsáveis por

  6. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity,sexual behavior, and cognitive function%雄激素对男性性别、行为和认知的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱院山; 蔡力群

    2006-01-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5α-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5α-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.%雄激素即男性激素对男性性别的分化和发育起重要作用.但雄激素的作用远不止于此.动物实验表明,雄激素对大脑性别差异的发育,以及对维持两性行为和认知的差异都非常重要.现已了解,决定人性别的基本要素与其它哺乳动物相似.但是,性激素对两性神经系统、两性行为、认知差异的影响,以及其与哺乳动物的相互关系还不甚了解, 是一门吸引众多科学家研究的新兴领域.本综述通过对雄激素受体突变引起的雄激素不敏感综合症和5α-还原酶-2突变引起的5α-还原酶-2缺乏症的探讨,深入阐述了雄激素在男性性别、行为和认知中所起的作用;同时强调了先天与后天因素相互作用的重要性.

  7. Growth Hormone Protects Against Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in States of Low Circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1)*

    OpenAIRE

    Fritton, J. Christopher; Emerton, Kelly B; SUN, HUI; Kawashima, Yuki; Mejia, Wilson; Wu, Yingjie; Rosen, Clifford J.; Panus, David; Bouxsein, Mary; Majeska, Robert J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Yakar, Shoshana

    2009-01-01

    Early after estrogen loss in postmenopausal women and ovariectomy (OVX) of animals, accelerated endosteal bone resorption leads to marrow expansion of long bone shafts that reduce mechanical integrity. Both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are potent regulators of bone remodeling processes. To investigate the role of the GH/IGF-1 axis with estrogen deficiency, we used the liver IGF-1-deficient (LID) mouse. Contrary to deficits in controls, OVX of LID mice resulted in...

  8. Applying generalized linear models as an explanatory tool of sex steroids, thyroid hormones and their relationships with environmental and physiologic factors in immature East Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Mangel, Marc; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Generalized linear models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and thyroxine (T4) levels in immature East Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their body condition, size, mass, blood biochemistry parameters, handling time, year, season and site of capture. According to external (tail size) and morphological (<77.3 straight carapace length) characteristics, 95% of the individuals were juveniles. Hormone levels, assessed on sea turtles subjected to a capture stress protocol, were <34.7nmolTL(-1), <532.3pmolE2 L(-1) and <43.8nmolT4L(-1). The statistical model explained biologically plausible metabolic relationships between hormone concentrations and blood biochemistry parameters (e.g. glucose, cholesterol) and the potential effect of environmental variables (season and study site). The variables handling time and year did not contribute significantly to explain hormone levels. Differences in sex steroids between season and study sites found by the models coincided with specific nutritional, physiological and body condition differences related to the specific habitat conditions. The models correctly predicted the median levels of the measured hormones in green sea turtles, which confirms the fitted model's utility. It is suggested that quantitative predictions could be possible when the model is tested with additional data.

  9. [Content of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Young-of-the-Year of Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax from Two Spatial Groups for Different Duration of Starvation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D S; Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V

    2015-01-01

    The content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is determined in fish-farm juveniles of Black Sea trout 5.5 months old, from the bottom and pelagic spatial groups differing in the probability of future selection of the resident or anadromous life strategies, respectively. Differences in the concentration of the aforementioned hormones are found in young-of-the-year corresponding to those in the migratory and resident forms of yearlings of trout. In the juveniles from the pelagic group at the age 0+, the level of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone is higher than in specimens from the bottom group. Prolonged starvation results in a higher content of triiodthyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone in the blood of juveniles from both spatial groups. The concentration of estradiol-17β increases in pelagic specimens and decreases in bottom specimens.

  10. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    The associations between serum levels of reproductive hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and calculated free testosterone) and urinary metabolite concentration of pyrethroid insecticides [3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)...

  11. Lower Serum Vitamin D Metabolite Levels in Relation to Circulating Cytokines/Chemokines and Metabolic Hormones in Pregnant Women with Hypertensive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adela, Ramu; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mishra, Navneeta; Bhandi, Murali Mohan; Vishwakarma, Gayatri; Varma, B. Aparna; Ragampeta, Srinivas; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether lower serum vitamin D metabolite levels were associated with altered cytokine/chemokine and metabolic hormone levels in three different hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP). Healthy pregnancy (n = 30) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) (n = 30), i.e., gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE), and eclampsia (EC) subjects were enrolled. Vitamin D metabolites were measured by UPLC/APCI/HRMS method. Circulatory 27 cytokines/chemokines and 10 metabolic hormones were measured. Significantly decreased 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were observed in HDP. The levels of 25(OH)D were significantly lower in PE and EC, whereas the serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D significantly decreased only in EC subjects. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were negatively correlated with systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine, and uric acid levels. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 decreased, and GIP levels were increased in gestational hypertensive subjects. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and IL-8 levels were increased and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta levels were decreased in EC subjects. IL-8 and IL-10 increased, and rantes and GIP levels decreased in the EC group as compared with the GH group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D were predictors of HDP. Our analyses suggest that lower vitamin D metabolites are associated with altered cytokines/chemokines and metabolic hormones in HDP.

  12. 血微量元素和性激素水平对精子缺陷的影响%Effect of the blood trace elements and Sex hormone level on sperm defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮兴有; 王志军; 丁黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of blood trace elements and sex hormone level on sperm defect. Methods:Serum trace elements (calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iorn and lead) and