WorldWideScience

Sample records for circulating sex hormones

  1. Sex hormones modulate circulating antioxidant enzymes: Impact of estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellanti

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Menopause is associated with significant change in antioxidant gene expression that in turn affects circulating redox state. Estrogens replacement therapy is able to prevent and counteract such modifications by acting as regulators of key antioxidant gene expression. These findings suggest that antioxidant genes are, almost in part, under the control of sex hormones, and that pathophysiology of the difference in gender disease may depend on the redox biology.

  2. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.; Strickler, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concen

  3. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001. Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp. and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp. when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007. Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  4. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  5. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Coviello (Andrea); R. Haring (Robin); M. Wellons (Melissa); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Keildson (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); C. He (Chunyan); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Mangino (Massimo); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); B. Chen (Benjamin); J. Eriksson (Joel); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y. Liu (Yongmei); A. Koster (Annemarie); K. Lohman (Kurt); L.-P. Lyytikäinen; A.K. Petersen; C.A.J. Prescott; L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); A.R. Wood (Andrew); W.V. Zhuang; A. Ruokonen (Aimo); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Brabant (Georg); D.G. Cox (David); S. Cummings; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M.J. Gunter (Marc J.); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); H. Martikainen (Hannu); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Illig (Thomas); J.O. Jansson; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); M. Karlsson (Magnus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); P. Kraft (Peter); O.̈. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); M. Maggio (Marcello); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); D. Mellström (Dan); I. Miljkovic (Iva); D. Mirel (Daniel); S. Nelson (Sarah); L. Morin Papunen (Laure); P.H.M. Peeters; I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); M. Reincke (Martin); A.P. Reiner (Alex); K. Rexrode (Kathryn); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); D. Stöckl (Doris); S. Tworoger (Shelley); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.H. van Gils (Carla); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); G. Zhai (Guangju); S. Bhasin (Shalender); M. Bidlingmaier; S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); M. Kähönen (Mika); P. Ouyang (Pamela); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J. Viikari (Jorma); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); S. Franks (Steve); M.R. Jarvelin; F.A. de Jong (Floris); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Teumer (Alexander); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.R.B. Perry (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers s

  6. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  7. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion

  8. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  10. The role of circulating sex hormones in menstrual cycle dependent modulation of pain-related brain activation

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S.; Keaser, Michael L.; Traub, Deborah S.; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Greenspan, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in pain sensitivity have been consistently found but the basis for these differences is incompletely understood. The present study assessed how pain-related neural processing varies across the menstrual cycle in normally cycling, healthy females, and whether menstrual cycle effects are based on fluctuating sex hormone levels. Fifteen subjects participated in four test sessions during their menstrual, mid-follicular, ovulatory, and midluteal phases. Brain activity was measured ...

  11. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thun, Michael J; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J

    2009-10-01

    Sex hormones, particularly the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiologic evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterized variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5% to 10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men [association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292-rs727479 (A-A) versus noncarriers; P = 1 x 10(-5)], and with inverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  12. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit;

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...

  13. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  14. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...

  15. Mammalian sex hormones in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Skoczowski; Anna Janeczko

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17β-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube ...

  16. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584

  17. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed.

  18. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  19. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  20. Anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women in relation to other hormones, fetal sex and in circulation of second trimester fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, Melissa; Byskov, Anne Grete; Skouby, Sven Oluf;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) blood concentrations in mother and fetus during pregnancy. Serum concentrations of AMH, gonadotrophins, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in pregnant women in the first trimester and AMH concentrations...

  1. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M;

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection...

  2. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit;

    2007-01-01

    determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...... of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol...

  3. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...

  4. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  5. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  6. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  7. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig;

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent...... osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...

  8. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  9. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas. PMID:25540983

  10. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Tuulia M. Ortner; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal ...

  11. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda ePletzer; Ourania ePetasis; Tuulia eOrtner; Larry eCahill

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal s...

  12. Sex Hormone Receptor Repertoire in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M. Higa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER positive refers singularly to ERα. One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ERα-mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ERα is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy, the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is also of prognostic value. Even though the clinical relevance of the two other sex hormone receptors, namely, ERβ and the androgen receptor remains unclear, two discordant phenomena observed in hormone-dependent breast cancers could be causally related to ERβ-mediated effects and androgenic actions. Nonetheless, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms remains incomplete, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies that could improve disease outcomes. This review focuses on the receptor-mediated actions of the sex hormones in breast cancer.

  13. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  14. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  15. Gender, sex hormones and pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Eric D.; Johansen, Anne Katrine; Alzoubi, Abdallah; Lahm, Tim; West, James; Tofovic, Stevan P.; MacLean, Margaret R.; Oka, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Most subtypes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are characterized by a greater susceptibility to disease among females, although females with PAH appear to live longer after diagnosis. While this “estrogen paradoxȍ of enhanced female survival despite increased female susceptibility remains a mystery, recent progress has begun to shed light upon the interplay of sex hormones, the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, and the right ventricular response to stress. For example, emerging ...

  16. The impact of female sex hormones on competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Buser, T.

    2009-01-01

    We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first under a piece rate and then under a competitive tournament scheme. Subjects can then choose which compensation scheme to apply in a third round. We find that sex hormones have a strong effect on w...

  17. The impact of female sex hormones on competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Buser

    2009-01-01

    We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first

  18. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  19. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity. PMID:26236181

  20. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  1. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  2. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  3. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  4. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  5. Circulating parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in rats after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Popova, Irina A.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone and calcithonin, two major calcium-regulating hormones, were measured in the plasma of five experimental groups of rats to evaluate postflight calcium homeostasis after the 14-day Cosmos 2044 flight. Parathyroid hormone values were slightly higher in the flight animals (F) than in the appropriate cage and diet controls (S) (44 +/- 21 vs 21 +/- 4 pg/ml, P less than 0.05), but they were the same as in the vivarium controls (V), which had different housing and feeding schedules. The difference in F and V (22 +/- 11 vs 49 +/- 16 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) was most likely due to failure of circulating calcitonin in F to show the normal age-dependent increase which was demonstrated in age-matched controls in a separate experiment. Basal values for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were unchanged after 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, a flight simulation model, in age-matched and younger rats. From a time course experiment serum calcium was higher and parathyroid hormone lower after 4 wk than in ambulatory controls. Postflight circulating levels of parathyroid hormone appear to reflect disturbances in calcium homeostasis from impaired renal function of undetermined cause, whereas levels of calcitonin reflect depression of a normal growth process.

  6. Hormone therapy use, sex hormone concentrations and gene expression : The Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Waaseth, Marit

    2010-01-01

    According to sales statistics, the use of hormone therapy (HT) increased markedly in Norway through the 1990s, but decreased from 2002. Both endogenous and exogenous sex hormones are known risk factors for cancer among women. Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth which develops gradually through genomic alterations. Technological developments provide the opportunity to investigate relationships between sex hormones and blood gene expression in a population based cohort like the ...

  7. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E

    2015-03-01

    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

  8. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, T; Christensen, E;

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  9. Disturbances of sex hormones in anorexia nervosa in the male.

    OpenAIRE

    McNab, D.; Hawton, K

    1981-01-01

    Sex hormone levels were measured in a male patient with anorexia nervosa throughout the course of his illness and recovery. Gonadotrophin levels returned to normal with weight gain but his testosterone remained low. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed.

  10. Sex Hormones and Modulation of Immunity against Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Heidi; Lezama-Davila, Claudio; Alexander, James; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinica...

  11. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Thangesweran Ayakannu; Taylor, Anthony H; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system ...

  12. Sex hormones regulate cytoskeletal proteins involved in brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    VALERIA eHANSBERG-PASTOR; ALIESHA eGONZÁLEZ-ARENAS; ANA GABRIELA PIÑA-MEDINA; IGNACIO eCAMACHO-ARROYO

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depend on the cytoske...

  13. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytos...

  14. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for

  15. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

  16. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  17. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  18. Infantile and early childhood masturbation: Sex hormones and clinical profile

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies have explored the hormonal triggers for masturbation in infants and young children. Thus, we aimed to study the sex hormones and clinical profiles of masturbating infants and young children. METHODS: This case-control study involved infants and young children who masturbate and were referred to three pediatric neurology clinics between September 2004 and 2006 (n=13), and a similar control group. All children underwent basic laboratory investigations prio...

  19. The influence of sex hormones on the pineal gland of the chick: a histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    OpenAIRE

    Boya, J; Calvo, J.; Zamorano, L.

    1980-01-01

    The pineal gland of chicks treated with oestrogens and androgens has been studied histochemically and ultrastructurally from post-hatching until 90 days of age. The results obtained may demonstrate a precocious maturity of the gland caused by its response to the early high level of sex hormones circulating in the blood.

  20. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2013-01-01

    Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay...

  1. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress.

  2. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Nielsen, F. K.; Pedersen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid...... hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated...

  3. Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time.

    OpenAIRE

    Hausmann, M; Hamm, J. P.; K. E. Waldie; Kirk, I. J.

    2013-01-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether functional cerebral asymmetries (FCA) of many cognitive processes are more pronounced in men than in women. Some evidence suggests that the apparent reduction in women's FCA is a result of the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroid hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle, making their FCA less static than for men. The degree of lateralization has been suggested to depend on interhemispheric communication that may be modulated by gonadal steroid ho...

  4. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  5. Hormones and Sex-Specific Transcription Factors Jointly Control Yolk Protein Synthesis in Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Siegenthaler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the housefly Musca domestica, synthesis of yolk proteins (YPs depends on the level of circulating ecdysteroid hormones. In female houseflies, the ecdysterone concentration in the hemolymph oscillates and, at high levels, is followed by expression of YP. In male houseflies, the ecdysterone titre is constantly low and no YP is produced. In some strains, which are mutant in key components of the sex-determining pathway, males express YP even though their ecdysterone titre is not significantly elevated. However, we find that these males express a substantial amount of the female variant of the Musca doublesex homologue, Md-dsx. The dsx gene is known to sex-specifically control transcription of yp genes in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data suggest that Md-dsx also contributes to the regulation of YP expression in the housefly by modulating the responsiveness of YP-producing cells to hormonal stimuli.

  6. Sex bias in paediatric autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their impact on immune system function is well recognised. While for paediatric-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on paediatric autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences.

  7. Sex Steroid Hormones and Reproductive Disorders : Impact on Women's Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Moley, Kelle H.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Taylor, Robert N.; Berga, Sarah L.; Mermelstein, Paul G.; Devroey, Paul; Gianaroli, Luca; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vercellini, Paolo; Hummelshoj, Lone; Rubin, Susan; Goverde, Angelique J.; De Leo, Vincenzo; Petraglia, Felice

    2011-01-01

    The role of sex steroid hormones in reproductive function in women is well established. However, in the last two decades it has been shown that receptors for estrogens, progesterone and androgens are expressed in non reproductive tissue /organs (bone, brain, cardiovascular system) playing a role in

  8. Study on two steroidal sex hormones in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOYoubuo

    1998-01-01

    Steroidal sex hormones including androgens and estrogens are important in the reproductive development of mammals. A number of studies suggested that these steroids might have similar functions in plants, A latest research on Nongken 58s, a photoperiod-sensitive genie male sterile rice (PGMR),

  9. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...

  10. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses...

  11. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  12. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:19818789

  13. MicroRNA: sex steroids, hormonal carcinogenesis, hormonal sensitivity of tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones, regulating normal physiological processes of most tissues and organs, are considered to be one of the key factors in the development and progression of the reproductive system cancer. Recently, the importance of the system for post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by short single-stranded RNA molecules (microRNA became evident. This system is involved in regulation of normal physiological processes and in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In review we discuss the relationship between the two regulatory systems – sex hormones and microRNAs. The relationship of these systems is considered in the context of two tumors – breast and prostate cancer. In particular, the history of research on the role of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and prostate cancer is briefly covered. Additionally, modern scientific data on the biogenesis and biological role of microRNAs are presented in more detail. In the cells of the hormone-sensitive tissues, sex hormones regulate the microRNA-mediated machinery of gene expression control by two known ways: specifically, affecting the activity of individual microRNA molecules and non-specifically by altering the efficiency of microRNA biogenesis and activity of RNA-induced silencing complex. This downstream regulatory network substantially enhances biological effects of sex hormones at physiological conditions. Malignant transformation leads to a distortion of the regulatory effects of sex hormones that crucially influence the system of microRNA-regulated post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The most established and clinically significant example of such phenomenon is the loss of sensitivity of cells to the regulatory action of these hormones. As a consequence, cancer cells acquire the ability to active proliferation without stimulation with sex hormones. This effect is partly mediated by microRNAs. Also, relevant experimental data

  14. Genes and sex hormones interaction in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emilia; Cosentino, Livia; Laviola, Giovanni; De Filippis, Bianca

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset and symptomatology of many neurodevelopmental disorders strongly differ between genders. This review examines sex biases in human neurodevelopmental disorders and in validated animal models. A focus is made on disorders of well-established genetic origin, such as Rett syndrome, CDKL5-associated disorders, Fragile X and Down syndrome. Autism is also addressed, given its paradigmatic role as a sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorder. Reviewed literature confirms that a complex interaction between genetic factors and sex hormones may underlie the differential susceptibility of genders and may impact the severity of symptoms in most of the analyzed neurodevelopmental disorders. Even though further studies addressing the advantages and disadvantages conferred by biological sex in this class of disorders are needed to disentangle the underlying mechanisms, present findings suggest that modulation of sex steroid-related pathways may represent an innovative approach for these diseases. Much effort is now expected to unravel the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeting sex hormones-related signaling pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders of well-established genetic origin.

  15. The relationship between sex hormones and extent of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odgerel Tumur; HAN Jiang-li; YANG Chi-sun; MAO Jie-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women increases with menopause. Results from the studies on the role of endogenous sex hormones on CAD in postmenopausal women are conflicting.1,2 The present study evaluated the relationship between endogenous sex hormones and extent of CAD in postmenopausal women and the associations of sex hormones with CAD risk factors.

  16. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF). Serum testosterone levels were equivalent in adult XXM and XYM, as was serum estrogen in XXF and XYF mice. To remove the effects of gonadal hormones, gonadectomized FCG mice were subjected to MCAO. Gonadectomy significantly increased infarct volumes in females, while no change was seen in gonadectomized males, indicating that estrogen loss increases ischemic sensitivity. Estradiol supplementation in gonadectomized FCG mice rescued this phenotype. Interestingly, FCG male mice were less sensitive to effects of hormones. This may be due to enhanced expression of the transgene Sry in brains of FCG male mice. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity appear to be shaped by organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, rather than sex chromosomal complement.

  17. Circulating hormone concentrations in hypothyroid rats with induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M T; Adams, W C; Bruot, B C

    1991-11-01

    The induction of polycystic ovaries in hypothyroid rats by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been studied for many years. A complete understanding of this phenomenon requires information regarding the circulating levels of the hormones of the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. In this study, serum prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay at intervals during the 40-day period in which large ovarian cysts were induced in hypothyroid rats by daily injections of hCG. After 20 injections, ovaries increased in weight 10-fold, and well-developed ovarian cysts were present, accompanied by lutein tissue; cyst development continued for the subsequent 20 days of hCG. Both PRL and LH rose during the first 5 days of treatment and were maintained at high levels from day 20 on. The pattern of change of gonadal steroids showed greater increases with hCG in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. Levels of estradiol in hypothyroid, hCG-injected rats increased in parallel to ovarian hypertrophy, whereas progesterone was high in initial stages and then declined. Testosterone increased in both euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, with no clear pattern coincident with cyst formation. The data suggest that the formation of polycystic ovaries in the hypothyroid rat is associated with high levels of PRL and LH followed by elevations of estradiol, which may serve to maintain continuous PRL, as well as LH, stimulation of the ovary. PMID:1924408

  18. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-06-13

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016.

  19. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016. PMID:27347894

  20. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja;

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women...... to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to...

  1. Brain sex differences and hormone influences: A moving experience?

    OpenAIRE

    Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration,...

  2. Sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids: beyond chromosomes and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Matthew; Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Cidlowski, John A

    2014-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-documented phenomenon that is observed at all levels of the animal kingdom. Historically, sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) have been implicated as key players in a wide array of pathologies displaying sexual dimorphism in their etiology and progression. While these hormones clearly contribute to sexually dimorphic diseases, other factors may be involved in this phenomenon as well. In particular, the stress hormone cortisol exerts differential effects in both males and females. The underlying molecular basis for the sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids is unknown but clearly important to understand, since synthetic glucocorticoids are the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and hematological cancers in humans. PMID:24739020

  3. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  4. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  5. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  6. Menopause and sarcopenia: A potential role for sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Virginie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Elisha, Belinda; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2011-04-01

    Menopause is associated with a decline in estrogen levels, which could lead to an increase in visceral adiposity as well as a decrease in bone density, muscle mass and muscle strength. This decline in muscle mass, known as sarcopenia, is frequently observed in postmenopausal women. Potential causes of sarcopenia include age-related changes in the hormonal status, low levels of physical activity, reduced protein intake and increased oxidative stress. However, the role of sex hormones, specifically estrogens, on the onset of sarcopenia is controversial. Preventing sarcopenia and preserving muscle strength are highly relevant in order to prevent functional impairment and physical disability. To date, resistance training has been shown to be effective in attenuating age-related muscle loss and strength. However, results on the effect of hormonal supplementation to treat or prevent sarcopenia are contradictory. Further research is needed to identify other potential mechanisms of sarcopenia as well as effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Therefore, the purpose of this review will be to examine the role of sex hormonal status in the development of sarcopenia. We will also overview the physical as well as metabolic consequences of sarcopenia and the efficiency of different interventions for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:21353405

  7. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  8. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. Setting: The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. Participants: A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Intervention: Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Main Outcome Measures: Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). Results: In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P < .05). PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P < .05). Women with the greatest reduction in estradiol since baseline had greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction (P = .02). Conclusions: Late peri-/postmenopausal women have greater volumes of heart fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. PMID:26176800

  9. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  10. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm: the role of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Courtois, Audrey; Drion, Pierre; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in men, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature, we examined human and animal in vivo and in vitro studies to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17β-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in men and women, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA.

  11. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P;

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. ....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis....

  12. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  13. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  14. Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqian Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid uptake, while enhancing lipolysis, cholesterol secretion, and glucose catabolism. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis.

  15. Sex hormones and oxytocin augmentation strategies in schizophrenia : A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Sophie M; Begemann, Marieke J H; Goverde, Angelique J; Sommer, Iris E C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in incidence, onset and course of schizophrenia suggest sex hormones play a protective role in the pathophysiology. Such a role is also proposed for oxytocin, another important regulator of reproduction function. Evidence on the efficacy of sex hormones and oxytocin in

  16. Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R J; Burgess, L H; Kerr, J E; O'Keefe, J A

    1994-12-01

    The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn is regulated by the hypothalamic factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone. A sex difference exists in the response of the HPA axis to stress, with females reacting more robustly than males. It has been demonstrated that in both sexes, products of the HPA axis inhibit reproductive function. Conversely, the sex differences in HPA function are in part due to differences in the circulating gonadal steroid hormone milieu. It appears that testosterone can act to inhibit HPA function, whereas estrogen can enhance HPA function. One mechanism by which androgens and estrogens modulate stress responses is through the binding to their cognate receptors in the central nervous system. The distribution and regulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the CNS suggest possible sites and mechanisms by which gonadal steroid hormones can influence stress responses. In the case of androgens, data suggest that the control of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated trans-synaptically. For estrogen, modulation of the HPA axis may be due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function. PMID:7729815

  17. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  18. Effect of sex hormones on bone density during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of special phantoms permitted precise measurement of vertebral mineral content by CT in the very young. The normal standards for spinal trabecular bone of children aged 0-18 years are presented. Although there is no age-related difference in bone density before puberty, there is a significant increase in bone mineral content after puberty. The increase in sex hormones during puberty accounts for the increased density. Longitudinal studies analyzing vertebral density changes in castrated rabbits after testosterone and estradiol administration are discussed

  19. Overexpression of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Disrupts Gonadal Sex Differentiation, Blocks Sex Hormone Synthesis, and Supports Cell Autonomous Sex Development in the Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten; Ayers, Katie L; Wise, Terry G; O'Neil, Terri; Wilson, Susanne; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    The primary role of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during mammalian development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. Mammalian AMH expression is regulated by a combination of transcription factors, the most important being Sry-type high-mobility-group box transcription factor-9 (SOX9). In the chicken embryo, however, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9, leading to the view that AMH may play a more central role in avian testicular development. To define its role in chicken gonadal development, AMH was overexpressed using the RCASBP viral vector. AMH caused the gonads of both sexes to develop as small and undeveloped structures at both embryonic and adult stages. Molecular analysis revealed that although female gonads developed testis-like cords, gonads lacked Sertoli cells and were incapable of steroidogenesis. A similar gonadal phenotype was also observed in males, with a complete loss of both Sertoli cells, disrupted SOX9 expression and gonadal steroidogenesis. At sexual maturity both sexes showed a female external phenotype but retained sexually dimorphic body weights that matched their genetic sexes. These data suggest that AMH does not operate as an early testis activator in the chicken but can affect downstream events, such as sex steroid hormone production. In addition, this study provides a unique opportunity to assess chicken sexual development in an environment of sex hormone deficiency, demonstrating the importance of both hormonal signaling and direct cell autonomous factors for somatic sex identity in birds. PMID:26809122

  20. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying

    OpenAIRE

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneou...

  1. Animal models of absence epilepsies: what do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic

  2. Animal models of absence epilepsies: what do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic

  3. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model also with a higher prevalence in males and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic inhibition

  4. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormo...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone.......Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...

  5. Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tracey Bosworth; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer inc...

  6. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. PMID:27433022

  7. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.

  8. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carl D., E-mail: carl.d.smith179.mil@mail.mil; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female

  9. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD50) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD50 of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD50s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD50 of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD50 compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female rats. • It is unlikely that

  10. Spolni hormoni in njihovi biološki učinki: Sex hormones and their biological effects:

    OpenAIRE

    Pinter, Bojana

    2001-01-01

    Sex hormones, which are involved in the development and maintenance of reproductive tissue, are produced by female and male gonads, suprarenal cortexand the placenta. There are three main sex hormone groups: estrogens, gestagens and androgens. Natural, native-synthetic and synthetic hormones are used in hormonal therapy. The paper presents the characteristics of different hormonal substances. Knowledge of the different biological effects of sex hormones facilitates the clinical use of these h...

  11. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable.

  12. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  13. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  14. Sex hormones and erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) in hemodialysis patients (HD) and to study the associated changes in sex hormones in these patients. Methodology: This is a hospital based cross sectional study conducted at hemodialysis units of Shalamar and Mayo Hospitals, Lahore from January to March 2008. All male patients with ESRD on maintenance (HD), whose spouses were alive and able to perform intercourse, were included in the study. Patients with cognitive and communication deficits were excluded from study. International index of erectile function-5(IIEF-5), adopted in Urdu was used for determination of prevalence of ED. Demographic data was collected and sex hormones (total testosterone, Dihydroepiandrosteronediones (DHEA), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and serum Prolactin) were measured. Results: A total number of fifty patients were included in the study. The major cause of ESRD was diabetes mellitus 28 (56%). The prevalence of ED was 86% with a mean IIEF-5 score 10.36 + 7.13. The majority of patients, 33 (66%), were suffering from a severe degree of ED. The total testosterone level was low in 30 (60%) patients and DHEA were low normal in most of patients, 46 (92%). Compared to patients with non-ED, those with ED had a significantly lower DHEA (1.93 +- 0.73 vs 0.81 +- 0.11, p value = 0.007). Total testosterone and DHEA had a negative correlation with age and diabetes mellitus. FSH showed a variable response in these patients, it was low ( 9.74 mIU/ ml) in eight patients. LH was low ( 7.8 mIU/ml) in fifteen patients. FSH and LH showed a positive correlation with duration of dialysis. Prolactin level was low in 21(42%) patients. Total testosterone, FSH, LH and Prolactin had no association with ED. Conclusion: The majority of the patients suffering from ESRD, on maintenance HD had ED. DHEA was significantly lower in patients with ED, compared to those with no-ED. Total testosterone and DHEA had an inverse

  15. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiologi...... with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.......Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions...... of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We...

  16. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women after caloric restriction in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, SG; Onland-Moret, NC; Peeters, PHM; Rinaldi, S; Kaaks, R; Grobbee, DE; van Noord, PAH

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the 1944-1945 Dutch famine has affected postmenopausal sex hormone concentrations with data from 163 women (young adults during the famine). Urinary sex hormone concentrations showed modest elevations with increasing famine exposure. Effects were absent in parous women, but m

  17. Sex hormone binding globulin in the rat olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploss, V; Gebhart, V M; Dölz, W; Jirikowski, G F

    2014-05-01

    Ovarian steroids are known to act on the olfactory system. Their mode of action, however, is mostly unclear to date since nuclear receptors are lacking in sensory neurons. Here we used immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR to study expression and distribution of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in the rat olfactory system. Single sensory cells in the olfactory mucosa and their projections in the olfactory bulb showed specific SHBG immunostaining as determined by double immunofluorescence with olfactory marker protein OMP. Larger groups of SHBG stained sensory cells occurred in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). A portion of the olfactory glomeruli in the accessory olfactory bulb showed large networks of SHBG positive nerve fibres. Some of the mitral cells showed SHBG immune fluorescence. RT-PCR revealed SHBG encoding mRNA in the olfactory mucosa, in the VNO and in the olfactory bulbs indicating intrinsic expression of the binding globulin. The VNO and its related projections within the limbic system are known to be sensitive to gonadal steroid hormones. We conclude that SHBG may be of functional importance for rapid effects of olfactory steroids on limbic functions including the control of reproductive behaviours through pheromones. PMID:24681170

  18. C-peptide, IGF-I, sex-steroid hormones and adiposity : a cross-sectional study in healthy women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, ID; Rinaldi, S; Dossus, L; van Gils, CH; Peeters, PHM; Noord, PAH; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Johnsen, SP; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjonneland, A; Boeing, H; Lahmann, PH; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Allen, N; Roddam, A; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Kesse, E; Tehard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Agudo, A; Ardanaz, E; Quiros, [No Value; Amiano, P; Martinez-Garcia, C; Tormo, MJ; Pala, [No Value; Panico, S; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Baibas, N; Zilis, D; Hemon, B; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the Europe

  19. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  20. Genetic variants of sex hormone-binding globulin and their biological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several hormonal and metabolic factors have been found to influence the production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In addition, twin studies have suggested that genetic factors may also contribute to variation in SHBG levels. Given the clinical significance of SHBG in regulating bioavailable sex steroid hormones, a number of studies examined the potential association between polymorphisms of SHBG gene and serum SHBG levels as well as their possible contribution in ...

  1. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of cr

  2. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hemmen, J.; Saris, I. M. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Veltman, D.J.; Pouwels, P. J. W.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging...

  3. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  4. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-06-01

    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart.

  5. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  6. Sex hormones alter the effect of aspirin on bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Aftab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interaction of aspirin and sex hormones was investigated through bleeding time. Methods: Bleeding time in 32 males and 105 unmarried females with previous 6 normal menstrual cycles and all aged between 18 to 21 years was found by Duke’s method before and after 2 hours of aspirin administration. Phase of menstrual cycle of each female was determined by present menstrual history. Results: Bleeding time in 32 male was 69.33± 4.94 seconds and in 105 female was 73.03±1.89 seconds which were not statistically different (P>0.05.This time was increased to 107.66±4.76 seconds in males and 113.65±3.73 seconds in females after aspirin administration which were statistically different (P0.05 difference after aspirin administration with a greater effect in Follicular phase probably due to estradiol. Conclusion: Males respond to aspirin more as compared to females which is likely the effect of the drug and testosterone interaction. Similarly females in the follicular phase respond to aspirin more as compared to females in the luteal phase which may be a result of interaction of estrogen and aspirin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 537-540

  7. Increased fat deposition in injured skeletal muscle is regulated by sex-specific hormones

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Matthew J.; Sarwar, Zaheer U.; Cardenas, Damon P.; Porter, Laurel; Salinas, Anna S.; Michalek, Joel E.; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in skeletal muscle regeneration are controversial; comparisons of regenerative events between sexes have not been rigorously defined in severe injury models. We comprehensively quantified inflammation and muscle regeneration between sexes and manipulated sex-specific hormones to determine effects on regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury was induced in intact, castrated and ovariectomized female and male mice; ovariectomized mice were replaced with low- or high-dose 17-β estradiol (...

  8. CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  9. Impacts of stress and sex hormones on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Duncan; Tertia D Purves-Tyson; Allen, Katherine M.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adolescence is a developmental period of complex neurobiological change and heightened vulnerability to psychiatric illness. As a result, understanding factors such as sex and stress hormones which drive brain changes in adolescence, and how these factors may influence key neurotransmitter systems implicated in psychiatric illness, is paramount. Objectives In this review, we outline the impact of sex and stress hormones at adolescence on dopamine neurotransmission, a signaling pathw...

  10. The Biological Effects of Sex Hormones on Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes from Different Genders

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu Jen Chang; Shyh Ming Kuo; Yen Ting Lin; Shan-Wei Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17 β -estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluat...

  11. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure.

  12. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  13. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedick Nicole M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from observational studies suggest that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and endogenous sex hormones may be mediators of the putative relation between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormone levels. Findings After a two-week run-in phase with caffeine abstention, we conducted an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Healthy adults (n = 42 were recruited from the Boston community who were regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight. Participants were randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water (control group per day consumed with each meal, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon. The main outcome measures were SHBG and sex hormones [i.e., testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate]. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for any of the studied outcomes at week 8. At 4 weeks, decaffeinated coffee was associated with a borderline significant increase in SHBG in women, but not in men. At week 4, we also observed several differences in hormone concentrations between the treatment groups. Among men, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol. Among women, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased total testosterone. Conclusions Our data do not indicate a consistent effect of caffeinated coffee consumption on SHBG in men or women, however results should be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. This is the first randomized trial investigating the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormones and our findings necessitate further examination in a larger intervention trial.

  14. Acute intermittent porphyria, women and sex hormones. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Innala, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Background:   Porphyrias are inherited disorders with impaired heme biosynthesis. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common porphyria in Sweden. AIP attacks may be life-threatening. Female sex hormones are regarded as important precipitating factors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a severe complication in the older AIP population. The aim of the thesis was to describe the clinical expression of AIP in women, experience of hormonal contraception and hormonal replacement therapie...

  15. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  16. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  17. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  18. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lindhardt Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay and conversion factors for the DSL and Generation II assays. With this tool in hand, the pediatrician can use serum concentrations of AMH when determining the presence of testicular tissue in patients with bilaterally absent testes or more severe Disorders of Sex Development (DSD. Furthermore, AMH can be used as a marker of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI in both Turner Syndrome patients and in girls with cancer after treatment with alkylating gonadotoxic agents. Lastly, its usefulness has been proposed in the diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and ovarian granulosa cell tumors and in the evaluation of patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  19. Relevance of Stress and Female Sex Hormones for Emotion and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    ter Horst, J. P.; Kloet, E.R. de; Schächinger, H.; Oitzl, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions ...

  20. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised serotone...... provoke depressive symptoms and thus provide a rationale for future preventive strategies in high-risk groups.......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  1. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  2. Associations between Serum Sex Hormone Concentrations and Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haring

    Full Text Available Despite observational evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies associating sex hormones with various cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases, pathophysiological explanations are sparse to date. To reveal putative functional insights, we analyzed associations between sex hormone levels and whole blood gene expression profiles.We used data of 991 individuals from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with whole blood gene expression levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling and serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, androstenedione (AD, estradiol (E2, and estrone (E1 measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and immunoassay. Associations between sex hormone concentrations and gene expression profiles were analyzed using sex-specific regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and technical covariables.In men, positive correlations were detected between AD and DDIT4 mRNA levels, as well as between SHBG and the mRNA levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B. No additional significant associations were observed.Besides the associations between AD and DDIT4 expression and SHBG and the transcript levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B, the present study did not indicate any association between sex hormone concentrations and whole blood gene expression profiles in men and women from the general population.

  3. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  4. In vitro effects of sex hormones in human meibomian gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Antje; Abrar, Daniel B; Hampel, Ulrike; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Garreis, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is considered the most common cause of dry eye disease (DED). Sex hormones seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MGD although their involvement is not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosteron (DHT) and estradiol (β-Est) on an immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC). Protein expression of sex hormone receptors in HMGEC was investigated by western blot. Ultrastructural morphology, Sudan III lipid staining, cell proliferation as well as vitality assays were performed. Furthermore, expression of MGD-associated markers for keratinization (hornerin, involucrin and CK6), proliferation (CK5 and CK14) and lipid synthesis (fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Western blot revealed presence of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and -β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) in HMGEC. PR, ERα and ERβ expression was significantly induced under cultivation with serum, whereas sex hormones stimulation showed no further effect on protein expression of PR, ERα and ERβ. Our results showed no impact of MGD-associated sex hormones to cellular morphology and lipid accumulation in HMGEC. Cell proliferation was slightly induced through application of sex hormones and supplementation of calcium. However, both sex hormones and calcium altered gene expression of MGD-associated markers. Especially keratinization genes hornerin (HRNR) and cornulin (COR) were induced after application of sex hormones and calcium in serum-free cultivated HMGEC. This may promote keratinization processes that are associated with MGD. Further investigations are necessary to analyze the (hyper)keratinization processes that occur during MGD and using HMGEC as an in vitro model.

  5. Study of change of sex hormone receptors in diabetic impotent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the relationship between diabetic impotence and sex hormones as well as sex hormone receptors. 32 diabetic impotent patients, 32 diabetic patients with normal sex function, 32 impotent patients without diabetes, and 40 healthy men were enrolled. The plasma sex hormone levels were examined by radioimmunoassay, and sex hormone receptors in white blood cells by radioreceptor assay. Compared with healthy men and impotent patients without diabetes, PRL levels in both diabetic impotent patients and diabetic patients with normal sex function increased markedly, T and AR levels decreased, and the ratio of E2/T and ER/AR increased. Compared with diabetic patients with normal sex function, while there was no significant difference in PRL, T and E2/T ratio, the AR level of diabetic impotent patients further decreased, and the ER/AR ratio further increased. Negative correlation was found between age and AR as well as T. The decline of AR and the increase of ER/AR ratio might be one main cause of diabetic impotence. And the decline of T and AR might be an important cause of the increase of diabetic impotence incidence with age

  6. Effect of sex steroid hormones on the number of serotonergic neurons in rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Yuyu; Iwata, Kinuyo; Iijima, Norio; Kobayashi, Makito; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Disorders caused by the malfunction of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system show sex-specific prevalence. Many studies have reported a relationship between sex steroid hormones and the brain serotonergic system; however, the interaction between sex steroid hormones and the number of brain neurons expressing serotonin has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether sex steroid hormones altered the number of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of adult rat brains. Animals were divided into five groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+low estradiol (E2), OVX+high E2, castrated males, and intact males. Antibodies against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), an enzyme for 5-HT synthesis, were used as markers of 5-HT neurons, and the number of 5-HT-immunoreactive (ir) or Tph-ir cells was counted. We detected no significant differences in the number of 5-HT-ir or Tph-ir cells in the DR among the five groups. By contrast, the intensity of 5-HT-ir showed significant sex differences in specific subregions of the DR independent of sex steroid levels, suggesting that the manipulation of sex steroid hormones after maturation does not affect the number and intensive immunostaining of serotonergic neurons in rat brain. Our results suggest that, the sexual dimorphism observed in the serotonergic system is due to factors such as 5-HT synthesis, transportation, and degradation but not to the number of serotonergic neurons.

  7. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex bias of melanoma in a fish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David L; Fernandez, André A; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-Hsiang; Person, Maria D; Earley, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model, we show a strong male bias for sunlight-induced malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sublethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24-h period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreases for all free sex steroids at 6 and 24 h and increases in conjugated 2-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone at 6 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas ARα expression increased in male and female skin, neither ARβ nor either of the ERs showed significant responses to UVB in either sex. The rapid response of male androgens and their receptors in the skin after UVB irradiation implicates hormones in the male bias of skin cancer and suggests that the photoendocrine response immediately after UV exposure may be relevant to melanomagenesis.

  8. Acute exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation modulates sex steroid hormones and receptor expression in the skin and may contribute to the sex-bias of melanoma in a fish model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David L.; Fernandez, André A.; Garcia, Rachel; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Hanninen, Amanda; Zigelsky, Kyle; May, Matthew; Nuttall, Mark; Lo, Herng-hsiang; Person, Maria D.; Earley, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Using the Xiphophorus fish melanoma model we show a strong male bias for cutaneous malignant melanoma, consistent with that seen in the human population. To examine underlying factors, we exposed adult X. couchianus fish to a single, sub-lethal dose of UVB and measured circulating sex steroid hormones and expression of associated hormone receptor genes over a 24 hour period. We found that a single exposure had profound effects on circulating levels of steroid hormones with significant decreases for all free sex steroids at 6 and 24 h and increases in conjugated 2-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone at 6 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas ARα expression increased in male and female skin, neither ARβ nor either of the ER’s showed significant responses to UVB in either sex. The rapid response of male androgens and their receptors in the skin after UVB irradiation implicates hormones in the male-bias of skin cancer and suggests that the photoendocrine response immediately after UV exposure may be relevant to melanomagenesis. PMID:24406016

  9. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  10. Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

    2014-03-01

    From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders.

  11. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase polymorphisms, sex hormone concentrations, and tumor receptor status in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes are involved in removing sex hormones from circulation. Polymorphic variation in five UGT and SULT genes – UGT1A1 ((TA)6/(TA)7), UGT2B4 (Asp458Glu), UGT2B7 (His268Tyr), UGT2B15 (Asp85Tyr), and SULT1A1 (Arg213His) – may be associated with circulating sex hormone concentrations, or the risk of an estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) or progesterone receptor-negative (PR-) tumor. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of an ER- or PR- tumor associated with polymorphisms in the genes listed above for 163 breast cancer patients from a population-based cohort study of women in western Washington. Adjusted geometric mean estradiol, estrone, and testosterone concentrations were calculated within each UGT and SULT genotype for a subpopulation of postmenopausal breast cancer patients not on hormone therapy 2–3 years after diagnosis (n = 89). The variant allele of UGT1A1 was associated with reduced risk of an ER- tumor (P for trend = 0.03), and variants of UGT2B15 and SULT1A1 were associated with non-statistically significant risk reductions. There was some indication that plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations varied by UGT2B15 and SULT1A1 genotypes; women with the UGT2B15 Asp/Tyr and Tyr/Tyr genotypes had higher concentrations of estradiol than women with the Asp/Asp genotype (P = 0.004). Compared with women with the SULT1A1 Arg/Arg and Arg/His genotypes, women with the His/His genotype had elevated concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.003). The risk of ER- breast cancer tumors may vary by UGT or SULT genotype. Further, plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations in breast cancer patients may differ depending on some UGT and SULT genotypes

  12. Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan Barbara D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development, and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that fluctuating sex hormone levels in young females and loss of ovarian sex hormone production due to menopause likely contribute to observed sex differences in knee joint function and risk for loss of function. In studies of osteoarthritis, however, there is a general lack of appreciation for the heterogeneity of hormonal control in both women and men. Progress in this field is limited by the relatively few preclinical osteoarthritis models, and that most of the work with established models uses only male animals. To elucidate sex differences in osteoarthritis, it is important to examine sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues and the sexual dimorphism in the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels. There is a need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role. This paper discusses these gaps in knowledge and suggests remedies.

  13. Interpulse interval in circulating growth hormone patterns regulates sexually dimorphic expression of hepatic cytochrome P450.

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, D. J.; Pampori, N A; Ram, P A; Agrawal, A. K.; Shapiro, B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) profiles are sexually differentiated in many species and regulate the sex-dependence of peripubescent growth rates and liver function, including steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 expression, by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By use of an external pump to deliver to hypophysectomized rats pulses of rat GH of varying frequency and amplitude, a critical element for liver discrimination between male and female GH patterns was identified. Liver expression of th...

  14. Determination of Sex Hormones in Antler Velvet by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chun-mei; WANG Ming-tai; MU Jun; BAI Yu-ping; DU Jian-shi; ZHANG Han-qi; WANG Jian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen sex hormones in antler velvet were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.The solid phase extraction was applied to eliminating the matrix effect.The experimental conditions were examined and optimized.Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method provides the good linearities and determination limits(0.2-1.0 μg/kg)of the analytes investigated.The recoveries ranging from 72.3% to 149.5% were obtained for the target analytes at two concentration levels.This method was applied to the determination of eighteen sex hormones in different kinds of antler velvet samples and the obtained results are satisfactory.The results indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of sex hormones in antler velvet samples.

  15. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms. PMID:1561401

  16. Relationship between serum sex hormones levels and degree of benign prostate hyperplasia in Chinese aging men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Song Zeng; Zheng Li; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Chuan-Liang Xu; Zhi-Yong Liu; Hui-Qing Wang; Bo Yang; Wei-Dong Xu; Tai-Le Jin; Cheng-Yao Wu; Gang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common medical conditions in middle aged and older men.This study investigated the relationship between serum levels of sex hormones and measures of BPH in the aging male population of China.Prostate symptoms were assessed as part of a free health screening program for men ≥40 years of age.The examination included digital rectal examination,determination of serum prostate-specific antigen levels,International Prostate Symptom Scorn (IPSS) and transrectal ultrasonography.Serum levels of total testosterone (TT),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),free testosterone (FT),luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) were evaluated.The men also completed a health and demographics questionnaire and received a detailed physical examination.The final study population consisted of 949 men with a mean age of 58.9 years.Pearson correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations between age and levels of all sex hormones except TT,and between age and prostate volume (PV; r=-0.243; P<0.01) or IPSS (r=0.263; P<0.01 ).Additional significant correlations were found between IPSS and serum levels of LH (r=0.112; P<0.01 ) and FSH (r=0.074; P<0.05),but there were no significant correlations between sex hormone levels and PV.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between age and body mass index (BMI) with PV (P<0.0001).In addition,there was a significant correlation between age and PV with IPSS (P<0.0001).Serum sex hormone levels did not correlate with PV or IPSS.The effects of endocrine changes on measures of BPH in aging men require further investigation in longitudinal and multicenter studies that include patients with all severities of BPH.

  17. The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; ERDEM, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differe...

  18. Effect of Jingqian Zhitong Fang on Serum Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Na Dai; Ling Fang; Yu-bo Li; Yu-ming Wang; Ju Yin; Bao-chan Pu

    2014-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological disease garnering increasing attention and research. To investigate the clinical therapeutic effects of Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) and the differences in serum sex hormone levels during the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, we selected 30 healthy volunteers and 60 individuals with primary dysmenorrhea. On the third day of the menstrual cycle, we used ELISA to determine the levels of serum prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), lut...

  19. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S;

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were......, elevated concentrations of oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and reduced levels of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), while women with non-alcoholic cirrhosis had significantly elevated concentrations of SHBG and reduced levels of oestrone sulphate, DHT, androstenedione...

  20. Study on the changes of serum sex hormone levels after operation in children with cryptorchism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of serum sex hormone levels after operation in children with cryptorchism. Methods: Serum T, LH, FSH, E2 levels (with RIA) were determined in 30 patients with cryptorchism both before and after operation as were as in 35 controls. Results: Before operation, serum T, LH levels were significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P2, FSH levels were significantly higher (P2, FSH levels were not significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative determination of serum sex hormone levels different from those in controls in patient with cryptorchism is useful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  1. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  2. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebron-Milad Kelimer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus. After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders.

  3. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-01-01

    Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus.After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22738383

  4. Sex differences in stress responses : Focus on ovarian hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Gerrits, Marjolein; Westenbroek, Christel; Lin, Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    Women in the reproductive age are more vulnerable to develop affective disorders than men. This difference may attribute to anatomical differences, hormonal influences and environmental factors such as stress. However, the higher prevalence in women normalizes once menopause is established, suggesti

  5. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  6. How to explore the effects of sex hormone on blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Mei-li; Nie Min; Liu Bing; Du Zhi-jun; Ge Qin-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease increases along with aging. There are increasing interests in researches on the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)on cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women. In this article we will review how we have explored the evidence of different sex hormones on blood vessels since 1996. The results showed that low-dose HRT significantly protected cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.However, the high-dose 17β-estradiol (E2), with or without progesterone (P) or testosterone (T), or any hormone alone, as their concentrations increase, may even inhibit the protective effects of low-dose HRT on blood vessels.

  7. Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender.

  8. Sex specificity of hormone synthesis in Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, M

    1975-01-01

    Sex specificity is observed in mating types of the fungus Oucor mucedo with respect to the production of 4-hydroxy methltrisporates (plus mating type) and trisporins (minus mating type), and in the conversion of these metabolites to trisporic acids by the mating partner. These compounds induce zygophores on the opposite mating type only.

  9. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features

    OpenAIRE

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal andr...

  10. Sex hormones and gene expression signatures in peripheral blood from postmenopausal women - the NOWAC postgenome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylander Charlotta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT influences endogenous hormone concentrations and increases the risk of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling may reveal the mechanisms behind this relationship. Our objective was to explore potential associations between sex hormones and gene expression in whole blood from a population-based, random sample of postmenopausal women Methods Gene expression, as measured by the Applied Biosystems microarray platform, was compared between hormone therapy (HT users and non-users and between high and low hormone plasma concentrations using both gene-wise analysis and gene set analysis. Gene sets found to be associated with HT use were further analysed for enrichment in functional clusters and network predictions. The gene expression matrix included 285 samples and 16185 probes and was adjusted for significant technical variables. Results Gene-wise analysis revealed several genes significantly associated with different types of HT use. The functional cluster analyses provided limited information on these genes. Gene set analysis revealed 22 gene sets that were enriched between high and low estradiol concentration (HT-users excluded. Among these were seven oestrogen related gene sets, including our gene list associated with systemic estradiol use, which thereby represents a novel oestrogen signature. Seven gene sets were related to immune response. Among the 15 gene sets enriched for progesterone, 11 overlapped with estradiol. No significant gene expression patterns were found for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Conclusions Distinct gene expression patterns associated with sex hormones are detectable in a random group of postmenopausal women, as demonstrated by the finding of a novel oestrogen signature.

  11. Effects of female sex hormones on expression of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas-R/nNOS pathways in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yidan; Wen, Quan; Zhao, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Female sex hormones are considered to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. As a part of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has recently been reported to play a role in protecting neuronal tissues from ischemic stroke. Thus, we examined the effects of female sex hormones on the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its downstream pathways in the brain. Female rats were ovariectomized and 17β-estradiol (17β-EST), progesterone (PGR), or a combination of 17β-EST plus PGR were administered. Our data demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly decreased the levels of Ang-(1-7) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area. Also, we observed a linear relationship between cortex levels of Ang-(1-7) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels (as an indicator for risk of ischemic stroke). We further showed that lack of female sex hormones decreased the expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas-receptor (Mas-R), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Overall, our findings show for the first time that Ang-(1-7) and Mas-R/nNOS in the cortex are influenced by circulating 17β-EST and (or) PGR, whereas Ang-(1-7) and its pathways in the hippocampal CA1 area are primarily altered by 17β-EST. This suggests that female sex hormones play a role in regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) and its pathways during ischemic brain injuries.

  12. The importance of the derivative in sex-hormone cycles: a reason why behavioural measures in sex-hormone studies are so mercurial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Adam; Moakes, Kaylee; Aston, Philip; Gavin, Christine; Sterr, Annette

    2014-01-01

    To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3-4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase) to low progesterone (follicular phase) to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How contradictory findings

  13. The importance of the derivative in sex-hormone cycles: a reason why behavioural measures in sex-hormone studies are so mercurial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam McNamara

    Full Text Available To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3-4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase to low progesterone (follicular phase to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How

  14. Sex hormones and metabolic syndrome%性激素与代谢综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳奇; 曲伸

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with the levels of sex hormones.Sex hormones can affect the distribution of body fat,and contribute to the other components of metabolic syndrome such as glucose metabolism,dyslipidemia and hypertension.However,these changes are different between male and female.These may be due to the differences of basal level of sex hormones and the distribution of hormone receptors.Hormone replacement therapy has been considered a newly therapeutic progress in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.%代谢综合征的发生与性激素水平密切相关.性激素水平可以决定体内的脂肪分布,并可影响糖代谢、脂代谢紊乱、高血压等多个代谢综合征组分.而这些影响因素在男、女性别中存在着差异,可能与性激素的基础水平及其受体分布的不同有关.激素替代治疗在代谢综合征的治疗方面目前也取得了一定的进展.

  15. Sex hormone binding globulin and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Majon; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that low levels of estradiol and testosterone increase dementia risk. However, results of the existing observational studies examining associations of endogenous sex hormones with cognition and dementia are conflicting. A possible explanation for these inconsistent findings cou

  16. Extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones, ischemic heart disease, and death in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Voss, Sidsel Skou; Holmegard, Haya N;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sex hormones may be critical determinants of ischemic heart disease and death in women, but results from previous studies are conflicting. To clarify this, we tested the hypothesis that extreme plasma concentrations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone are associated with risk of i...

  17. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of ...

  18. Low level of serum sex hormone binding globulin is associated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese young population.Methods A total of 797 patients were enrolled and subdivided into MS group (n=377) and non-MS group (n=420) .Body height and weight were measured for body

  19. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  20. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tseng

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD.One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67, non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37, and Barrett's esophagus (BE, n = 8. Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects.All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile, 80.1 (49.8-108.3 vs. 99.4 (65.8-131.9 pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0-120.8 vs. 32.8 (28.7-84.5 pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6-9.3 vs. 9.9 (9.6-10.6 μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1-9.2 vs. 9.2 (7.1-11.2 μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE.Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD. Further studies to clarify the exact role of these hormones

  1. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men

    OpenAIRE

    Wulaningsih, W.; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K.; Kanarek, N.; Nelson, W G; Ix, J. H.; Platz, E. A.; Rohrmann, S

    2014-01-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Healt...

  2. Generation and characterisation of plant produced recombinant antibodies specific to LHRH for treatment of sex hormone dependent diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Richa

    2003-01-01

    Leutinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) is a hypothalamic neurohormone that plays a pivotal role in the endocrine control of reproduction. Acting through its high affinity receptors on pituitary gonadotrophs, it regulates the secretion of gonadotropins. Manipulation of the neuroendocrine cascade by LHRH intervention leads to the down regulation of sex steroid levels resulting in a state of pharmacological castration, a physiological state useful for treatment of sex hormone dependent dis...

  3. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  4. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence.

  5. Obesity and sex hormones%肥胖与性激素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新丽; 赵家军

    2011-01-01

    肥胖与包括性激素异常在内的内分泌紊乱密切相关,因为激素的分泌方式和(或)代谢途径或其在靶器官的作用水平在肥胖的状态下发生了改变,长期以来,这些改变被认为继发于肥胖,肥胖影响性激素的水平,但是,肥胖与性激素在体内的相互作用的关系相当复杂.近年来的研究揭示性激素的变化也可能是在脂肪的分布、不同类型的肥胖的病理生理及其相关的代谢异常中起着重要的作用.%Obesity is closely related to endocrine disorders including sex hormone abnormalities.Over a long time, changes in the secretory pathways and/or metabolism of hormones, and altered hormone-related effects at the level of target organs have been considered to be secondary to obesity.While obesity affects sex hormone levels,the interaction between obesity and sex hormones in the body may actually be very complicated.In recent years, studies have revealed that alterations in sex hormone may also play a major role in the distribution of adipose tissues,pathophysiology of obesity phenotypes, and metabolic abnormalities associated obesity.

  6. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    OpenAIRE

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex ...

  7. Is the sex hormone binding globulin related to preeclampsia independent of insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the association between Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and preeclampsia in Iranian women considering the probable confounding effect of insulin resistance. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and comprised pregnant women who received prenatal care at Amiralmomenin Hospital in 2011. Cases represented patients admitted because of preeclampsia, while controls were randomly selected eligible pregnant women without hypertension and/or proteinuria. Fasting blood sugar and insulin were assessed for all participants as well as their blood concentration of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin. The Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Score was used. The correlation between dependant and independent variables was reported by crude and adjusted odds ratio applying logistic regression models. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 100 pregnant women in the study, 45(45%) were cases. Insulin resistance was found to be significantly more frequent in the cases compared to the controls (adjusted odds ratio=2.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.11, 6.90; p<0.01). There was a significant reverse correlation between level of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in blood and being a case of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio=0.99; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.98, 1.00; p=0.04). Conclusion: Independent of insulin resistance, every 1nmol/l increase in Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, decreases the odds of preeclampsia by 1%, notifying Sex Hormone Binding Globulin as an important biomarker about its etiology and prediction. (author)

  8. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  9. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  10. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L-1 for estrone, 0.13 μg. L-1 for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L-1 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L-1 for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L-1 for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  11. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz, E-mail: graci_ju@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos, E-mail: jgsantosbr@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega, E-mail: hmatsu@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Limeira, Larissa, E-mail: larissa.limeira07@gmail.com [Centro Universitario FIEO (UNIFIEO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L{sup -1} for estrone, 0.13 μg. L{sup -1} for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L{sup -1} for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L{sup -1} for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L{sup -1} for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  12. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  13. The sex hormone profile of male patients with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmul, D.; Pegoraro, R J; Jialal, I.; Naidoo, C.; Joubert, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    The mean total serum oestradiol level was found to be significantly increased in 8 patients with carcinoma of the breast when compared with 8 healthy reference subjects matched for race, sex and age. The calculated mean free oestradiol index was also higher in these patients. There were no significant differences, however, between the levels of LH, FSH, prolactin. DHEA-S, testosterone and SHGB in the 2 groups. The patients showed a significantly increased LH response to GnRH while there was n...

  14. Sex Differences in the Pharmacokinetics of Antidepressants : Influence of Female Sex Hormones and Oral Contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, Valerie A.; Proost, Johannes H.; Jiawan, Vincent C. R.; Melgert, Barbro N.

    2014-01-01

    Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men. Moreover, the symptoms they experience also show sex differences: women tend to develop depression at an earlier age and show more severe symptoms than men. Likewise, the response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy appears to have sex difference

  15. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  16. Oocyte Source and Hormonal Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization Using Sexed Spermatozoa in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio A. Presicce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of in vitro embryo production in cattle utilizing sexed sperm from two bulls and oocytes recovered by OPU. Twenty donor animals were employed in eight OPU replicates: the first four OPU trials were conducted on animals without hormone treatment, and the last four were run on the same animals, following FSH subcutaneous and intramuscular administration. A higher rate of blastocyst development was recorded in stimulated, as compared to nonstimulated animals, (25.2% versus 12.8%, =.001. Ocytes derived from slaughterhouse (SH ovaries were also fertilized with sperm from the same bulls. Overall, non-sexed sperm used with oocytes derived from SH ovaries was significantly more efficient for blastocyst development than was sexed sperm with these same SH derived oocytes and sexed sperm with stimulated donor oocytes (39.8% versus 25.0% and 25.2%, =.001. In conclusion, the use of sexed sperm with OPU-derived oocytes resulted in a significantly higher blastocyst development when donors were hormonally stimulated; furthermore, the level of efficiency achieved was comparable to that attained when the same sexed sperm was tested on oocytes derived from SH ovaries.

  17. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part...

  18. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  19. The type of implicit motive enactment is modulated by sex hormones in naturally cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna; Wolf, Claudia C; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Brüne, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur; Pinnow, Marlies

    2014-01-17

    Sex hormones have been reported to dynamically modulate the expression of implicit motives, a concept that has previously been thought to be relatively stable over time. This study investigates to what extent the need for affiliation, power, and achievement, as well as the form of enactment of these needs as measured with the Operant Motive Test (OMT), is affected by cycle-phase dependent sex hormone fluctuations. In addition to measuring the strength of motive expression, the OMT also captures different forms of motive enactment. In an intra-subject design with repeated measures, no evidence for cycle-phase related variation in overall motive scores was found. However, when different forms of motive enactment were considered, an effect of menstrual cycle was observed. The incentive-based inhibition of the power motive was significantly reduced at the time of ovulation, compared to the menstrual and to the mid-luteal phase, in naturally cycling women. In women with relatively stable hormone concentrations (due to using hormonal contraceptives), no significant changes in the form of motive enactment were evident. The results indicate a specific hormonal influence on motive-related cognitive processes that are related to inhibitive processes in behavior control. PMID:24113170

  20. Effect of matricaria recutita on acute pain in the presence and absence of sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Chamomile is a beneficial herbal drug that is used as an anti-inflammatory, sedative and anti-allergic agent. The mechanism of action of matricaria recutita (MR, a specious of chamomile, in nociception in male and female animals is not fully understood. In this study, the sedative effect of a species of chamomile, MR, on acute pain was investigated in both male and female adult mice in the presence and absence of sex hormones.
    METHODS: Male and female NMRI mice weighing 28 ± 3 grams were used. Animals of each sex were divided into intact and gonadectomized groups. Intact group received saline or MR extract (10, 30, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Gonadectomized group contained two subgroups: a group that received saline or MR hydro alcoholic extract (50 mg/kg, I.P., and b group that received sex hormones (testosterone in male mice and estradiol benzoate and progesterone in female mice, both with and without MR extract (50mg/kg, IP. The analgesia times in all groups were evaluated by hot plate test.
    RESULTS: MR increased analgesia time both in intact and gonadectomized male and female mice, but had no effect in the presence of pharmacological doses of testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous in male mice, and estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg, SC and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg, SC in female mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: It seems that MR can induce a pain-relieving effect with and without physiological doses of sex hormones in male and female mice, but sex hormones probably interact with its analgesic effect in their pharmacological doses.
    KEY WORDS: Matricaria recutita, pain, testosterone, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, hot plate.

  1. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  2. Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto,Jun

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3 micrograms/ml after exposure for 24 h.

  3. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  4. Circulating thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypothyroid status and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Mondul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer incidence in male smokers, 402 prostate cancer cases were sampled. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prostate cancer were estimated for quintiles of serum total and free thyroxine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG, and by categories of thyroid status. RESULTS: Men with serum higher TSH had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to men with lower TSH (Q5 vs. Q1-4: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97, p = 0.03. When the T4 and TSH measurements were combined to define men as hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid, hypothyroid men had a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to euthyroid men (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81, p = 0.006. We observed no association between hyperthyroid status and risk, although the number of hyperthyroid men with prostate cancer was small (n = 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of smokers, men with elevated TSH and those classified as being in a hypothyroid state were at decreased risk of prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the association in other populations, particularly non-smokers and other racial/ethnic groups.

  5. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  6. Effect of breeding conditions on thyroid and sex hormones of pregnant and lactating Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was planned in order to clarify the effect of breeding conditions on the thyroid and sex hormones of Egyptian female buffaloes during gestation. Parturition and lactation. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), estradiol and progesterone were studied in two groups of buffaloes, aging 5-7 years.Starting from the 5th month of gestation till the 9th week of lactation. The first group was maintained on standard farm conditions and the second on ordinary traditional village conditions. The data revealed that the way of breeding has no effect on thyroid and sex hormones and no differences were observed. Accordingly, pregnancy and lactation were not affected. These results indicate that the Egyptian buffaloes have high adaptability towards the surrounding conditions so, its worthy to breed such beneficial animals without any additional effort or expenses. These factors should be considered for improving the Egyptian economy

  7. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  8. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence.

  9. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence. PMID:27216917

  10. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John R B

    2016-02-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7,879,351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (Phormone regulation.

  11. Social Recognition Memory: Influence of Age, Sex, and Ovarian Hormonal Status

    OpenAIRE

    Markham, Julie A.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    Social recognition memory underlies many forms of rodent interaction and can be easily tested in the laboratory. Sex differences in aspects of this memory have been reported among young adults, and some studies indicate an age-related decline among male rats. In contrast, neither the impact of natural fluctuations in ovarian hormones nor the performance of aged female rats on social recognition memory has been previously evaluated. In experiments 1 and 2, the social recognition memory of youn...

  12. Sex, stress and the brain: interactive actions of hormones on the developing and adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, B S

    2014-12-01

    The brain is a target of steroid hormone actions that affect brain architecture, molecular and neurochemical processes, behavior and neuroprotection via both genomic and non-genomic actions. Estrogens have such effects throughout the brain and this article provides an historical and current view of how this new view has come about and how it has affected the study of sex differences, as well as other areas of neuroscience, including the effects of stress on the brain.

  13. Optical properties of two types of sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkin, Yu. P.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Pomogaev, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    The spectral and luminescent characteristics of estradiol and testosterone—two basic sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series—are calculated by employing quantum-chemical methods. The results of calculations are in good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that fluorescence observed in estrogens is associated with the occurrence of the lowest ππ state, while the absence of fluorescence in androgens is attributed to the existence of the lowest nπ state, from which fluorescence is forbidden.

  14. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Ferree, Nikole K.; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and nonclinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following...

  15. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  16. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.. Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF, castrated M (CasM, OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T, and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2 groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and glutathione reductase (GR. Also, glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation (LPO were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  18. Measures of bioavailable serum sex hormone levels in aging Chinese by protein chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Yong; CHANG; Shuying; MENG; Xiaoluo; YU; Huafeng; WANG; Luning; HE; Jinggui; ZHANG; Baohe; ZHANG; Juntian; GENG; Meiyu; DU; Guanhua

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a protein chip technique based on receptor binding assays to measure bioavailable serum sex hormone levels (BSSHL). 224 aging healthy Chinese were investigated to get the referenced values of BSSHL for the first time. In the assays recombined sex hormone receptor proteins were jointed to polysaccharide coated slides to make protein chip, and the dose-dependence curves of sex hormone on chip were prepared. The data showed that this method had good precision (CV<16%) and accuracy (Bias<10%), and the sensitivity could reach 1 pmol/L. From the results, BSSHL of men and women declined with aging, but no significant differences were observed. The BSSHL of aging men were higher than those of women. The bioavailable serum androgen level of men was 52―112 pmol/L, women's was 3―70 pmol/L and the whole group was 41.9―81.4 pmol/L. The bioavailable serum estrogen level of men was 0.8―3.0 pmol/L, women's was 1.2―2.5 pmol/L and the whole group was 0.6―2.64 pmol/L. Based on the assays, BSSHL measurement by protein chip can meet the needs of epidemiological studies in terms of speed, accuracy and sample volume required, and was helpful in quantitative assessment of aging people's health.

  19. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-05-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneous crying was sampled in 18 healthy infants, averaging two samples taken at four and eight weeks, respectively. Blood samples were taken within a day of the crying samples. The fundamental frequency contour (melody) was analysed quantitatively and the infants' frequency modulation skills expressed by a melody complexity index (MCI). These skills provide prosodic primitives for later language. A hierarchical, multiple regression approach revealed a significant, robust relationship between the individual MCIs and the unbound, bioactive fraction of oestradiol at four weeks as well as with the four-to-eight-week difference in androstenedione. No robust relationship was found between the MCI and testosterone. Our findings suggest that oestradiol may have effects on the development and function of the auditory-vocal system in human infants that are as powerful as those in vocal-learning animals.

  20. Cutaneous microvascular response during local cold exposure - the effect of female sex hormones and cold perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Music, Mark; Finderle, Zare

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that differences exist between males and females with regard to sensitivity to cold. Similar differences even among females in different hormonal balance might influence microvascular response during cold provocation testing. The aim of the present study was to measure sex hormone levels, cold and cold pain perception thresholds and compare them to cutaneous laser-Doppler flux response during local cooling in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. In the luteal phase a more pronounced decrease in laser-Doppler flux was observed compared to follicular phase during local cooling at 15°C (significant difference by Dunnett's test, pDoppler flux response to local cooling were observed during the follicular (R=-0.552, p=0.0174) and during the luteal phases (R=0.520, p=0.0271). In contrast, the correlation between estradiol level and laser-Doppler flux response was observed only in the follicular phase (R=-0.506, p=0.0324). Our results show that individual sensitivity to cold influences cutaneous microvascular response to local cooling; that microvascular reactivity is more pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle; and that reactivity correlates with hormone levels. The effect of specific sex hormone levels is related to the cold-provocation temperature. PMID:27430896

  1. Contribution of sex hormones to gender differences in schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tricia L; Ravindran, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Female patients with schizophrenia tend to have a more benign course and better outcomes than males. One proposed explanation is the differential influence of male and female sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Such benefit may be mediated by their effects on neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. Besides altered estrogen and DHEA/DHEAS levels in female patients, data is equivocal on hormonal differences between patients and controls. However, several reports note a mostly negative correlation between estrogen levels and symptom severity in both genders, and a positive correlation between estrogen levels and neurocognition but mainly in females. Adjunctive estrogen appears to improve symptoms in both genders. Progesterone levels have inconsistent links to symptom severity in both genders, and correlate positively with neurocognition but only in males. Estrogen-progesterone combination shows preliminary benefits as augmentation for both symptoms and neurocognition in females. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with negative symptoms in males and have inconsistent associations with neurocognition in both genders. Testosterone augmentation reduced negative symptoms in male patients in a pilot investigation, but has not been evaluated for neurocognition in either gender. DHEA/DHEAS have mixed results for their association with, and clinical utility for, symptoms and neurocognition in both genders. Overall, data on the impact of sex hormones on clinical course or as treatment for schizophrenia is limited, but estrogen has most evidence for positive influence and clinical benefit. The possibly greater tolerability and broader impact of these hormones versus existing medications support further exploration of their use.

  2. Comparison on the Effects of Three Sex Hormones on the Fetal Rat Calvarial Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lulu; ZENG Tianshu; XIA Wenfang; KE Li

    2000-01-01

    17β-estradiol(E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were investigated for their effects on the proliferation and differentiation of primary rat calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. Rat calvarial osteoblasts were cultured with l0-10 mol/L E2, 10-9-10-6 mol/L P and l0-10 mol/L T for 20days. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Cell differentiation was examined by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin gene expression and production, bone nodule formation in different periods of culture. Our results showed that no effect of three sex hormones was observed on cell proliferation, but, the responses of cell differentiation to the hormones were more or less different. Among these three hormones used in this study, P appeared to have multi-stimulating effect on cell differentiation. Effect of T seemed not so significant as that of P on cell differentiation. Although ALP activity and osteocalcin production were increased significantly by T, it had slight effect on osteocalcin mRNA and bone nodule formation. Besides, E2 did not demonstrate any effect on cell differentiation. It is concluded that the proliferation of rat calvarial osteoblasts was independent of the presence of sex hormones. However, the differentiation of these cells were stimulated in different levels and to different extent either by P or T. P appeared to be a multi-stimulator on differentiation of such cells.

  3. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients. PMID:26718598

  4. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients.

  5. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  6. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels (i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone) in Louisiana barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that...

  7. Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubal Dena B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Dynamic, Sex-Differential STAT5 and BCL6 Binding to Sex-Biased, Growth Hormone-Regulated Genes in Adult Mouse Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yijing; Laz, Ekaterina V.; Waxman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex-dependent pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns determine the sex-biased expression of >1,000 genes in mouse and rat liver, affecting lipid and drug metabolism, inflammation, and disease. A fundamental biological question is how robust differential expression can be achieved for hundreds of sex-biased genes simply based on the GH input signal pattern: pulsatile GH stimulation in males versus near-continuous GH exposure in females. STAT5 is an essential transcriptional mediator ...

  9. A liver metalloendopeptidase which degrades the circulating hypotensive peptide hormones bradykinin and atrial natriuretic peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new metalloendopeptidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a homogenate of normal human liver using successive steps of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed the Pro7-Phe8 bond of bradykinin and the Ser25-Tyr26 bond of atrial natriuretic peptide. No cleavage was produced in other peptide hormones such as vasopressin, oxytocin or Met- and Leu-enkephalin. This enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 mM divalent cation chelators such as EDTA, EGTA and o-phenanthroline and was insensitive to 1 µM phosphoramidon and captopril, specific inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1, respectively. With Mr 85 kDa, the enzyme exhibits optimal activity at pH 7.5. The high affinity of this endopeptidase for bradykinin (Km = 10 µM and for atrial natriuretic peptide (Km = 5 µM suggests that it may play a physiological role in the inactivation of these circulating hypotensive peptide hormones.

  10. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with more chronic musculoskeletal pain in community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijf, Marjolein; Stolk, Lisette; Zillikens, M Carola; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Hofman, Albert; Huygen, Frank J P M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain is more prevalent in women than in men, with increasing differences between sexes in advanced age. This could be caused by differences in sex hormone levels. We therefore studied the relationship between sex hormones and the prevalence and incidence of chronic pain. The association between sex hormone levels and chronic pain was examined in 9717 participants aged 45 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Chronic pain was defined as pain in the lower back, hands, knees and/or hips for at least 3 months. Sex hormone levels included estrogen, testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Relationships between hormones and prevalent and new onset chronic pain were analyzed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by gender. Women with androstenedione or estradiol levels in the lowest tertile had more chronic pain (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39 and odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48, respectively). Mean estradiol levels were lower among men with chronic pain (mean difference -3.88 pmol/L; P = 0.005). Lowest tertile 17-hydroxyprogesterone in women was associated with 38% more new onset pain. All these associations were independent from age, body mass index, health and lifestyle factors, and osteoarthritis. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain, independent from lifestyle and health-related factors, in community-dwelling elderly women. These results suggest that sex hormones play a role in chronic pain and should be taken into account when a patient presents with chronic pain. Therefore, sex hormones may be a potential treatment target for these patients. PMID:27331348

  11. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-...

  12. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  13. Analysis of the effects of sex hormone background on the rat choroid plexus transcriptome by cDNA microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Quintela

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (CP are highly vascularized branched structures that protrude into the ventricles of the brain, and form a unique interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the blood-CSF barrier, that are the main site of production and secretion of CSF. Sex hormones are widely recognized as neuroprotective agents against several neurodegenerative diseases, and the presence of sex hormones cognate receptors suggest that it may be a target for these hormones. In an effort to provide further insight into the neuroprotective mechanisms triggered by sex hormones we analyzed gene expression differences in the CP of female and male rats subjected to gonadectomy, using microarray technology. In gonadectomized female and male animals, 3045 genes were differentially expressed by 1.5-fold change, compared to sham controls. Analysis of the CP transcriptome showed that the top-five pathways significantly regulated by the sex hormone background are olfactory transduction, taste transduction, metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and circadian rhythm pathways. These results represent the first overview of global expression changes in CP of female and male rats induced by gonadectomy and suggest that sex hormones are implicated in pathways with central roles in CP functions and CSF homeostasis.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of eleven sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Mingtai; Mu, Jun; Lu, Lijun; Zhou, Xiao

    2011-06-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. The sex hormones in antler velvet were enriched and purified by solid phase extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA). A DB-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm) with nonlinear gradient program was used in GC separation. The sex hormones were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method realized the complete separation of 11 sex hormones. The limits of detection of this method were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg for the 11 sex hormones. The correlation coefficients were between 0.991 6 and 0.999 9. The recoveries were in the range of 67.4% - 99.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.6% - 13%. This method is accurate and reliable for the determination of the sex hormones in antler velvet health products.

  15. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  16. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  17. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and "life-history" etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R; Largaespada, Leah L

    2006-01-01

    When dental caries rates are reported by sex, females are typically found to exhibit higher prevalence rates than males. This finding is generally true for diverse cultures with different subsistence systems and for a wide range of chronological periods. Exceptions exist, but are not common. In this paper, we present new data for sex differences in dental caries rates among the Guanches (Tenerife, Canary Islands), summarize results of meta-analyses of dental caries prevalence, and emphasize new research that stresses the critical role of female hormones and life-history events in the etiology of dental caries. Among the Guanches, corrected tooth-count caries rates for females (8.8%, 158/1,790) are approximately twice the frequency of caries among males (4.5%, 68/1,498). Higher caries prevalence among females is often explained by one of three factors: 1) earlier eruption of teeth in girls, hence longer exposure of girls' teeth to the cariogenic oral environment, 2) easier access to food supplies by women and frequent snacking during food preparation, and 3) pregnancy. Anthropologists tend to favor explanations involving behavior, including sexual division of labor and women's domestic role in food production. By contrast, the causal pathways through which pregnancy contributes to poorer oral health and higher caries rates are deemphasized or discounted. This paper presents recent research on physiological changes associated with fluctuating hormone levels during individual life histories, and the impact these changes have on the oral health of women. The biochemical composition of saliva and overall saliva flow rate are modified in several important ways by hormonal fluctuations during events such as puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy, making the oral environment significantly more cariogenic for women than for men. These results suggest that hormonal fluctuations can have a dramatic effect on the oral health of women, and constitute an important causal factor in

  18. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  19. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eDerntl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed a novel computerized decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010, which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors.Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors.

  20. The Relationship between Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Sex Hormones during the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavilani, H. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in female reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes during menstrual cycle. In addition, the relationship between activity of antioxidant enzyme and sex hormones was evaluated. Material and Methods: In this study the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in twenty women with regular menstrual cycle were studied. Furthermore, the correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (P>0.05. We found significant correlation, in luteal phase, between superoxide dismutase and FSH (P<0.05، r=0.44 and LH P<0.05،r=0.54. Also it is observed between LH and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05، r=0.44. Conclusion: Based on the results, there is no significant difference between antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma during menstrual cycle. In other words, physiologic system of women with regular menstrual cycle can protect body against oxidative stress and this is probably performed due to action of FSH and LH hormones. Keywords: Antioxidants; Menstrual cycle; Sex hormones

  1. Antioxidant status in women with uterine leiomyoma: relation with sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEŽANA PEJIĆ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUterine leiomyomas are benign soft-tissues tumors that arise from uterine smooth muscle tissue. Etiopathogenesis of leiomyomas is not well understood. We aimed to examine whether antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid hydroperoxides level in patients with leiomyoma are influenced by changes in sex hormones and gonadotropins (estradiol (E2, progesterone, FSH, and LH during menstrual cycle and in postmenopause. The material consisted of blood and uterine tissue specimens. Hormone concentrations were determined and assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and lipid hydroperoxides concentration were performed. In blood of examined women, a significant difference in catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was recorded among the phases. There was also a positive correlation between the estradiol/progesterone concentration and the catalase activity. Progesterone negatively correlated with lipid hydroperoxides level. In myoma tissue, we recorded a phase-related difference in lipid hydroperoxides level and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione reductase. Negative correlation was observed between FSH and glutathione peroxidase. The results suggest that antioxidant status in patients with uterine leiomyoma is influenced by the changes in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopause, indicating a role of the observed relationship in the leiomyoma etiology.

  2. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling.

  3. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  4. Creative musical behavior and sex hormones: musical talent and spatial ability in the two sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, M

    1992-01-01

    Creative musical behavior, musical intelligence, and spatial ability were investigated in relation to salivary testosterone (T). In a cross-sectional study with 117 adults and in an 8-yr longitudinal study with 120 adolescents, composers, instrumentalists, and nonmusicians of both sexes were compared by analyses of variance. Results indicate that an optimal T range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. This range may be at the bottom of normal male T range and at the top of normal female T range. In addition, musicians were found to attain significantly higher spatial test scores than nonmusicians, both, in an 8-yr-period of adolescent development and in adulthood. PMID:1609017

  5. Is a sex-determining gene(s) necessary for sex-determination in amphibians? Steroid hormones may be the key factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians have 2 genetic sex-determining systems, one with male (XX/XY) and one with female (ZZ/ZW) heterogamety. While the ancestral state of sex-determination is thought to be female heterogamety, male and female heterogametic types were probably once interchangeable. The Japanese frog Rana rugosa has both XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems within a single species in certain local populations. However, steroid hormones can alter the phenotypic sex epigenetically. In R. rugosa, steroidogenic enzyme expression starts before sex-determination in the indifferent gonad, and these enzymes become active in both male and female tadpoles. Androgens are produced in the indifferent gonad of male tadpoles at high levels, whereas estrogens are synthesized in females. In this regard, the observed enhanced expression of the hormone-metabolizing genes, CYP19 in the female gonad and CYP17 in males, may be crucial for sex-determination. Moreover, with FSH known to increase estrogen synthesis in the vertebrate ovary, observed upregulation of FSH receptor (FSHR) expression in the indifferent gonad of female tadpoles is intriguing. These data suggest that steroid hormones could be crucial for sex-determination in R. rugosa, with the consequence that upregulation of CYP19 and FSHR expression is necessary for female and CYP17 for male sex-determination.

  6. Expression profile and prognostic role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression and possible role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer, but most of these findings are controversial. In the present study, the expression profile of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer and their clinicopathological and prognostic value were determined in a large Chinese cohort. The mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), and androgen receptor (AR) in primary gastric tumors and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from 60 and 866 Chinese gastric cancer patients was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry method, respectively. The expression profile of the four receptors was compared and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics were assessed by using Chi-square test. The prognostic value of the four receptors in gastric cancer was evaluated by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The presence of ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR in both gastric tumors and normal tissues was confirmed but their expression levels were extremely low except for the predominance of ERβ. The four receptors were expressed independently and showed a decreased expression pattern in gastric tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. The positive expression of the four receptors all correlated with high tumor grade and intestinal type, and ERα and AR were also associated with early TNM stage and thereby a favorable outcome. However, ERα and AR were not independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer when multivariate survival analysis was performed. Our findings indicate that the sex hormone receptors may be partly involved in gastric carcinogenesis but their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in gastric cancer appears to be limited

  7. Contribution of sex hormones to gender differences in schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tricia L; Ravindran, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Female patients with schizophrenia tend to have a more benign course and better outcomes than males. One proposed explanation is the differential influence of male and female sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Such benefit may be mediated by their effects on neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. Besides altered estrogen and DHEA/DHEAS levels in female patients, data is equivocal on hormonal differences between patients and controls. However, several reports note a mostly negative correlation between estrogen levels and symptom severity in both genders, and a positive correlation between estrogen levels and neurocognition but mainly in females. Adjunctive estrogen appears to improve symptoms in both genders. Progesterone levels have inconsistent links to symptom severity in both genders, and correlate positively with neurocognition but only in males. Estrogen-progesterone combination shows preliminary benefits as augmentation for both symptoms and neurocognition in females. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with negative symptoms in males and have inconsistent associations with neurocognition in both genders. Testosterone augmentation reduced negative symptoms in male patients in a pilot investigation, but has not been evaluated for neurocognition in either gender. DHEA/DHEAS have mixed results for their association with, and clinical utility for, symptoms and neurocognition in both genders. Overall, data on the impact of sex hormones on clinical course or as treatment for schizophrenia is limited, but estrogen has most evidence for positive influence and clinical benefit. The possibly greater tolerability and broader impact of these hormones versus existing medications support further exploration of their use. PMID:26321672

  8. Extensive Sex- and/or Hormone-Dependent Expression of Rat Housekeeping Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rajat K.; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2012-01-01

    Using a commercially available qRT-PCR array designed to measure the expression of 32 rat housekeeping genes, we found that the levels of 5 of the genes were sexually dimorphic, 22 genes were over-expressed and one under-expressed in multi-hormone deficient hypophysectomized rats of both sexes. Only 3 genes fulfilled the stability criteria determined by geNorm and NormFinder as suitable housekeeping genes. Normalizing qRT-PCR data with either of these 3 genes alone, the geometric means of any...

  9. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the...

  10. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Hagen, Casper; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION: Do variants of the genes encoding follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit (B) and FSH receptor (R) impact circulating reproductive hormone levels and ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: FSHB and FSHR genetic variants exert...... (2006-2014, a cross-sectional and ongoing longitudinal study) and the Copenhagen Mother-Child Cohort (1997-2002, including transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) of the ovaries in a subset of 91 peripubertal girls). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Clinical examinations, including pubertal breast...

  11. Sex-different and growth hormone-regulated expression of microRNA in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollet-Egnell Petra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs playing an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We have previously shown that hepatic transcript profiles are different between males and females; that some of these differences are under the regulation of growth hormone (GH; and that mild starvation diminishes some of the differences. In this study, we tested if hepatic miRNAs are regulated in a similar manner. Results Using microarrays, miRNA screening was performed to identify sex-dependent miRNAs in rat liver. Out of 324 unique probes on the array, 254 were expressed in the liver and eight (3% of 254 of those were found to be different between the sexes. Among the eight putative sex-different miRNAs, only one female-predominant miRNA (miR-29b was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, 1 week of continuous GH-treatment in male rats reduced the levels of miR-451 and miR-29b, whereas mild starvation (12 hours raised the levels of miR-451, miR-122a and miR-29b in both sexes. The biggest effects were obtained on miR-29b with GH-treatment. Conclusion We conclude that hepatic miRNA levels depend on the hormonal and nutritional status of the animal and show that miR-29b is a female-predominant and GH-regulated miRNA in rat liver.

  12. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  13. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  14. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens.

  15. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  16. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bortolin Lodi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n=108 were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx, orchiectomized (Orx, or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution, isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX. Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones.

  17. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  18. Do sex hormones influence emotional modulation of pain and nociception in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; Martin, Satin L; Delventura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones may contribute to inter- and intra-individual differences in pain by influencing emotional modulation of pain and nociception. To study this, a well-validated picture-viewing paradigm was used to assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiologic measure of nociception) during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy normally cycling women (n=40). Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were assessed at each testing session. Emotional modulation of pain/NFR did not differ across menstrual phases, but low estradiol was associated with weaker emotional modulation of NFR (during all phases) and emotional modulation of pain (ovulatory and late-luteal phases). Given evidence that a failure to emotionally modulate pain might be a risk factor for chronic pain, low estradiol may promote chronic pain via this mechanism. However, future research is needed to extend these findings to women with disturbances of pain, emotion, and/or sex hormones.

  19. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  20. Sex hormones establish a reserve pool of adult muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gi-Chan; Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Inkuk; Park, Wookjin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Su Hyeon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Seong, Jinwoo; Yum, Min-Kyu; Hann, Sang-Hyeon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kong, Young-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Quiescent satellite cells, known as adult muscle stem cells, possess a remarkable ability to regenerate skeletal muscle following injury throughout life. Although they mainly originate from multipotent stem/progenitor cells of the somite, the mechanism underlying the establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations is unknown. Here, we show that sex hormones induce Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) expression in myofibres at puberty, which activates Notch signalling in cycling juvenile satellite cells and causes them to be converted into adult quiescent satellite cells. Myofibres lacking Mib1 fail to send Notch signals to juvenile satellite cells, leading to impaired cell cycle exit and depletion. Our findings reveal that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis drives Mib1 expression in the myofibre niche. Moreover, the same axis regulates the re-establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations following injury. Our data show that sex hormones establish adult quiescent satellite cell populations by regulating the myofibre niche at puberty and re-establish them during regeneration. PMID:27548913

  1. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals’ mental health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  2. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  3. Maternal iron deficiency alters circulating thyroid hormone levels in developing neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency and iron deficiency (FeD) during fetal and neonatal life are both similarly deleterious to mammalian development suggesting a possible linkage between iron and thyroid hormone insufficiencies. Recent published data from our laboratory demonstrate a r...

  4. Endogenous Sex Hormones Impact the Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women during the Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endogenous sex hormones (estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) are longitudinally associated with progression of atherosclerosis among women at midlife. Methods 249 Pre- or early peri-menopausal women (42–57 years) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 repeated measures of common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD). Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Final models included age at baseline, time since baseline, cycle day of blood draw, race, income, SBP, BMI, insulin resistance index, lipids, C-reactive protein and co-morbidity. Results In final models for IMT, each one log unit decrease in SHBG was associated with a 0.005 mm/year increase in IMT progression (P=0.003). E2, T, and FSH were not associated with level or progression of IMT. For AD, each one log unit decrease in E2 was associated with a 0.012 mm/year increase in AD progression (P=0.04) and each one log unit increase in FSH was associated with a 0.016 mm/year increase in AD progression (P=0.003). T and SHBG were not associated with progression or level of AD. Conclusions Independent of SBP, BMI, lipids and other covariates, lower E2 and SHBG, and higher FSH were associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis progression in women at midlife. PMID:22981430

  5. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

    1988-07-01

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  6. Do the interactions between glucocorticoids and sex hormones regulate the development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marià eAlemany

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response don't seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release. These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e. levels of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment. Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.

  7. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Maleki; Mohammad Esmail Ahmad Abadi; Mohsen Khalili; Mohammad Hassan Ghosian Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48...

  8. MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions

  9. Prioritizing genes of potential relevance to diseases affected by sex hormones: an example of Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Stephen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 5% of western populations are afflicted by autoimmune diseases many of which are affected by sex hormones. Autoimmune diseases are complex and involve many genes. Identifying these disease-associated genes contributes to development of more effective therapies. Also, association studies frequently imply genomic regions that contain disease-associated genes but fall short of pinpointing these genes. The identification of disease-associated genes has always been challenging and to date there is no universal and effective method developed. Results We have developed a method to prioritize disease-associated genes for diseases affected strongly by sex hormones. Our method uses various types of information available for the genes, but no information that directly links genes with the disease. It generates a score for each of the considered genes and ranks genes based on that score. We illustrate our method on early-onset myasthenia gravis (MG using genes potentially controlled by estrogen and localized in a genomic segment (which contains the MHC and surrounding region strongly associated with MG. Based on the considered genomic segment 283 genes are ranked for their relevance to MG and responsiveness to estrogen. The top three ranked genes, HLA-G, TAP2 and HLA-DRB1, are implicated in autoimmune diseases, while TAP2 is associated with SNPs characteristic for MG. Within the top 35 prioritized genes our method identifies 90% of the 10 already known MG-associated genes from the considered region without using any information that directly links genes to MG. Among the top eight genes we identified HLA-G and TUBB as new candidates. We show that our ab-initio approach outperforms the other methods for prioritizing disease-associated genes. Conclusion We have developed a method to prioritize disease-associated genes under the potential control of sex hormones. We demonstrate the success of this method by prioritizing the genes

  10. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259) and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941). However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk

  11. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeager Meredith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

  12. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Cohen, Arieh; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tjonneland, Anne; Hougaard, David Michael; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and interaction with aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) may also affect circulating sex-ho...

  13. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  14. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  15. Hormone replacement therapy use and plasma levels of sex hormones in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Postgenome Cohort – a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Karina S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hormone replacement therapy use (HRT is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our primary objective was to explore hormone levels in plasma according to HRT use, body mass index (BMI and menopausal status. A secondary objective was to validate self-reported questionnaire information on menstruation and HRT use in the Norwegian Women and Cancer postgenome cohort (NOWAC. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormone levels among 445 women aged 48–62 who answered an eight-page questionnaire in 2004 and agreed to donate a blood sample. The samples were drawn at the women's local general physician's offices in the spring of 2005 and sent by mail to NOWAC, Tromsø, together with a two-page questionnaire. Plasma levels of sex hormones and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG were measured by immunometry. 20 samples were excluded, leaving 425 hormone measurements. Results 20% of postmenopausal women were HRT users. The plasma levels of estradiol (E2 increased with an increased E2 dose, and use of systemic E2-containing HRT suppressed the level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH. SHBG levels increased mainly among users of oral E2 preparations. Vaginal E2 application did not influence hormone levels. There was no difference in BMI between HRT users and non-users. Increased BMI was associated with increased E2 and decreased FSH and SHBG levels among non-users. Menopausal status defined by the two-page questionnaire showed 92% sensitivity (95% CI 89–96% and 73% specificity (95% CI 64–82%, while the eight-page questionnaire showed 88% sensitivity (95% CI 84–92% and 87% specificity (95% CI 80–94%. Current HRT use showed 100% specificity and 88% of the HRT-users had plasma E2 levels above the 95% CI of non-users. Conclusion Users of systemic E2-containing HRT preparations have plasma E2 and FSH levels comparable to premenopausal women. BMI has an influence on hormone levels among non-users. NOWAC

  16. Effect of chemotherapy on sex hormone levels in perimenopause women with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Jun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of chemotherapy on the sex hormone levels in perimenopause women with breast cancer.Methods:A total of 90 perimenopause women after breast cancer surgery who were admitted in our hospital from November, 2014 to November, 2015 were included in the study. Those whose PR and ER were positive served as the observation group and were given TAM. Those whose PR and ER were negative served as the control group and were not given TAM. The chemiluminescence method was used to determine the levels of LH, FSH, and E2. The Doppler ultrasound device was used to measure the endometrial thickness and intrauterine depth before and after menopause. After fractional curettage by hysteroscopy, the patients in the observation group were performed with pathological examinations. The pathological change of endometrium before and after menopause was observed.Results:LH and FSH levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, while E2 level was significantly higher than that in the control group. The comparison of endometrial thickness and intrauterine depth before and after menopause was not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of endometrial polyps, endometrial carcinoma, simple hyperplasia, and atypical hyperplasia in patients before menopause was significantly less than that in patients after menopause.Conclusions:Due to be in a special endocrine environment, during TAM administration period for perimenopause women with breast cancer, a regular determination of sex hormone levels, adoption of B ultrasound and hysteroscope to detect the endometrial thickness and pathological change are required in order to guide the clinical medication.

  17. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  18. Sex hormone influence on hepatitis in young male A/JCr mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theve, Elizabeth J; Feng, Yan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Cormier, Kathleen S; Bell, David R; Fox, James G; Rogers, Arlin B

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma, is especially virulent in males infected at an early age. Likewise, the murine liver carcinogen Helicobacter hepaticus is most pathogenic in male mice infected before puberty. We used this model to investigate the influence of male sex hormone signaling on infectious hepatitis. Male A/JCr mice were infected with H. hepaticus or vehicle at 4 weeks and randomized into surgical and pharmacologic treatment groups. Interruption of androgen pathways was confirmed by hormone measurements, histopathology, and liver gene and Cyp4a protein expression. Castrated males and those receiving the competitive androgen receptor antagonist flutamide had significantly less severe hepatitis as determined by histologic activity index than intact controls at 4 months. Importantly, the powerful androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone did not promote hepatitis. No effect on hepatitis was evident in males treated with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist bezafibrate, or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid. Consistent with previous observations of hepatitis-associated liver-gender disruption, transcriptional alterations involved both feminine (cytochrome P450 4a14) and masculine (cytochrome P450 4a12 and trefoil factor 3) genes, as well gender-neutral (H19 fetal liver mRNA, lipocalin 2, and ubiquitin D) genes. Hepatitis was associated with increased unsaturated C(18) long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) relative to saturated stearic acid. Our results indicate that certain forms of androgen interruption can inhibit H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis in young male mice, whereas androgen receptor agonism does not worsen disease. This raises the possibility of targeted hormonal therapy in young male patients with childhood-acquired HBV.

  19. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects. Relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  20. Effect of the Combined Extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on Sex Hormone Functional Levels in Osteoporosis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RenHui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi has been used to treat osteoporosis for almost 50 years by Professor Shizeng Li, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, it is unclear whether the combination of the effective constituents of the two herbs may have a protective influence on the skeleton. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid by gavage. With administrations of the combination extracts of the two herbs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day via oral gavage for 3 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD, femur histomorphometry, some sex hormones, and sex hormone receptors were measured. Results showed that the combined extracts could increase BMD, affect bone histomorphometry, coordinate the sex hormones at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and increase the protein and mRNA expressions of sex hormone receptors. The findings suggested that the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  2. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  3. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  4. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, S.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Pinborg, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic...... resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 +/- 3 days post intervention. At both...... sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol...

  5. Metabolic profiling of cholesterol and sex steroid hormones to monitor urological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jayoung

    2016-10-01

    Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive. In order to further evaluate the problem, we have taken an interest in metabolomics; a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of biologically active metabolites in cells, tissues, hair and biofluids. Recently, we provided evidence that a quantitative measurement of cholesterol and sex steroid metabolites can be successfully achieved using hair of human and mouse models. The overall goal of this short review article is to introduce current metabolomic technologies for the quantitative biomarker assay development and also to provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition. Furthermore, this review will place a particular emphasis on how to prepare biospecimens (e.g., hair fiber), quantify molecular profiles and assess their clinical significance in various urological diseases. PMID:27580660

  6. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  7. Effects of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia was examined in 5 week old Crj:CD (SD) rats of both sexes. At the age of 4 weeks, the animals were gonadectomized and given testosterone or dimethyl estradiol (DES). One week after operation, they were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3 day interval for a total of 20 Gy. At the termination of the experiment, 6 months after the X-irradiation, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive foci in males was significantly higher than in females, in orchidectomized males or orchidectomized plus DES treated rats (P<0.01). On the other hand, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with ALP-positive foci in normal females appeared lower than in ovariectomized females (P<0.01), and was increased in rats by treatment with testosterone or decreased by DES. Numbers of foci of intestinal metaplasias with Paneth cells and total numbers appeared to increase in males treated with DES. The results suggested a promising role for testosterone in the development of ALP positive lesions and indicated considerable heterogeneity between intestinal metaplasia subtypes. (author)

  8. Sex steroid induced apoptosis as a rational strategy to treat anti-hormone resistant breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, V Craig; Fan, Ping; Abderrahman, Balkees; Maximov, Philipp Y; Hawsawi, Yousef M; Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Pokharel, Niranjana

    2016-05-01

    The combined incidence and the extended disease course of breast and prostate cancer is a major challenge for health care systems. The solution for society requires an economically viable treatment strategy to maintain individuals disease free and productive, so as to avoid the fracture of the family unit. Forty years ago, translational research using the antiestrogen tamoxifen was targeted to estrogen receptor (ER) positive micrometastatic tumor cells and established the long-term antihormone adjuvant treatment strategy used universally today. The antihormone strategy was the accepted structure of cancer biology. Sex steroid deprivation therapy remains the orthodox strategy for the treatment of both breast and prostate cancer. Despite major initial therapeutic success, the strategies of long term anti-hormone therapies with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (AI) or antiandrogens or abiraterone for breast and prostate cancer, respectively, eventually lead to a significant proportion of anti-hormone resistant or stimulated tumor growth. Remarkably, a general principle of anti-hormone resistance has emerged for both breast and prostate cancer based primarily on clinical and supportive laboratory data. Paradoxically, anti-hormone resistant cell populations emerge and grow but are vulnerable to the cytotoxicity of estrogen or androgen-induced apoptosis for both breast and prostate cancer, respectively. These consistent anticancer actions of sex steroids appear to recapitulate the more complex mechanism of bone remodeling in elderly men and women during sex steroid deprivation. Estrogen is the key hormone in both sexes because in men androgen is first converted to estrogen. Estrogen regulates and triggers apoptosis in osteoclasts that develop during estrogen deprivation and destroy bone to cause osteoporosis. Sex steroid deprived breast and prostate cancer has recruited a streamlined natural apoptotic program from the human genome, but this is suppressed in the

  9. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  10. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  11. Effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Jie Sun; The authorsi-heng Yu; Yun-hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris.Methods: 185 patients with acne vulgaris included in the study the authorsre divided into the observation group (85 cases) and the control group (80 cases), the observation group was given the treatment of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid, and the control group was treated with benzoyl peroxide. To observe the change of hormones (T, FSH, LH, E2) and immune indexes (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, IL-2, sIL-2R) after 1 month of treatment.Results: After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 of the observation group the authorsre significantly different than those before trteatment(P0.05); After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 level of two groups the authorsre statistically significant (P<0.05).Where the authorsre no significant difference on sex hormones betthe authorsen the two groups before and after treatment.Conclusion:Benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid has certain effects on immune function for the patients with acne vulgaris, and may be related to therapeutic effect, but no obvious effect on sex hormone.

  12. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosalia Costa,1 Marco Colizzi2 1Gender Identity Development Service, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tavistock Centre, 2Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect

  13. Effects of sex and pregnancy hormones on growth hormone and prolactin receptor gene expression in insulin-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1993-01-01

    During pregnancy, marked hyperplasia of the pancreatic islet cells has been observed. This effect may be mediated by the pregnancy-associated peptide hormones, placental lactogen, PRL, and GH, which were previously shown to be mitogenic to beta-cells in vitro. To study whether the responsiveness...... of islet cells to these hormones is regulated on the receptor level, GH and PRL receptor gene expression was studied in pancreata from male rats and virgin, pregnant, and lactating female rats and in cultured islets and insulinoma cells (RIN-5AH) in response to various hormones. The mRNA levels were...... of exposure. The effective doses were within the physiological ranges. In conclusion, these results show a differential hormonal regulation of GH and PRL receptor gene expression in the pancreatic islets, which may play a role in the adaptive beta-cell growth during pregnancy....

  14. Effects of hyperprolactinemia on the tibial epiphyseal plate of mice treated with sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Roberta B; Gomes, Regina Celia T; do Amaral, Vinicius C; da Silva, Priscilla L; Simoncini, Tommaso; Prosdocimi, Fabio Cesar; Simoes, Ricardo S; Simões, Manuel Jesus S; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares-Jr, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the tibial epiphyseal plate of hormone-treated oophorectomized mice. For this purpose, 18 animals with intact ovaries were allocated to two groups, M (metoclopramide) and V (vehicle). One hundred and eight oophorectomized animals were allocated to 12 subgroups: Oophx/V (vehicle); Ooph/M (metoclopramide); Oophx/V + E (vehicle + estradiol); Oophx/M + E (metoclopramide + estradiol); Oophx/V + P (vehicle + progesterone); Oophx/M + P (metoclopramide + progesterone); Oophx/V + T (vehicle + testosterone); Oophx/M + T (metoclopramide + testosterone); Oophx/V + E + P (Vehicle + estradiol + progesterone); Oophx/M + E + P (metoclopramide + estradiol + progesterone); Oophx/V + E + P + T (vehicle + estradiol + progesterone + testosterone); Oophx/M + E + P + T (metoclopramide + estradiol + progesterone + testosterone). After a 50-day treatment was performed histomorphometric and immunohistochemical cell death analysis. In the epiphyseal plate of the hyperprolactinemic and/or oophorectomized animals, cell proliferation and bone formation decreased, inducing intensified cell death. In the sex steroid-treated animals, estrogen boosted cell proliferation; progesterone, bone formation and testosterone, both cell proliferation and bone formation. These findings suggest that oophorectomy and hyperprolactinemia changed epiphyseal plate morphology causing cartilage degeneration. Treatment with combined sex steroids may diminish such deleterious effects. PMID:26193892

  15. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  16. Asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka eSavic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  17. Circulating levels of pegvisomant and endogenous growth hormone during prolonged pegvisomant therapy in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Fisker, Sanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pegvisomant treatment in acromegaly induces gradual elevations in endogenous serum growth hormone (GH) levels and whether serum pegvisomant levels predict the therapeutic outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (6 women), mean age 46·3 years (range: 23...... correlated with baseline growth hormone levels, whereas no associations between serum pegvisomant and either dose, gender, age or body weight were found. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Serum GH levels increased initially, but remained stable during prolonged pegvisomant treatment in patients with acromegaly, (2) serum...

  18. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  19. Urinary hormone metabolites identify sex and imply unexpected winter breeding in an endangered, subterranean-nesting frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, J M; Molinia, F C; Bishop, P J; Bell, B D; Cree, A

    2012-02-01

    Urinary hormone analysis has proved accurate for identifying sex and breeding periods in dimorphic amphibians with known reproductive cycles. We examined whether these techniques could provide this much needed information for a monomorphic anuran with an unconfirmed mating season in the wild. We analysed urinary estrone conjugate, testosterone, and progesterone metabolites to infer the time of breeding and to identify sex in the endangered Maud Island frog, Leiopelma pakeka. Testosterone metabolites in males and estrone and progesterone metabolites in females were at their peak during winter for both wild and captive frogs. These urinary metabolite patterns were consistent with the high proportion of females exhibiting enlarged ovarian follicles in winter months. Sex identification based on urinary estrone metabolite levels was 94% correct in this monomorphic species, in which the sexes overlap in snout-to-vent length (SVL) for over half of their adult size range and in which no other sexually dimorphic trait is known. The seasonal profiles imply unexpected winter or early spring breeding in L. pakeka. Overall, these results demonstrate use of urinary hormone metabolites for reproductive monitoring and sex identification in one of the world's most threatened and evolutionarily distinct amphibians.

  20. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  1. Localization of sex hormone binding globulin in the rat vomeronasal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploß, V M; Gebhart, V M; Gisder, D; Dölz, W; Jirikowski, G F

    2014-11-01

    Volatile and non-volatile derivates of gonadal steroids are known to act as pheromones in many mammalian species. Pheromones have multiple effects on the brain via the olfactory system. Their primary port of entry seems to be the vomeronasal organ (VNO) but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear so far. Recently we localized sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in both the main and the accessory olfactory system of rat with immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. The accessory olfactory system consisting of VNO and accessory olfactory bulb showed high expression of SHBG. In the present paper we studied SHBG expression in the VNO in greater detail. In semithin sections we found SHBG immunostaining in the perinuclear cytoplasm of some of the sensory neurons, in sensory cilia and in their axons. A portion of the basal cells and some of the goblet cells in the non-sensory epithelium showed intense SHBG staining. SHBG was abundant in exocrine cells of the vomeronasal glands, perhaps compartimentalized in secretory vesicles. In situ hybridization revealed specific signals in sensory and non-sensory cells of the VNO. Our findings indicate that SHBG expressed in the VNO may be liberated into nasal secretions to bind aerosolic steroids. SHBG in sensory cells may be involved in signaling actions of pheromones. PMID:25154024

  2. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [3H]5α-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 μM concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost

  3. A comparison of circulating and regional growth hormone-binding protein in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Fisker, S; Becker, U;

    2001-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis is disturbed in cirrhosis, with elevated basal GH and low IGF-I levels relating to liver function and prognosis. In plasma, GH is bound to a high-affinity GH-binding protein (GHBP), which has been found to be slightly reduced...

  4. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M; Aldag, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interr...

  5. Oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal and post-menopausal meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, H V; Davey, G. K.; Key, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Endogenous oestradiol is strongly associated with breast cancer risk but its determinants are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that vegetarians have lower plasma oestradiol and higher sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) than meat-eaters we assayed samples from 640 premenopausal women (153 meat-eaters, 382 vegetarians, 105 vegans) and 457 post-menopausal women (223 meat-eaters, 196 vegetarians, 38 vegans). Vegetarians and vegans had lower mean body mass indices (BMI) and lower plasma ...

  6. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Rosalia Costa,1 Marco Colizzi2 1Gender Identity Development Service, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tavistock Centre, 2Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and ...

  7. First pregnancy characteristics, postmenopausal breast density, and salivary sex hormone levels in a population at high risk for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mockus

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk.

  8. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  9. Bone turnover and mineral density in adult thalassemic patients: relationships with growth hormone secretory status and circulating somatomedins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Danesi, Leila; Cattaneo, Agnese; Sciortino, Giovanna; Radin, Raffaella; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Vitale, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mirra, Nadia; Zanaboni, Laura; Arvigo, Marica; Boschetti, Mara; Ferone, Diego; Marzullo, Paolo; Baldini, Marina; Cassinerio, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Persani, Luca; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Previous evidence supports a role for growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I deficiency in the pathophysiology of osteopenia/osteoporosis in adult thalassemia. Moreover, serum IGF-II has never been studied in this clinical condition. Thus, we elected to study the GH secretory status and the levels of circulating somatomedins, correlating these parameters with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A hundred and thirty-nine normal weight adult thalassemic patients (72 men and 67 women) were studied. Lumbar and femoral neck BMD were measured in 106/139 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine testing. Measurement of baseline IGF-I and IGF-II was performed in all patients, while osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) were assayed in 95 of them. Femoral and lumbar osteoporosis/Z score below the expected range for age were documented in 61.3 and in 56.6 % of patients, respectively. Severe GH deficiency (GHD) was demonstrated in 27.9 % of cases, whereas IGF-I SDS was low in 86.3 %. No thalassemic patients displayed circulating levels of IGF-II below the reference range. GH peaks were positively correlated with femoral, but not lumbar, Z score. No correlations were found between GH peaks and osteocalcin, CTx and NTx. GH peaks were positively correlated with IGF-I values, which in their turn displayed a positive correlation with osteocalcin, CTx, and NTx. No correlations emerged between IGF-I values and either femoral or lumbar Z scores. No correlations were found between IGF-II and any of the following parameters: GH peaks, osteocalcin, CTx, NTx, femoral Z score, and lumbar Z score. Our study, besides providing for the first time evidence of a normal IGF-II production in thalassemia, contributes to a better understanding of the involvement of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in the

  10. Influence of short-term changes in sex hormones on serum concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules in young healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Begić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine if short-term changes in sex hormones (such as cyclic changes within the menstrual cycle can influence the serumconcentration of soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs.Methods Sixteen healthy young women with normal cycles participated in this study. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were determined in three different phases of the menstrual cycle: a early follicular (EF phase, b ovulatory (O phase and c midluteal (ML phase, by standardized ELISA-based kits. To confirm the exact assessment of menstrual cycle phases, serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH were measured. Results There were significant oscillations in serum female sex hormones concentration over the cycle duration, as expected the level of estrogen (E2 and progesterone (PROG was the lowest in EF phase, the highest E2 appeared in O phase, and both E2 and PROG were present in high concentrations during ML phase. There was a significant positive correlation between E2 and serum soluble ICAM -1 concentrations (p=0,041, correlation coefficient 0,306. However, there was no significant change in other soluble CAMs concentration during the menstrual cycle. Conclusion Results of our study suggest that short-term changes in female sex hormone levels could modulate expression of soluble ICAM-1, but not VCAM -1 or E-selectin in extent that would affect a young woman’s health.

  11. 18F FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on 18F FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. 18F FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8±13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of 18F FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. 18F FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7±7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4±11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p18F FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular 18F FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  12. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  13. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system.

  14. Effects of handling regime and sex on changes in cortisol, thyroid hormones and body mass in fasting grey seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kimberley A; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Speakman, John R; Fedak, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seal pups may be affected by their ability to respond appropriately to stress. Chronic stress can adversely affect secretion of cortisol and thyroid hormones, which contribute to the control of fuel utilisation. Repeated handling could disrupt the endocrine response to stress and/or negatively impact upon mass changes during fasting. Here we investigated the effects of handling regime on cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and body mass changes, in fasting male and female grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Females had higher thyroid hormone levels than males throughout fasting and showed a reduction in cortisol midway through the fast that was not seen in males. This may reflect sex-specific fuel allocation or development. Neither handling frequency nor cumulative contact time affected plasma cortisol or thyroid hormone levels, the rate of increase in cortisol over the first five minutes of physical contact or the pattern of mass loss during fasting in either sex. The endocrine response to stress and the control of energy balance in grey seal pups appear to be robust to repeated, short periods of handling. Our results suggest that routine handling should have no additional impact on these animals than general disturbance caused by researchers moving around the colony. PMID:21945943

  15. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a role for hormonal factors in the aetiology of asthma. METHODS: Data from a large study of women selected from the general population were used to relate treatment with oral hormonal contraceptives (OCP) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT...

  16. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; a possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females

    OpenAIRE

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman; Itai eBerger

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is ...

  17. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J;

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... not reveal any difference. To study the possible interactive effects of JH and OA, the behavioral pheromone response was analyzed in JH-deprived mature males injected with OA, and in immature males injected with fenoxycarb, a JH agonist, and mianserin. Results show that both JH and OA are necessary to elicit...

  18. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  19. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  20. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  1. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M;

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate......-for- gestational-age girls (n = 355) hormones showed a marked interindividual variation, with concentrations up to pubertal values [medians (95% confidence intervals): inhibin B, 82 pg/ml (...

  2. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq A Sheikh

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates.

  3. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Turki, Rola F; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Beg, Mohd A

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  4. Expression of S100A10 gene and its regulation by sex hormones in mouse uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; LIU Jing; LI Feixue; SUN Xiaoyang; ZHANG Huaiyun; WANG Yanling

    2005-01-01

    S100A10 belongs to the S100 calcium binding protein superfamily, and functions as one of the mediators of calcium-dependent signaling pathway. Recently, S100A10 gene was proved to be significantly up-regulated at the implantation site. In the present study, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization are used to investigate the tissue-specificity of S100A10 expression and the expression pattern of S100A10 in the uteri during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Meanwhile, the regulation of S100A10 expression by sex steroid hormones is studied in ovariectomized mice. The results show that S100A10 could be detected in various kinds of tissues, with relatively high expression in reproductive tracts including ovary, uterus, testis and epididymis.During pregnancy, the expression of S100A10 in the uteri is significantly up-regulated on the 4th day. The transcript is strongly detected in endometrial stromal cells and weakly in luminal epithelium cells at the implantation site, but almost not at the inter-implantation site.From gestational day 5 till labor, S100A10 mRNA maintains a certain level in both uteri and placentae. During the estrous cycle, expression of S100A10 is up-regulated in the uteri at proestrus and estrus. Estradiol significantly induces the expression of S100A10, while progesterone can abolish the effect of estradiol. The data suggests that S100A10 may be involved in preventing luminal epithelial cells from over-apoptosis, inducing proliferation and decidualization of stromal cells during implantation, and responding to reproductive stress triggered by copulation.

  5. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  6. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, S; Madsen, K H; Pinborg, A; Heede, M; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood−oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16±3 days post intervention. At both sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol to menopausal levels, which was accompanied by an increase in subclinical depressive symptoms relative to placebo. Women who displayed larger GnRHa-induced increase in depressive symptoms had a larger increase in both negative and positive emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula. When considering the post-GnRHa scan only, depressive responses were associated with emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula and amygdala. The effect on regional activity in anterior insula was not associated with the estradiol net decline, only by the GnRHa-induced changes in mood. Our data implicate enhanced insula recruitment during emotional processing in the emergence of depressive symptoms following sex-hormone fluctuations. This may correspond to the emotional hypersensitivity frequently experienced by women postpartum. PMID:26624927

  7. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  8. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome%Turner综合征患者的性激素替代治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文慧

    2012-01-01

    特纳综合征的基本特征是矮身材、先天畸形、性腺发育不足.其性激素分泌不足导致无第二性征发育、不孕症,并与骨质疏松症频繁发生、心血管疾病风险增加、身体健康状态及身体结构改变、胰岛素抵抗、自身免疫病发病率增加等相关.最近的研究强调特纳综合征女性患者需要终身的性激素替代治疗,以改善其生活质量.该文对雌激素和雄激素不足及性激素替代治疗对于特纳综合征患者的全身影响做一综述.%The cardinal features of Turner syndrome(TS) are short stature,congenital abnormalities,gonadal dysgenesis.The sex hormone insufficiency lead to infertility and lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics,it also involves in the frequent osteoporosis and increased cardiovascular risk,state of physical fitness,insulin resistance,body composition,and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity.Recent researches emphasize the TS patients need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy to improve their quality of life.This review summarizes the effects of estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex hormone replacement therapy on the whole body of Turner syndrome.

  9. Anti-Müllerian hormone and androgens: regulation of receptors during sex differentiation and gonadal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Baarends (Willy)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter gives an outline of sex determination, sex differentiation, and gonadal development in mammalian species. In most studies described herein, rats and mice were used. During embryonal development in mammals, sex differentiation is preceded by a bipotential stage. Indifferent g

  10. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON and H2O2-challenged control (BD groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU or 2% aspartate (ASP. The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level in serum (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in the epididymis and testis (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate.

  11. Role of Sex Hormones in the Development and Progression of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Montella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in developed countries. Epidemiological reports indicate that the incidence of HBV-related HCC is higher in males and postmenopausal females than other females. Increasing evidence suggests that sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens play an important role in the progression of an HBV infection and in the development of HBV-related HCC. While androgen is supposed to stimulate the androgen signaling pathway and cooperate to the increased transcription and replication of HBV genes, estrogen may play a protecting role against the progression of HBV infections and in the development of HBV-related HCC through decreasing HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels. Additionally, sex hormones can also affect HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing epigenetic changes such as the regulation of mRNA levels by microRNAs (miRNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modification in liver tissue. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender disparity in HBV-related HCC with the aim of improving the understanding of key factors underneath the sex disparity often observed in HBV infections. Furthermore, the review will propose more effective prevention strategies and treatments of HBV-derived diseases.

  12. Role of Sex Hormones in the Development and Progression of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, Maurizio; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Capunzo, Mario; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Barbieri, Antonio; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Tecce, Mario Felice; Amore, Alfonso; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Giudice, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in developed countries. Epidemiological reports indicate that the incidence of HBV-related HCC is higher in males and postmenopausal females than other females. Increasing evidence suggests that sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens play an important role in the progression of an HBV infection and in the development of HBV-related HCC. While androgen is supposed to stimulate the androgen signaling pathway and cooperate to the increased transcription and replication of HBV genes, estrogen may play a protecting role against the progression of HBV infections and in the development of HBV-related HCC through decreasing HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels. Additionally, sex hormones can also affect HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing epigenetic changes such as the regulation of mRNA levels by microRNAs (miRNAs), DNA methylation, and histone modification in liver tissue. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender disparity in HBV-related HCC with the aim of improving the understanding of key factors underneath the sex disparity often observed in HBV infections. Furthermore, the review will propose more effective prevention strategies and treatments of HBV-derived diseases. PMID:26491442

  13. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA versus control (CN subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA, soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1. Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine factors also showed highly (p<0.001 significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p=0.012, and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p=0.176. After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation.

  14. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  15. Finding a Needle in a Haystack: the Advantages of Liquid Chromatography--Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in Determination of Sex Hormones in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Shira; Ben-Dor, Anat

    2016-06-01

    Determination of steroid sex hormones concentrations in children is very important for diagnosis of a wide range of pubertal, adrenal and sex development disorders. The majority of hormone measurements are carried out using traditional immunoassays, due to their technical simplicity, cost and availability of commercial reagents. But, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, traditional immunoassays often fail to determine low concentration analytes such as sex hormones in pediatric blood. In the last decade, the LC-MS/MS assay has risen as a new player in the analytic diagnostic field. The assay has proven appropriate for detection of very low hormones concentrations in blood, is quite easy to perform and can detect multiple steroids from a single sample. For the routine determination of an individual or panel of steroids, LC-MS/MS is now the recommended method for most diagnostic laboratories.

  16. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Boering

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII, or subcutaneous (SC, influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients. Methods Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13 years, diabetes duration 23 (±11 years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c 8.7 (±1.1 (72 (±12 mmol/mol. As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were analyzed. Results Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2 during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6 during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3; −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4 for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1 for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5 and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2, respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2 among males. Conclusions SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids.

  17. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boering, M; Logtenberg, S J J; Groenier, K H; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; Gans, R O B; Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J G

    2016-01-01

    Aims Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII), or subcutaneous (SC), influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients. Methods Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13) years, diabetes duration 23 (±11) years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.7 (±1.1) (72 (±12) mmol/mol). As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were analyzed. Results Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2) during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6) during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3); −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4) for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1) for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5) and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2), respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2) among males. Conclusions SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids. PMID:27287189

  18. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M;

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate...

  19. The Influence of Sex Hormones on Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ulrike; Erdmann, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating changes in functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) with hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle in young women have led to controversial hypotheses about an influence of estrogen (E) and/or progesterone (P) on FCAs. Based on methodical, but also on principal problems in deriving conclusions about hormone effects from…

  20. PET imaging of brain sex steroid hormone receptors and the role of estrogen in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayum, Mohamed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens are steroid hormones that are involved in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Decreased levels of steroid hormones are associated with e.g. decreased cognition, anxiety and depression. Androgens and estrogens exert their biological effects through their corre

  1. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism.

  2. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  3. The Effects of Sex Steroids on Spatial Performance: A Review and an Experimental Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…

  4. Sleep, Rhythms, and the Endocrine Brain: Influence of Sex and Gonadal Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Mong, Jessica A.; Baker, Fiona C.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Paul, Ketema N.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids...

  5. Sex differences in hormone-sensitive lipase expression, activity, and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Donsmark, Morten; Thiele, Maja;

    2006-01-01

    Women have been shown to use more intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during exercise than men. To investigate whether this could be due to sex-specific regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and to use sex comparison as a model to gain further insight into HSL regulation, nine women...... and eight men performed bicycle exercise (90 min, 60% Vo(2peak)), and skeletal muscle HSL expression, phosphorylation, and activity were determined. Supporting previous findings, basal IMTG content (P ... significantly (r = 0.72, P = 0.001). Muscle HSL mRNA (80%, P = 0.11) and protein content (50%, P HSL total activity increased during exercise (47%, P HSL specific activity (HSL activity per HSL protein content...

  6. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  7. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  8. Circulating Visfatin in Hypothyroidism Is Associated with Free Thyroid Hormones and Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that regulation of visfatin in hypothyroidism might be altered by coexisting chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. This is a prospective case-control study of 118 subjects. The autoimmune study group (AIT consisted of 39 patients newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism in a course of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. The nonautoimmune study group (TT consisted of 40 patients thyroidectomized due to the differentiated thyroid cancer staged pT1. The control group comprised 39 healthy volunteers adjusted for age, sex, and BMI with normal thyroid function and negative thyroid antibodies. Exclusion criteria consisted of other autoimmune diseases, active neoplastic disease, diabetes mellitus, and infection, which were reported to alter visfatin level. Fasting blood samples were taken for visfatin, TSH, free thyroxine (FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3, antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb, antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb, glucose, and insulin levels. The highest visfatin serum concentration was in AIT group, and healthy controls had visfatin level higher than TT (p=0.0001. Simple linear regression analysis revealed that visfatin serum concentration was significantly associated with autoimmunity (β=0.1014; p=0.003, FT4 (β=0.05412; p=0.048, FT3 (β=0.05242; p=0.038, and TPOAb (β=0.0002; p=0.0025, and the relationships were further confirmed in the multivariate regression analysis.

  9. Endogenous sex hormones and risk of venous thromboembolism in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, B G; Schnohr, P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of oral contraceptives with estrogen and hormone replacement therapy with estrogen or testosterone are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, whether endogenous estradiol and testosterone concentrations are also associated with risk of VTE...

  10. Neural control of the circulation: how sex and age differences interact in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked interindividual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2-mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast postmenopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These major findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  11. Changes in Female Sex Hormones in Patients with Intentional Drug and Chemical Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Afzali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal changes as a factor influencing the emotional state of women have an important role in the incidence of suicide. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in FSH-LH, Estrogen, and Progesterone hormones in women attempting suicide by drugs and chemicals. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, women of reproductive diagnosed with drug and chemical poisoning who were hospitalized in Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, were assessed regarding LH, FSH estrogen and progesterone hormones over a period of six months in 2011. Overall, 80 patients were studied with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The highest rate of suicide was in the age range of 14-25 years (47 patients, 60.1%. A significant relationship was observed among the blood levels of hormones FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen. The association of hormone levels and LMP and attempted suicide was significant. The LH level was significantly lower in patients with substance abuse. The estrogen level was significantly lower in patients with the history of self-injury. Most patients (67.5% were in the follicular phase which was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, there was a significant relationship between the levels of different hormones. The significant relationship was positive in some cases but negative in other.

  12. Relative levels of the proprotein and cleavage‐activated form of circulating human anti‐Müllerian hormone are sexually dimorphic and variable during the life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Pankhurst, Michael W.; Chong, Yih Harng; McLennan, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonadal hormone, which induces aspects of the male phenotype, and influences ovarian follicular recruitment. AMH is synthesized as a proprotein (proAMH), which is incompletely cleaved to the receptor‐competent AMHN ,C. AMH ELISAs have not distinguished between proAMH and AMHN ,C; consequently, the physiological ranges of circulating proAMH and AMHN ,C are unknown. A novel proAMH ELISA has been used to assay serum proAMH in humans. Total AMH was also ...

  13. The role of sex hormones and the tissue environment in immune protection against HIV in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira, Charles R; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey; Fahey, John V

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive studies of the mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and its regulation by sex hormones, relatively little attention has been paid to the tissue environment in the FRT that regulates immune cell function. Consisting of secretions from epithelial cells (EC), stromal fibroblasts, and immune cells in tissues from the upper (Fallopian tubes, uterus, and endocervix) and lower (ectocervix and vagina) tracts, each tissue compartment is unique and precisely regulates immune cells to optimize conditions for successful pregnancy and protection against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Our goal in this review is to focus on the mucosal (tissue) environment in the upper and lower FRT. Specifically, this review will identify the contributions of EC and fibroblasts to the tissue environment and examine the impact of this environment on HIV-target cells. Much remains to be learned about the complex interactions with the tissue environment at different sites in the FRT and the ways in which they are regulated by sex hormones and chemical contraceptives. Awareness of the involvement of the tissue environment in determining immune cell function and HIV acquisition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that lead to HIV prevention, acquisition, and the development of new therapeutic modalities of immune protection.

  14. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

    2012-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  15. Short stature associated with high circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-1 and low circulating IGF-II: effect of growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, A; Bozzola, M; Cesarone, A; Steenbergh, P H; Holthuizen, P E; Severi, F; Giordano, G; Minuto, F

    1998-10-01

    , -7.3; height velocity SD score, -5) the patient underwent treatment with 7 IU/week human GH; after 4 months, the patient's height was 68.5 cm (height SD score, -6.9) corresponding to a growth velocity of 8.3 cm/yr (0.3 height velocity SD score). IGFBP-1 was reduced (216 ng/mL), although still in the high range, whereas IGF-I (71 ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (0.62 microg/mL), and IGF-II (111 ng/mL) were only slightly increased. The IGF-I profile showed activity in the 150-kDa region. In conclusion, we speculate that the increased IGFBP-1 values found in this patient produce 1) inhibition of IGF-I biological activity and, therefore, a resistance to IGF-I not due to a receptor defect for this hormone; 2) inhibition of formation of the circulating 150-kDa ternary complex and, therefore, an accelerated clearance rate of IGF peptides; 3) inhibition of the feedback action on GH, leading to increased GH levels, which could suggest the diagnosis of GH insensitivity syndrome; and 4) inhibition of body growth. PMID:9768660

  16. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C. Houghton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03 and 23.6% (p = 0.03 lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10 in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers, although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution % difference for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index (17.1% (p = 0.001 and waist-to-height ratio (15.1% (p = 0.005. Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women.

  17. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in pre-menarche girls in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Bahreyni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in girls between 9-13 years before age at menarche.This study was conducted on a sample of 58 subjects (age range: 9-13 years, who were divided intotwo groups of fasting (N=31 and non-fasting (N=27. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone and estradiol were measured in all the subjectsbefore and after Ramadan. Measurements were carried out three days before the start of Ramadan,and one day afterwards.In this study, FSH levels significantly increased in the non-fasting group (P=0.01, and the level ofDehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA had a significant decrease during the time of study in bothgroups (P=0.001, P=0.006. In addition, serum levels of LH significantly increased in the non-fastinggroup after Ramadan (P=0.006, and estradiol significantly increased in both groups (P=0.008,P=0.004.Given the similar changes in the levels of DHEA, progesterone and estradiol in both study groups, itcould be concluded that fasting has no effects on these parameters, and the changes in LH and FSHlevels could be due to other contributing factors.

  18. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  19. 性激素对失代偿期肝硬化患者的影响探讨%Relationships between decompensated cirrhosis and sex hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 刘雄昌; 张月荣; 陈晓琴; 吴德明; 杨俊杰

    2015-01-01

    探讨性激素与失代偿期肝硬化患者关系的研究状况,性激素是肝硬化临床无创性诊断筛选出较敏感、特异的诊断标志,近年内国内外学者不断地研究,现就性激素与肝硬化的相关性作一综述讨论。%To investigate research status of the sex hormones and decompensated cirrhosis, sex hormones is non-invasive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in clinical screening, is more sensitive and specific diagnostic markers. Many scholars continue to research on sex hormones and correlation.

  20. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead ...

  1. Dynamics of circulating concentrations of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones throughout the menstrual cycle in the bonnet monkey: role of inhibin A in the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P S; Medhamurthy, R

    2009-10-01

    In higher primates, increased circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels seen during late menstrual cycle and during menstruation has been suggested to be necessary for initiation of follicular growth, recruitment of follicles and eventually culminating in ovulation of a single follicle. With a view to establish the dynamics of circulating FSH secretion with that of inhibin A (INH A) and progesterone (P(4)) secretions during the menstrual cycle, blood was collected daily from bonnet monkeys beginning day 1 of the menstrual cycle up to 35 days. Serum INH A levels were low during early follicular phase, increased significantly coinciding with the mid cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge to reach maximal levels during the mid luteal phase before declining at the late luteal phase, essentially paralleling the pattern of P(4) secretion seen throughout the luteal phase. Circulating FSH levels were low during early and mid luteal phases, but progressively increased during the late luteal phase and remained high for few days after the onset of menses. In another experiment, lutectomy performed during the mid luteal phase resulted in significant decrease in INH A concentration within 2 hr (58.3+/-2 vs. 27.3+/-3 pg/mL), and a 2- to 3-fold rise in circulating FSH levels by 24 hr (0.20+/-0.02 vs. 0.53+/-0.14 ng/mL) that remained high until 48 hr postlutectomy. Systemic administration of Cetrorelix (150 microg/kg body weight), a gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist, at mid luteal phase in monkeys led to suppression of serum INH A and P(4) concentrations 24 hr post treatment, but circulating FSH levels did not change. Administration of exogenous LH, but not FSH, significantly increased INH A concentration. The results taken together suggest a tight coupling between LH and INH A secretion and that INH A is largely responsible for maintenance of low FSH concentration seen during the luteal phase.

  2. Obesity and sarcopenia after menopause are reversed by sex hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rosenfalck, A M; Højgaard, L;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Menopause is linked to an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean mass exceeding age-related changes, possibly related to reduced output of ovarian steroids. In this study we examined the effect of combined postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the total and regional ...

  3. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, HAIYING; MOLINA, JULIAN; JIANG, JOHN; FERBER, MATTHEW; PRUTHI, SANDHYA; JATKOE, TIMOTHY; DERECHO, CARLO; RAJPUROHIT, YASHODA; ZHENG, JIAN; WANG, YIXIN

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  4. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  5. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the songbird hippocampus: regional and sex differences in adult zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Nicolette; Ferris, Jennifer K; Arckens, Lutgarde; Bentley, George E; Soma, Kiran K

    2013-08-01

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) are vital to reproduction in all vertebrates. These neuropeptides are also present outside of the hypothalamus, but the roles of extra-hypothalamic GnRH and GnIH remain enigmatic and widely underappreciated. We used immunohistochemistry and PCR to examine whether multiple forms of GnRH (chicken GnRH-I (GnRH1), chicken GnRH-II (GnRH2) and lamprey GnRH-III (GnRH4)) and GnIH are present in the hippocampus (Hp) of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using immunohistochemistry, we provide evidence that GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH4 are present in hippocampal cell bodies and/or fibers and that GnIH is present in hippocampal fibers only. There are regional differences in hippocampal GnRH immunoreactivity, and these vary across the different forms of GnRH. There are also sex differences in hippocampal GnRH immunoreactivity, with generally more GnRH1 and GnRH2 in the female Hp. In addition, we used PCR to examine the presence of GnRH1 mRNA and GnIH mRNA in micropunches of Hp. PCR and subsequent product sequencing demonstrated the presence of GnRH1 mRNA and the absence of GnIH mRNA in the Hp, consistent with the pattern of immunohistochemical results. To our knowledge, this is the first study in any species to systematically examine multiple forms of GnRH in the Hp or to quantify sex or regional differences in hippocampal GnRH. Moreover, this is the first demonstration of GnIH in the avian Hp. These data shed light on an important issue: the sites of action and possible functions of GnRH and GnIH outside of the HPG axis. PMID:23727031

  6. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: what is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Thijssen, J.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Goozen, S.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic f

  7. Influence of sex hormones and genetic predisposition in Sjögren's syndrome: a new clue to the immunopathogenesis of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Safinaz; Seamon, Vanessa; Azzarolo, Ana Maria

    2012-03-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration, destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands and the presence of serum autoantibodies. Most women that suffer from SS are post-menopausal however, not all post-menopausal women develop SS, suggesting that other factors, in addition to the decrease in ovarian hormones, are necessary for the development of SS. The purposes of this study were to investigate a) the time course of lymphocytic infiltration and apoptosis in the lacrimal gland after ovariectomy, b) if a predisposed genetic background for SS aggravates the effects of decreasing levels of sex hormones in the lacrimal glands and c) if physiological doses of estrogen or androgen prevent the effects observed after ovariectomy. Six weeks old mice that are genetically predisposed to SS (NOD.B10.H2(b)) and control (C57BL/10) mice were either sham operated, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + 17β estradiol (E(2)) or OVX + Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Lacrimal glands were collected at 3, 7, 21 or 30 days after surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry to measure CD4(+), CD8(+) T cells, B220(+) B cells, nuclear DNA degradation and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Quantification of the staining was done by light microscopy and Image Pro Plus software. The results of our study show that lymphocytic infiltration preceded lacrimal gland apoptosis after ovariectomy. Moreover, removal of ovarian sex hormones accelerated these effects in the genetically predisposed animal and these effects were more severe and persistent compared to control animals. In addition, sex hormone replacement at physiological levels prevented these symptoms. The mechanisms by which decreased levels of sex hormones caused lymphocytic infiltration and apoptosis and the interaction of lack of sex hormones with the genetic elements remain to be elucidated. PMID:22227485

  8. Enzymatic Regulation of Steroidogenesis and Nuclear Receptor Activation : Special Focus on Vitamin D and Sex Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    LUNDQVIST, JOHAN

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed reactions are important to regulate steroidogenesis and nuclear receptor activation. The present investigation examines the role of steroid metabolism catalyzed by CYP7B1 for regulation of hormone receptor activation and the effects of vitamin D on enzymatic regulation of steroidogenesis. The study reports data indicating that CYP7B1 can regulate estrogenic signaling by converting estrogens into inactive or less active metabolites. Similar results were obtained for CYP7B1-med...

  9. Treating animal behaviour problems with sex hormones: an animal welfare issue

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.E.; McBride, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    In England and Germany, the methods used to modify unwanted animal behaviour in veterinary practices were investigated by questionnaire. The samples were created by a systematic section. Of the 216 questionnaires posted in each country, 66 replies from Germany (30.5%) and 76 from the UK (35.2%) were obtained and evaluated. The majority of veterinarians in both countries considered hormones effective in treating behaviour problems, but English veterinarians do so significantly more for cat...

  10. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onland-Moret, N.C.; Kaaks, R.; Noord, P.A.H. van; Rinaldi, S.; Key, T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the relation between urinary endogenous sex steroid levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, a nested case–cohort study was conducted within a large cohort (the DOM cohort) in the Netherlands (n¼9 349). Until the end of follow-up (1 January 1996), 397 postmenopausal breast canc

  11. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  12. Profiles of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and melatonin during the sex change and maturation of cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-06-24

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between melatonin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and their effect on reproduction in cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Accordingly, we investigated the expression pattern of GnIH, GnIH receptor (GnIH-R), and melatonin receptor (MT-R1) mRNA and protein, as well as the plasma levels of melatonin, during sex change in cinnamon clownfish. We found that GnIH and MT-R1 mRNA and melatonin activity were higher in fish with mature brain than in fish with developing gonads, and using double immunofluorescence staining, we found that both GnIH and MT-R1 proteins were co-expressed in the hypothalamus of cinnamon clownfish. These findings support the hypothesis that melatonin plays an important role in the negative regulation of maturation and GnIH regulation during reproduction. PMID:27208779

  13. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT,ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  14. ANNUAL CHANGES IN PLASMA LEVELS OF CORTISOL AND SEX STEROID HORMONES IN MALE RAINBOW TROUT, ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru

    2001-01-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  15. Effects of heterotopic autotransplantation of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissues on sex hormone level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumana Jafarey; Jing Yang; Xiaoyan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to measure and compare the serum hormone level of transplant group with blank control and castrated control groups after heterotopic autotransplantation of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissues into back muscles. Methods:A total of 40 SPF-SD female rats (5-6 week-old) were randomly divided into three groups:blank control group (group A), castration control group (group B) and transplant group (group C). Ovaries were removed by surgical procedure, then after cryopreservation and thawing procedures the ovarian tissues were implanted into the back muscles of mice in group C. After 4 weeks of ovarian tissues transplantation, al rats blood sampling were measured for E2, LH and FSH hormone levels by ELISA. Results:E2 level was significantly higher in group C and group A than group B [(38.98 ± 5.66) pg/mL, (8.14 ± 3.24) pg/mL;P0.05), but compared with group B, FSH level was significantly reduced and being statistical y significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:Autotransplantation of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissue into back muscles can sustain fol icular development and re-establish endogenous hormone production by restoring the factors such as angiogenesis and innervations at the graft site.

  16. The Effects of Sex Hormonal Fluctuations during Menstrual Cycle on Cortical Excitability and Manual Dexterity (a Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zoghi

    Full Text Available To investigate whether hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle affect corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition (ICI or facilitation (ICF in primary motor cortex, and also whether the hormonal fluctuations have any effect on manual dexterity in neurologically intact women.Twenty volunteers (10 Female, 10 Male were included in this study. The levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured from saliva during the women's menstrual follicular, ovulation and mid-luteal phases. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Single and paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS were delivered in a block of 20 stimuli. With paired-pulse technique, 3ms and 10ms inter-stimulus intervals were used to assess ICI and ICF, respectively. The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT was completed in each session before the TMS assessments. Male participants were tested at similar time intervals as female participants.Mixed design ANOVA revealed that GPT score in female participants was significantly lower at the mid-luteal phase compared to the ovulation phase (p = 0.017. However, it was not correlated with progesterone or estrogen fluctuations during the menstrual cycle. The results also showed that the effect of phase, sex and the interaction of phase by sex for resting motor threshold, ICI or ICF were not significant (p > 0.05.Manual dexterity performance fluctuates during the menstrual cycle in neurologically intact women, which might be due to the balance of the neuromodulatory effects of P4 and E2 in the motor cortex during different phases.

  17. Role of sex hormones in hypercapnia-induced activation of the locus coeruleus in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, D; Marques, D A; Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Araújo-Lopes, R; Anselmo-Franci, J; Bícego, K C; Szawka, R E; Gargaglioni, L H

    2016-01-28

    The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. Most of the studies involving the role of the LC in hypercapnic ventilatory responses have been performed in males. Since ovarian steroids modulate the activity of LC neurons and females have a different respiratory response to CO2 than males, we evaluated the activity of LC noradrenergic neurons during normocapnia and hypercapnia in female and male rats with distinct sex hormone levels. Ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) and female rats on the diestrous day of the estrous cycle were evaluated. Concurrently, males were investigated as gonad-intact, orchidectomized (ORX), testosterone (T)-treated ORX (ORX+T), and E2-treated ORX (ORX+E2). Activation of LC neurons was determined by double-label immunohistochemistry to c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hypercapnia induced by 7% CO2 increased the number of c-Fos/TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the LC of all groups when compared to air exposure. Hypercapnia-induced c-Fos expression did not differ between diestrous females and intact male rats. In the OVX+E2 group, there was attenuation in the c-Fos expression during normocapnia compared with OVX rats, but CO2 responsiveness was not altered. Moreover, in ORX rats, neither T nor E2 treatments changed c-Fos expression in LC noradrenergic neurons. Thus, in female rats, E2 reduces activation of LC noradrenergic neurons, whereas in males, sex hormones do not influence the LC activity.

  18. Effect of small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule on perimenopasual dysfunctional uterine bleeding and sex hormone levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Feng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule in the treatment of perimenopasual dysfunctional uterine bleeding and their effects on sex hormone levels. Methods: The perimenopasual women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding who were admitted in our hospital from October, 2014 to October, 2015 and received small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule were served as the observation group. They were orally administered with mifepristone, 6.25 mg/time, 1 time/d, taken before bedtime, and Gongxuening capsule, 2 pills/time, 3 times/d, for 7 d after each menstruation, and continuously for 3 months. The perimenopasual women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding who were received mifepristone were served as the control group. They were orally administered with mifepristone, 12.5 mg/time, 1 time/d, taken before bedtime, and continuously for 3 months. The HGB level and endometrial thickness before and after treatment were detected. The bleeding control time, total blood stopping time, and adverse reactions in the two groups were compared. The levels of FSH, E2, P, and LH before and after treatment in the two groups were determined. Results:After treatment, HGB level in the observation group was elevated, and the altered degree of endometrial thickness was significantly superior to that in the control group (P0.05). Conclusions: Small-dose mifepristone in combined with Gongxuening capsule in the treatment of perimenopasual dysfunctional uterine bleeding can effectively improve the endometrial thickness, timely control bleeding, and improve the serum sex hormone levels, with a satisfactory effect;therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  19. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  20. Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Express Several Functional Sex Hormone Receptors—Novel Evidence for a Potential Developmental Link Between Hematopoiesis and Primordial Germ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia; Suszynska, Ewa; Suszynska, Malwina; Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Maj, Magda; Pedziwiatr, Daniel; Adamiak, Mateusz; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Kakar, Sham S.; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) share several markers with the germline, a connection supported by reports that prolactin, androgens, and estrogens stimulate hematopoiesis. To address this issue more directly, we tested the expression of receptors for pituitary-derived hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), on purified murine bone marrow (BM) cells enriched for HSPCs and tested the functionality of these receptors in ex vivo signal transduction studies and in vitro clonogenic assays. We also tested whether administration of pituitary- and gonad-derived sex hormones (SexHs) increases incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into HSPCs and expansion of hematopoietic clonogenic progenitors in mice and promotes recovery of blood counts in sublethally irradiated animals. We report for the first time that HSPCs express functional FSH and LH receptors and that both proliferate in vivo and in vitro in response to stimulation by pituitary SexHs. Furthermore, based on our observations that at least some of CD45− very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may become specified into CD45+ HSPCs, we also evaluated the expression of pituitary and gonadal SexHs receptors on these cells and tested whether these quiescent cells may expand in vivo in response to SexHs administration. We found that VSELs express SexHs receptors and respond in vivo to SexHs stimulation, as evidenced by BrdU accumulation. Since at least some VSELs share several markers characteristic of migrating primordial germ cells and can be specified into HSPCs, this observation sheds new light on the BM stem cell hierarchy. PMID:25607657

  1. Sex Steroid Hormone Profiles are Related to Sleep Measures from Polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Mary Fran; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Gold, Ellen B.; Owens, Jane; Consens, Flavia; Hall, Martica

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To relate reproductive hormones (and the preceding 7-year rates of their change) to objectively and subjectively assessed sleep measures, independent of age, vasomotor symptom frequency, depressive symptoms, and body size. Design: A cross-sectional sleep substudy nested in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 365 Caucasian, African American, and Chinese women. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured during two nights of in-home polysomnography (PSG) studies. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality, sleep diaries for medication, vasomotor symptoms, lifestyle information and questionnaires for depressive symptoms. Blood collected annually in the years prior to sleep study was assayed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and total testosterone (T). More rapid rate of FSH change was significantly associated with higher delta sleep percent, longer total sleep time (TST), but less favorable self-reported sleep quality (PSQI). Baseline E2 was modestly and negatively associated with sleep quality. Women in the lowest total testosterone quartile at baseline had more wake time after sleep onset (WASO) than women in the highest quartile. Lower E2/T ratio, an index reflecting the increasing androgenic environment with the menopause transition, was associated with less WASO. Conclusions: More rapid rate of FSH change was associated with longer sleep duration but poor sleep quality. Women with higher T or who were closer to the completion of the transition process (as indexed by a lower E2/T) had less sleep discontinuity (less WASO). Citation: Sowers MF; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Matthews K; Bromberger JT; Gold EB; Owens J; Consens F; Hall M. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures From polysomnography and the pittsburgh sleep quality

  2. A portion of heifers attaining “early puberty” do not display estrus, are anovulatory and have altered sex hormone binding globulin concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows with excess androstenedione (High A4) in the follicular fluid of dominant follicles attain puberty earlier than their low androstenedione counterparts. Furthermore, High A4 cows are anovulatory (chronic or sporadic) and have lower Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) compared to Low A4 ovulator...

  3. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boering, M; van Dijk, P R; Logtenberg, S J J; Groenier, K H; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; Gans, R O B; Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J G

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion

  4. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  5. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  6. Behavioral effects of female sex steroid hormones : models of PMS and PMDD in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal models can be used to mimic human conditions of psychopathology, and also as pre-clinical models to evaluate candidate drugs. With hormonal treatment it is possible to produce behavior in the rat which corresponds to the mental symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS affects 25-30 % of all women in fertile age and 3-8% are diagnosed with the more severe condition PMDD. The cardinal mental symptoms are; irritability, mood-swi...

  7. Impact of Male Obesity on Semen Quality and Serum Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Eskandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To investigate the association of high Body Mass Index (BMI with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in men of reproductive age. Setting. The Saudi Center for Assisted Reproduction. Method. This study was conducted during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Subjects were exposed through medical history evaluation as well as physical examination. BMI was calculated. Two semen samples about 1 week apart were taken from each participant by masturbation after 2–5 days of abstinence. The samples were assessed according to the WHO Criteria. Blood samples (5 ml were withdrawn; centrifuged and the resulting sera were preserved at −4 degrees Centigrade. Serum FSH, LH, PRL, and Testosterone levels were estimated by the ELISA method. Results. There was no significant correlation between BMI and any of semen and hormonal parameters. There was significant negative correlation between age and total motility. Only the advanced paternal age has shown significant association with low motility (=0.007. Conclusion. Our study showed a significant effect of aging on sperm motility and concentration.

  8. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Madej; Grzegorz Franik; Piotr Kurpas; Aleksander Owczarek; Jerzy Chudek; Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts). Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometr...

  9. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D S; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E;

    2016-01-01

    intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were......: In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...

  10. Effects of whole- and partial-body irradiation on circulating anterior pituitary hormones and testosterone and the relationship of these hormones to drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses within the range of 850 to 1500 rad given to the whole body, head, or lower-trunk region of male rats cause a marked depression in the rate of oxidative demethylation of drugs in the liver endoplasmic reticulum, 3 to 4 days after the irradiation. The V/sub max/ of the enzyme system is depressed and the K/sub m/ increased. Irradiation to the whole body, head, or lower trunk also causes a fall in the circulating levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) and the concentrations of these hormones are markedly reduced 3 to 4 days after the irradiation. Injections of testosterone or anterior pituitary extract effectively restore the activity of the liver enzyme system after irradiation of the head or lower trunk. It is concluded that whole-body irradiation causes inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver by a complex series of interrelated effects on the testis, anterior pituitary, and possibly the hypothalamus

  11. The effects of sex and hormonal status on restraint-stress-induced working memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Avis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restraint stress has been shown to elicit numerous effects on hippocampal function and neuronal morphology, as well as to induce dendritic remodeling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. However, the effects of acute restraint stress on PFC cognitive function have not been investigated, despite substantial evidence that the PFC malfunctions in many stress-related disorders. Methods The present study examined the effects of restraint stress on PFC function in both male rats and cycling female rats in either the proestrus (high estrogen or estrus (low estrogen phase of the estrus cycle. Animals were restrained for 60 or 120 minutes and then tested on spatial delayed alternation, a PFC-mediated task. Performance after stress was compared to performance on a different day under no-stress conditions, and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Sixty minutes of restraint impaired only females in proestrus, while 120 minutes of restraint produced significant impairments in all animals. Increases in task completion times did not affect performance. Conclusion These results demonstrate an interaction between hormonal status and cognitive response to stress in female rats, with high estrogen levels being associated with amplified sensitivity to stress. This effect has been previously observed after administration of a pharmacological stressor (the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142, and results from both studies may be relevant to the increased prevalence of stress-related disorders, such as major depressive disorder, in cycling women. Overall, the results show that restraint stress has important effects on the cognitive functions of the PFC, and that hormonal influences in the PFC are an important area for future research.

  12. Neural Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treated with Sex Steroid Hormones and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Parivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are several factors, like environmental agents, neurotrophic factors, serotonin and some hormones such as estrogen, affecting neurogenesis and neural differentiation. Regarding to importance of proliferation and regeneration in central nervous system, and a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, cell therapy is an attractive approach in neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormones and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF on neuronal differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was established in Kharazmi University. BM was isolated from the bones of femur and tibia of 4-6-week old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice, and the cells were cultured. The cells were divided into following 4 groups based on the applied treatments: I. control (no treatment, II. steroid hormones (β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, III. bFGF and IV. combination of steroid hormones and bFGF. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometery analyses were applied for beta III-tubulin (β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins-2 (MAP-2 in 4 days of treatment for all groups. Results: The cells treated with combination of bFGF and steroid hormones represented more expressions of neural markers as compared to control and to other two groups treated with either bFGF or steroid hormones. Conclusion: This study showed that BM-MSCs can express specific neural markers after receiving bFGF pretreatment that was followed by sex steroid hormones treatment. More investigations are necessary to specify whether steroid hormones and bFGF can be considered for treatment of CNS diseases and disorders.

  13. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  14. 糖尿病肾病与性激素相关性研究进展%Advances in research on correlation between diabetic nephropathy and sex hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮曙峰; 丁选胜

    2016-01-01

    糖尿病肾病是糖尿病导致的肾脏损害,是糖尿病最常见、最严重的并发症之一,性激素在体内能量代谢中起到重要作用。该文将对糖尿病状态下性激素变化趋势进行介绍,重点综述调节性激素平衡对于糖尿病肾病发生发展作用机制研究进展,旨在为性激素替代治疗糖尿病肾病的深入研究提供参考。%Diabetic nephropathy,kidney damage caused by diabetes,is the most common and serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Sex hormones play an important role in energy metabolism in vivo.This paper provides references for further study in hormone therapy in diabetic nephropathy.Here the trend of sex hormones changing in diabetes was reviewed,focusing on advances in sex hormones replace-ment therapy in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  16. Progression of research for the association between sex hormones and dry eye%性激素与干眼的相关性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林通; 龚岚

    2014-01-01

    Researches of the correlation between sex hormones and dry eye have been concerned early.Ocular surface inflammation,epithelial apoptosis and anormal expression of tear lipocalin and lipid may be important pathogenetic factors of various types of dry eye,and variedness of sex hormone level may have a certain correlation with these factors.The alteration of structure and function of tear film is the direct reason for dry eye.The change of sex hormone level likely gives influence to tear composition and pathological variation of related ocular surface tissues,then affects the structure and function of tear film,and finally lead to dry eye.Different sex hormones give certain different moderating effects to related ocular surface organization,so the recent correlational study of sex hormones and dry eye can be summarized in terms of androgen and estrogen,as these two sex hormones have certain impacts on tear composition and ocular surface organization respectively.%性激素与干眼的相关性研究较早就受到关注.眼表的炎症反应、上皮细胞凋亡、脂钙蛋白、脂质成分的表达异常可能是各种类型干眼发病的重要因素,而性激素水平的变化可能与这些改变有一定的相关性.泪膜结构和功能的异常是干眼发生的直接原因.性激素水平的变化可能对泪液成分和相关眼表组织的病理改变产生一定影响,进而影响泪膜的结构和功能,最终形成干眼.雄性和雌性激素对相关眼表组织的调节作用有一定的差异性,因此从雄激素和雌激素分别对泪液成分及相关眼表组织影响出发,对近年来性激素与干眼相关性研究进行概述.

  17. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  18. The Role of the Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Salts and Nuclear Hormone Receptors in the Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis: Bile Salts as Ligands for Nuclear Hormone Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Redinger, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    The coordinated effect of lipid activated nuclear hormone receptors; liver X receptor (LXR), bound by oxysterol ligands and farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bound by bile acid ligands, act as genetic transcription factors to cause feed-forward cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and feedback repression of bile acid synthesis, respectively. It is the coordinated action of LXR and FXR, each dimerized to retinoid X receptor, that signal nuclear DNA response elements to encode proteins that prevent e...

  19. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Madej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts. Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method, were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.

  20. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland); Ven der Kolk, H. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Goode, J.A. [Agricultural Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Animal Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to 17beta-estradiol and bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lisette Bachmann; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2008-05-01

    The impact of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestrogen metabolism was examined by measurements of whole body concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and its conjugation product bisphenol A glucuronic acid (BPAGA). Exposure to 500 ng E2/l led to an increase in E2 levels in the embryos and fry while 10 ng E2/l did not. Metabolic conversion of BPA to BPAGA began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were observed in all groups (in up to 50% of the female fish, independently of exposure regime). The fact that exposure to 500 ng E2/l only caused subtle effects in a small number of individuals indicates that exposure during early life stages results in little to no induction of endocrine disruption in brown trout.

  2. Study of serum level of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明伟; 张玉健; 李忠民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the serum level of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone (SEL, SPL and STL) and the expression of the receptors of estradiol and progesterone (ER and PR) in 53 cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. Methods:ER and PR in the tissue of the carcinoma were determined with enzyme-linked affinity histochemical method. SEL, SPL and STL were measured with double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results: Most of ER and PR were present in the cytoplasm of the malignant cells (58.2 % ) and the positive rates of ER and PR were 49.1% and 54.7 % respectively. SEL and SPL were significantly higher in the patients with lung cancer than in the subjects of the control groups ( P < 0.05), no matter whether ER and PR were positive or negative. SEL and SPL were lower in the ER positive, PR positive and both ER and PR positive groups than in the ER negative, PR negative and both ER and PR negative groups. Conclusion: The existence of ER and PR in the patients with bronchogenic carcinoma indicates that the pathogenesis of bronchogenic carcinoma is sex hormone dependent to some extent. ER and SEL are negatively correlated with a correlative coefficient of - 1.

  3. Changes in Testosterone Levels and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Extremely Obese Men after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery.

  4. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  5. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  6. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  7. Exploration of functional health, mental well-being and cross-sex hormone use in a sample of Thai male-to-female transgendered persons (kathoeys)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louis J Gooren; Tanapong Sungkaew; Erik J Giltay

    2013-01-01

    Transgender people sometimes use cross-sex hormones without medical supervision.The use of cross-sex hormones,as well as the functional health and mental well-being,among male-to-female transgendered people (‘kathoeys') in Chiang Mai,Thailand,was studied.Sixty kathoeys were interviewed regarding their use of cross-sex hormones and their family relationships.Individuals also completed the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R) to assess dispositional optimism,the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36).Three categories were established as follows:those who never cross-dress,those who sometimes cross-dress and those who always cross-dress in public.Of the 60 subjects,44 had used hormones for prolonged periods (9.7±6.1 years).Their use was related to the permanence of cross-dressing but unrelated to functional health and mental well-being.Fifty percent of subjects had overdosed on commonly used oral contraceptives.Three people used injectable oestrogen in a higher-than-recommended dose.Self-acceptance was high or reasonably good (83%) compared to no acceptance (17%),and neither was related to the permanence of cross-dressing.Their acceptance by parents and siblings was also relatively high (85% and 89%,respectively).The permanence of cross-dressing had no effect on the scores of optimism,SF-36 scores and social functioning.Acceptance by oneself or one's parents did not seem to affect most aspects of functional health and mental well-being,but non-acceptance by siblings generated lower scores on the social functioning and general mental health subscales.Stressors tended to include physical rather than social factors.In conclusion,the unsupervised use of cross-sex hormones was common among kathoeys,and 50% of the sample had overdosed on them.Acceptance was relatively good,except by siblings.New strategies are needed for a more responsible use of cross-sex hormones.

  8. Intrinsic determinants and predictors of superovulatory yields in sheep: Circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones, ovarian status, and antral follicular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Franco Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Kridli, Rami T; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian superstimulation has contributed to small ruminant reproduction around the world, impacting genetic improvement and zoosanitary programs, contributing to the conservation of endangered species, and supporting other related biotechnologies. Advanced knowledge surrounding the superovulatory treatments in sheep has resulted in enhanced control of influencing factors and improved the protocols currently used. However, in spite of minimization of some adverse factors, superovulatory responses in ewes still remain variable, preventing the more widespread use of superovulation in commercial embryo transfer programs and reproductive research in this species. Recent evidence demonstrates that changes in antral follicular populations and blood supply, and circulating concentrations of certain reproductive hormones determined at the specific time points just before or during the superovulatory treatment are associated with superovulation success in ewes. This review attempts to compile the data from available literature to identify ovarian and hormonal determinants of the superovulatory outcome in ewes, which can be used to substantially improve the existing protocols and to reduce the extra cost and unnecessary stress imposed on poorly responding animals. An overview of most commonly used and some recently developed, FSH-based ovarian stimulation protocols is given at the outset to highlight variation in the frequency and timing of gonadotropin injections, estrus synchronization methods, and follicular wave synchronization and/or ovulation induction techniques during the superovulatory treatments in ewes. PMID:27173957

  9. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    evidence of isomerization of the β-isomer to other isoforms in vivo. While there were occasional differences among treatment groups in circulating plasma E2, T and 11-KT levels there was no clear, temporal trend or dose-response.

  10. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    detected in composite liver or whole-fish extracts and there was no evidence of isomerization of the {beta}-isomer to other isoforms in vivo. While there were occasional differences among treatment groups in circulating plasma E2, T and 11-KT levels there was no clear, temporal trend or dose-response.

  11. Sex-Specific Effects of Gonadectomy and Hormone Treatment on Acquisition of a 12-Arm Radial Maze Task by Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Robert B; Johnson, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of gonadectomy and hormone treatment on spatial learning were evaluated in adult male and female rats using a modified version of a 12-arm radial maze task. In this version, procedures were used to minimize the effectiveness of strategies less reliant on working and reference memory. Results demonstrate significant sex differences favoring male performance on the working memory component of the task. In contrast, females performed slightly better than males on the reference memory...

  12. The role of sex and sex-related hormones in cognition, mood and well-being in older men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Castanho, TC; Moreira, PS; Portugal-Nunes, C; Novais, A.; Costa, PS; Palha, JA; Sousa, N; Santos, NC

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in hormone levels during aging impact on cognition and mood. Serum concentration levels of testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and prolactin (PRL) were assessed in 120 community-dwellers (51+ years of age, males and females), in a cross-sectional approach. Performance clusters based on executive functioning (GENEXEC), memory (MEM), mood and well-being were obtained. In males, higher...

  13. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai; Grand, Alison P; Fulks, Richelle; Graff, Anne; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates.

  14. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China:a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanMin Ma; DaLin He; KaiJie Wu; Liang Ning; Jin Zeng; Bo Kou; HongJun Xie; ZhenKun Ma; XinYang Wang; YongGuang Gong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and iffty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years) were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if they harbored repeat length of≤20 or as CAG long (CAGL) if their CAG repeat length was>20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the speciifed physicians;CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method;and the serum levels of the sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Student’s t-test or linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations among AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length. This investigation showed that the serum total testosterone (T) level was positively associated with the AR CAG repeat length (P= 0.01); whereas, no signiifcant correlation of T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism with the penile length was found (P= 0.593). Interestingly, an inverse association was observed between serum prolactin (PRL) levels and penile length by linear regression analyses (b=-0.024, P= 0.039, 95%conifdence interval (CI):-0.047, 0). Collectively, this study provides the ifrst evidence that serum PRL, but not T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism, is correlated with penile length in the Han adult population from northwestern China.

  15. Allelic variant in the anti-Mullerian hormone gene leads to autosomal and temperature-dependent sex reversal in a selected Nile tilapia line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wessels

    Full Text Available Owing to the demand for sustainable sex-control protocols in aquaculture, research in tilapia sex determination is gaining momentum. The mutual influence of environmental and genetic factors hampers disentangling the complex sex determination mechanism in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Previous linkage analyses have demonstrated quantitative trait loci for the phenotypic sex on linkage groups 1, 3, and 23. Quantitative trait loci for temperature-dependent sex reversal similarly reside on linkage group 23. The anti-Müllerian hormone gene (amh, located in this genomic region, is important for sexual fate in higher vertebrates, and shows sexually dimorphic expression in Nile tilapia. Therefore this study aimed at detecting allelic variants and marker-sex associations in the amh gene. Sequencing identified six allelic variants. A significant effect on the phenotypic sex for SNP ss831884014 (p<0.0017 was found by stepwise logistic regression. The remaining variants were not significantly associated. Functional annotation of SNP ss831884014 revealed a non-synonymous amino acid substitution in the amh protein. Consequently, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET based genotyping assay was developed and validated with a representative sample of fish. A logistic linear model confirmed a highly significant effect of the treatment and genotype on the phenotypic sex, but not for the interaction term (treatment: p<0.0001; genotype: p<0.0025. An additive genetic model proved a linear allele substitution effect of 12% in individuals from controls and groups treated at high temperature, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the genotype on the male proportion was significantly higher in groups treated at high temperature, giving 31% more males on average of the three genotypes. In addition, the groups treated at high temperature showed a positive dominance deviation (+11.4% males. In summary, marker-assisted selection for amh variant ss831884014

  16. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Susceptibility to HSV-2 in Vaginal Cells Grown in Air-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung; Dizzell, Sara E; Leung, Vivian; Nazli, Aisha; Zahoor, Muhammad A; Fichorova, Raina N; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-01-01

    The lower female reproductive tract (FRT) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. Sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT to establish infection. The majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they employ a liquid-liquid interface (LLI), in which both apical and basolateral surfaces are submerged in growth medium. We designed the current study to simulate in vivo conditions by growing an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line (Vk2/E6E7) in culture with an air-liquid interface (ALI) and examined the effects of female sex hormones on their growth, differentiation, and susceptibility to HSV-2 under these conditions, in comparison to LLI cultures. ALI conditions induced Vk2/E6E7 cells to grow into multi-layered cultures compared to the monolayers present in LLI conditions. Vk2 cells in ALI showed higher production of cytokeratin in the presence of estradiol (E2), compared to cells grown in progesterone (P4). Cells grown under ALI conditions were exposed to HSV-2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the highest infection and replication was observed in the presence of P4. Altogether, this study suggests that ALI cultures more closely simulate the in vivo conditions of the FRT compared to the conventional LLI cultures. Furthermore, under these conditions P4 was found to confer higher susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in vaginal cells. The vaginal ALI culture system offers a better alternative to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27589787

  17. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting (ED) potential in vitro. • ED effects can be mediated via sex hormone receptors and/or the aromatase enzyme. • Additive mixture effects on androgen receptor transactivity were observed

  18. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    . - Highlights: • Currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting (ED) potential in vitro. • ED effects can be mediated via sex hormone receptors and/or the aromatase enzyme. • Additive mixture effects on androgen receptor transactivity were observed.

  19. Current applications of PET imaging of sex hormone receptors with a fluorinated analogue of estradiol or of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the most frequent approach in the oncologic applications of positron emission tomography (PET) is detecting the hypermetabolic activity of the cancer tissue. A more specific approach, which may be complementary, is detecting the overexpression of receptors. In this review article, we aim to evaluate the results that are currently available for PET imaging of the sex hormone receptors in clinical oncology. The indication of PET and now PET/CT has been more disputed in breast carcinoma than in many other primary cancers (e.g., lung, head and neck, colorectal, lymphoma). 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the glucose analogue for PET imaging, has a limited sensitivity to detect the primary breast tumors in case of lobular or in situ forms or small sized tumors localised on systematic mammography, and to identify minimal node invasion in the axilla. Using 16α-(18F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES), a fluorinated estradiol analogue, PET is able to detect the over-expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in lesions, at a whole-body level. FES and FDG appear complementary for a better diagnostic performance in staging locally advanced breast cancer or restaging recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Another potential indication is predicting the response to starting or resuming hormone therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer, in relation with the ER status of all lesions revealed by FES PET. In two retrospective studies, FDG PET was also able to predict the response to hormone therapy, on basis of a metabolic flare, observed either after 7-10 days of treatment or during an estradiol challenge. A prospective comparison of those approaches is warranted. One study reported predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy thanks to a low value of FES SUVmax or FES/FDG SUV max ratio. The presence of ER in uterine tumors, including the benign ones, in ovarian cancers or even in meningiomas, may have therapeutic consequences and FES PET could have a clinical utility

  20. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonism reduces the insulin-stimulated increase in circulating interleukin-6 in growth hormone (GH) replaced GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Morten B; Rasmussen, Lars M; Hansen, Troels K;

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Context: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists modify cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH-deficient (GHD) patients may cause insulin resistance and exerts ambiguous effects...... on inflammatory markers. Objective: To investigate circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial function in GH replaced GHD patients before and after 12 weeks administration of either pioglitazone 30 mg/day (N=10) or placebo (N=10) in a randomized double-blind parallel design. Methods...... significantly abrogated this insulin-stimulated increment in IL-6 levels compared to placebo (P = 0.01). Furthermore PPARgamma agonist treatment significantly lowered basal IL-4 levels (P<0.05). Conclusions: 1) IL-6 levels increase during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in GH replaced patients, 2) This increase in IL...

  2. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  3. Correlation between Female Sex Hormones and Electrodiagnostic Parameters and Clinical Function in Post-menopausal Women with Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Azam; Naseri, Mahshid; Namazi, Hamid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of sex-hormonal changes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among post-menopausal women through measuring estrogen receptor (ER) expression in their transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and serum estrogen level, as well as determine the correlation between these factors and electrodiagnostic parameters and Boston score. Methods Biopsy samples of TCL were collected from 12 postmenopausal women who had undergone surgery for severe idiopathic CTS; control specimens were collected from 10 postmenopausal women without CTS who had undergone surgery for the other hand pathologies. To determine the distributions of ER in TCL, histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Serum estrogen level was also measured. Electrodiagnosis and Boston questionnaire were used for CTS severity and determination of the patients' function. Results ER expression in TCL and serum estrogen level were not significantly different in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0.79 and P = 0.88, respectively). Also, there was no correlation between ER expression or serum estrogen level and electrodiagnostic parameters or Boston score. Conclusions Sex hormones cannot still be considered as the etiology of idiopathic CTS in postmenopausal women. The role of other factors such as wrist ratio and narrower outlet in females compared to the males should be considered along with hormonal changes. PMID:27617242

  4. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  5. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer. PMID:26941014

  6. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer.

  7. Correlation analysis of depression and sex hormone and thyroid hormone%抑郁症与性激素及甲状腺激素的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱松伟; 樊素琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between depression and sex hormones and thyroid hormones, provide reference for clinical antidepressant treatment.Methods Selection our hospital in 2010 - June 78 cases admitted during the period of starting in June, 2013 female patients with depression, the hormone inspection and scale assessment. Results Progesterone and paranoid, somatization, and other factors were positively correlated, and hostile, psychosis, depression and other negative correlation factor; Thyroxine and psychosis, forcing factors were positively correlated, and negatively correlated with total score of Hamilton depression scale, negative correlation and fear factor; Total three thyroid iodine glycine and anxiety factors were positively correlated, and negatively correlated with depression factor. Conclusion In treatment of patients with depression, you can try on sex hormones and pretend to be adjusted the levels of sex hormones, to improve the clinical symptoms of patients.%目的:探讨抑郁症和性激素以及甲状腺激素之间的相关性,为临床抗抑郁治疗提供参考依据。方法选取我院在2010年6月至2013年6月期间收治的78例首发的女性抑郁症患者,对其进行激素检验和量表评定。结果孕激素和偏执、躯体化以及其他因子呈正相关,和敌对、精神病、抑郁等因子呈负相关;促甲状腺素和精神病、强迫因子呈正相关,和汉密尔顿抑郁量表总分呈负相关,和恐惧因子呈负相关;总甲状腺三碘原氨酸和焦虑因子呈正相关,和抑郁因子呈负相关。结论在对抑郁症患者进行治疗时,可以尝试通过对性激素和假装性激素的水平进行调节,来改善患者的临床症状。

  8. A Tandem Duplicate of Anti-Mullerian Hormone with a Missense SNP on the Y Chromosome Is Essential for Male Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway is emerging as an important mechanism by which gonadal sex determination is controlled in teleosts. Here we show that amhy, a Y-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh gene, induces male sex determination in Nile tilapia. amhy is a tandem duplicate located immediately downstream of amhΔ-y on the Y chromosome. The coding sequence of amhy was identical to the X-linked amh (amh except a missense SNP (C/T which changes an amino acid (Ser/Leu92 in the N-terminal region. amhy lacks 5608 bp of promoter sequence that is found in the X-linked amh homolog. The amhΔ-y contains several insertions and deletions in the promoter region, and even a 5 bp insertion in exonVI that results in a premature stop codon and thus a truncated protein product lacking the TGF-β binding domain. Both amhy and amhΔ-y expression is restricted to XY gonads from 5 days after hatching (dah onwards. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of amhy in XY fish resulted in male to female sex reversal, while mutation of amhΔ-y alone could not. In contrast, overexpression of Amhy in XX fish, using a fosmid transgene that carries the amhy/amhΔ-y haplotype or a vector containing amhy ORF under the control of CMV promoter, resulted in female to male sex reversal, while overexpression of AmhΔ-y alone in XX fish could not. Knockout of the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type II (amhrII in XY fish also resulted in 100% complete male to female sex reversal. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the duplicated amhy with a missense SNP is the candidate sex determining gene and amhy/amhrII signal is essential for male sex determination in Nile tilapia. These findings highlight the conserved roles of TGF-β signaling pathway in fish sex determination.

  9. Establishing sex ratios of sea turtle foraging populations: validation of a novel testosterone hormone assay technology and sex assessment for five species.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Demographic data are essential for developing sound management and conservation plans for marine turtle populations. Sex ratios, even though they are an essential...

  10. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  11. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Swora-Cwynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. Material and methods. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM, for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Results. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The con- centrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. Conclusion. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial e

  12. Sex Hormones Affect Aging Process by Influencing Lipid Profiles,Cellular Immunological Function and Lipid Peroxides and Oxidation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赛珠; 谭家余; 周忠江; 周可祥; 容志毅

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the correlation between sex hormones(SH) and aging. Methods Through epidemiological investigation in our country, the levels of SH were measured by radioimmunoassy; lipid profile, glucose and apolipoprotein by automatic biochemic analytical instrument; T cell subsets by flow cytometer; and MDA, SOD were evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test and the nitrite method modified by Oyanagui respectively using spectrophotometry. Results In men, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)、 luteinizing hormone(LH) increased significantly with aging, but serum prolactin(PRL) and progesterone(P) levels remained unchanged in all life; Both testosterone (T)and free testosterone (FT) all decreased greatly with aging, but 173 - estradiol( 17β - E2) was reverse; E2 was negatively correlated with T and E2/T increased with aging. The level of serum total cholesterol (TC) increased with aging, but triglycerides ( TG ) remain unchanged; compared with young group, high -density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C); HDL - C/TC of other groups decreased significantly, but low - density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL - C ) changed inversely;HDL- C/LDL- C reduced slightly with aging and showed no difference between groups. Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apoB all enhanced greatly with aging;meanwhile the ratio of apoAl/apoB decreased. The concentration of serum glucose (GLU) was unchanged in all life. To compare with those in the young group,CD3 + , CD4 + in other groups reduced greatly, CD4 + remained unchanged. Meanwhile, CD8 + increased significantly with aging. Compared with the young group, serum malondialdehyde(MDA) value of the old ones increased obviously, but the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) was reverse. By partial correlation analysis (controlling BMI, FSH, LH and PRL), TC、LDL- C、apoA1 、apoB、CD8 + 、MDA of men all presented a positive correlation with E2/T respectively,their correlation coefficients (γ) were 0.262、0

  13. Complement Receptors C5aR and C5L2 Are Associated with Metabolic Profile, Sex Hormones, and Liver Enzymes in Obese Women Pre- and Postbariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction with sex differences and chronic, low-grade inflammation. We proposed that hepatic expression of immune complement C3 related receptors (C3aR, C5aR, and C5L2 would be associated with pre- or postmenopausal status and metabolic profile in severely obese women. We hypothesized that C5L2/C5aR ratio, potentially influencing the ASP/C5L2 metabolic versus C5a/C5aR immune response, would predict metabolic profiles after weight loss surgery. Materials and Methods. Fasting plasma (hormone, lipid, and enzyme analysis and liver biopsies (RT-PCR gene expression were obtained from 91 women during surgery. Results. Hepatic C5L2 mRNA expression was elevated in pre- versus postmenopausal women (P<0.01 and correlated positively with circulating estradiol, estrone, ApoB, ApoA1, ApoA1/B, waist circumference, age, and LDL-C (all P<0.05. While plasma ASP was lower in pre- versus postmenopausal women (P<0.01, the hepatic C5L2/C5aR mRNA ratio was increased (P<0.001 and correlated positively with estrone (P<0.01 and estradiol (P<0.001 and negatively with circulating ApoB and liver enzymes ALT, AST, and GGT (all P<0.05. Over 12 months postoperatively, liver enzymes in low C5L2/C5aR mRNA ratio group remained higher (ALP and ALT, P<0.05, AST and GGT, P<0.001 2-way-ANOVA. Conclusion. C5L2-C5aR association with other mediators including estrogens may contribute to hepatic metabolic and inflammatory function.

  14. FNDC5 expression and circulating irisin levels are modified by diet and hormonal conditions in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rodríguez, B M; Pena-Bello, L; Juiz-Valiña, P; Vidal-Bretal, B; Cordido, F; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels. No changes were observed during long-term experiments with different diets. We suggested that levels of circulating irisin are the result of the sum of the irisin produced by different depots of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. This study shows for the first time that there are differences in FNDC5 expression depending on white adipose tissue depots. Moreover, a considerable decrease in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue depots correlated with increased FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, probably in an attempt to compensate the decrease that occurs in their mass. Hypothalamic FNDC5 expression did not change for any of the tested diets but increased with leptin, insulin and metformin treatments suggesting that the regulation of central and peripheral FNDC5/irisin expression and functions are different. PMID:27432282

  15. Effect of Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang combined with GP chemotherapy on tumor markers and sex hormones in advanced lung cancer patients with Yin deficiency inner heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiang; Wei-Min Zhu; Yi-Jiao Huang; Qi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang combined with GP chemotherapy on tumor markers and sex hormone levels in yin deficiency type advanced lung cancer patients. Methods:A total of 105 patients with advanced lung cancer by Yin deficiency were divided into the observation group (55 cases) and control group (50 cases). The control group was given the standard GP chemotherapy, the observation group was given Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang on the basis of the control group. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, the levels of tumor markers (CEA, CA1125, CYFRA21, NES) and sex hormone (T, E2, FSH, LH) in the two groups were compared.Results:① After treatment, the level of CA125, CEA, NES and CYFRA21 in both two groups were significantly decreased (P0.05). E2 and FSH in the observation group were (85.71±33.57) pmol/L and (10.35±3.56) mU/mL, both were significantly lower than that in the control group after treatment; T and LH in the observation group were (12.33±3.62) nmol/L and (4.08±1.66) mU/mL, both were significantly higher than that in the control group after treatment, (P<0.05).Conclusions:Ziyin Jiedu Yangfeitang can inhibit tumor marker expression and regulate endocrine disorder.

  16. Development of classification model and QSAR model for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to human sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Lu, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to disrupt endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not gotten enough attention, compared with that of hormone receptors and synthetase up to now, especially for the sex hormone transport process. In this study, we selected sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and EDCs as a model system and the relative competing potency of a chemical with testosterone binding to SHBG (log RBA) as the endpoints, to develop classification models and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. With the classification model, a satisfactory model with nR09, nR10 and RDF155v as the most relevant variables was screened. Statistic results indicated that the model had the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 86.4%, 80.0%, 84.4% and 85.7%, 87.5%, 86.2% for the training set and validation set, respectively, highlighting a high classification performance of the model. With the QSAR model, a satisfactory model with statistical parameters, specifically, an adjusted determination coefficient (Radj(2)) of 0.810, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.616, a leave-one-out cross-validation squared correlation coefficient (QLOO(2)) of 0.777, a bootstrap method (QBOOT(2)) of 0.756, an external validation coefficient (Qext(2)) of 0.544 and a RMSEext of 0.859, were obtained, which implied satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability. The applicability domain of the current model covers a large number of structurally diverse chemicals, especially a few classes of nonsteroidal compounds. PMID:27156209

  17. The research progress of relationship between breast density,sex hormone,and breast cancer%乳腺密度、性激素和乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小娜; 王丽; 康欣梅

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic breast density( BD)is independent risk factor for breast cancer,sex hormones also play a role in the development of breast cancer,but it is unclear whether mammographic breast density associate with sex hormone. In this review,we describe the association of BD and sex hormone with breast cancer.%乳腺密度( mammographic breast density,BD)是乳腺癌危险性独立的预测指标,性激素也在乳腺癌的发展中扮演重要角色,而乳腺密度与性激素的关系仍不明确。本文将对乳腺密度,性激素,乳腺癌的关系进行综述。

  18. Unique Expression of Angiotensin Type-2 Receptor in Sex-Specific Distribution of Myelinated Ah-Type Baroreceptor Neuron Contributing to Sex-Dimorphic Neurocontrol of Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jia-Ying; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Wu, Di; He, Jian-Li; Han, Li-Min; Liang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Lu-Qi; Lu, Xiao-Long; Chen, Hanying; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Shou, Weinian; Li, Bai-Yan

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to understand the special expression patterns of angiotensin-II receptor (AT1R and AT2R) in nodose ganglia and nucleus of tractus solitary of baroreflex afferent pathway and their contribution in sex difference of neurocontrol of blood pressure regulation. In this regard, action potentials were recorded in baroreceptor neurons (BRNs) using whole-cell patch techniques; mRNA and protein expression of AT1R and AT2R in nodose ganglia and nucleus of tractus solitary were evaluated using real time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry at both tissue and single-cell levels. The in vivo effects of 17β-estradiol on blood pressure and AT2R expression were also tested. The data showed that AT2R, rather than AT1R, expression was higher in female than age-matched male rats. Moreover, AT2R was downregulated in ovariectomized rats, which was restored by the administration of 17β-estradiol. Single-cell real time-polymerase chain reaction data indicated that AT2R was uniquely expressed in Ah-type BRNs. Functional study showed that long-term administration of 17β-estradiol significantly alleviated the blood pressure increase in ovariectomized rats. Electrophysiological recordings showed that angiotensin-II treatment increased the neuroexcitability more in Ah- than C-type BRNs, whereas no such effect was observed in A-types. In addition, angiotensin-II treatment prolonged action potential duration, which was not further changed by iberiotoxin. The density of angiotensin-II-sensitive K(+) currents recorded in Ah-types was equivalent with iberiotoxin-sensitive component. In summary, the unique, sex- and afferent-specific expression of AT2R was identified in Ah-type BRNs, and AT2R-mediated KCa1.1 inhibition in Ah-type BRNs may exert great impacts on baroreflex afferent function and blood pressure regulation in females. PMID:26883269

  19. Limited ability of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone to predict dominant follicular recruitment in PCOS women treated with clomiphene citrate: a comparison of two different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiarelli, Alberto; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Blockeel, Christophe; De Vos, Michel; van de Vijver, Arne; Camus, Michel; Cosyns, Stefan; Tournaye, Herman; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate whether serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, determined by either the Immunotech (IOT) or the second generation (Gen II) assay, can predict follicular recruitment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). Patients received 50 mg CC daily for ovulation induction followed by natural intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Overall, 84 women had their serum AMH levels tested before treatment [42 patients with Immunotech (IOT), and 42 patients with the Gen II assay]. The primary outcome was to determine dominant follicle (>10 mm) recruitment in relation to AMH levels. Thirty-three (79%) patients in the IOT and 34 (81%) patients in the Gen II assay group developed a dominant follicle within 15 days after initiation of CC. Circulating AMH levels did not differ between women with or without dominant follicular recruitment in the both groups. By using either the AMH IOT or the Gen II assay, serum AMH levels were not predictive of the development of a dominant follicle. In conclusion, serum AMH levels measured by IOT or Gen II assay, has limited value to predict PCOS patients who will develop a dominant follicle following ovulation induction with CC. PMID:26559558

  20. Plasma ghrelin in anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder: relations with eating patterns and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alfonso; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Lega, Ilaria; Tesauro, Manfredi; Bertoli, Aldo; Leo, Roberto; Iantorno, Micaela; Pecchioli, Chiara; Rizza, Stefano; Turriziani, Mario; Lauro, Renato; Siracusano, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in healthy control women, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and plasma concentrations of thyreotropin (TSH), free T3 and free T4, and positively correlated with plasma concentrations of cortisol. The ghrelin concentrations of women with binge-eating and purging behavior were significantly lower than those of women with anorexia nervosa, restricting type, and there was a negative relation between the frequency and severity of binge-eating and purging behavior, as measured by the BULIT-R total score, and ghrelin concentrations. In a multivariate regression model controlling for the confounding effects of body mass index (BMI) and age, higher ghrelin concentrations were correlated with lower BULIT-R total scores. The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis advanced in previous studies that ghrelin concentrations are higher in patients with binge-eating/purging forms of eating disorders. Based on these data, we suggest that, in women with eating disorders, ghrelin concentrations best reflect nutritional status rather than specific patterns of disordered eating behavior.

  1. Limited ability of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone to predict dominant follicular recruitment in PCOS women treated with clomiphene citrate: a comparison of two different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiarelli, Alberto; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Blockeel, Christophe; De Vos, Michel; van de Vijver, Arne; Camus, Michel; Cosyns, Stefan; Tournaye, Herman; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate whether serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, determined by either the Immunotech (IOT) or the second generation (Gen II) assay, can predict follicular recruitment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). Patients received 50 mg CC daily for ovulation induction followed by natural intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Overall, 84 women had their serum AMH levels tested before treatment [42 patients with Immunotech (IOT), and 42 patients with the Gen II assay]. The primary outcome was to determine dominant follicle (>10 mm) recruitment in relation to AMH levels. Thirty-three (79%) patients in the IOT and 34 (81%) patients in the Gen II assay group developed a dominant follicle within 15 days after initiation of CC. Circulating AMH levels did not differ between women with or without dominant follicular recruitment in the both groups. By using either the AMH IOT or the Gen II assay, serum AMH levels were not predictive of the development of a dominant follicle. In conclusion, serum AMH levels measured by IOT or Gen II assay, has limited value to predict PCOS patients who will develop a dominant follicle following ovulation induction with CC.

  2. Determine sex ratios of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast through examinations of hormones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A testosterone (T) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was validated for use with green turtle plasma in order to determine the sex of juvenile turtles. We...

  3. Disruption of fetal hormonal programming (prenatal stress) implicates shared risk for sex differences in depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J M; Handa, R J; Tobet, S A

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the fourth leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and women have a two times greater risk than men. Thus understanding the pathophysiology has widespread implications for attenuation and prevention of disease burden. We suggest that sex-dependent MDD-CVD comorbidity may result from alterations in fetal programming consequent to the prenatal maternal environments that produce excess glucocorticoids, which then drive sex-dependent developmental alterations of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis circuitry impacting mood, stress regulation, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and the vasculature in adulthood. Evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that disruptions of pathways associated with gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neuronal and vascular development and growth factors have critical roles in key developmental periods and adult responses to injury in heart and brain. Understanding the potential fetal origins of these sex differences will contribute to development of novel sex-dependent therapeutics. PMID:24355523

  4. Prevalence of Sexes and Yield Characteristics of Hormone Induced Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook.F in the Humid Tropics of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opukiri Benanemi Sunny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the prevalence of sexes and yield characteristics of hormone induced Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Induction of fluted pumpkin seeds with 0, 100, 200 and 300 parts/million (ppm each of Gibberellic Acid (GA3, Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA, Naphthalene Acetic Acids (NAA and Ethrel (ET was done before planting. The treatment with GA3 300 ppm significantly reduced number of days before first male flower initiation to 94 Days After Planting (DAP while increase in the number of days before first female flower initiation was 155 DAP with IAA300 ppm. Similarly, number of female and male flowers/vine were reduced but GA3 200 gave the highest number of 57 male flowers/vine. Marketable vegetable yield decreased with higher levels of hormones at twelve weeks after planting. Consequently, low level of treatment at 100 ppm gave higher vegetable yields comparable to that of control. The highest yield of 2.2 kg/vine was obtained with Ethrel 100 ppm. Pod yield/vine significantly increased at above 100 ppm for all the treatments. The highest seed yield of 90 seeds/pod was obtained with IAA 300 ppm. Seed weight (kg/pod generally decreased at 300 ppm but IAA 300 ppm had the highest seed yield of 1.13 kg/pod. The lowest but the best sex ratio (M/F of 0.30:1 was obtained with IAA3 300 ppm. Reduction in sex ratio resulted in favorable increase in the number female plants/plot offluted pumpkin.

  5. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  6. 动物源食品中性激素残留及其检测方法概述%Detection methods of residual sex hormones in animal-origin food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳艺; 李洪军

    2012-01-01

    畜牧业生产中激素滥用现象屡禁不绝,动物源食品中性激素的残留问题已成为全球关注的食品安全问题。通过指出性激素在动物源食品生产中的应用现况,分析食品中性激素残留对人体可能造成的危害,并概述近年来国内外对于动物源食品中性激素残留检测方法的研究进展,旨在为今后的研究者提供参考。%Hormones have been abused in livestock production despite repeated prohibition.The problem of residual sex hormones in animal-origin food has become a global concern in food safety.Pointed out the current situation of residual sex hormones applied in animal-origin ,analyzed the hazards of residual sex hormones,gave an overview of detection methods of sex hormones in animal-origin food at home and abroad, and aimed at providing reference for researchers.

  7. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestro...

  8. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff Helge, E; Melin, Anna Katarina; Waaddegaard, M;

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...

  9. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torq...

  10. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Fang; Li, Ying-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced reproductive impairment in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 15 and 30μg Hg/l (added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) for 30days, and the effects on histological structure, antioxidant status and sex hormone levels in the ovary and testis, as well as the mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed. Exposure to Hg caused pathological lesions in zebrafish gonads, and changed the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) as well as the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In females, although ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lhβ, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and erα were observed. In males, testosterone (T) levels in the testis significantly decreased after Hg exposure, accompanied by down-regulated expression of gnrh2, gnrh3, fshβ and lhβ in the brain as well as fshr, lhr, ar, cyp17 and cyp11b in the testis. Thus, our study indicated that waterborne inorganic Hg exposure caused histological damage and oxidative stress in the gonads of zebrafish, and altered sex hormone levels by disrupting the transcription of related HPG-axis genes, which could subsequently impair the reproduction of fish. Different response of the antioxidant defense system, sex hormone and HPG-axis genes between females and males exposed to inorganic Hg indicated the gender-specific regulatory effect by Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first time to explore the effects and mechanisms of inorganic Hg exposure on reproduction at the histological, enzymatic and molecular levels, which will greatly extend our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive

  11. Long-term sex-biased correction of circulating propionic acidemia disease markers by adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Adam J; Collard, Renata; Kraus, Jan P; Matern, Dietrich; Barry, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Propionic academia (PA) occurs because of mutations in the PCCA or PCCB genes encoding the two subunits of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a pivotal enzyme in the breakdown of certain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids. There is no cure for PA, but dietary protein restriction and liver transplantation can attenuate its symptoms. We show here that a single intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV8) or AAVrh10 expressing PCCA into PA hypomorphic mice decreased systemic propionylcarnitine and methyl citrate for up to 1.5 years. However, long-term phenotypic correction was always better in male mice. AAV-mediated PCCA expression was similar in most tissues in males and females at early time points and differed only in the liver. Over 1.5 years, luciferase and PCCA expression remained elevated in cardiac tissue for both sexes. In contrast, transgene expression in the liver and skeletal muscles of female, but not male, mice waned—suggesting that these tissues were major sinks for systemic phenotypic correction. These data indicate that single systemic intravenous therapy by AAV vectors can mediate long-term phenotype correction for PA. However, tissue-specific loss of expression in females reduces efficacy when compared with males. Whether similar sex-biased AAV effects occur in human gene therapy remains to be determined. PMID:25654275

  12. The association between circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone and follicle number, androgens, and menstrual cycle characteristics in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women.......To investigate the association between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women....

  13. Clinical use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) determinations in patients with disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2011-01-01

    Determination of postnatal AMH levels in circulation has been used for decades when evaluating a child with ambiguous genitalia. We describe the age- and gender-specific changes of postnatal AMH serum levels to enable an appropriate clinical use of AMH assessment in pediatric endocrinology. In ma...

  14. Relating circulating thyroid hormone concentrations to serum interleukins-6 and -10 in association with non-thyroidal illnesses including chronic renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the possible role of cytokines including interleukins (IL in systemic non-thyroidal illnesses' (NTI pathogenesis and consequently the frequently associated alterations in thyroid hormone (TH concentrations constituting the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, we aimed in this research to elucidate the possible relation between IL-6 & IL-10 and any documented ESS in a cohort of patients with NTI. Methods Sixty patients and twenty healthy volunteers were recruited. The patients were subdivided into three subgroups depending on their underlying NTI and included 20 patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI, congestive heart failure (CHF, and ICU patients with myocardial infarction (MI. Determination of the circulating serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as total T4 and T3 was carried out. Results In the whole group of patients, we detected a significantly lower T3 and T4 levels compared to control subjects (0.938 ± 0.477 vs 1.345 ± 0.44 nmol/L, p = 0.001 and 47.9 ± 28.41 vs 108 ± 19.49 nmol/L, p 2 = 0.338, p = 0.001 and not IL-10 was a predictor of low T3 levels with only a borderline significance for T4 (R2 = 0.082, p = 0.071. By subgroup analysis, the proportion of patients with subnormal T3, T4, and TSH levels was highest in the MI patients (70%, 70%, and 72%, respectively who displayed the greatest IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations (192.5 ± 45.1 ng/L & 122.95 ± 46.1 ng/L, respectively compared with CHF (82.95 ± 28.9 ng/L & 69.05 ± 44.0 ng/L, respectively and CRI patients (40.05 ± 28.9 ng/L & 30.4 ± 10.6 ng/L, respectively. Surprisingly, CRI patients showed the least disturbance in IL-6 and IL-10 despite the lower levels of T3, T4, and TSH in a higher proportion of them compared to CHF patients (40%, 45%, & 26% vs 35%, 25%, & 18%, respectively. Conclusion the high prevalence of ESS we detected in NTI including CRI may be linked to IL-6 and IL-10 alterations. Further

  15. Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Gatford, K.L.; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J.A.; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T; ,

    2014-01-01

    Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circ...

  16. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Robben, Joris H; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in humans, mice and rats. The PEMT expr

  17. Raging Hormones and Powerful Cars: The Construction of Men's Sexuality in School Sex Education and Popular Adolescent Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues of men's sexuality in the context of school sex education, and analyzes units on human reproduction in secondary biology textbooks. Compares official school knowledge about men's sexuality with alternative sources, including progressive books and the films of John Hughes, to explore the overlapping and contradictory discourses…

  18. Ocorrência e tratamento de quadros depressivos por hormônios sexuais Occurrence and treatment of depression by sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio N Soares

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O processo de envelhecimento promove alterações significativas na produção e no equilíbrio dos níveis circulantes de diversos hormônios sexuais em homens e mulheres. Acredita-se que esses hormônios (estrógenos, progestógenos, testosterona, dehidroepiandrosterona [DHEA] exercem papel modulador sobre diversas funções psíquicas, particularmente sobre o humor e a cognição. Alterações nesse papel modulador causadas por variações abruptas dos hormônios sexuais circulantes -- como as que ocorrem, por exemplo, durante a transição menopausal -- favorecem o surgimento de queixas depressivas. No entanto, a utilização terapêutica de hormônios sexuais pode promover alívio ou mesmo remissão de sintomas depressivos, como já foi caracterizado com o uso de estradiol em mulheres em perimenopausa e com a administração de testosterona após a menopausa. Este artigo aborda, por revisão da literatura, os diversos papéis atribuídos aos hormônios sexuais no desenvolvimento e tratamento das queixas depressivas. Estudos sobre a eficácia terapêutica de estrógenos, testosterona e DHEA nos quadros depressivos são discutidos de forma crítica. Em essência, existem resultados preliminares bastante promissores, particularmente quanto ao uso de estradiol e testosterona em subpopulações específicas para alívio de sintomas depressivos. Futuras investigações devem melhor definir a utilização de hormônios como agente depressivo monoterápico ou adjuntivo, bem como delinear os riscos e as contra-indicações associados a seu uso.It has been demonstrated that aging has a significant impact on sex hormones production. It is now accepted that these hormones (including estrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] may play a pivotal role in the modulation of brain functioning, especially on mood and cognition. Changes in these modulatory effects due to abrupt sex hormonal fluctuations-as seen in the menopausal

  19. Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m2; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The effect of triiodothyronine (L-T3) and weight loss on sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in hirsute obese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a 60-day period of treatment with L-T3 (200 μg/day) was evaluated in hirsute obese women and normal controls. The obese patients were also submitted to a low calorie high protein. Mean initial weight significantly declined with a significant lowering of the mean DHEA-S leves. There was changes in serum T3 rose in both obese and normal patients. Serum sex-hormone binding globulin levels at baseline studies were significantly higher in normal controls than in obese patients. At the end of de 60-day period of L-T3 administration it was observed in both groups a 2-4 fold increase in serum SHBG levels but normal controls had significantly higher mean values than obese individuals. (M.A.C.)

  1. Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Sex Hormone on Children with Turner Syndrome%基因重组人生长激素和雌/孕激素治疗Turner综合征患儿疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娜; 向承发

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨基因重组人生长激素(recombinant human growth hormone,rhGH)及雌/孕激素(estrogen/progestogem,E/P)治疗对Turner综合征(Turner syndrome,TS)患儿身高及性征发育的影响.方法 2005年1月-2009年6月四川大学华西第二医院门诊就诊TS患儿22例,12例患儿接受rhGH治疗,年龄(13.58±2.23)岁,剂量0.15 U/(kg·d),睡前皮下注射,疗程4~24个月.16例年龄≥13岁、骨龄≥11岁的患儿接受E/P治疗,疗程3~30个月.结果 rhGH治疗后患儿身高、身高的标准差积分提高,生长速率达(9.33±2.39)cm/年;E/P治疗可促进患儿乳房发育及规律月经出现.结论 rhGH和E/P治疗对TS患儿身高增长及性征发育有明显疗效.%Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and sex hormone on the stature and sex feature of children with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods A total of 22 children with TS were selected in the outpatients department of West China Second Hospital between January 2005 and June 2009. Twelve children with TS the average age of (13. 58±2. 23) years] received rhGH [0. 15 U/(kg · d)] every night before sleep for 4-24 months. Sixteen children with TS (age≥14 years old, bone age≥ll years old) underwent estrogen and progestogen (E/P) treatment for 3-30 months. Results The height and height standard deviation score increased significantly in children with rhGH therapy (P<0. 01). The height velocity was (9. 33±2. 39)cm/year after the treatment. The treatment of estrogen and progestogen could promote the development of breast and establish menstrual cycle in children with TS. Conclusion rhGH and E/P can play a significant role in treatment of TS in children.

  2. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2003-01-01

    seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...

  3. Combined effect of tributyltin and benzo[a] pyrene on the levels of sex hormone and vitellogenin in female Sebastiscus marmoratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tributyltin(TBT), an organometal used as an antifouling biocide, has been reported to induce masculinization of fish. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been reported that its microsomal metabolites can produce an estrogenic response when tested in vitro. This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo influence of TBT, BaP and their mixture on sex hormone levels in serum of Sebastiscus marmoratus, which were given 2 separate intraperitoneally(ip) injections(a single injection every 7 d) of TBT(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg), BaP(0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg), or both in combination(0.5,1, 5 and 10 mg/kg); control fish received olive oil vehicle only. Six days after the 2nd injection, serum samples were collected and analyzed for sex hormone levels and alkali labile protein phosphorus (ALPP), which is related to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin. The pollutants at all doses significantly reduced serum testosterone, estradiol and ALPP content after 2 injections compared with the corresponding controls. The reduction of the estradiol levels should be response for the decrease of the vitellogenin levels. The results in the present study suggested that aromatase seems not the major target acted by TBT and BaP in fish. This study demonstrated that TBT or BaP exposure both inhibit the reproductive potential in female Sebastiscus marmoratus. Combined effect of TBT and BaP on the serum testosterone, estradiol and ALPP was not antagonism from the anticipation.

  4. 性激素与多发性硬化的研究进展%Research Progress of Sex Hormones and Multiple Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹社昌

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis( MS ) is one of the most common neurological disorders. It affects mainly women. This autoimmune disease of the central nervous system( CNS ) is characterized by intermittent or chronicdamage to the myelin sheaths( demyelination ), focal inflammation and axonal degeneration. During the early relapsing/remitting stages of MS,myelin can regenerate,but as the disease progresses the remyelination of axons becomes insufficient,leading to impaired axon conduction,neurodegeneration and the worsening of symptoms. Epidemiological study found that the symptom of MS will be alleviated during pregnancy, some basic research found that sex hormones especially progesterone can significantly reduce the disease severity, and sex hormone protective effect on the nervous system has become the research focus.%多发性硬化(MS)是一种最常见的神经系统疾病,主要累及女性.自身免疫性疾病的中枢神经系统的特点是间歇或慢性髓鞘损害(脱髓鞘反应)、局部炎症和突变性.在早期复发性/偿付阶段的MS髓鞘可以再生,但随着病情进展,再生的神经轴突的数目及活性下降,导致受损的轴突传导、神经性退化和恶化的症状.流行病学研究发现,女性在妊娠期间疾病会在一定时期出现明显的症状减轻.随后的基础研究表明,性激素特别是孕酮可明显减缓疾病严重程度,性激素对神经系统的保护作用成为研究的热点.

  5. 性类固醇激素对胡子鲇性分化的影响%EFFECTS OF SEX STEROID HORMONES ON SEX DIFFERENTIATION OF CLARIAS FUSCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广丽; 邓思平; 王文达; 孙晶; 吴天利; 师尚丽; 朱春华

    2013-01-01

    Clarias fuscus, a common freshwater fish in China, was selected as our experiment material. Two-day juve-nile C. fuscus was divided into two groups. They were immersed in different doses of 17α-methyltestosterone (50, 100, and 200 μg/L 17α-MT) or fed with 17β-estradiol (100, 200, and 300 μg/g 17β-E2) for 30 days. Effects of 17α-MT and 17β-E2 on survival rate, sex ratio, gonad histology, and Foxl2 and Cyp19a1b expressions were examined by mor-phologic observation, histology and Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR during its period of sex differentiation (2-30d after hatching). The results showed that 17α-MT and 17β-E2 had no influence on survival rate but affected sex ratio and the time of gonadal differentiation. Doses of 17α-MT at 100 and 200μg/L produced more males (70%and 76%, respectively) than 50μg/L 17α-MT (54%) did (P<0.05), but no significant difference in sex ratio was observed between the 50 μg/L 17α-MT treated group and the control group (56%). In addition, the former accelerated the occurrence of primary spermocytes for three and five days, but deferred that of ovarian cavity for four and six days, and primary oo-cytes for eight and nine days, respectively. In contrast, doses of 17β-E2 at 200 and 300μg/g produced more males (74%and 78%, respectively) than the control group (P<0.05), but no significant difference in sex ratio was observed between the 100μg/g 17β-E2 treated group (66%) and the control group (56%). Dose of 17β-E2 at 200 and 300μg/g accelerated the occurrence of ovarian cavity for two and three days, and primary oocytes for one and three days, respectively, but deferred that of primary spermatocytes for three and seven days. The expressions of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1b showed that dose of 200μg/L 17α-MT increased the expression of Cyp19a1b but inhibited that of Foxl2. However, dose of 300μg/g 17β-E2 increased the expression both of Cyp19a1b and Foxl2. The results suggested that Foxl2 but not Cyp19a1b in-volved in

  6. Low Dose Sex Hormone Supplementary Therapy in Women's Anti-aging Treatment%小剂量性激素补充治疗在女性抗衰老中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泉梅; 周坚红; 周金玲

    2014-01-01

    众所周知,性激素补充治疗能够有效改善妇女的绝经相关症状,而小剂量性激素补充治疗较常规剂量性激素补充治疗的不良反应更少。故本文就小剂量性激素补充治疗在女性心血管衰老、外阴阴道萎缩、性功能减退、骨质疏松、认知功能减退等方面的改善作用及其不良反应进行综述。%As we all know sex hormone supplementary therapy can effectively improve women's menopause-related symptoms. Besides,low dose sex hormone supplementary therapy has less side effects compared with the conventional dose sex hormone supplementary therapy. This article reviews the effect and side effect of low dose sex hormone supplementary therapy in terms of cardiovascular aging,atrophy of vulva and vagina,sexual dysfunction,osteoporosis and cognitive decline.

  7. Sex and age differences in the impact of the forced swimming test on the levels of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mota, Lucía; Ulloa, Rosa-Elena; Herrera-Pérez, Jaime; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2011-10-24

    Compared with the adult disorder, depression in children exhibits differences in its neurobiology, particularly in the HPA axis regulation. The bases of such differences can be evaluated in animal models of depression. The objective of the present study was to determine age and sex differences of Wistar rats in the forced swimming test (FST). The influence of sex and age on corticosterone, estrogens and testosterone serum levels was also determined. Prepubertal rats showed immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors during the pre-test and test sessions. In addition, in the prepubertal animals, no sex differences were found during the pre-test and test sessions. Age comparisons indicated no differences in the female groups, however adult males exhibited more immobility and less swimming than young males, in both FST sessions. The young and female rats showed less immobility behavior and increased levels of estrogens after the FST. The present results indicate that the FST is an animal model suitable to evaluate depressive-like behaviors in prepubertal subjects and to explore behavioral changes related to neurodevelopment.

  8. [Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

    1975-01-01

    A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data.

  9. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    with healthy control subjects (1.45 +/- 0.30 nmol/l). Neither serum TSH nor sex hormone-binding globulin differed from that of the control group. Nuclear T3 binding capacity was increased (P less than 0.05) in patients with NTI (10.1 +/- 3.0 fmol/100 micrograms DNA) compared with controls (2.5 +/- 0.9 fmol/100......Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compared.......05) compared with controls (0.24 +/- 0.10 mmol/l per mg DNA per h). In contrast, neither unstimulated nor thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption differed. We conclude that both increased nuclear T3 binding and increased thyroid hormone-induced glucose uptake may represent counter-regulatory mechanisms...

  10. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  11. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (tβ-HCG=4.845, tE=7.655, tP=11.390, PE=9.089, PP=2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  12. "The same thing in a different box": similarity and difference in pharmaceutical sex hormone consumption and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    The contraceptive pill has given way to a multitude of products, kinds of packaging, and modes of administration. This article draws on work on the pharmaceutical copy, extending the analysis to differentiating between forms of administration for contraceptive medicines as well as between brand-name drugs, generics, and similares, as they are known in Brazil. It explores how Brazilian prescribers and users-within the divergent structural constraints afforded by private and public health-apprehend and negotiate distinctions between the drugs available to them. This ethnographic account of hormone use reveals new fault lines through which the pharmakon exerts its influence. The attention that industry places on pharmacodynamics as it produces new products from similar compounds suggests that pharmaceutical effects are at once symbolic and real. The article concludes with a reflection on the future of the generic form in a field increasingly crowded by branded copies. PMID:25046155

  13. The Daily Profiles of Circulating AMH and INSL3 in Men are Distinct from the Other Testicular Hormones, Inhibin B and Testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Harng Chong

    Full Text Available The testes secrete four hormones (anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin-like peptide 3, Inhibin B and testosterone from two endocrine cell types. It is unknown whether anti-Müllerian hormone and insulin-like peptide 3 levels have a diurnal variation, and if so, whether they covary during the day with testosterone and InhB. Sera were obtained from 13 men at 00:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 14:00, 17:00 and 19:00 hours and the levels of their testicular hormones measured by ELISA. A second cohort of 20 men was similarly examined with blood drawn at 19:00 and the following 06:00. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels exhibited a subtle diurnal pattern with a 19:00 peak that was 4.9% higher on average than the 06:00 nadir (p = 0.004. The decrease in anti-Müllerian hormone coincided with a rise in testosterone and InhB, but there was no association between the person-to-person variation in the diurnal patterns of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone or Inhibin B. Insulin-like peptide 3 had no diurnal pattern, with only minor sporadic variation between time points being observed in some men. In conclusion, the diurnal and sporadic variation of each testicular hormone is distinct, indicating that the major regulation is at the level of the hormone rather than at the endocrine cell type. Consequently, the balance of the hormones being released by the testes has complex variation during the day. The physiological significance of this will vary depending on which combinations of testicular hormones that the target cells respond to.

  14. Effect of Sex Hormone on the Cells Expression of Hormone Receptor for Goat Endometrial Cells%性腺激素对山羊子宫内膜上皮细胞激素受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈延延; 齐雪峰; 南志春; 苏运芳; 李义; 赵献军; 王爱华; 靳亚平

    2013-01-01

    To study the effect of sex gland hormones on the cells expression of hormone receptor to endometrial cells of goats, immortalization model of goats endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) and stromal cells (ESC) in vitro culture were established, the different levels and combinations of estradiol(E2) and progesterone(P4) were added in medium, without or with ESC culture medium together, PR and ER expression levels in EEC were determined by immunofluorescence technique. The results showed that compared with control group, when added P4 alone or together with E2, the level of both PR and ER in EEC were significantly decreased(P<0. 05), but they were slightly enhanced by E2 adding alonely. In the EEC culture without ESC contioned medium, the expression level of PR and ER in EEC had no significant change by E2 adding alonely. Compared with control group, the expression level of PR and ER in EEC significantly decreased by P4 adding alonely or combined action with E2(P<0. 05). The results indicated that when the sex hormones in coculture mode alone or together with ESC culture medium, the regulation of PR and ER in EEC were similar, and they were repressed significantly by P4 alone.%为探讨性腺激素对山羊子宫内膜上皮细胞激素受体表达的影响.本研究构建永生化山羊子宫内膜上皮细胞(EEC)与基质细胞(ESC)体外培养研究模型,通过细胞免疫荧光技术检测性腺激素E2或/和P4对单独培养EEC中PR与ER表达水平的调节作用以及ESC对该作用的影响.结果显示:与未加激素对照组相比,单独添加P4或与E2同时加入均可显著抑制单独培养EEC中PR与ER的表达(P<0.05);而单独添加E2可轻微促进2种激素受体表达水平.在添加有ESC条件培养液的EEC培养模式中,E2单独作用对EEC中PR与ER表达水平无显著影响;P4单独或与E2共同作用下,EEC中PR与ER表达水平均较未加激素对照组显著降低(P<0.05).性腺激素对单独培养及与ESC共培养模式

  15. Role of endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones in arthritis and osteoporosis development in B10.Q-ncf1*/* mice with collagen-induced chronic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertsson Inger

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA is an often-used murine model for human rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Earlier studies have shown potent anti-arthritic effects with the female sex hormone estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM raloxifene in CIA in DBA/1-mice. B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice are B10.Q mice with a mutated Ncf1 gene. In B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice, CIA develops as a chronic relapsing disease, which more accurately mimics human RA. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids and raloxifene in the course of this model of chronic arthritis. We also examined whether treatment would prevent the development of inflammation-triggered generalized osteoporosis. Methods Female B10.Q-ncf1*/*mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized, and CIA was induced. 22 days later, when 30% of the mice had developed arthritis, treatment with raloxifene, estradiol or vehicle was started, and the clinical disease was evaluated continuously. Treatment was continued until day 56 after immunization. At termination of the experiment (day 73, bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed, paws were collected for histological examination, and sera were analyzed for markers of cartilage turnover and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Raloxifene and estradiol treatment, as well as endogenous estrogen, decreased the frequency of arthritis, prevented joint destruction and countered generalized osteoporosis. These effects were associated with lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Conclusions This is the first study to show that raloxifene and estradiol can ameliorate established erosive arthritis and inflammation-triggered osteoporosis in this chronic arthritis model. We propose that treatment with raloxifene could be a beneficial addition to the treatment of postmenopausal RA.

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  17. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  18. The Effect of Zonisamide on Sex Hormones Level and Testis Histological Changes in Adult MaleRat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Zonisamide is an inhibitor for glutamate neurotransmitter and gamma aminobutiric acid (GABA-mediators. It also increases the total levels of serotonin. According to the importance of this drug in psychotherapy, its side effects on the endocrine system seem to be very important. This study was aimed to determine the effects of zonisamide on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten. The control group did not receive any medical treatment. The sham group received 1 ml distilled water as a solvent and three experimental groups were treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/ kg of zonisamide orally for 28 days.At the day of 29, blood samples and preparation of tissue section were taken from all groups. Serum concentrations of hormones were measured via Radio Immuno Assay (RIA. Using the SPSS software, the results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that 100 and 200(mg/kg.b.w of zonisamide could reduce the serum level of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, while it increased the LH concentration. It should be noted that 200(mg/kg.b.w of drug also enhanced the FSH level (P<0/001. Also, a considerable decline was observed in spermatogenesis chain at high doses of zonisamide. Conclusion: This study showed that high doses of zonisamide decrease the serum concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the number of spermatogenic cells. It also increased the serum FSH and LH levels. Therefore, it is proposed that zonisamide may decrease the function of reproductive activity. Key words: Zonisamide, Reproduction, Rat

  19. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Pedro; Silva, Roxana A.; Sanguinetti, Nicole K.; Venegas, Francisca C.; Riquelme, Raul; González, Luis F.; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M.; Moya, Pablo R.; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL); DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL); EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL); and control (sesame oil of 50 μL). At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase) and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area. PMID:26904299

  20. Effect of low B-Lynch suture on menstrual cycle recovery and sex hormone levels in patients after cesarean section for placenta previa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Lan Zhang; Wan-Cheng Feng; Yan Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of low B-Lynch suture on the menstrual cycle recovery and sex hormone levels in patients after cesarean section for placenta previa.Methods:A total of 40 patients who were admitted in our hospital from August, 2013 to August, 2015 for cesarean section due to placenta previa were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given low B-lynch suture, while in the control group, yarns were plugged in the uterus. The bleeding during operation and 24 h after operation, the postpartum lochia duration, and menstrual cycle recovery in the two groups were observed. The postpartum FSH, E2, and LH levels in the two groups were determined.Results:The amount of bleeding during operation and 24 h after operation in the observation group was significantly less than that in the control group (P0.05). The comparison of FSH, E2, and LH levels between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusions:Low B-Lynch suture can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding after cesarean section for placenta previa, and has no effect on the menstrual recovery and ovarian function with a simple operation and less postoperative complications; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  1. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  2. Transcriptional changes in steroidogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFOA and PFOS) regulate the synthesis of sex hormones in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae Soon; Choi, Jin-Soo; Park, June-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two of the most widely used perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Because of their strong persistence, they have become widely distributed throughout the environment and human bodies. PFOA and PFOS are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system based upon many in vivo studies, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the endocrine-related effects of PFOA and PFOS using in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivation assays and steroidogenesis assay. The results showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited weak antagonistic ER transactivation but did not exhibit agonistic ER or AR transactivation. In the steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS induced 17β-estradiol (E2) level and reduced testosterone level, which would be caused by the induction of aromatase activity. The qPCR analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis indicates that PFOA and PFOS associate with sex hormone synthesis by the transcriptional induction of two genes, cyp19 and 3β-hsd2. Moreover, the transcriptional induction of cyp11b2 by PFOS suggests that this chemical may underlie the disruption of several physiological functions related to aldosterone. The results of the current study suggest that PFOA and PFOS are potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and provide information for further studies on the molecular events that initiate the adverse endocrine effects. PMID:27139122

  3. Can Sex Differences in Science Be Tied to the Long Reach of Prenatal Hormones? Brain Organization Theory, Digit Ratio (2D/4D), and Sex Differences in Preferences and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey; Ceci, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    Brain organization theory posits a cascade of physiological and behavioral changes initiated and shaped by prenatal hormones. Recently, this theory has been associated with outcomes including gendered toy preference, 2D/4D digit ratio, personality characteristics, sexual orientation, and cognitive profile (spatial, verbal, and mathematical abilities). We examine the evidence for this claim, focusing on 2D/4D and its putative role as a biomarker for organizational features that influence cognitive abilities/interests predisposing males toward mathematically and spatially intensive careers. Although massive support exists for early brain organization theory overall, there are myriad inconsistencies, alternative explanations, and outright contradictions that must be addressed while still taking the entire theory into account. Like a fractal within the larger theory, the 2D/4D hypothesis mirrors this overall support on a smaller scale while likewise suffering from inconsistencies (positive, negative, and sex-dependent correlations), alternative explanations (2D/4D related to spatial preferences rather than abilities per se), and contradictions (feminine 2D/4D in men associated with higher spatial ability). Using the debate over brain organization theory as the theoretical stage, we focus on 2D/4D evidence as an increasingly important player on this stage, a demonstrative case in point of the evidential complexities of the broader debate, and an increasingly important topic in its own right. PMID:22164187

  4. The relationships among bone health, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex hormones in adolescent female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruodyte, Rita; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and estradiol in pubertal female athletes. The participants were 170 healthy adolescent girls (13-15 years) who participated in competitive extramural athletic programs, i.e., sports games (n = 49), track sprinting (n = 24), rhythmic gymnastics (n = 23), swimming (n = 24) and cross-country skiing (n = 17). The control group (n = 33) consisted of girls who took part only in compulsory physical education classes at school. The whole-body BMD and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and BMC were measured using DXA, and the volumetric BMD was calculated. Venous blood samples to determine the concentration of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and estradiol were drawn after an overnight fasting. After adjusting for age, body height and body mass, the relationships among BMD variables, IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio remained significant only in the rhythmic gymnast group. BMDs at the femoral neck and lumbar spine were also related to estradiol levels (r = 0.45-0.60; p < 0.05) only in the rhythmic gymnast group. No relationships were found among the measured BMD, IGF axis and estradiol in other athletic groups. Only BMC at the femoral neck remained associated with the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in the rhythmic gymnast group after adjusting for age, body height and body mass. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that IGF-1 and estradiol together explained 42.6% (R(2) x 100) of total variance in the femoral neck BMD and IGF-1 alone 35.4% (R(2) x 100) of the total variance in the femoral neck BMC only in the rhythmic gymnast group. We conclude that femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD correlated with IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and estradiol in rhythmic gymnasts. No relationships were found between bone parameters and the hormones used in other athletic groups.

  5. Clinical Observation of Sex Hormone Combination Therapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Functional Bleeding%性激素联合用药治疗青春期功血的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓玲; 李娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hemostatic effect of sex hormones the combination therapy puberty dysfunctional uterine bleeding and patients with menstrual recovery time. Methods Were selected the sex hormone combination (Marvelon) Premarin year treatment of adolescent DUB patients and its clinical efficacy observed hemostatic effects were observed and menstrual recovery time for. Results Patients use the sex hormone combination (marvelon) treatment to control the bleeding time and stop bleeding time was significantly shorter than the Premarin group ( <0.05). Conclusion Sex hormone combination therapy in the treatment of adolescent DUB hemostatic effect and adjust the menstrual cycle is bet er than use of estrogen therapy, and Marvelon affordable, easy to take and easy to clinical application.%目的:探讨性激素联合用药治疗青春期功血的止血效果及患者月经的恢复时间。方法分别选取性激素联合用药(妈富隆)与倍美力同期治疗青春期功血患者,并对其进行临床疗效观察,观察两组患者的止血效果及月经恢复时间。结果使用性激素联合用药(妈富隆)治疗的患者控制出血时间及完全止血的时间明显短于倍美力组(<0.05)。结论性激素联合用药在治疗青春期功血上,止血效果及调整月经周期效果明显优于使用雌激素的治疗,且妈富隆价格适中,服用方便,便于临床推广应用。

  6. Research Progress in Relationship between Sex Hormones and Coronary Heart Disease%性激素与冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病关系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease( CHD )is related to various factors such as age, gender, environmental and genetic factors, among which gender difference is related to great differences in the genesis and development of CHD. Studies have shown that physiological doses of sex hormones have cardiovascular protection to the men and women, while too much or little sex hormones bring harms to the cardiovascular, though the mechanisms involved are only partly understood. Until now, the preventive use of sex hormones in CHD is not established. Here is to make a review on the research progress in relationship between sex hormones and CHD.%冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(CHD)的发生与年龄、性别、环境和遗传等多种因素有关,其中男女性别不同,在冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病的发生、发展中存在着很大的不同.生理剂量的性激素对男女心血管起到保护作用,或多或少的性激素对心血管起到危害的作用,但具体发病机制还不完全清楚.目前性激素在CHD中的预防性作用仍存在争议.现就近几年关于性激素水平变化与CHD的关系的研究进展进行综述.

  7. In vitro study of the binding between chlorpyrfos and sex hormones using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography: A new aspect of pesticides and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, K; Tahmasebi, R; Biparva, P; Maleki, R

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system. Organophosphorus insecticides, as chlorpyrifos (CPS), receive an increasing consideration as potential endocrine disrupters. Physiological estrogens, including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) fluctuate with life stage, suggesting specific roles for them in biological and disease processes. There has been great interest in whether certain organophosphorus pesticides can affect the risk of breast cancer. An understanding of the interaction processes is the key to describe the fate of CPS in biological media. The objectives of this study were to evaluate total, bound, and freely dissolved amount of CPS in the presence of three estrogenic sex hormones (ESHs). In vitro experiments were conducted utilizing a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The obtained Scatchard plot based on the proposed SPME-HPLC method was employed to determine CPS-ESHs binding constant and the number of binding sites as well as binding percentage of each hormone to CPS. The number of binding sites per studied hormone molecule was 1.10, 1, and 0.81 for E1, E2, and DES, respectively. The obtained results confirmed that CPS bound to one class of binding sites on sex hormones.

  8. Multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid sex hormones in water and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Keren; Mei, Meng; Li, Haonan; Huang, Xiaojia; Wu, Cuiqin

    2016-02-01

    The development of a simple and sensitive analytical approach that combines multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction with liquid desorption followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed for the determination of trace levels of seven steroid sex hormones (estriol, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, ethinylestradiol, estrone, progesterone and mestranol) in water and urine matrices. To extract the target analytes effectively, multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction based on a polymeric ionic liquid was used to concentrate hormones. Several key extraction parameters including desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix were investigated in detail. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.027-0.12 μg/L. The linear range was 0.10-200 μg/L for 17β-estradiol, 0.25-200 μg/L estriol, ethinylestradiol and estrone, and 0.50-200 μg/L for the other hormones. Satisfactory linearities were achieved for analytes with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. Acceptable method reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations of both less than 8%. The enrichment factors ranged from 54- to 74-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of steroid sex hormones in environmental water samples and human urines with spiking recoveries ranged from 75.6 to 116%.

  9. [Hormonal contraception in autoimmpne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszkiewicz, Anna; Jach, Robert; Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Basta, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The onset and the course of autoimmune diseases is influenced among other factors by the sex hormones. Hormonal contraception might affect the course of the autoimmune disease. The paper summarises the manner of save application of hormonal contraception in patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27526427

  10. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny;

    2015-01-01

    -metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid......As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA...

  11. Effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy on hippocampus and cognition of postmenopausal women of different apoE genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun YUE; Ping-ping ZUO; Ling HU; Qin-jie TIAN; Jing-mei JIANG; Yi-long DONG; Zheng-yu JIN; Yu-hang CHENG; Xia HONG; Qin-sheng GE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the volume and biochemical changes of the hippocampus in postmeno-pausal women carrying apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene ε3 or ε4. Methods: Eighty-three postmenopausal women who had used a low dose of HRT for over 4 years were selected as the HRT group, and 99 postmenopausal women with matched age and education were enrolled as the control group. ApoE alleles were analyzed by PCR. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to determine the volume of the brain hippocampus. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect the biochemical changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in apoE ε4 and ε3 carriers. Six common cognitive tests were used to make an overall evaluation of cognitive function. Results: Analysis with the apoE ε4 carriers showed that the volume of the hippocampus of the control group were significantly lower than those of the HRT group. The biochemical analysis showed that there was an increase of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/total creatine (tCr) and a decrease of myoinositol (mI)/tCr in the hippocampus of apoE ε4 carriers in the HRT group, compared with the control group. For the apoE ε3 carriers, the least squares means (LSMEAN) of the HRT group was higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: This study showed that long-term, low dose HRT might be beneficial for reducing the risk of AD development in vulnerable postmenopausal women. Meanwhile, HRT could increase the LSMEAN of apoE ε3 carriers.

  12. Association between vitamin D status and serum parathyroid hormone concentration and calcaneal stiffness in Japanese adolescents: sex differences in susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Ozaki, Reo; Takase, Tomoki; Minekami, Takuya; Uchino, Yuri; Kamao, Maya; Okano, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    There is currently insufficient information on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and bone mineral status in healthy adolescents to allow reference values to be set. This study aimed to provide comparable data on vitamin D status in Japanese adolescents and to assess sex differences in susceptibility to vitamin D insufficiency. Serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations were measured in 1,380 healthy adolescents (aged 12-18 years). Subjects completed a questionnaire on exercise history, diet, and lifestyle factors. Calcaneal stiffness was evaluated by quantitative ultrasound. Serum 25OHD concentrations in boys and girls were 60.8 ± 18.3 and 52.8 ± 17.0 nmol/L, respectively. Approximately 30 % of boys and 47 % of girls had suboptimal 25OHD concentrations (<50 nmol/L). Serum PTH concentration was negatively correlated with serum 25OHD concentration in boys, but negatively correlated with calcium intake rather than serum 25OHD in girls. In contrast, the increment in calcaneal stiffness as a result of elevation of serum 25OHD was higher in girls than in boys. As vitamin D deficiency is common in Japanese adolescents, it was estimated that intakes of ≥12 and ≥14 μg/day vitamin D would be required to reach 25OHD concentrations of 50 nmol/L in boys and girls, respectively. Moreover, the results of the present study indicate that vitamin D deficiency has a greater association with calcaneal stiffness in girls than in boys. PMID:26260151

  13. Increased MMPs expression and decreased contraction in the rat myometrium during pregnancy and in response to prolonged stretch and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zongzhi; Sada, Alaa A; Reslan, Ossama M; Narula, Neha; Khalil, Raouf A

    2012-07-01

    sex hormones during pregnancy are associated with increased expression/activity of specific MMPs, which in turn inhibit uterine contraction and promote uterine relaxation.

  14. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity both absolute and relative increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8 and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10 groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  15. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  16. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth Hormone ... I should know? How is it used? Growth hormone (GH) testing is primarily used to identify growth hormone ...

  17. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  18. 抗性激素依赖性肿瘤药物引起的骨丢失%Anti-sex hormone-dependent neoplasm agents-induced bone loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖二元

    2008-01-01

    Chemotherapy can induce bone loss. It is especially severe and the incidence of estimated bone loss may be as high as almost 100% for cancer patients treated with anti-sex hormone agents because of inhibition and deficiency of estrogens and/or androgens with the inappropriate ratio of two hormones during and "after therapy. Anti-sex hormone-dependent neoplasm agents-induced bone loss, characterized by an increase of bone turnover rate, should be treated in the early stage in order to prevent it from deterioration and bone fractures. The etiology, mechanism and clinical management of anti-sex hormone-dependent neoplasm agents-induced bone loss are briefly discussed in this review.%一般的抗肿瘤化疗药物可引起骨丢失,而抗性激素依赖性肿瘤药物因其抑制雌激素/孕激素或雄激素的合成与分泌,导致雌激素和(或)雄激素缺乏和两者比例失调,骨丢失的发生率几乎为100%.以骨转换升高为特征的抗性激素依赖性肿瘤药物治疗往往导致多发性脆性骨折,故必须注重其预防和治疗.本文重点评论该类物所致骨丢失的病因、发生机制和防治.

  19. 痤疮中医分型与性激素水平变化关系%The Relationship between Pnenotypes of Differential Diagnosis in TCM of Acne and the Serum Sex Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆伟雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the TCM differentiation-types of acne and the serum sex hormone,and observe the change of the sex hormone after the Chinese medicine treatment.Methods The patients of acne were divited into the syndrome of liver-qi depression and the syndrome of Lung-stomach heat retention.Its serum level about the luteinizing hormone( LH), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), testosterone(T) ,estradiol( E2 ) ,prolactin (PRL) and sex hormone blinding globulin(SHBG) was tested and analysed before and after two months's treatment.Results Between the two types of patients, the hormone T,PRL,SHBL of male and female had a remarkable changes before and after the treatmet, and the differences was also obvious( P < 0.05).Conclusion There is obvious relationship between the TCM differentiation-types of acne and the serum sex hormone, while, the accommodation of traditional Chinese medicine to the sex hormone of acne is obvious.%目的 探讨痤疮的中医辨证分型与血清性激素水平的相关性,并观察中医辨证论治后,其性激素水平的变化.方法 将痤疮患者分为肝郁气滞型、肺胃蕴热型,检测其黄体生成素、卵泡刺激素、睾酮、雌二醇、催乳素、性激素结合球蛋白水平,分析中医分型与性激素水平的关系,两组证型患者经中药治疗2个月后,再观察睾酮、雌二醇的变化.结果 两证型所检测的六种性激素中,男性的睾酮(8.09±3.20,11.32±7.41)、催乳素(15.68±11.67,12.97±5.11)、性激素结合球蛋白(517.36±327.43,408.35±107.08)差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).女性的睾酮(0.510±0.203,0.631±0.399)、催乳素(22.75±11.87,18.66±5.30)、性激素结合球蛋白(397.63±198.24,313.52±102.79)差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).两型痤疮患者其治疗后的睾酮、雌二醇比治疗前明显改变,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 痤疮的中医分型与血清性激素水平有较明显的相关性,而中药对痤

  20. 性激素替代治疗对围绝经期子宫肌瘤的影响%The effects of sex hormone replacement therapy on peri menopausal transition uterine ifbroids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of sex hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of peri menopausal uterine ifbroids.Methods The clinical data of 68 patients with uterine ifbroids in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively, and the clinical effect of treatment was observed by sex hormone replacement therapy. Results After treatment with sex hormones, there was a little difference between the uterine ifbroids (P>0.05). After treatment, the levels of follicle stimulating hormone and estrogen increased, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion In the treatment of patients with menopausal uterine fibroids, sex hormone replacement therapy, although the treatment of uterine ifbroids after a slight increase, there is no clinical signiifcance, but can effectively improve the symptoms of peri menopause, improve the quality of life of patients, do a good job related follow-up.%目的:探讨性激素替代治疗对围绝经期子宫肌瘤的影响。方法回顾性分析我院收治的围绝经期子宫肌瘤患者68例的临床资料,并采用性激素替代疗法进行治疗,观察其疗效。结果患者通过性激素治疗后,子宫肌瘤略增大,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗后促卵泡生成素降低、雌激素升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对围绝经期子宫肌瘤的患者进行性激素替代治疗,虽然治疗后患者的子宫肌瘤在治疗前的基础上有所增大,但是可以有效改善患者在围绝经期的临床症状,提高患者的生活质量,应做好相关的随访工作。