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Sample records for circulating homocysteine vitamin

  1. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak; KAYA, Murat; ARSLAN, Sermal; Demir, Tamer; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Study design: A prospective controlled trial. Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin suppleme...

  2. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Burak Turgut; Murat Kaya; Sermal Arslan; et al

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participan...

  3. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Particip...

  4. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B6 (vit-B6, serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12, and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG, or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI. One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03 than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05. It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03 and POAG (P = 0.025 versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively.Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research.Keywords: normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, primary open

  5. B Vitamins, Homocysteine and Bone Health

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    Valentina Fratoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors involved in the development and maintenance of good bone health. Calcium and Vitamin D have confirmed and established roles in the maintenance of proper bone health. However, other nutritional factors could also be implicated. This review will explore the emerging evidence of the supporting role of certain B Vitamins as modifiable factors associated with bone health. Individuals with high levels of homocysteine (hcy exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD, alteration in microarchitecture and increased bone fragility. The pathophysiology caused by high serum homocysteine is not completely clear regarding fractures, but it may involve factors, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone blood flow and collagen cross-linking. It is uncertain whether supplementation with B Vitamins, such as folate, Vitamin B1, and Vitamin B6, could decrease hip fracture incidence, but the results of further clinical trials should be awaited before a conclusion is drawn.

  6. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Arpita Patel; Chandan Chakrabarty; Arjun Singh; Jatin Patel; Hitesh Mewada; S L Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly veget...

  7. Homocysteine, B-vitamins and cardiovascular disease: epidemiologic evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.

    1996-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease constitutes a major public health problem in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Elevated plasma homocysteine has attracted growing interest as a "new" risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine is formed from the essential amino acid methionine. Defective Homocysteine, metabolism may lead to elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Genetic enzyme deficiencies or inadequate intake of vitamins B 6 , B 12 , and folate, all important cof...

  8. Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A David; Refsum, Helga

    2016-07-17

    Moderately elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a strong modifiable risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Prospectively, elevated tHcy is associated with cognitive decline, white matter damage, brain atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and dementia. Most homocysteine-lowering trials with folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 tested as protective agents against cognitive decline were poorly designed by including subjects unlikely to benefit during the trial period. In contrast, trials in high-risk subjects, which have taken into account the baseline B vitamin status, show a slowing of cognitive decline and of atrophy in critical brain regions, results that are consistent with modification of the Alzheimer's disease process. Homocysteine may interact with both risk factors and protective factors, thereby identifying people at risk but also providing potential strategies for early intervention. Public health steps to slow cognitive decline should be promoted in individuals who are at risk of dementia, and more trials are needed to see if simple interventions with nutrients can prevent progression to dementia. PMID:27431367

  9. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Scheet, Paul; Giusti, Betti; Bandinelli, Stefania; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Corsi, Anna Maria; Vestrini, Anna; Sofi, Francesco; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Guralnik, Jack; Singleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) that contribute to DNA synthesis and methylation. Homocysteine, a by-product of OCM, has been associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and neurological disease. To investigate genetic factors that affect circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted in the InCHIANTI (N = 1175), SardiNIA (N = 1115), and BLSA (N = 640) studies. The top loci were replicated in an in...

  10. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly vegetarian city, its population is at higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. But no systematic study has been done in Ahmedabad to know whether B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels influence pregnancy. To know this answer this study was planned to know total homocysteine level and its correlation in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women.Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine were measured in all the subjects using fluorescence polarized immunoassay in AxSym Immunochemistry analyzer on 60 non vitamin supplemented vegetarian women. Vitamin levels were within lower normal limit. Homocysteine level was higher among preeclampsia patient. From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that measurement of these biochemical parameter in ante natal care are useful for further management and prevention of complication of pregnancy like preeclampsia

  11. AB156. Homocysteine and vitamin B12: risk factors for erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheng; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing levels of homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with cardiovascular disease, and erectile dysfunction (ED) has close relation with cardiovascular disease, therefore, high homocysteine may be one of the risk factors of ED. During the metabolism of homocysteine, vitamin B12 plays an important role and could be the main factor in causing erectile dysfunction as well. Purpose To investigate the relationship between Hcy, vitamin B12 and ED in sample. Methods The study included 1,4...

  12. The effect of a subnormal vitamin B-6 status on homocysteine metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J.B.; van der Merwe, A.; Delport, R; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Riezler, R; Vermaak, W J

    1996-01-01

    Homocysteine, an atherogenic amino acid, is either remethylated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine by the transsulfuration pathway. The biochemical conversion of homocysteine to cysteine is dependent upon two consecutive, vitamin B-6-dependent reactions. To study the effect of a selective vitamin B-6 deficiency on transsulfuration, we performed oral methionine load tests on 22 vitamin B-6-deficient asthma patients treated with theophylline (a vitamin B-6 antagonist) and 24 age- and sex-...

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and the association with serum levels of Homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and Folate

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Markus; Hellström, Anders; Henriksson, Anders E

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown hyperhomocysteinemi in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In the present study we evaluated the circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) in relation to renal function, vitamins B6, B12 and folate status in AAA patients with special regard to aneurysm size, and rupture. Hcy, Creatinine, B6, B12 and folate were measured in 119 patients with AAA and 36 controls without aneurysm matched by age, gender and smoking habit. As expected there was a weak co...

  14. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammed Hadithi; Chris JJ Mulder; Frank Stam; Joshan Azizi; J Bart A Crusius; Amado Salvador Pe(n)a; Coen DA Stehouwer; Yvo M Smulders

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vitamin supplements on homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: Vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 51 consecutive adults with celiac disease [median (range) age 56 (18-63) years; 40% men, 26 (51%) had villous atrophy, and 25 (49%) used B-vitamin supplements] and 50 healthy control individuals matched for age and sex. Finally, the C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was evaluated in 46 patients with celiac disease and all control individuals. RESULTS: Patients with celiac disease and using vitamin supplements had higher serum vitamin B6 ( P = 0.003), folate ( P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 ( P = 0.012) levels than patients who did not or healthy controls ( P = 0.035, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not ( P = 0.001) or healthy controls ( P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly and independently associated with homocysteine levels. Twenty-four (48%) of 50 controls and 23 (50%) of 46 patients with celiac disease carried the MTHFR thermolabile variant T-allele ( P = 0.89). CONCLUSION: Homocysteine levels are dependent on Marsh classification and the regular use of B-vitamin supplements is effective in reduction of homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease and should be considered in disease management.

  15. Serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy and in a group of controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Baştürk, Eda; Çiçek, Emel

    2015-07-01

    The association between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and vitiligo were studied in several studies, but the results are contradictory. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy is now considered as a gold standard for the treatment of diffuse vitiligo. The effects of NBUVB phototherapy on both vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels have not been studied in vitiligo patients yet. Serum levels of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in vitiligo patients and control group and also both before and after NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo patients. While levels of homocysteine in patients with vitiligo were significantly higher than controls (16.9±8.4 vs. 10. 9±3.4 μmol/L; p0.05). NBUVB phototherapy led to a 33.7±21.9% (0-75%) response in patients with vitiligo after 80 seccions. Treatment with NBUVB improved vitiligo and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (375±151 vs. 346±119 pg/ml, p=0.024), while serum levels of folate and homocysteine did not change significantly after treatment (p=0.914, p=0.127). Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of NBUVB phototherapy on folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with vitiligo. Furthermore, studies with the analysis of skin levels of homocysteine rather than circulating levels may be useful to elucidate the effects of phototherapy on homocysteine levels. PMID:25941975

  16. Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B vitamin status. Objective: To examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly...

  17. Plasma homocysteine and B vitamins levels in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Available data on plasma homocysteine level in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are controversial with increased, decreased and unchanged values reported. Therefore, plasma homocysteine and serum B vitamins in Nigerian children with NS were assessed in this study Methods Fasting blood samples were analysed for plasma homocysteine, serum folate and B vitamins in 42 children with NS and 42 age and sex-matched healthy controls in this case control study. Data were compared between NS and control using t test and Chi square. Relationships were tested with regression analysis with p set at 0.05. Results Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia, low folate and cyanocobalamin in NS was 57.1%, 14.3% and 9.5% respectively. The mean homocysteine level was significantly higher in NS than control (11.3±2.6µmol/L versus 5.5±2.3µmol/L). Also, NS had lower folate and cyanocobalamin than control: 9.1±3.9ng/mL versus 11.2±3.1ng/dL and 268.5±95.7pg/mL versus 316±117.2pg/mL respectively. Weak but significant correlation between homocysteine and serum albumin (r = 0.347), folate (r = -0.607) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.185) were found in the NS group. Significant relationship was also found between homocysteine and vitamin B12 (ß = -0.64, 95% CI = -1.20, -0.08) after controlling for folate and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion Clinically important hyperhomocysteinaemia and low B vitamins occur in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome. This data suggest that potential usefulness of folate and vitamin B supplementation for reducing high homocysteine levels in nephrotic syndrome need to be further investigated PMID:25404967

  18. Serum Levels of Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Karimi; Afshin Borhani Haghighi; Payman Petramfar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease is the most common formof dementia in the elderly. Serum levels of homocysteine havebeen related to increased cortical and hippocampal atrophy.We aimed to determine the serum levels of homocysteine,folate, and vitamin B12 in patients with Alzheimer's disease.Methods: Blood levels of homocysteine and its biologicaldeterminants, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in 51patients who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's diseaseaccording to DSM-IV criteria and com...

  19. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

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    Türksoy N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation, which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  20. Bones, brains and B-vitamins : the impact of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine on bone health and cognitive function in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaarden, van, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    ABackground An elevated homocysteine level has been indicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, and fractures. Supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid in order to normalize homocysteine levels might be of substantial public health importance as this might reduce the risk for several age-related conditions. This thesis focuses on two health outcomes frequently associated with elevated homocysteine levels and low levels of vitamin B12 and folate: osteoporosi...

  1. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yasar; Kamer Gunduz; Ece Onur; Mehmet Calkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time ...

  2. Study on relationships among deep vein thrombosis, homocysteine & related B group vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Kulah, Bahadir; Polat, M. Fevzi; Gocmen, A. Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered as a potential risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but it is still controversy. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with DVT. Our second objective was to document the prevalence of folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 level in this patient population. Methods: Sixty patients with DVT aged from 23 to 84 years, were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, serum levels of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. The diagnosis of DVT was based upon Wells scoring system and serum D-dimer level and confirmed by deep venous Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limbs. Results: Mean serum homocysteine levels were found significantly higher in patients over the age of 40 years (10.81±4.26 µmol/L vs 9.13±3.23 µmol/L). Of all the patients, 9 patients had homocysteine level above the 15µmol/L, 26 had folic acid level below 3 ng/ml, one had vitamin B12 level below 150 pmol/L, and two had vitamin B6 level below 30 nmol/L. In the hyperhomocysteinemic group, five patients had low folic acid level, one had low vitamin B12 level, and two had low vitamin B6 level. Conclusions: Hyperhomocysteinemia, in women older than 40 years, may be a risk factor for DVT. Folic acid deficiency may also influence serum homocysteine concentrations. Folate therapy may be offered to the patients with DVT. However further studies are required to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26101499

  3. Study on relationships among deep vein thrombosis, homocysteine & related B group vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; YILMAZ, Yunus Keser; Kulah, Bahadir; Polat, M. Fevzi; Gocmen, A. Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered as a potential risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but it is still controversy. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with DVT. Our second objective was to document the prevalence of folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 level in this patient population. Methods: Sixty patients with DVT aged from 23 to 84 years, were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, serum levels of homocysteine, folate...

  4. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  5. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  6. Association of Homocysteine, Vitamin and Blood Factors with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women

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    M Nadafi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Preeclampsia is a disease with worldwide importance to mothers and infants, where it accounts for 20–80% of the strikingly increased maternal mortality. The lack of enzymes added to the homocysteine metabolism or the cofactors necessary for its metabolism (folate, B6 vitamin, B12 vitamin cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Abnormal serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Recently high levels of B-HCG have been identified as a potential marker for developing preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible association of homocysteine, vitamin and some serum factors levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A case control study was performed prospectively on normotensive healthy pregnant women (80 and pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (80 referring to Imam Sadjad hospital in Yasuj, between September 2004 to August 2005. In addition to the obstetric evaluation and laboratory examination in the 3rd trimester of gestation, blood samples were taken from all cases for homocysteine and vitamin B12, folic acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, B-HCG analysis. The samples were evaluated by Immunoassay (ELISA. Univariant and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of outcomes. Results: The mean plasma level of total homocysteine was significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnancy(p0.05. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women(p<0/05. LDL and HDL levels were not correlated with preeclampsia. There was no significant association between preeclampsia and B-HCG levels. Conclusion: Homocysteine, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increase in preeclampsia but decrease of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels was not observed in preeclampsia. LDL, HDL and B-HCG levels were not

  7. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  8. Bones, brains and B-vitamins : the impact of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine on bone health and cognitive function in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.

    2013-01-01

    ABackground An elevated homocysteine level has been indicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, and fractures. Supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid in order to normalize homocysteine levels might be of substantial public health importance as

  9. Folate, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine as Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Su-Jin; Park, Woo-Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shin, Hee-Young; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have shown that the dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism is associated with cognitive impairment. However, the findings of longitudinal studies investigating this association have been inconsistent. This study investigated the prospective associations between cognitive decline and the levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine both at baseline and over course of the study period. Methods A total of 607 (83%) elderly individuals were selected from a grou...

  10. Correlations of folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and thrombopoietin to platelet count in HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Somayh S. Eissa; Olfat M. Hendy; Fatma Younis; Aziza K. Omar Samy; Ayat R. Abdallah; Laila A. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionThe platelet count is known to decrease in proportion to the advancement of the stage of liver disease in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) viral infection. The platelet count is currently used as an index for fibrosis staging. The pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not completely understood. PurposeThis work aimed to study the correlations of folic acid (FA), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), homocysteine (Hcy), and thrombopoietin to t...

  11. Effect of Vitamin B12 and Folate on Homocysteine levels in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chandy, Sunil; Sadananda Adiga, M. N.; Ramaswamy, Girija; C Ramachandra; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Folate and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) are two essential micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, which affects heart disease, neural tube defects and cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, the key enzyme involved in one carbon metabolism produces methyl tetrahydrofolate from methylene tetrahydrofolate, which in turn donates methyl group to homocysteine to generate methionine. There exist two common low function polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene i...

  12. Efficacy of vitamin B12 combined with metformin in treating type 2 diabetes and its effect on homocysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Geng; Hui Qi; Hu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and analyze Vitamin B12 combined with metformin treat for the type 2 diabetes, which affect the homocysteine.Methods:92 cases of type 2 diabetes were selected in our hospital for treatment and study from October 2014 to April 2014. All patients were randomly divided into control group (46 cases) and observation group (46 cases). Treatment of patients in the control group: patients were treated by metformin; observation group patients: Take vitamin B12 to patients treated with metformin. Finally, patient outcomes, as well as vitamin B12 and homocysteine in patients before and after treatment were analyzed.Results:Before treatment, all patients vitamin B12 content difference comparisons were no significant differences (P>0.05). Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the vitamin B12 content of the observation group were significantly higher in patients with vitamin B12 levels of data compared to each other there was a significant difference (P0.05). Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the homocysteine content of the observation group were not significantly reduced, the control group of patients with homocysteine increased significantly (P<0.000 1).Conclusions:Vitamin B12 combined with metformin in type 2 diabetes treatment, can significantly increase a patient's body to control homocysteine, while the treatment effect is obvious, clinical recommendations widely implemented.

  13. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  14. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  15. Homocysteine-Lowering by B Vitamins Slows the Rate of Accelerated Brain Atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    A David Smith; Smith, Stephen M.; de Jager, Celeste A.; Philippa Whitbread; Carole Johnston; Grzegorz Agacinski; Abderrahim Oulhaj; Bradley, Kevin M.; Robin Jacoby; Helga Refsum

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive im...

  16. Serum Levels of Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Fariba Karimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease is the most common formof dementia in the elderly. Serum levels of homocysteine havebeen related to increased cortical and hippocampal atrophy.We aimed to determine the serum levels of homocysteine,folate, and vitamin B12 in patients with Alzheimer's disease.Methods: Blood levels of homocysteine and its biologicaldeterminants, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in 51patients who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's diseaseaccording to DSM-IV criteria and compared with the serumlevels obtained from 49 control individuals.Results: The mean serum homocysteine concentration wassignificantly higher in patients with Alzheimer's disease thanthe controls (20.4 ± 16.5 μmol/L v 14.5 ± 5 μmol/L; P= 0.02.There were no statistically significant differences between themean serum levels of vitamin B12 (P=0.6 and folate (P= 0.3in the patients and the controls. There was no correlation betweenage and serum homocysteine concentration in bothgroups (P= 0.8.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine concentration was significantlyhigher in the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Thisbiomarker might be considered as a predictor of cognitive performance.

  17. The relationship between cerebrovascular disease and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between cerebrovascular disease and the serum levels of homocysteine(Hcy), folate and vitamin B12, the serum levels of Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 in 148 patients with cerebrovascular disease were measured by fluorescence polarization immuno- assay and chemiluminescence and were compared with those in healthy controls. The result showed that the serum Hcy levels in patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and vertebrobasilar ischemiay were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P12 levels were signifieantly lower (P0.05). No significantly higher ratio of increased Hcy levels was observed in patient with complications (P> 0.05). Our conclusion is that hyperhomocysteinemia may be a new and an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The serum Hcy level is correlated with decreased levels of folate and vitamin B12 but not obviously correlated with hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. (authors)

  18. Study of oxidative stress, homocysteine, copper & zinc in nephrotic syndrome: therapy with antioxidants, minerals and B-complex vitamins

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    Jyoti Dwivedi*

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possiblemechanism involved in the nephrotic syndrome. Strengthening thedefense system by antioxidants may provide protection againstoxidative damage. Therefore, this study was carried out toinvestigate oxidant and antioxidant status with copper, zinc andhomocysteine in nephrotic syndrome patients and the effect ofantioxidants, minerals and B-complex vitamins on oxidant andantioxidant status. The blood samples were analyzed for quantitationof malondialdehyde as index of lipid peroxide, vitamin C, totalantioxidant capacity, copper, zinc, and homocysteine. Significantlyincreased levels of serum lipid peroxide, homocysteine anddecreased levels of serum total antioxidant capacity, copper, zincand plasma vitamin C were noticed in the patients with nephroticsyndrome as compared to control subjects. However, significantreduction in lipid peroxide, homocysteine and improvement invitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, copper, and zinc activity wereobserved after treatment of antioxidants and minerals with Bcomplexvitamins.

  19. Studies on homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin therapy in patients with coronary artery diseas : sub-studies from the Western Norway B-vitamin intervention trial (WENBIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Bleie, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Background: A high plasma level of total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and is related to important components of atherosclerosis such as inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Objectives: To test the effect of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin therapy on 1) tHcy, and metabolites and determinants of tHcy, 2) inflammatory markers associated with atherosclerosis and 3) coronary endothelial and vascular function. Design: Single centre, double-blind clinical int...

  20. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions. PMID:25854931

  1. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  2. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14C or 3H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  3. Comparison of Effects of Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate on Plasma Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients With Mixed Hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBAY, Yılmaz; Akbulut, Mehmet; DÖNDER, Emir; BAYDAŞ, Adil; Baydas, Gıyasettin; GÜRSU, M. Ferit

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lipid lowering agents such as fenofibrate have been reported to elevate plasma homocysteine levels. Atorvastatin is another kind of lipid lowering agent and there is not enough study investigating its effects on plasma homocysteine. In the present study we aimed to compare the effects of atorvastatin and fenofibrate on plasma homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Materials and Methods: Total of 43 patie...

  4. Correlation between homocysteine and Vitamin B12 levels: A post-hoc analysis from North-West India

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    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homocysteine has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a degradation product of sulfur containing amino acids. The aim of this post-hoc analysis was aimed at arriving at homocysteine levels among voluntarily consenting healthy adults in the context of other hematological parameters. Methods: The data for this post-hoc analysis were derived from an observational study carried out at a medical college in rural North-west India. Results: About 77.42% of those participants enrolled in this study having serum homocysteine level more than 30 μmol/L were seen to possess suboptimal serum Vitamin B 12 (<200 pg/ml. On subjecting data to regression analysis, serum homocysteine was observed to possess an inverse correlation with serum level of Vitamin B 12, in general. Conclusions: Hyperhomocysteinemia observed in our study was sufficiently common and wholly ascribable to low Vitamin B 12 concentration as we did not find any case of subnormal serum folic acid level.

  5. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease

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    Fallah Nader

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD. Methods We performed an analytical case-control study on 294 individuals under 45 years (225 males and 69 females who were admitted for selective coronary angiography to two centers in Tehran. Results After considering the exclusion criteria, a total number of 225 individuals were enrolled of which 43.1% had CAD. The mean age of participants was 39.9 +/- 4.3 years (40.1 +/- 4.2 years in males and 39.4 +/- 4.8 years in females. Compared to the control group, the level of homocysteine measured in the plasma of the male participants was significantly high (14.9 +/- 1.2 versus 20.3 +/- 1.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.01. However there was no significant difference in homocysteine level of females with and without CAD (11.8 +/- 1.3 versus 11.5 ± 1.1 micromol/lit, P = 0.87. Mean plasma level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the study group were 6.3 +/- 0.2 and 282.5 +/- 9.1 respectively. Based on these findings, 10.7% of the study group had folate deficiency while 26.6% had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating independent CAD risk factors showed hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for premature CAD in males (OR = 2.54 0.95% CI 1.23 to 5.22, P = 0.01. Study for the underlying causes of hyperhomocysteinemia showed that male gender and Vitamin B12 deficiency had significant influence on incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia. Conclusion We may conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD in young patients (bellow 45 years old – especially in men -and vitamin B12 deficiency is a preventable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  6. Role of vitamin B6 status on antioxidant defenses, glutathione, and related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress

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    Cheng-Chin Hsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B6 may directly or indirectly play a role in oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of vitamin B6 status with cysteine, glutathione, and its related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. Design: Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were weighed and divided into one of four dietary treatment groups fed either a normal diet (as a control group and a homocysteine group, a vitamin B6-deficient diet (as a B6-deficient group, or a B6-supplemented diet (a pyridoxine-HCl-free diet supplemented with 14 mg/kg of pyridoxine-HCl, as a B6 supplement group for 28 days. Homocysteine thiolactone was then added to drinking water in three groups for 21 days to induce oxidative stress. At the end of the study, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and blood and liver samples were obtained. Results: Mice with vitamin B6-deficient diet had the highest homocysteine concentration in plasma and liver among groups. Significantly increased hepatic malondialdehyde levels were observed in the vitamin B6-deficient group. Among homocysteine-treated groups, mice with vitamin B6-deficient diet had the highest plasma glutathione concentration and relatively lower hepatic glutathione concentration. The glutathione peroxidase activities remained relatively stable in plasma and liver whether vitamin B6 was adequate, deficient, or supplemented. Conclusions: Mice with deficient vitamin B6 intakes had an aggravate effect under homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. The vitamin B6-deficient status seems to mediate the oxidative stress in connection with the redistribution of glutathione from liver to plasma, but not further affect glutathione-related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Study of oxidative stress, homocysteine, copper & zinc in nephrotic syndrome: therapy with antioxidants, minerals and B-complex vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dwivedi; Purnima Dey Sarkar

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possible mechanism involved in the nephrotic syndrome. Strengthening the defense system by antioxidants may provide protection against oxidative damage. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status with copper, zinc and homocysteine in nephrotic syndrome patients and the effect of antioxidants, minerals and B-complex vitamins on oxidant and antioxidant status. The blood samples were analyzed for quantitati...

  8. Cheese 'refinement' with whey B-vitamin removal during precipitation potentially induces temporal 'functional' dietary shortage: homocysteine as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, N

    2014-07-25

    Cottage cheese 'refinement' with massive B-vitamin losses (≈70-84%) through whey removal during precipitation may potentially induce an acute imbalance between protein/methionine load and temporal inadequacy/shortage of nutrients critical for their metabolism, i.e. B6 and B12. The temporal effect of cottage cheese consumption was evaluated using increased plasma homocysteine as a B-vitamin shortage marker. In a double-blind study, healthy, normal-weight (BMI = 22-27), premenopausal women aged 25-45 years were first given a methionine load (100 mg kg(-1), n = 15), then cottage cheese alone (500 g, ≈50 g protein, ≈1200 mg methionine, n = 49) at breakfast, and then with added B6 (2 mg, n = 8) and/or B6 + folate (1 mg + 200 mcg, n = 7). Plasma homocysteine was measured preprandially (t0) and then postprandially 5 h (t5) and ≥6-24 h. Cheese-induced homocysteine increased 28.7% (p ≤ 0.001), ≈60% of the free methionine response, remaining higher through ≥6-8 h. Co-supplementation with B6 reduced the Hcy increase by 45.0% (to 14.9%, p = 0.025), and that with B6 + folate reduced the Hcy increase by 72.3% (to 7.5%, p = 0.556, NS). Homocysteine increased more in participants with lower baselines (vitamin depletion - i.e. to B6 ≈ 2.0-4.0 μg g(-1) protein, far below women's metabolic requirement (15-20 μg g(-1)) - appeared to induce acute relative shortage compared to methionine/protein loads, exemplified by greater homocysteine increases than with other animal proteins (previous data), more so with lower baseline homocysteine. Smaller increases following re-supplementation demonstrated potential for 'functional fortification'/co-supplementation. Unnoted cheese 'refinement', like white bread, potentially induces episodic vitamin shortage effects, warranting consideration for acute/cumulative implications, alternative processing/supplementation technologies, and food combinations, especially for at-risk populations (i.e. with genetic, hormonal/gender, or aging

  9. The impact of homocysteine and B vitamins on Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive performance and structural brain changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshmand, Babak

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relation of homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin B12, and folate with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive performance, and structural brain changes in population-based studies of Finnish and Swedish elderly individuals. Study I. Serum levels of tHcy, holotranscobalamin (holoTC, the active fraction of vitamin B12), and folate were assessed in 274 individuals aged 65-79 years and without dementia from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and D...

  10. Plasma Homocysteine, Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels in Multiple System Atrophy: A Case-Control Study.

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    Shuyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a neurodegenerative disease, and its pathological hallmark is the accumulation of α-synuclein proteins. Homocysteine (Hcy is an intermediate amino acid generated during the metabolism of methionine. Hcy may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Vitamin B12 and folate are cofactors necessary for the methylation of homocysteine.This study compared the levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate in patients with MSA with those in healthy people to reveal the possible association between MSA and plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate. We enrolled 161 patients with MSA and 161 healthy people in this study. The association between MSA and the levels of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate were analyzed using binary logistic regression.The mean level of Hcy in patients with MSA was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (16.23 ± 8.09 umol/l vs 14.04 ± 4.25 umol/l, p < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and medical history, the odds ratio for Hcy was 1.07 (95% CI = 1.01-1.13, p < 0.05 for patients with MSA. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were not significantly different between patients with MSA and controls.Our data suggest that higher levels of Hcy may be associated with an increased risk for MSA.

  11. Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Could Mediate Antioxidant Capacity by Reducing Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Tumor Resection

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    Shao-Bin Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-6 has a strong antioxidative effect. It would be useful to determine whether vitamin B-6 supplementation had effects on antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC who had recently undergone tumor resection. Thirty-three HCC patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo (n=16 group or the vitamin B-6 50 mg/d (n=17 group for 12 weeks. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities were measured. Plasma homocysteine in the vitamin B-6 group was significantly decreased at week 12, while the level of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was significantly increased at the end of the intervention period. Vitamin B-6 supplementation had a significant reducing effect on the change of plasma homocysteine (β=-2.4, p=0.02 but not on the change of TEAC level after adjusting for potential confounders. The change of plasma homocysteine was significantly associated with the change of TEAC after adjusting for potential confounders (β=-162.0, p=0.03. Vitamin B-6 supplementation seemed to mediate antioxidant capacity via reducing plasma homocysteine rather than having a direct antioxidative effect in HCC patients who had recently undergone tumor resection. The clinical trial number is NCT01964001, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  12. Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Could Mediate Antioxidant Capacity by Reducing Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Tumor Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Lin, Ping-Ting; Liu, Hsiao-Tien; Peng, Yi-Shan; Huang, Shih-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 has a strong antioxidative effect. It would be useful to determine whether vitamin B-6 supplementation had effects on antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had recently undergone tumor resection. Thirty-three HCC patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo (n = 16) group or the vitamin B-6 50 mg/d (n = 17) group for 12 weeks. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities were measured. Plasma homocysteine in the vitamin B-6 group was significantly decreased at week 12, while the level of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was significantly increased at the end of the intervention period. Vitamin B-6 supplementation had a significant reducing effect on the change of plasma homocysteine (β = −2.4, p = 0.02) but not on the change of TEAC level after adjusting for potential confounders. The change of plasma homocysteine was significantly associated with the change of TEAC after adjusting for potential confounders (β = −162.0, p = 0.03). Vitamin B-6 supplementation seemed to mediate antioxidant capacity via reducing plasma homocysteine rather than having a direct antioxidative effect in HCC patients who had recently undergone tumor resection. The clinical trial number is NCT01964001, ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:27051670

  13. Effect of Vitamin B Deprivation during Pregnancy and Lactation on Homocysteine Metabolism and Related Metabolites in Brain and Plasma of Mice Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Vanessa Cavalcante; Fernandes, Leandro; Haseyama, Eduardo Jun; Agamme, Ana Luiza Dias Abdo; Shinohara, Elvira Maria Guerra; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that the altered fetal and neonatal environment influences physiological functions and may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. Because homocysteine (Hcy) metabolic imbalance is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether maternal Vitamin B deficiency during early development alters the offspring's methionine-homocysteine metabolism in their brain. To this end, the dams were submit...

  14. Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC50 (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC50 (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 μM and 0.4 μM, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 μM) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

  15. Role of vitamin B6 status on antioxidant defenses, glutathione, and related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi-Chia; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Lee, Wan-Ju; Huang, Shih-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 may directly or indirectly play a role in oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of vitamin B6 status with cysteine, glutathione, and its related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress.Design: Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were weighed and divided into one of four dietary treatment groups fed either a normal diet (as a control group and a homocysteine group),...

  16. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Levels among Egyptian Children with Idiopathic Epilepsy

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    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: antiepileptic drugs might upset the homeostatic balance of Hcy and its cofactors and cause abnormalities of their serum levels. The duration of anti-epileptic drug treatment was related to decrease of folic acid and increase in homocysteine levels.

  17. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), Pvitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone. PMID:27188895

  18. Relationship of Circulating Total Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein to Trabecular Bone in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184)....

  19. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

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    A David Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B(6 and B(12 in 271 individuals (of 646 screened over 70 y old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187 volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d, vitamin B(12 (0.5 mg/d and vitamin B(6 (20 mg/d, the other with placebo; treatment was for 24 months. The main outcome measure was the change in the rate of atrophy of the whole brain assessed by serial volumetric MRI scans. RESULTS: A total of 168 participants (85 in active treatment group; 83 receiving placebo completed the MRI section of the trial. The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [95% CI, 0.63-0.90] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [0.94-1.22] in the placebo group (P =  0.001. The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine >13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P =  0.001. A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores. There was no difference in serious adverse events according to treatment category. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly with mild cognitive impairment can be slowed by treatment

  20. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.J.F.M.; Peelen, E.; Thewissen, M.; Menheere, P.; Damoiseaux, J.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. METHODS: We compared DBP

  1. Betaine as a determinant of postmethionine load total plasma homocysteine before and after B-vitamin supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, P.I.; Bleie, O.; Ueland, P.M.; Lien, E.A.; Refsum, H.; Nordrehaug, J.E.; Nygard, O.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Betaine is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, converting homocysteine to methionine. There are only sparse data on plasma betaine as a determinant of the plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety patients undergoing corona

  2. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  3. Circulating Vitamin D and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

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    Alan A. Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a nested case-control study within two prospective cohorts, the New York University Women's Health Study and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, to examine the association between prediagnostic circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and the risk of subsequent invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. The 25(OHD levels were measured in serum or plasma from 170 incident cases of EOC and 373 matched controls. Overall, circulating 25(OHD levels were not associated with the risk of EOC in combined cohort analysis: adjusted OR for the top tertile versus the reference tertile, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.59–2.01. In addition, there was no evidence of an interaction effect between VDR SNP genotype or haplotype and circulating 25(OHD levels in relation to ovarian cancer risk, although more complex gene-environment interactions may exist.

  4. Blood Concentrations of Homocysteine and Methylmalonic Acid among Demented and Non-Demented Swedish Elderly with and without Home Care Services and Vitamin B(12) Prescriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hagnelius, Nils-Olof; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Schneede, Jörn; Nilsson, Torbjörn K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been suggested as a risk factor of dementia. Our aim was to investigate potential differences in tHcy status in relation to the prescription of vitamin B(12) and dementia diagnosis. We examined whether vitamin B(12) prescriptions, a family history of dementia, or the need for home care service might be associated with tHcy values. METHODS: A cross-sectional monocenter study comprising 926 consecutive subjects attending our Memory Care ...

  5. Association of vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and cognition in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Lökk, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Normal and subnormal serum levels of vitamin B12 and/or folate do not exclude functional deficiency, and elderly people are specifically exposed to deficiency owing to impaired nutrition, malabsorption, accompanying diseases and current medication. Several studies report that low levels of vitamin B12 are more common in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than in non-demented people. Low levels of folate are also correlated with other types of dementia. Current studies suggest that low level...

  6. Circulating Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Humans: An Important Tool to Define Adequate Nutritional Vitamin D Status

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W Hollis; Wagner, Carol L.; Drezner, Mark K.; Binkley, Neil C

    2007-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is generally considered the means by which we define nutritional vitamin D status. There is much debate, however, with respect to what a healthy minimum level of circulation 25(OH)D should be. Recent data using various biomarkers such as intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), intestinal calcium absorption, and skeletal density measurements suggest this minimum level to be 80 nmol (32 ng/mL). Surprisingly, the relationship between circulating vitamin D3 and...

  7. Blood Concentrations of Homocysteine and Methylmalonic Acid among Demented and Non-Demented Swedish Elderly with and without Home Care Services and Vitamin B12 Prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Olof Hagnelius

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Total plasma homocysteine (tHcy has been suggested as a risk factor of dementia. Our aim was to investigate potential differences in tHcy status in relation to the prescription of vitamin B12 and dementia diagnosis. We examined whether vitamin B12 prescriptions, a family history of dementia, or the need for home care service might be associated with tHcy values. Methods: A cross-sectional monocenter study comprising 926 consecutive subjects attending our Memory Care Unit was conducted. Results: Demented subjects being prescribed vitamin B12 had higher serum vitamin B12 (p = 0.025 but also higher tHcy (p 12 prescriptions. tHcy levels were significantly higher in non-demented subjects receiving home care service (p = 0.007. This group also had lower serum albumin (dementia: p 12 prescriptions (dementia with/without vitamin B12 prescription: p = 0.561; non-dementia with/without vitamin B12 prescription: p = 0.710. Conclusion: Despite vitamin B12 prescriptions, demented subjects had higher tHcy and methylmalonate values. The elevated metabolite values could not be explained by differences in renal function. Thus, elderly subjects on vitamin B12 prescription appear to have unmet nutritional needs.

  8. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smolders, Joost; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Marielle; Menheere, Paul; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Background: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. Methods: We compared DBP concentrations in blood samples of controls (n = 30) and subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) during remission (n = 29) and relapse (n = 15). Furthermore, we explored correlations of DBP wit...

  9. The changing of serum vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer: do they associate with clinicopathological factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Ahmet; Sonkaya, Alper; Ercan, Serif; Ustaalioglu, Bala Basak Oven; Seker, Mesut; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Orcun, Asuman; Gumus, Mahmut

    2015-02-01

    After total (TG) or distal subtotal gastrectomy (DG), patients are at high risk of vitamin B12 (vit-B12) deficiency, which results in elevation of homocysteine levels. The changing of serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with gastric cancer is not well known. Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer who had undergone currative gastrectomy and 50 healthy controls were included. Serum vit-B12 and homocysteine levels were analyzed in gastric cancer patients. In addition, these parameters were compared with those of healthy control subjects. While serum vit-B12 levels in gastrectomized patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (221.8 ± 125.6 pg/mL vs. 309.9 ± 174.3 pg/mL, p = 0.002), homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer (14.2 ± 6.7 μmol/L vs. 12.5 ± 6.1 μmol/L, p = 0.016). Mean serum folate level was found to be high in healthy controls (7.3 ng/mL) compared to patients (9.2 ng/mL, p = 0.027). Out of 72 patients, 40 patients (55.6 %) with gastric cancer developed vit-B12 deficiency after gastrectomy. Vit-B12 deficiency was found to be related with gastrectomy type (p = 0.02) and homocysteine levels (p = 0.014). In patients who underwent TG, the incidence of vit-B12 deficiency was significantly higher compared with those with DG (67.5 vs. 32.5 %). In addition, serum vit-B12 level in patients with DG was significantly higher than that of patients with TG (248.3 ± 122.0 pg/mL vs. 200.8 ± 126.7 pg/mL, p = 0.041), whereas homocysteine levels were significantly lower in DG group compared with TG group (12.1 ± 6.1 μmol/L vs. 15.8 ± 6.9 μmol/L, p = 0.014). A logistic regression analysis showed that the extent of gastrectomy was found to be an independent factor for predicting the occurrence of vit-B12 deficiency (p vit-B12 deficiency rate was significantly higher after TG compared with that after DG, while homocysteine levels were

  10. Increased vitamin E intake is associated with higher α-tocopherol concentration in the maternal circulation but higher α-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman concentration in the fetal circulation123

    OpenAIRE

    Didenco, Svetlana; Gillingham, Melanie B.; Go, Mitzi D; Leonard, Scott W; Maret G. Traber; McEvoy, Cindy T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The transfer of vitamin E across the placenta is limited, but no data exist on the concentrations of vitamin E metabolites carboxyethyl hydroxychromans (α- and γ-CEHCs) in the fetal circulation.

  11. Relationship of cognitive function with B vitamin status, homocysteine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in cognitively impaired elderly: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ggotpin; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Ki Nam; Son, Jung In; Kim, Seong Yoon; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) has recently emerged as a candidate marker of endothelial damage in AD. We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI, as well as cognitive function in 321 [100 each with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, 121 normal subjects] Korean elderly (mean age 74.8 ± 7.2 years). Plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, Hcy by the HPLC-fluorescence method, and TFPI by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels were higher in patients with AD and MCI than those in normal subjects (p 15 μM) and folate deficient (vitamin B12 and the Word List Memory Test in the AD group, but negative associations between plasma Hcy and the Word List Memory and Constructional Recall Tests and between plasma TFPI and the Boston Naming, Word List Recall, and Constructional Recall Tests. In contrast, only plasma folate level was positively associated with the MMSE-KC and Boston Naming Test in the MCI group. No associations were observed in the normal group. These results suggest that plasma folate, vitamin B12, Hcy, and TFPI are associated with cognitive function in cognitively impaired (AD and MCI) elderly and that the association was stronger in patients with AD. PMID:23042212

  12. Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a significant positive association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, and prostate cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the influence of vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary transporter of vitamin D compounds in the circulation. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of DBP were assayed for 950 cases and 964 matched controls with existing 25(OH)D measurements within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-C...

  13. Evaluation of C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase gene and its association with levels of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome

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    Pankaj K Mohanty

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Serum levels of folate were low in cases. The RBC folate levels were comparable in both groups. However the combined serum folate and RBC folate were low in cases compared to control groups. Homocysteine levels in our study were higher in Down syndrome mothers compared to controls; however high-serum level of Homocysteine had no association with MTHFR polymorphism. No association of serum vitamin B12 with MTHFR polymorphism in occurrence of Down syndrome births was found. Peri- or preconceptional folate supplementation may therefore lead to a decline in DS births, if supported by larger studies.

  14. Effect of vitamin B deprivation during pregnancy and lactation on homocysteine metabolism and related metabolites in brain and plasma of mice offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cavalcante da Silva

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that the altered fetal and neonatal environment influences physiological functions and may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. Because homocysteine (Hcy metabolic imbalance is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether maternal Vitamin B deficiency during early development alters the offspring's methionine-homocysteine metabolism in their brain. To this end, the dams were submitted to experimental diet one month before and during pregnancy or pregnancy/lactation. After birth, the offspring were organized into the following groups: control (CT, deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation (DPL and deficient diet during pregnancy (DP. The mice were euthanized at various stages of development. Hcy, cysteine, glutathione (GSH, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured in the plasma and/or brain. At postnatal day (PND 0, total brain of female and male offspring exhibited decreased SAM/SAH ratios. Moreover, at PND 28, we observed decreased GSH/GSSG ratios in both females and males in the DPL group. Exposure to a Vitamin B-deficient diet during the ontogenic plasticity period had a negative impact on plasma folate and brain cortex SAM concentrations in aged DPL males. We also observed decreased plasma GSH concentrations in both DP and DPL males (PND 210. Additionally, this manipulation seemed to affect the female and male offspring differently. The decreased plasma GSH concentration may reflect redox changes in tissues and the decreased brain cortex SAM may be involved in changes of gene expression, which could contribute to neurodegenerative diseases over the long term.

  15. Effect of vitamin B deprivation during pregnancy and lactation on homocysteine metabolism and related metabolites in brain and plasma of mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vanessa Cavalcante; Fernandes, Leandro; Haseyama, Eduardo Jun; Agamme, Ana Luiza Dias Abdo; Guerra Shinohara, Elvira Maria; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that the altered fetal and neonatal environment influences physiological functions and may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. Because homocysteine (Hcy) metabolic imbalance is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether maternal Vitamin B deficiency during early development alters the offspring's methionine-homocysteine metabolism in their brain. To this end, the dams were submitted to experimental diet one month before and during pregnancy or pregnancy/lactation. After birth, the offspring were organized into the following groups: control (CT), deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation (DPL) and deficient diet during pregnancy (DP). The mice were euthanized at various stages of development. Hcy, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured in the plasma and/or brain. At postnatal day (PND) 0, total brain of female and male offspring exhibited decreased SAM/SAH ratios. Moreover, at PND 28, we observed decreased GSH/GSSG ratios in both females and males in the DPL group. Exposure to a Vitamin B-deficient diet during the ontogenic plasticity period had a negative impact on plasma folate and brain cortex SAM concentrations in aged DPL males. We also observed decreased plasma GSH concentrations in both DP and DPL males (PND 210). Additionally, this manipulation seemed to affect the female and male offspring differently. The decreased plasma GSH concentration may reflect redox changes in tissues and the decreased brain cortex SAM may be involved in changes of gene expression, which could contribute to neurodegenerative diseases over the long term. PMID:24695104

  16. Homocysteine, MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, folic acid and vitamin B 12 in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari Giorgio; Bellatorre Alessandro; Rossi Lisa; Quaglia Ilaria; Di Micco Pierpaolo; Ferrazzi Paola; Rota Lidia; Lodigiani Corrado

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Many available data have suggested that hyperhomocysteinaemia, an established independent risk factor for thrombosis (arterial and venous), may be associated with an increased risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Aim of the study To evaluate homocysteine metabolism in consecutive caucasian patients affected by RVO from Northern Italy. Patients and Methods 69 consecutive patients from Northern Italy (mean age 64.1 ± 14.6 yy) with recent RVO, were tested for plasma levels o...

  17. Plasma-aminothiols status and inverse correlation of total homocysteine with B-vitamins in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Manna, Sujoy K; Roy, Sanjit K; Chakraborty, Manisha; Das, Surajit; Naskar, Jnan P

    2016-09-18

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a serious environmental health problem across the world. Bangladesh and India (particularly the state of West Bengal) are the worst affected countries with such problem. The present study reports plasma-aminothiols (p-aminothiols) like L-cysteine (L-Cys), cysteinyl glycine (Cys-gly), total homocysteine (t-Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) status, and the inverse relationship of t-Hcy with B-vitamins (B1, B6, B9 and B12) in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India. Reverse phase HPLC was used to measure p-aminothiols and serum B-vitamins in different arsenic exposed population. Arsenic in drinking water and urine were measured by flow injection analysis system - Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FIAS-AAS) and Transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA-AAS) techniques, respectively. Water arsenic exposure was >50 µg/L in 50% population, of which majority (33.58%) belong to the range of >50-500 µg/L and more than 8% were even >1000 µg/L. Urine arsenic (µg/g creatinine) levels increased with arsenic exposure. The variability among p-aminothiols was also observed with higher exposure to arsenic in drinking water. A significant difference between exposed and control population was noticed for plasma L-Cys. The difference of B-vitamins between the population exposed to 50 µg/L arsenic in drinking water was also found to be significant. B9 and B12 deficiency with increased consumption of arsenic in water corroborates the anemic conditions commonly observed among arsenic exposed population. The aminothiol status indicated oxidative stress in exposed population. This study demonstrated progressive increase in plasma t-Hcy as well as inverse relationships of serum B-vitamins with increased water arsenic concentration. PMID:27336853

  18. Which circulating antioxidant vitamins are confounded by socioeconomic deprivation? The MIDSPAN family study.

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    Dinesh Talwar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamins are often described as having "independent" associations with risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD and mortality. We aimed to compare to what extent a range of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids are associated with adulthood and childhood markers of socioeconomic deprivation and to adverse lifestyle factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Socioeconomic and lifestyle measures were available in 1040 men and 1298 women from the MIDSPAN Family Study (30-59 years at baseline together with circulating levels of vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene. Markers of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood were consistently as strongly associated with lower vitamin C and carotenoid levels as markers of adverse lifestyle; the inverse association with overcrowding was particularly consistent (vitamin C and carotenoids range from 19.1% [95% CI 30.3-6.0] to 38.8% [49.9-25.3] lower among those in overcrowded residencies. These associations were consistent after adjusting for month, classical CVD risk factors, body mass index, physical activity, vitamin supplements, dietary fat and fibre intake. Similar, but weaker, associations were seen for childhood markers of deprivation. The association of vitamin A or E were strikingly different; several adult adverse lifestyle factors associated with higher levels of vitamin A and E, including high alcohol intake for vitamin A (9.5% [5.7-13.5] and waist hip ratio for vitamin E (9.5% [4.8-14.4], with the latter associations partially explained by classical risk factors, particularly cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma vitamin C and carotenoids have strong inverse associations with adulthood markers of social deprivation, whereas vitamin A and E appear positively related to specific adverse lifestyle factors. These findings should help researchers better contextualize blood antioxidant vitamin levels by illustrating the potential limitations

  19. Homocystein und Demenzerkrankungen

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Holger; Bleich, Stefan; Falkai, Peter; Supprian, Tillmann

    2003-01-01

    Homocystein stellt einen Risikofaktor für atherosklerotische Gefäßerkrankungen einschließlich zerebraler Makro- und Mikroangiopathie dar. Darüber hinaus wird auch ein Zusammenhang mit kognitiven Störungen einschließlich Alzheimer- und vaskulärer Demenz diskutiert. Eine Hyperhomocysteinämie könnte indirekter Marker eines einer kognitiven Störung zugrunde liegenden intrazellulären Vitaminmangels (Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Folsäure) sein, welcher aus einer verminderten Aufnahme oder aus einem ges...

  20. Associations between medication use and homocysteine levels in an older population, and potential mediation by vitamin B12 and folate: data from the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, A.C.; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, van S.C.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Brouwer, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated homocysteine levels are a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease, fractures and cognitive decline. Previous studies indicated associations between homocysteine levels and medication use, including antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and antidiabetic medication. However, results w

  1. Homocysteine homeostasis and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in the brain of hibernating bats.

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    Yijian Zhang

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine is an important risk factor that increases cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease morbidity. In mammals, B vitamin supplementation can reduce homocysteine levels. Whether, and how, hibernating mammals, that essentially stop ingesting B vitamins, maintain homocysteine metabolism and avoid cerebrovascular impacts and neurodegeneration remain unclear. Here, we compare homocysteine levels in the brains of torpid bats, active bats and rats to identify the molecules involved in homocysteine homeostasis. We found that homocysteine does not elevate in torpid brains, despite declining vitamin B levels. At low levels of vitamin B6 and B12, we found no change in total expression level of the two main enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase, but a 1.85-fold increase in the expression of the coenzyme-independent betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT. BHMT expression was observed in the amygdala of basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex where BHMT levels were clearly elevated during torpor. This is the first report of BHMT protein expression in the brain and suggests that BHMT modulates homocysteine in the brains of hibernating bats. BHMT may have a neuroprotective role in the brains of hibernating mammals and further research on this system could expand our biomedical understanding of certain cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease processes.

  2. Vitaminas B y homocisteína en la insuficiencia renal crónica Vitamin B complex and homocysteine in chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez

    2007-12-01

    at reviewing not only this issue but also the status of these water-soluble vitamins that different authors have found in groups of predialysis patients. On the other hand, the issue on the high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic renal failure as the main mortality risk factor due to cardiovascular pathologies as well as the implication of these vitamins in the metabolism of homocysteine, and consequently in plasma levels of this metabolite in predialysis patients is reviewed.

  3. Effects of differences in serum total homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 on cognitive impairment in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bo; Chen, Yumei; Yao, Guoen; Yao, Cunshan; Zhao, Hongmei; Jia, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yunyan; Ge, Junling; Qiu, Enchao; Ding, Chengyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND) refers to the early or mild cognitive impairment induced by cerebral vascular injury. Research shows that serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level is an independent risk factor for cerebral vascular disease and may be closely related to cognitive function.Current studies on the tHcy level in VCIND patients are limited, and the relationship of tHcy with cognitive function remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the tHcy levels i...

  4. Homocysteine and cognitive function in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Zanibbi, Katherine

    2004-10-12

    Dementia is highly prevalent among elderly people, and projections show that the number of people affected might triple over the next 50 years, mainly because of a large increase in the oldest-old segment of the population. Because of this and the disease's devastating effects, measures for the prevention and early detection of dementia are crucial. Age and years of education are among the most relevant risk factors for dementia, but in recent years the role of homocysteine has also been investigated. Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the metabolism of methionine, a process dependent on the B vitamins cobalamin, vitamin B6 and folic acid. There is evidence that increased serum homocysteine levels are associated with declining cognitive function and dementia. We review this evidence in addition to the potential mechanisms through which homocysteine acts on the brain to cause cognitive dysfunction, the metabolism of homocysteine and factors associated with alteration of the normal metabolism. PMID:15477631

  5. Homocysteine in ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Ranimenon

    2015-10-23

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a derived sulfur-containing and non-proteinogenic amino acid. The metabolism of Hcy occurs either through the remethylation to methionine or transsulfuration to cysteine. Studies have identified hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as one of the possible risk factors for a multitude of diseases including vascular, neurodegenerative and ocular diseases. Association of HHcy with eye diseases such as retinopathy, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma maculopathy, cataract, optic atrophy and retinal vessel atherosclerosis is established. The molecular mechanism underlying these ocular diseases has been reported as impaired vascular endothelial function, apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, extracellular matrix alterations, decreased lysyl oxidase activity and oxidative stress. The formed homocysteine-thiolactone in HHcy has stronger cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory properties which can induce lens opacification and optic nerve damage. The metabolism of Hcy requires enzymes with vitamins such as folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6. Despite the mixed conclusion of various studies regarding the level of these vitamins in elder people, studies recommended the treatment with folate and B12 to reduce Hcy levels in subjects with or without any defect in the enzymes involved in its metabolism. The levels of Hcy, folate, B6 as well as B12 should be measured early in patients with visual impairment that would aid to screen patients for life-threatening disorders related with HHcy. Elder patients may supplement with these vitamins in order to attenuate the ocular damages. This article discusses the association of Hcy in ocular diseases and the possible mechanism in the pathogenesis. PMID:26343924

  6. Relation of plasma homocysteine with folic acid and vitamine B12 in patients with cerebral infarction%同型半胱氨酸、叶酸及维生素 B12水平与脑梗死发病的危险相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩顺昌; 郭阳; 孙桂军; 谷月宇

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relationship of cerebral infarction with hyperhomocysteinemia and the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and folic acid and Vitamine B12.Method We measured the concentrations of homocysteine with FIPA(fluorescence polarization immunoassay)and Vitamin B12 and folic acid with chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay in 40 cerebral infarction patients and 30 healthy controls.Results The concentration of homocysteine in study group was higher than the controls' (P< 0.01).Serum folic acid level in study group was lower than that in control group (P< 0.05).There is negative correlation between plasma homocysteine and serum folic acid(P< 0.05). Conclusions Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction.One reason of increased level of homocysteine in blood is that the deficiency of cofactors of enzymes involved in metabolism process.

  7. 脑梗塞患者血浆同型半胱氨酸水平与叶酸、B12的关系%Plasma homocysteine to folate and vitamin B12in cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓美英; 王小莉; 鲁君亚; 薛明战; 张辉

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the plasma homocysteine level and cerebral infarction and the association between plasma homocysteine level and levels of serum folate and vitamin B12.Methods Levels of plasma homocysteine of 40 cerebral infarction patients and 20 healthy subjects were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Serum folate and vitamin B12concentrations were measured by SimulTRAC-SNB radioassay.Results ①The mean plasma level of homocystine was higher in patients than that in control[(24.02±11.24)*!μmol/L versus(14.10±4.48)*!μmol/L,P<0.01];②The level of serum folate was significantly lower in patients than that in control[(4.82±1.97)*!μg/L versus(6.88±2.85)*!μg/L,P<0.001].The level of serum B12was slightly lower in patients[(247.56±158.72)*!ng/L] than that in control[(270.31±198.39)*!ng/L],but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Person correlation anslysis revealed that plasma homocysteine level showed a strong inverse association with folate level in patients(r=-0.39,P=0.01)and in controls(r=-0.46,P=0.03).Vitamin B12 did not show correlation to plasma homocysteine in cases or controls(P>0.05).Conclusion ①Plasma homocysteine level in cerebral infarction patients is higher than that in the same age health.②There is a strong inverse association between plasma homocysteine and folate.The association between plasma homocysteine and vitamin B12 is not statistically significant.%目的研究同型半胱氨酸(HCY)与脑梗塞的关系及叶酸、维生素B12(B12)对HCY水平的影响。方法采用高效液相色谱荧光检测法测定40例脑梗塞患者和20例同龄健康对照组血浆HCY浓度,用SimulTRAC-SNB放射法测定两组血清叶酸、B12的含量。结果①脑梗塞患者血浆HCY浓度(24.02*!μmol/L±11.24*!μmol/L)高于对照组(14.0*!μmol/L±4.48*!μmol/L)(P<0.01);②脑梗塞患者叶酸水平(4.82*!μg/L±1.97*!

  8. Homocystein und Hyperhomocysteinämie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer I

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Homocystein ist ein Intermediärprodukt im Stoffwechsel schwefelhältiger Aminosäuren. Im gesunden Organismus wird Homocystein innerhalb von kurzer Zeit wieder zu Methionin remethyliert oder über Cystathionin und Cystein zu Glutathion weiter verstoffwechselt. Als Coenzyme werden die Vitamine B6 und B12 und als Methylgruppendonator die Folsäure benötigt. Homocystein ist ein unabhängiger Risikofaktor für eine Reihe von Erkrankungen wie beispielsweise Atherosklerose oder arterielle und venöse Thrombosen. Gesamtplasmaspiegel von 10 µmol/l stellen bereits ein Risiko für Begleit- und Folgekrankheiten dar. Jede Erhöhung des Plasmahomocysteinspiegels um bis zu 5 µmol/l erhöht das kardiovaskuläre Risiko zwischen 32 % und 60 % und entspricht einer Cholesterinerhöhung von 20 mg/dl. Schätzungen gehen davon aus, daß bis zu 7 % der Bevölkerung eine Homocysteinämie aufweisen, wovon zwei Drittel der Fälle wahrscheinlich auf eine unzureichende Plasmakonzentration der am Homocystein-Metabolismus beteiligten Vitamine (Folsäure, Vitamin B6 und Vitamin B12 zurückzuführen ist. Ziel muß es künftig sein, das Homocystein-Bewußtsein, sowohl in der Bevölkerung als auch bei den Ärzten zu erhöhen.

  9. Homocysteine and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Passalacqua, Walter; Araya, Julia; Orellana, Myriam; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2003-12-01

    The authors examine the available clinical and experimental data supporting the view that homocysteine, an alternative risk factor of cardiovascular disease, may play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. The mechanism of this disease has not been elucidated, but it may be related to impairment of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Therefore, the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction could contribute to alterations of the endothelium-dependent vasomotor regulation. Elevated homocysteinemia diminishes the vasodilation by nitric oxide, increases oxidative stress, stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and alters the elastic properties of the vascular wall. Thus, homocysteine contributes to elevate the blood pressure. Also it is known that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine could lead to oxidant injury to the endothelium. The correction of elevated homocysteinemia by administration of vitamins B12 and B6 plus folic acid, could be a useful adjuvant therapy of hypertension. However, further controlled randomized trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and tolerability of these potentially therapeutic agents. PMID:14615465

  10. Circulating vitamin D concentration and age-related macular degeneration: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Drouet, Morgane; Duval, Guillaume T; Paré, Pierre-Yves; Leruez, Stephanie; Dinomais, Mickael; Milea, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D may be involved in ocular function in older adults, but there is no current consensus on a possible association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to systematically review and quantitatively assess the association of circulating 25OHD concentration with AMD. A Medline search was conducted in November 2015, with no date limit, using the MeSH terms "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D deficiency" OR "Ergocalciferols" OR 'Cholecalciferol' combined with "Age-related macular degeneration" OR "Macular degeneration" OR "Retinal degeneration" OR "Macula lutea" OR "Retina". Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to compute (i) standard mean difference in 25OHD concentration between AMD and non-AMD patients; (ii) AMD risk according to circulating 25OHD concentration. Of the 243 retrieved studies, 11 observational studies-10 cross-sectional studies and 1 cohort study-met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 65 to 17,045 (52-100% women), and the number with AMD ranged from 31 to 1440. Circulating 25OHD concentration was 15% lower in AMD compared with non-AMD on average. AMD was inversely associated with the highest 25OHD quintile compared with the lowest (summary odds ratio (OR)=0.83 [95%CI:0.71-0.97]), notably late AMD (summary OR=0.47 [95%CI:0.28-0.79]). Circulating 25OHDAMD (summary OR=2.18 [95%CI:1.34-3.56]), an association that did not persist when all categories of AMD were considered (summary OR=1.26 [95%CI:0.90-1.76]). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that high 25OHD concentrations may be protective against AMD, and that 25OHD concentrations below 50nmol/L are associated with late AMD. PMID:27105707

  11. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  12. Association between Circulating Vitamin D Metabolites and Fecal Bile Acid Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Haussler, Mark R; Alberts, David S; Kohler, Lindsay N; Lance, Peter; Martínez, María Elena; Roe, Denise J; Jurutka, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    Although hydrophobic bile acids have been demonstrated to exhibit cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in the colorectum, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been investigated as a potential chemopreventive agent. Vitamin D has been shown to play a role in both bile acid metabolism and in the development of colorectal neoplasia. Using a cross-sectional design, we sought to determine whether baseline circulating concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were associated with baseline fecal bile acid concentrations in a trial of UDCA for the prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence. We also prospectively evaluated whether vitamin D metabolite concentrations modified the effect of UDCA on adenoma recurrence. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, and calcium intake, adequate concentrations of 25(OH)D (≥30 ng/mL) were statistically significantly associated with reduced odds for high levels of total [OR, 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.97], and primary (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.96) bile acids, as well as individually with chenodeoxycholic acid (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.24-0.63) and cholic acid (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90). No significant associations were observed for 1,25(OH)2D and high versus low fecal bile acid concentrations. In addition, neither 25(OH)D nor 1,25(OH)2D modified the effect of UDCA on colorectal adenoma recurrence. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate an inverse relationship between circulating levels of 25(OH)D and primary fecal bile acid concentrations. These results support prior data demonstrating that vitamin D plays a key role in bile acid metabolism, and suggest a potential mechanism of action for 25(OH)D in colorectal cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 589-97. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27138789

  13. Increased Circulating Levels of Vitamin D Binding Protein in MS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ottavio Rinaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD low status is currently considered a main environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS etiology and pathogenesis. VitD and its metabolites are highly hydrophobic and circulate mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP and with lower affinity to albumin, while less than 1% are in a free form. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of either of the two vitD plasma carriers and/or their relationship are altered in MS. We measured DBP and albumin plasma levels in 28 MS patients and 24 healthy controls. MS patients were found to have higher DBP levels than healthy subjects. Concomitant interferon beta therapy did not influence DBP concentration, and the difference with the control group was significant in both females and males. No significant correlation between DBP and albumin levels was observed either in healthy controls or in patients. These observations suggest the involvement of DBP in the patho-physiology of MS.

  14. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  15. Homocysteine in cerebrovascular disease: An independent risk factor for subcortical vascular encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertsch, Thomas; Mielke, Orell; Höly, Sabine; Zimmer, Wilma; Casarin, Wendy; Aufenanger, Johannes; Walter, Silke; Muehlhauser, Frank; Kuehl, Sandra; Ragoschke, Andreas; Fassbender, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for obstructive large-vessel disease. Here, we studied plasma concentrations of homocysteine and vitamins in patients suffering from subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE), a cerebral small-vessel disease leading to dementia. These results were compared to the homocysteine and vitamin plasma concentrations from patients with cerebral large vessel disease and healthy control subjects. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine, vascular risk factors and vita...

  16. Homocysteine and arterial thrombosis: Challenge and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minno, Matteo N D; Tremoli, Elena; Coppola, Antonio; Lupoli, Roberta; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The correlation between homocysteine and vascular disease has been assessed in several clinical studies that demonstrated that elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) was an independent risk factor for atheriosclerotic disease. Major advances of homocysteine metabolism disorders have been made during the last few years, encompassing the rare homozygous enzyme deficiencies, as well as more common milder abnormalities. In experimental and clinical studies, a homocysteine-mediated oxidant stress has been shown to trigger platelet activation, in turn leading to a tendency to thrombosis, in patients with severe hyperhomocysteinaemia. Likewise, the hypomethylation hypothesis on acquired hyperhomocysteinaemia (chronic renal disease) and the interrelationship between hyperhomocysteinaemia and impaired fibrinolysis, have added further biological plausibility to the role for hyperhomocysteinaemia in vascular medicine. However, whether hyperhomocysteinaemia is causal or a marker of vascular disease, and whether plasma tHcy is only an indicator of the metabolic status remains to be clarified. The role of the intake of some vitamins (folic acid, vit.B12, vit.B6) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poorly understood: in spite of the lowering of homocysteine (Hcy) levels, vitamin supplementation failed to exert significant effects on cardiovascular risk. On the other hand, although some lipid-modifying treatments increase Hcy levels in diabetics, there is no evidence that this attenuates the beneficial effects of such treatments on the cardiovascular risk. Because of these uncertainties in the area, the data available do not provide support for routine screening and treatment for elevated Hcy to prevent CVD. PMID:20352150

  17. Association of variants in two vitamin E transport genes with circulating vitamin E concentrations and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Peters, Ulrike; Gunter, Marc J; Moore, Steven C.; Lawson, Karla A.; Yeager, Meredith; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence and mortality were observed in men randomized to receive 50 mg supplemental vitamin E (α-tocopherol) per day in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We hypothesized that variation in key vitamin E transport genes might directly affect prostate cancer risk or modify the effects of vitamin E supplementation. Associations between prostate cancer risk and 13 polymorphisms in two genes – TTPA and SEC14L2 – were exam...

  18. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement. Each vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. For example, if you don't get ...

  19. Homocysteine as a risk factor of ischemic heart disease development (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsov Yu.l.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is a product of methionine metabolism. Increased levels of homocysteine strengthen oxidizing stress, disturb endothelial function, raise arterial blood pressure and lead to thrombus formation. Homocysteine increases the risk of development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, cerebral and peripheral vessels diseases. By severity it can be compared with smoking and hypercholesterolemia. High levels of homocysteine cause the development of cardiovascular diseases that occur in people who have never suffered from heart attacks. Vitamin B-12 and folate decrease the homocysteine level and convert it into cysteine and methionine

  20. Homocysteine and venous thrombosis : studies into risk and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Huub Pieter Jan

    2006-01-01

    Homocysteine is a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Elevated concentrations can be treated with folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The main study (chapter 9) in this thesis is a randomized placebo-controlled trial in which patients with a first event of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary emboli

  1. 同型半胱氨酸、叶酸及VitB12与血管性痴呆的相关性研究%Relationship Between Homocysteine, Folate, Vitamin B12 and Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊蕴辉; 伊红丽; 李立群; 曹国富; 沈海涛

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), folate,vitamin B12and vascular dementia (VaD). Methods: The plasma levels of Hey. folate. vitamin B12 and MMSE were measured in 86 VaD patients, 87 non-VaD cerebral vascular disease patients, and 90 age-matched normal controls of Affiliated Hospital, North China Coal Medical University. Results: The plasma Hey levels were significantly increased in the VaD group than non-VaD cerebral vascular disease group and normal controls (P<0. 01). The Hey level was negatively related with folate and VitB12 levels. They all significantly correlated with VaD and the MMSE score (P<0. 01=. Conclusion-. The levels of Hey. folate and vitamin B12were significantly correlated with VaD.%目的:探讨血浆同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、叶酸(FA)、VitB12与血管性痴呆(VaD)的相关性.方法:检测VaD患者86例(VaD组),非VaD患者87例(非VaD组),健康体检正常者90例(正常组)血浆Hcy、FA、VitB 2浓度.并对3组受检者进行简易智能状态量表(MMSE)评定.结果:VaD组患者Hcy浓度显著高于非VaD组及正常组(P<0.01).FA、VitB12浓度与Hcy浓度负相关.血浆Hcy、FA、VitB12水平与VaD、MMSE得分显著相关(P<0.01).结论:VaD高危人群应定期检测Hcy浓度,推荐服用VitB12和FA可预防VaD的发生.

  2. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  3. Circulating concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in relation to prostate cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, M.; Appleby, P.N.; Allen, N.E.; Travis, R.C.; Roddam, A.W.; Egevad, L.; Jenab, M.; Rinaldi, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Vollset, S.E.; Ueland, P.M.; Sanchez, M.J.; Quiros, J.R.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Larranaga, N.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Sieri, S.; Palli, D.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Khaw, K.T.; Bingham, S.; Hallmans, G.; Riboli, E.; Stattin, P.; Key, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Determinants of one-carbon metabolism, such as folate and vitamin B(12), have been implicated in cancer development. Previous studies have not provided conclusive evidence for the importance of circulating concentrations of folate and vitamin B(12) in prostate cancer etiology. The aim of

  4. The role of increased levels of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeperković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Homocysteine is a sulphur amino acid produced by demethylation of the essential amino acid methionine. Dysfunction of certain enzymes or insufficient intake of nutrients may cause increase of intracellular homocysteine, which is then exported into plasma. Etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases accompanied with higher level of homocysteine. McCully's theory suggests that high levels of homocysteine are associated with cardiovascular diseases, arteriosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Harmful effects of homocysteine are associated with LDL cholesterol oxidation, increased production of collagen, lower availability of nitric oxide as well as prothrombotic activity. Reduction of homocysteine levels. The most recent researches show that hyperhomocysteinemia is responsible for about 10% of total risk of cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin BJ2 plays a major role in the remethylation of homocysteine. Reducing the homocysteine concentration in blood by 3 mol/l (with daily intake of 0.8 mg of folic acid reduces the risk of ishemic heart diseases by 16%, vein thrombosis by 25%, and stroke by 24%. A six-month therapy with folic acid (Img/d, vitamin B12 (400g/d and vitamin B6 (10mg/d, reduces the frequency of cardiovascular occurrences after successful PTCA. Plasma homocysteine concentration over 12/1 doubles the risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusion. A lack of folates, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 increases the level of homocysteine and thus increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Changes in lifestyle and diet, as well as intake of food supplements, are of great importance in reducing homocysteine levels in plasma and therefore in reducing the occurrence and acceleration of arteriosclerosis. .

  5. Plasma homocysteine, measurement and clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    Raised plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been cited as a major risk factor for several vascular disorders. Yet hyperhomocysteinaemia is easily treated through dietary intervention and vitamin supplementation. Commercial assays have facilitated routine plasma Hcy analysis. However, the problem faced by clinicians is stabilisation of Hcy in whole blood samples prior to delivery to the laboratory. Following blood collection, erythrocytes continue to produce and excrete Hcy increasing p...

  6. Impact of Circulating Vitamin D Binding Protein Levels on the Association Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with elevated pancreatic cancer risk. As this is contrary to an expected inverse association between vitamin D status and cancer, we examined whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary carrier of vitamin D compounds in circulation, plays a role in this relationship. Prediagnostic serum DBP and 25(OH)D were studied in relation to risk of pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study of 234 pancre...

  7. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (pvitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  8. Lowering homocysteine levels with folic acid and B-vitamins do not reduce early atherosclerosis, but could interfere with cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapuoti, Federico

    2013-10-01

    Inheired or acquired hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with several impairments, as certain tumors, deep venous thrombosis, tube neural defects, osteoporosis, early atherosclerosis and vascular acute events (IMA, stroke, PVD), mild cognitive impairments till Alzheimer's disease (AD). But, vascular and neuronal derangements are the most frequent HHcy-manifestations. As far as early atherosclerosis, some clinical trials demonstrated that folates and B6-12 vitamins supplementation is unable to reduce atherosclerotic lesions and cardiovascular events, even if it lowers HHcy levels. Thus, for atherosclerosis and its acute events (IMA, stroke, PVD) HHcy acts as a powerful biomarker rather than a risk factor. For that, the supplementation with folates and B vitamins to lower atherosclerotic lesions-events in hyperhomocysteinemic patients is not recommended. On the contrary, several clinical investigations demonstrated that folates and vitamins administration is able to reduce Hcy serum levels and antagonize some mechanisms favouring neurodegenerative impairments, as mild cognitive impairment, AD and dementia. Thus, contrarily to the atherosclerotic manifestations in hyperhomocysteinemic patients, preventive treatment with folates and B6-12 vitamins reduces Hcy concentration and could prevent or delay cognitive decline and AD. PMID:23224755

  9. In vitamin B12 deficiency, higher serum folate is assoicated with increased total homocysteine (tHcy) and methlmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent study of older participants (age >/= 60 y) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we showed that a combination of high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 status was associated with higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and anemia than other combina...

  10. Vitamin K circulating cytokines and bone mineral density in older men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Vitamin K has been shown in vitro to modulate cytokines involved in bone turnover, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Objective: To assess: (1) associations between measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone and serum percent undercarboxylated osteocalcin (...

  11. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysne, Vegard; Bjørndal, Bodil; Vik, Rita; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Skorve, Jon; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP), with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP. PMID:26053618

  12. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP, with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP.

  13. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  14. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor M Stukes

    Full Text Available Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OHD and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OHD at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level; and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6 and did not correlate with 25(OHD, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively. Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001. Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OHD concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively. This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OHD values and warrants additional studies for further observation.

  15. Influence of vitamin D binding protein on the association between circulating vitamin D and risk of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, A M; Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is little research investigating the role of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) in the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and disease risk. Methods: Within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, 250 bladder cancer cases were randomly sampled and matched 1:1 to controls on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of bladder cancer were estimated by quartiles of DBP (measured by ELISA), 25(OH)...

  16. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Nutrition basics Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water How to eat for health Special food issues ... Helps your body fight infections Helps keep your skin healthy Kale, broccoli, spinach, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, ...

  17. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitamin E: Avocado Dark green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, asparagus, and turnip greens) Margarine (made from safflower, corn, ... Cereals Dark green vegetables (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and asparagus) Dark leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collards, and turnip ...

  18. Circulating Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Is Associated with Vitamin K Nutritional Status, but Not Coronary Artery Calcium, in Older Adults1234

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, M. Kyla; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Vermeer, Cees; Magdeleyns, Elke J. P.; Crosier, Michael D.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Ordovas, José M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Sarah L. Booth

    2011-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue that must be carboxylated by vitamin K to function. Evidence suggests circulating uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) is elevated in persons with disease characterized by vascular calcification. The primary purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in older adults without coronary heart disease. Genetic determinant...

  19. Determinants of homocysteine levels in ivorian rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Tiahou, Georges; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Sees, Daniel; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Badiou, Stéphanie

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, homocysteine (Hcy) and vitamin B status were determined in healthy subjects living in two opposite regions of the Ivory Coast. Fifty-six subjects from a coastal region (Bodou) having a fish-based diet and 56 subjects from a mountainous area (Glanle) having a vegetarian diet were tested to sample Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, creatinine, and lipid levels, as well as inflammation and nutritional parameters. An increased prevalence of Hcy >/=15micromol/L was observed, reaching ...

  20. Homocysteine and related genetic polymorphisms in Down's syndrome IQ

    OpenAIRE

    Gueant, J; Anello, G; Bosco, P; Gueant-Rodriguez, R; Romano, A.; Barone, C.; Gerard, P.; Romano, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of Alzheimer-type dementia. Its metabolic phenotype involves an increased trans-sulphuration of homocysteine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of homocysteinaemia (t-Hcys), folate, vitamin B12, and related polymorphisms on intelligence quotient (IQ) in DS.

  1. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  2. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also has cholesterol-lowering effects. Folate works with vitamin B12 to help form red blood cells. It is needed for the production of DNA, which controls tissue growth and cell function. Any woman who is pregnant should be sure ...

  3. Plasma homocysteine concentration changes after renal transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Aicha; Delvin, Edgar E; Genest, Jacques; Rozen, Rima; Lambert, Marie

    2002-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is found in children as well as in 80% of adult patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in plasma homocysteine concentrations after renal transplantation (RT). Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate concentrations were prospectively measured in six patients at three points, before and post transplantation (6 months, 4 years), and compared with controls using standardized scores (Z score) for each of these parameters. Folic acid supplementation was introduced after the evaluation at 6 months. Patients had elevated median plasma homocysteine Z scores during dialysis (4.12). When assessed at 6 months and 4 years, median plasma homocysteine Z scores were, respectively, 2.35 and 0.29. Median folate Z scores were 1.89 during dialysis, -0.26 at 6 months, and 3.26 at 4 years post RT. Median vitamin B(12) Z score was 2.12 during dialysis, 0.58 at 6 months, and -0.07 at 4 years post RT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improved after RT, with median GFR of 84.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 6 months. This stabilized to a value of 70.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 4 years. When comparing values before and after RT at 6 months, changes were observed only for GFR ( P<0.03) and vitamin B(12) ( P<0.05). There were no changes in plasma homocysteine, folate, and serum albumin. At 4 years, a significant decrease in plasma homocysteine was observed ( P<0.05) with increased GFR ( P<0.03). No significant changes were observed in plasma albumin, folate, and vitamin B(12) concentrations. In conclusion, elevated plasma homocysteine in children during dialysis persists after RT despite a significant improvement in renal function. However, normalization was attained when patients were supplemented with folic acid. Further controlled studies are required to evaluate the determinants and treatment of elevated plasma homocysteine in pediatric transplant patients. PMID:12172766

  4. Blood homocysteine and fasting insulin levels are reduced and erythrocyte sedimentation rates increased with a glycophospholipid-vitamin formulation: a retrospective study in older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevations in Homocyteine (Hcys levels in the blood have been correlated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and stroke, loss of cognition and memory, and other chronic medical conditions. Objective: A retrospective study was initiated to determine if Hcys levels and other blood markers were altered in subjects taking an oral functional food supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids (NT Factor® and vitamins. Methods: Thirty-five patients (28 females, 7 males, Av. Age=60.7±9.6 years who had used the functional food Advanced Physician’s FormulaTM with NTFactor® in tablet form each day were enrolled in a retrospective study on blood chemistry. This retrospective study followed a prospective study on the use of the same supplement to reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue. Participants were patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis or other fatiguing illnesses. Subjects had blood drawn over a 6-month period, and routine blood testing was performed. In this laboratory study the results were analyzed for differences, and statistical analyses were performed. Results: All participants responded in the study and showed an average reduction of 31.8% in Hcys levels (from 10.85±0.42 to 7.40±0.42 µmol/L; t-test, p<0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001. Women responded better than men: women (from 11.06±0.50 to 8.67±0.82 µmol/L, 34.4% reduction, t-test, p< 0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001 versus men (from 10.80±0.51 to 7.01±0.47 µmol/L, 21.6% reduction, t-test, p< 0.0862. Differences were also found in fasting insulin levels (from 12.80±3.11 to 5.30±1.77 µIU/mL, 58.6% reduction, t-test, p<0.005 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. ESR increased from 10.5±2.21 to 20.19±3.20 mm/hr (92.2% increase, t-test, p<0.0314; Wilcoxon, p<0.0154. Other tests were not significantly different after 6 months of supplement, there were no side effects from the test supplement, and none of the participants had

  5. Plasma homocysteine concentration in children with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Lambert, M; Delvin, E E; Genest, J; Robitaille, P; Rozen, R

    2001-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is commonly found in adult patients with end-stage renal disease. Major determinants of elevated plasma homocysteine levels in these patients include deficiencies in folate and vitamin B12, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and renal function. Little information is available for children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The prevalence and the factors that affect plasma homocysteine concentration were determined in children. Twenty-nine children with various degrees of CRF (15 were dialyzed, 14 were not dialyzed) were compared with 57 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Homocysteine concentrations were higher in patients than controls (17.3 micromol/l vs 6.8 micromol/l, P95th percentile for controls: 14.0 micromol/l) was seen in 62.0% of patients and 5.2% of controls. Folate concentrations were lower in patients (9.9 nmol/l) than controls (13.5 nmol/l), P<0.01. Vitamin B12 was similar in patients (322 pmol/l) and controls (284 pmol/l). Dialyzed patients have a higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia than nondialyzed patients (87% vs 35%). Dialyzed patients with MTHFR mutation have higher plasma homocysteine (28.5 micromol/l) than nondialyzed patients with the mutation (10.7 micromol/l), P<0.002. In our study, differences between controls and patients in plasma homocysteine concentrations are observed when age is greater then 92 months, folate less than 21.6 nmol/l and vitamin B12 less than 522 pmol/l. Our study shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is common in children with CRF and is associated with low folate and normal vitamin B12 status, compared to normal children. Among the patients, the dialyzed patients with the MTHFR mutation are particularly at risk for hyperhomocysteinemia. Further studies are needed to investigate therapeutic interventions and the potential link with vascular complications in these patients. PMID:11605787

  6. Effect of fortified spread on homocysteine concentration in apparently healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Jacobs, R.G.J.M.; Deckere, E. de; Berg, H. van den; Bree, A. de; Put, N.M.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 fortified spreads on the blood concentrations of these vitamins and homocysteine. Design and setting: A 6-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel trial carried out in a clinical research center. Subjects: One

  7. Effect of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs on plasma homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Dierkes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Dierkes, Claus Luley, Sabine WestphalInstitute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, are a risk factor for coronary, cerebral and peripheral artery disease. Next to other factors, drugs used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. Thus, a drug induced homocysteine increase may counteract the desired cardioprotective effect. The aim is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of two important classes of drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs, on homocysteine metabolism. Among the lipid-lowering drugs, especially the fibric acid derivatives, which are used for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increase of homocysteine by 20%–50%. This increase can be reduced, but not totally avoided by the addition of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 to fibrates. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins do not influence homocysteine concentrations substantially. The effects of nicotinic acid and n3-fatty acids on the homocysteine concentrations are less clear, more studies are necessary to clarify their influence on homocysteine. Antihypertensive drugs have also been studied with respect to homocysteine metabolism. A homocysteine increase has been shown after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, a lowering was observed after treatment with ß-blockers, but no effect with ACE-inhibitors. The clinical significance of the homocysteine elevation by fibrates and thiazides is not clear. However, individual patients use these drugs for long time, indicating that even moderate increases may be important.Keywords: homocysteine, fibrates, diuretics, cardiovascular disease

  8. Homocysteine levels in acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimsoy, Zeliha; Ozmen, Bilgin; Ulusoy, Sadik

    2005-12-01

    Acromegaly is associated with a two to three-fold increase in mortality related predominantly to cardiovascular disease. The excess mortality is associated most closely with higher levels of growth hormone (GH). Survival in acromegaly may be normalized to a control age-matched rate by controlling GH levels; in particular, GH levels less than 2.5 ng/mL are associated with survival rates equal to those of the general population. Hyperhomocysteinemia has also been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet there are limited data on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acromegaly. Eighteen acromegaly patients (7 male, 11 female, mean age 42.8 +/- 11.0 years) in our endocrine clinic consented to having the following tests performed: complete blood count (CBC), thyroid hormones, folic acid, vitamin B12, plasma homocysteine levels, uric acid, fibrinogen, CRP, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). By history, fourteen had macroadenomas and four had microadenomas; eight had hypertension; two had glucose intolerance, and four had diabetes. Fifteen had had transsphenoidal or transfrontal surgery: two had been cured, but 13 others were taking long-acting octreotide. Five patients had undergone radiotherapy and the acromegaly in two was treated primarily with long-acting octreotide. CBC, thyroid hormone, folic acid, and vit B12 levels were normal in all patients. We divided the patients into two groups according to mean GH levels after an OGTT: Group 1 (GH<2.5 ng/mL, n=10), and Group 2 (GH<2.5 ng/mL, n=8). Comparison of the two groups using Mann-Whitney U testing revealed statistically significant lower levels in Group 1 of the following parameters: GH (1.91 +/- 0.90 vs. 8.58 +/- 5.55 ng/mL, p=0.002), IGF-1 (338.30 +/- 217.90 vs. 509.60 +/- 293.58 ng/dL, p=0.06), GH after

  9. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  10. Homocysteine as a potential biochemical marker for depression in elderly stroke survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Crewther, Sheila G.; Carey, Leeanne M; Noonan, Kate; Crewther, David P.; Linden, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elderly stroke survivors have been reported to be at risk of malnutrition and depression. Vitamin B-related metabolites such as methylmalonic acid and homocysteine have been implicated in depression. Objective: We conducted a study exploring the relationship between homocysteine and post-stroke depression. Design: Three methodologies were used: Observational cohort study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149) 1.5 years post-stroke, assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ...

  11. Homocysteine as a potential biochemical marker for depression in elderly stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela C. Pascoe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly stroke survivors have been reported to be at risk of malnutrition and depression. Vitamin B-related metabolites such as methylmalonic acid and homocysteine have been implicated in depression. Objective: We conducted a study exploring the relationship between homocysteine and post-stroke depression. Design: Three methodologies were used: Observational cohort study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149 1.5 years post-stroke, assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Results: Homocysteine significantly correlated with depressive symptomatology in stroke survivors (β = 0.18*. Individuals with abnormal levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine were almost twice more likely to show depressive symptomatology than those with normal levels (depressive symptoms 22%; no depressive symptoms 12%. Comparison of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels with literature data showed fewer stroke survivors had vitamin deficiency than did reference individuals (normal range 66%; elevated 34%. Conclusions: Homocysteine is significantly associated with depressive symptomatology in elderly Swedish stroke survivors.

  12. Microsatellite instability and the association with plasma homocysteine and thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Lindebjerg, Jan; Crüger, Dorthe G.;

    2008-01-01

    The possible associations between microsatellite instability, homocysteine and thymidylate synthase were investigated in tumors and plasma from 130 patients with colorectal cancer. Other analyses included thymidylate synthase and 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms......, carcinoembryonic antigen, vitamin B12, and folate. Microsatellite instability of tumors was associated with higher levels of plasma homocysteine (p = 0.008) and higher protein expression of thymidylate synthase (p ... factors. CEA was not associated with neither homocysteine nor microsatellite instability. The data suggests that there is a more pronounced methyl unit deficiency in microsatellite instable tumors....

  13. Homocisteína, vitaminas relacionadas y estilos de vida en personas de edad avanzada: estudio SÉNECA Homocysteine related vitamins and lifestyles in the ederly people: SENECA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Varela-Moreiras

    2007-06-01

    consumo de vino y bebidas de alta graduación alcohólica se correlaciona positivamente con los valores de Hcy, mientras que no se observa asociación en el caso de la cerveza. El tabaquismo influye en la tHcy. Así, los fumadores, pero también los ex fumadores, presentan concentraciones más elevadas que los no fumadores.The SENECA study started in 1988 and consisted of a random age- and sex-stratified sample of inhabitants of 19 European towns. A total of 2.100 elderly people were finally able to be included in the study. The present study includes results for total plasma homocysteine (tHcy and the related vitamins folate, B12 and B6. Other style factors as alcohol consumption or smoking have been also evaluated. The lowest values for tHcy corresponded to Mediterranean countries (Portugal, Spain, and Greece, compared to central or northern european countries (Netherland or Belgium (differences higher than 4 µmol/l. In addition, an interesting north-south gradient is observed, with the lowest values for tHcy corresponding to Betanzos (Spain, 12.38µmol/l followed by both centers in Portugal, whereas the highest concentrations are found in Maki (Poland, 21.92 µmol/l and Culemborg (Netherlands, 20.41µmol/l. The mean tHcy concentration for all the European centers was 15.98 µmol/l. Effect of sex has been also evaluated: those countries with the lowest tHcy concentration (i.e. Spain or Portugal show significant (p < 0.01 higher tHcy concentration in men vs women, whereas these differences by sex are not observed in countries with the highest tHcy values. The effect of"aging" within the same individuals after ten years of follow up was also evaluated: a significant difference was observed for the same individuals in the 10-years period. Plasma folic acid was compared to tHcy values, resulting also in marked differences between north and southern countries. Plasma vitamin B12 also shows a close pattern. Either plasma folate or vitamin B12 were shown as strong predictors

  14. Homocysteine Disulphides and Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Iuliano; Gaetano De Tommaso; Raffaele Ragone

    2009-01-01

    The total plasma concentration of homocysteine is a marker of this amino acid's atherogenic potential. However, the homocysteine pool exists almost entirely as oxidized homocysteine equivalents (OHcyE), composed of homocystine and cysteine-homocysteine disulphides (20–30%), and protein-bound disulphide (70–80%). We have noticed that the total concentration of OHcyE in injured coronary artery tissue is higher than the aqueous solubility of homocystine (∼1.4–1.5 × 10-3 mol kg-1 versus ∼0.6 mol ...

  15. Homocysteine and atheromatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪梅

    2006-01-01

    @@ Homocysteine (Hcy) was first linked with atherosclerosis over more than 30 years ago. McCully reported autopsy evidence of extensive arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in two children with elevated plasma Hcy concentrations and homocystinuria in 1969. On the basis of this clinical observation, he put forward the Hcy theory of arteriosclerosis. Subsequent investigations HHcy have confirmed the association between and premature atherosclerosis of the coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular beds.

  16. Dietary predictors of plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinova, Svetlana V.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Berstad, Paula; Ueland, Per Magne; Drevon, Christian A.; Refsum, Helga; Tell, Grethe Seppola

    2007-01-01

    Established dietary predictors of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) include folate, riboflavin, and vitamins B6 and B12, while information is scarce regarding other dietary components. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between a variety of food groups, food items and nutrients, and plasma tHcy in a large population-based study. The study population included 5812 men and women aged 47–49 and 71–74 years who completed a 169-item FFQ. tHcy was examined across quartiles of dietary ...

  17. La polimedicación en mayores institucionalizados: su efecto sobre los niveles de vitamina B12, folato y homocisteína Polymedication in institutionalized elderly and its effect on vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Albers

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar qué tipo de medicamentos consume una población de ancianos institucionalizados en la Comunidad de Madrid y valorar la influencia de estos fármacos sobre las concentraciones de vitamina B12 (B12 y holotranscobalamina, folato sérico (FS y homocisteína (Hcy. Metodología: 167 individuos (32% varones, edad media 83 ± 7 años, fueron categorizados dependiendo de si la variable bioquímica estaba dentro o fuera del intervalo de normalidad. Los medicamentos fueron agrupados según la clasificación ATC. Mediante una prueba exacta de Fisher se estudió la relación entre el consumo de un determinado grupo de fármacos y la alteración de los niveles de las variables bioquímicas. Resultados: El consumo medio diario fue de 5 fármacos diferentes. Los mas consumidos fueron psicolépticos y antiácidos (ambos 53%. Se observaron deficiencias de B12 (mediana 158,2 pg/mL; 10,7%, FS (5,3 ng/mL; 52,1%, holotranscobalamina (11,76 pmoL/L; 7,8% y un 65,9% de hiperhomocisteinemia (19,4 μmoL/L. La toma de antianémicos normalizaba los valores de B12, los preparados urológicos y los corticosteroides los niveles de folato y los psicoanalépticos los de holotranscobalamina. La medicación contra obstrucciones pulmonares aumentaba los niveles de Hcy (todos p Aim: To determine drug consumption in institutionalized elderly living in the Region of Madrid (Spain and to assess the relationship between drug intake and biochemical parameters for vitamin B12 (Cobalamin and Holotranscobalamin, serum folate (SF and homocysteine (Hcy. Methods: 167 subjects (32% men, mean age 83±7 years, were classified according to biochemical parameter levels (in or out of reference range and drugs were classified according to ATC system. The relationship between drug intake and biochemical levels was studied by means of the Fisher exact test. Results: The daily mean drug intake was 5. Psicoleptic and antiacid drugs were the most consumed (both 53%. Cobalamin (median

  18. Effect of lipopenic and hypotensive treatment on homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabrouka El Oudi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mabrouka El Oudi1, Zied Aouni1, Haroun Ouertani2, Chakib Mazigh2, Salem Machghoul11Département de biochimie, 2Service d’endocrinologie, Hôpital militaire de Tunis, 1008 Montfleury, TunisieAim: Evaluate the effect of lipopenic and hypotensive treatment on homocysteine levels.Methods: We recruited 145 type 2 diabetics and 130 control subjects. Thirty-seven diabetics had no complications, 54 had microvascular complications and 54 had macrovascular complications. We determined the parameters homocysteine of lipid, vitamin B12, triglycerides, and folates for all subjects. Associated treatments used one or more of the following drugs, statin, fibrate, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and beta-blockers.Results: Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 35.6% of patients. Diabetics had elevated serum levels of triglycerides (P < 0.001, homocysteine (P < 0.01, folates (P < 0.01 and vitamin B12 (P < 0.001. A strong association was found between type 2 diabetes and hyperhomocysteinemia (P < 0.001. Diabetics with associated treatment had elevated homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels when compared to diabetes-free controls. For diabetics with macrovascular complications, we found significant differences in homocysteine (P = 0.010 and folate (P = 0.014 between those taking associated drugs and those who did not. For diabetics with microvascular complications, a significant difference was found in folate only (P = 0.012. Conclusion: Drugs used for hypertension and hyperlipidemia may have an effect on homocysteine levels, for this reason the interaction between drug action and homocysteine levels should be taken into consideration.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, complications, homocysteine, hypolipemiant drug, hypotensive drug

  19. Comparison of Protein N-Homocysteinylation in Rat Plasma under Elevated Homocysteine Using a Specific Chemical Labeling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Tianzhu; Pottenplackel, Ligi Paul; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph; Dai, Shujia; Deth, Richard C; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Ma, Jisheng

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine have been well established as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases, yet the etiologic relationship of homocysteine to these disorders remains poorly understood. Protein N-homocysteinylation has been hypothesized as a contributing factor; however, it has not been examined globally owing to the lack of suitable detection methods. We recently developed a selective chemical method to label N-homocysteinylated proteins with a biotin-aldehyde tag followed by Western blotting analysis, which was further optimized in this study. We then investigated the variation of protein N-homocysteinylation in plasma from rats on a vitamin B12 deficient diet. Elevated "total homocysteine" concentrations were determined in rats with a vitamin B12 deficient diet. Correspondingly, overall levels of plasma protein N-homocysteinylation displayed an increased trend, and furthermore, more pronounced and statistically significant changes (e.g., 1.8-fold, p-value: 0.03) were observed for some individual protein bands. Our results suggest that, as expected, a general metabolic correlation exists between "total homocysteine" and N-homocysteinylation, although other factors are involved in homocysteine/homocysteine thiolactone metabolism, such as the transsulfuration of homocysteine by cystathionine β-synthase or the hydrolysis of homocysteine thiolactone by paraoxonase 1 (PON1), may play more significant or direct roles in determining the level of N-homocysteinylation. PMID:27617989

  20. Homocysteine Levels in Chronic Gastritis and Other Conditions: Relations to Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Redéen, Stefan; Ryberg, Anna; Petersson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Olle; Nägga, Katarina; Borch, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Background Homocysteine levels in circulation are determined by several factors and hyperhomocysteinemia is reportedly associated with cardiovascular diseases and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of chronic gastritis and other conditions to homocysteine levels and their relation to incident cardiovascular diseases and dementia. Methods An adult population-based cohort (N = 488) was screened for H. pylori infection, gastro-duodenitis (endoscopic biopsies), disease h...

  1. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  2. Avaliação dos níveis de hiper-homocisteinemia, vitamina E, selênio, cobre, ceruloplasmina e ferritina em pacientes com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico Assesment of homocysteine, vitamin E, selenium, copper, ceruloplasmin and ferritin levels in patients with ischemic stroke diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Harboe-Gonçalves

    2007-02-01

    ferritin in patients with diagnosis of ischemic stroke (IS. METHODS: 104 patients with the diagnosis of IS and 98 healthy controls had blood homocysteine, vitamin E, selenium, copper, ceruloplasmin and ferritin analyzed. Homocysteine and vitamin E were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, selenium by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry, copper by colorimetry, ceruloplasmin by nefelometry and ferritin by enzyme linked fluorescent assay. Statistics was performed with Student’s t test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: Frequency of hyperhomocysteinaemia was 43% for patients and 13% for controls. Concentrations of vitamin E, copper, ceruloplasmin and ferritin were significantly higher in patients. Differences in selenium levels were not statistically significant. DISCUSSION: Hyperhomocysteinaemia levels were higher than those found in literature, possibly due to population’s genetics or its nutritional habits. As to vitamin E, selenium, copper, ceruloplasmin and ferritin, our results match some published papers but this study’s model cannot stablish whether vitamin E and selenium levels were changed by IS or by new habits acquired by the patients. Ferritin and ceruloplasmin can be a marker for IS instead of causative agent of its pathogenesis. CONCLUSION: Hyperhomocysteinaemia is more prevalent in patients with IS diagnosis. Higher levels of vitamin E, copper, ceruloplasmin and ferritin found in patients cannot be imputed to IS.

  3. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Bennett, Derrick A; Parish, Sarah;

    2012-01-01

    Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreci......Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR......) appreciably increases homocysteine levels, so "Mendelian randomization" studies using this variant as an instrumental variable could help test causality....

  4. Erythrocyte folate, plasma folate and plasma homocysteine during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 404 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Hvas, Anne-Mette;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess folate and homocysteine status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study, performed in 1995-1996, comprised 404 healthy pregnant Danish Caucasian women residential in Copenhagen County. Women taking folic acid tablets or vitamin B12...... injections were not included. Dietary multivitamin supplements containing folic acid 100 microg or vitamin B12 1 microg, taken by 34%, were discontinued at inclusion. Participants had normal renal function. Folate status [erythrocyte (Ery-) folate, plasma (P-) folate, P-homocysteine] was measured at 18, 32.......2% postpartum (P homocysteine demonstrated a significant increase: median value was 6.4, 7.0, 7.7 and 10.8 micromol/L, respectively (P homocysteine >13 micromol/L increased during pregnancy from 0.7% to 20.8% postpartum (P

  5. Study on Relationship between Homocysteine,Folic Acid,Vitamin B12 and Multiple Sclerosis%血清同型半胱氨酸、叶酸、维生素B12浓度与多发性硬化的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建磊; 李郭飞; 常娜; 王朝辉; 刘大建; 贺维亚

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the serum level of homocysteine(Hcy)and multiple sclerosis(MS).Method:The concentration of Hcy,folic acid and vitamin B12 in serum in 41 MS patients(MS group)and 42 normal controls(NC group)were detected,and the results were compared and analyzed.Result:The mean concentrations of Hcy in MS group and NC group were(25.82±1.724)μmol/L,(13.60±1.517)μmol/L respectively. The mean concentration of Hcy in the MS group was significantly higher than the NC group,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:The level of Hcy is higher in MS patients,homocysteine may play a role in the pathological process of multiple sclerosis.%目的:探讨血清同型半胱氨酸水平(Hcy)与多发性硬化(MS)的关系。方法:检测41例MS患者(MS组)和42例正常对照者(NC组)血清中Hcy浓度、叶酸及维生素B12浓度,并将结果进行比较分析。结果:MS组和NC组血清中Hcy浓度分别为(25.82±1.724)μmol/L、(13.60±1.517)μmol/L。MS组的Hcy浓度明显高于NC组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:MS患者血清Hcy水平升高,同型半胱氨酸可能在多发性硬化病理过程中起作用。

  6. Helicobacter pylori eradication lowers serum homocysteine level in patients without gastric atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birol Ozer; Ender Serin; Yuksel Gumurdulu; Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ruksan Anarat; Gurden Gur; Kemal Kul; Mustafa Gu(c)lu; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)infection caused hyperhomocysteinemia by altering serum vitamin B12, serum folate and erythrocyte folate levels and whether eradication of this organism decreased serum homocysteine level.METHODS: The study involved 73 dyspeptic H pylori positive patients, none of them had gastric mucosal atrophy based on rapid urease test and histology. Out of 73patients, 41 (56.2%) showed a successful eradication of H pylori 4 wk after the end of treatment. In these 41 patients, fasting serum vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and erythrocyte folate levels before and 4 wk after H pylorieradication therapy were compared.RESULTS: The group with a successful eradication of Hpylori had significantly higher serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate levels in the post-treatment period compared to those in pre-treatment period (210±97 pg/mL vs 237±94 pg/mL, P<0.001 and 442±212 ng/mL vs 539±304 ng/mL, P = 0.024, respectively), but showed no significant change in serum folate levels (5.6±2.6 ng/mL vs 6.0±2.4 ng/mL, P= 0.341). Also, the serum homocysteine levels in this group were significantly lower after therapy (13.1±5.2 μmol/L vs 11.9±6.2 μmol/L, P = 0.002). Regression analysisshowed that serum homocysteine level was positively correlated with age (P = 0.01) and negatively with serum folate level before therapy (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Eradication of H pylori decreases serum homocysteine even in patients who do not exhibit gastric mucosal atrophy. It appears that the level of homocysteine in serum is related to a complex interaction among serum vitamin B12, serum folate and erythrocyte folate levels.

  7. Serum Homocysteine and Folate Levels are Associated With Late-life Dementia in a Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ju Hee; Park, Moon Ho; Han, Changsu; Jo, Sangmee A.; Ahn, Kyungsook

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine whether serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and its biological determinants, folate and vitamin B12, are related to cognitive decline in elderly people. Methods The concentrations of total Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in serum samples from 424 cognitively normal controls, 382 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 56 dementia patients from Ansan Geriatric cohort. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) neuropsycholo...

  8. Homocysteine and cognitive performance: modification by the ApoE genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A; Budge, Marc M; Elias, Penelope K; Dore, Gregory A; Brennan, Suzanne L; Johnston, Carole; Nagy, Zsuzsanna

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that the magnitude of the association between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive performance is larger for ApoE-epsilon4 carriers than for non-carriers. Nine hundred eleven dementia-free and stroke-free subjects (59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse study (26-98 years old) were stratified into no-ApoE-epsilon4 (n=667) and ApoE-epsilon4 carrier (n=244) cohorts. Employing a cross-sectional design and multiple regression analyses, plasma homocysteine was related to multiple domains of cognitive performance within these cohorts. When unadjusted, and with adjustment for age, education, gender, ethnicity, and previous cognitive examinations, homocysteine concentrations were inversely related to cognitive performance within both ApoE cohorts, with higher magnitude of associations within the ApoE-epsilon4 cohort. With adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and B-vitamin concentrations, the higher magnitude of associations between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance within the ApoE-epsilon4 cohort relative to the no-ApoE-epsilon4 cohort persisted; but associations of plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance were attenuated and no longer significant within the no-ApoE-epsilon4 cohort. Presence of the ApoE-epsilon4 allele modifies the relation between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance. PMID:18023533

  9. 25-hydroxyvitamin D circulates in different fractions of calf plasma if the parent compound is vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 respectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    dairy cows with sufficient vitamin D. However, choosing the most efficient route and form of supplementation requires insight into how different vitamin D metabolites are transported in the body of cattle. There are two forms of vitamin D: vitamin D2 (D2) and vitamin D3 (D3). Vitamin D2 originates from......Vitamin D has become one of the most discussed nutrients in human nutrition, which has led to an increased interest in milk as a vitamin D source. Problems related to fortifying milk with synthetic vitamin D can be avoided by securing a high content of natural vitamin D in the milk by supplying...

  10. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  11. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jian; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Mattei, Josiemer; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardioprotective effects of vitamin B-6 independent of homocysteine suggest that additional mechanisms may be involved.

  12. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Pregnant Women in Samsun Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin; Basar Demir; Mahir igde; Banu Gulcan Oksuz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy can cause severe demyelinating central nervous system disorder. Most cases are exclusively breast-fed infants born to mothers with deficient vitamin B12 stores. As maternal vitamin B12 stores are the main determinant of neonatal vitamin B12 status, we aimed to determine the vitamin B12 status of pregnant women at term in our region. Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin B12, folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in addition to routine test...

  13. Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hsin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n=57 or the nonexposure controls (n=42 based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC (partial rs=-0.34, P<0.05 and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs=0.29, P<0.05 after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities in welders.

  14. Destructive, granulating lesion in the temporal bone after elevated plasma homocysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonding, Per; Skriver, Elisabeth; Helin, Pekka;

    2004-01-01

    lesion in the left temporal bone was discovered; repeated histologic examination only showed simple granulation tissue. After 6 months, a part of the bony cochlea was extruded. With approximately 8 months' delay and after the patient had had postoperative lung embolism, plasma homocysteine was found...... to be significantly elevated, a condition known as an independent risk factor for thromboembolic lesions. In the acquired form, it is most often caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin B cofactors. Accordingly, the patient was treated with folic acid, which rapidly normalized plasma homocysteine. Subsequently...

  15. Increased plasma homocysteine in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Petersen, S; Hinrichsen, H; Czech, N; J Müller, M

    2001-05-01

    Background: Homocysteine (Hcy), is an atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factor which has also been proposed to be involved in hepatic fibrinogenesis. Hcy metabolism, depends on the cofactors folate, vit. B12, and the vit. B6 vitamer pyridoxalphosphate (PLP). Metabolism of these vitamins is frequently disturbed in cirrhotics, but little is known about plasma Hcy levels in these patients. Methods: Plasma levels of Hcy, methionine, serine, cysteine, PLP, vit. B12 and folate, and standard clinical/biochemical parameters of liver disease were measured in 43 postabsorptive patients with biopsy proven cirrhosis of different origin. Results: 74% of the patients had elevated plasma Hcy levels defined as >13.4 µmol/l (mean+2SD of healthy age matched controls). Increased plasma Hcy concentrations were seen in alcoholic as well as in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Excluding patients with impaired renal function (n=7), Hcy concentrations remained elevated in 69% of the patients. We found a high prevalence of pathological plasma vitamin concentrations of 33% for increased vit. B12 levels and 5% and 80% for decreased folate and vit. B6 levels, respectively. Mean plasma vitamin B12 concentrations increased, folate remained unchanged and PLP concentrations decreased with deteriorating liver function. Hcy concentrations were correlated with levels of creatinine (r=0.44, Pvit. B12 und vit. B6. This was contrary to data obtained in healthy individuals. In a stepwise multiple regression serine and cysteine best explained the variance in Hcy levels. Conclusions: Elevated basal Hcy-plasma levels are frequently seen cirrhotic patients. Variations of Hcy concentration in liver cirrhosis are not explained by plasma levels of cofactors of Hcy metabolism. PMID:11282484

  16. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye; Akbulut; Emin; Altiparmak; Firdevs; Topal; Ersan; Ozaslan; Metin; Kucukazman; Ozlem; Yonem

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum levels of homocysteine (Hcys) and the risk that altered levels carry for thrombosis development in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. METHODS: 55 UC patients and 45 healthy adults were included. Hcys, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured in both groups. Clinical history and thrombo- embolic events were investigated. RESULTS: The average Hcys level in the UC patients was 13.3 ± 1.93 μmmol/L (range 4.60-87) and was higher than the average Hcys level of the control group whi...

  17. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  18. Alpha-tocotrienol is the most abundant tocotrienol isomer circulated in plasma and lipoproteins after postprandial tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairus Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tocotrienols (T3 and tocopherols (T, both members of the natural vitamin E family have unique biological functions in humans. T3 are detected in circulating human plasma and lipoproteins, although at concentrations significantly lower than α-tocopherol (α-T. T3, especially α-T3 is known to be neuropotective at nanomolar concentrations and this study evaluated the postprandial fate of T3 and α-T in plasma and lipoproteins. Methods Ten healthy volunteers (5 males and 5 females were administered a single dose of vitamin E [526 mg palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF or 537 mg α-T] after 7-d pre-conditioning on a T3-free diet. Blood was sampled at baseline (fasted and 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after supplementation. Concentrations of T and T3 isomers in plasma, triacylglycerol-rich particles (TRP, LDL, and HDL were measured at each postprandial interval. Results After TRF supplementation, plasma α-T3 and γ-T3 peaked at 5 h (α-T3: 4.74 ± 1.69 μM; γ-T3: 2.73 ± 1.27 μM. δ-T3 peaked earlier at 4 h (0.53 ± 0.25 μM. In contrast, α-T peaked at 6 h (30.13 ± 2.91 μM and 8 h (37.80 ± 3.59 μM following supplementation with TRF and α-T, respectively. α-T was the major vitamin E isomer detected in plasma, TRP, LDL, and HDL even after supplementation with TRF (composed of 70% T3. No T3 were detected during fasted states. T3 are detected postprandially only after TRF supplementation and concentrations were significantly lower than α-T. Conclusions Bio-discrimination between vitamin E isomers in humans reduces the rate of T3 absorption and affects their incorporation into lipoproteins. Although low absorption of T3 into circulation may impact some of their physiological functions in humans, T3 have biological functions well below concentration noted in this study.

  19. The role of Homocysteine as a predictor for coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm, Susanne

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There is an ongoing debate on the role of the cytotoxic aminoacid homocysteine as a causal risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Results from multiple case control-studies demonstrate, that there is a strong association between high plasma levels of homoysteine and prevalent coronary heart disease, independent of other classic risk factors. Furthermore, results from interventional studies point out that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine may effectively be lowered by the intake of folic acid and B vitamins. In order to use this information for the construction of a new preventive strategy against coronary heart disease, more information is needed: first, whether homocysteine actually is a causal risk factor with relevant predictive properties and, second, whether by lowering elevated homocysteine plasma concentrations cardiac morbidity can be reduced. Currently in Germany the determination of homocysteine plasma levels is reimbursed for by statutory health insurance in patients with manifest coronary heart disease and in patients at high risk for coronary heart disease but not for screening purposes in asymptomatic low risk populations.Against this background the following assessment sets out to answer four questions: 1. Is an elevated homocysteine plasma concentration a strong, consistent and independent (of other classic risk factors predictor for coronary heart disease? 2. Does a therapeutic lowering of elevated homoysteine plasma levels reduce the risk of developing coronary events? 3. What is the cost-effectiveness relationship of homocysteine testing for preventive purposes? 4. Are there morally, socially or legally relevant aspects that should be considered when implementing a preventive strategy as outlined above? Methods: In order to answer the first question, a systematic overview of prospective studies and metaanalyses of prospective studies is undertaken. Studies are included that

  20. METHYLMALONIC ACID AND HOMOCYSTEIN SERUM IN DIAGNOSING MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA DUE TO COBALAMIN AND FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN TRAVEL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Gian Indra Rahayuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Anemia is a major global health problem, especially in developing countries. Anemia is a condition where the red blood cell mass and / or hemoglobin mass that circulating in the body was decreased to below normal level so it can not function well in providing oxygen to the body tissues. One of the most common type is megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is mostly caused by vitamin B12 (cobalamin and folate deficiency. One of the causes of cobalamin and folate deficiency anemia is tropical sprue. Cobalamin deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia gives a similar symptom, but in cobalamin deficiency there is neuropathy symptoms. Normal serum folate is between 3-15 ng/mL. Normal folate erythrocyte is 150-600 ng/mL. In cobalamin deficiency, serum cobalamin decreased below the cut off point 100pg/mL (normally 100 - 400pg/mL. Other examination such as elevated homocysteine??, methylmalonic acid, or formioglutamic acid (FIGLU in the urine can confirm the diagnosis of cobalamin and folic acid deficiency. There is no consensus on the cut-off point of homocysteine ??and MMA. Homocysteine ??has been considered to increase when the levels are above 12-14 ?mol /L in women and in the 14-15 ?mol/L. According to research by Robert et al in the case of cobalamin deficiency, serum tHcy> 15.0 ?mol/L. Most research considers the increase of MMA in cobalamin deficiency is> 0:28 ?mol / L, but the cut off point in circulation varies between 0:21 to 0:48 ?mol/L. MMA level is increased in serum and urine in cobalamin deficiency, whereas MMA normal in folate deficiency. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font

  1. Vitamin D as a marker of cognitive decline in elderly Indian population

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    Tejal Kanhaiya Vedak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Very few studies in India have addressed the role of vitamin D in cognitive function. The present study was conducted to assess the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and its association with markers of cognitive impairment and homocysteine levels in the elderly Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of patients with dementia (Group A, n = 32, mild cognitive impairment (MCI; Group B, n = 24, and elderly age-matched controls (Group C, n = 30. Measurement of serum levels of 25(OHD and total homocysteine were done. Results: Significant decreased concentration of 25(OHD and increased concentration of homocysteine was observed. Association of serum levels of vitamin D with markers of cognitive decline as well as serum homocysteine levels was observed in patients with dementia and MCI when compared to controls. Conclusion: Correlation of vitamin D with markers of cognitive decline and homocysteine opens a new door for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  2. 同型半胱氨酸、叶酸、维生素 B12水平与急性脑梗死的关系分析%Analysis of the relationship between homocysteine,folate,vitamin B12 levels and acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区腾飞; 赵旭; 李荣; 李永鸿; 王鹏; 张俊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between homocysteine,folate,vitamin B12 levels and acute cerebral infarction. Meth-ods 50 cases of mild infarction,moderate infarction and severe infarction in our hospital from 2011 August to 2013 December were enrolled in ob-servation group and 50 cases of healthy persons underwent physical examination in our hospital were enrolled in control group. Then serum homo-cysteine,folate,vitamin B12 content were detected,nerve function,cognitive function and life ability were evaluated by NIHSS scale,MMSE scale and ADL scale. Results Patients with cerebral infarction Homocysteine levels was significantly higher than that of the control group,folic acid,vitamin B12 levels was lower than control group. There were statistically significant between mild,moderate and severe. The patients with cerebral infarction NIHSS,MMSE,Barthel was significantly lower than control group,there were statistically significant between mild,moderate and severe. The serum Hcy levels were positively correlated with NIHSS score and negatively correlated with MMSE score,Barthel index. The fo-late,vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with NIHSS score and positively correlated with MMSE score,Barthel index. Conclusion Ser-um homocysteine,folate,vitamin B12 content change in patients with acute cerebral infarction and are ideal index to evaluate prognosis for their levels,which have good correlation with nerve function,cognitive function and life ability.%目的:研究同型半胱氨酸、叶酸、维生素 B12水平与急性脑梗死的关系。方法参照 Pullicinp 法将2011年8月至2013年12月期间接受治疗的急性脑梗死轻度、中度和重度患者各50例纳入研究的观察组,同期体检健康者50例纳入研究的对照组。检测血清中同型半胱氨酸、叶酸、维生素 B12水平,并采用美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(NIHSS 量表)、简易精神状态评价量表(MMSE 量表)和日常生活活动

  3. Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersby, Derek; Chappell, David C; Dunnett, Andrew; Tsiami, Amalia A

    2013-03-14

    There is strong evidence indicating that elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a major independent biomarker and/or a contributor to chronic conditions, such as CVD. A deficiency of vitamin B₁₂ can elevate homocysteine. Vegetarians are a group of the population who are potentially at greater risk of vitamin B₁₂ deficiency than omnivores. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to appraise a range of studies that compared the homocysteine and vitamin B₁₂ levels of vegetarians and omnivores. The search methods employed identified 443 entries, from which, by screening using set inclusion and exclusion criteria, six eligible cohort case studies and eleven cross-sectional studies from 1999 to 2010 were revealed, which compared concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B₁₂ of omnivores, lactovegetarians or lacto-ovovegetarians and vegans. Of the identified seventeen studies (3230 participants), only two studies reported that vegan concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B₁₂ did not differ from omnivores. The present study confirmed that an inverse relationship exists between plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B₁₂, from which it can be concluded that the usual dietary source of vitamin B₁₂ is animal products and those who choose to omit or restrict these products are destined to become vitamin B₁₂ deficient. At present, the available supplement, which is usually used for fortification of food, is the unreliable cyanocobalamin. A well-designed study is needed to investigate a reliable and suitable supplement to normalise the elevated plasma tHcy of a high majority of vegetarians. This would fill the gaps in the present nutritional scientific knowledge. PMID:23298782

  4. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  5. Assessing the association between homocysteine and cognition: reflections on Bradford Hill, meta-analyses, and causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaddon, Andrew; Miller, Joshua W

    2015-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognized risk factor for cognitive decline and incident dementia in older adults. Two recent reports addressed the cumulative epidemiological evidence for this association but expressed conflicting opinions. Here, the evidence is reviewed in relation to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's criteria for assessing "causality," and the latest meta-analysis of the effects of homocysteine-lowering on cognitive function is critically examined. The meta-analysis included 11 trials, collectively assessing 22,000 individuals, that examined the effects of B vitamin supplements (folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6) on global or domain-specific cognitive decline. It concluded that homocysteine-lowering with B vitamin supplements has no significant effect on cognitive function. However, careful examination of the trials in the meta-analysis indicates that no conclusion can be made regarding the effects of homocysteine-lowering on cognitive decline, since the trials typically did not include individuals who were experiencing such decline. Further definitive trials in older adults experiencing cognitive decline are still urgently needed. PMID:26293664

  6. Low Birthweight (LBW) and Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) in an Indian Cohort: Association of Homocysteine, Its Metabolic Pathway Genes and Micronutrients as Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sukla, Krishna Kishore; Tiwari, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Raman, Rajiva

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Indian subcontinent has the highest child mortality rates along with a very high frequency of low birthweight (LBW). Folate and vitamin B12 (Vit-B12) are necessary during foetal development and their deficiency prevalence in Indians is very high. The objective of the present paper is to assess whether foetal homocysteine (Hcy)/folate metabolic pathway genes, their cofactors and homocysteine level independently (or collectively) predispose children to Low birth weight. Method...

  7. Homocysteine and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-03-01

    The homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis was discovered by study of arteriosclerotic plaques occurring in homocystinuria, a disease caused by deficiencies of cystathionine synthase, methionine synthase or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. According to the homocysteine theory, metabolic and nutritional abnormalities leading to elevation of plasma homocysteine cause atherosclerosis in the general population without these rare enzymatic abnormalities. Through studies of metabolism of homocysteine thiolactone, the anhydride of homocysteine, in cell cultures from homocystinuric children, the pathway for synthesis of sulfate was found to be dependent upon thioretinamide, the amide formed from retinoic acid and homocysteine thiolactone. Two molecules of thioretinamide form the complex thioretinaco with cobalamin, and oxidative phosphorylation is catalyzed by reduction of oxygen, which is bound to thioretinaco ozonide, by electrons from electron transport particles. Atherogenesis is attributed to formation of aggregates of homocysteinylated lipoproteins with microorganisms, which obstruct the vasa vasorum during formation of arterial vulnerable plaques. PMID:25653125

  8. Methoxistasis: Integrating the Roles of Homocysteine and Folic Acid in Cardiovascular Pathobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four decades, abnormalities in the methionine-homocysteine cycle and associated folate metabolism have garnered great interest due to the reported link between hyperhomocysteinemia and human pathology, especially atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. However, clinical trials of B-vitamin supplementation including high doses of folic acid have not demonstrated any benefit in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. In addition to the fact that these clinical trials may have been shorter in duration than appropriate for modulating chronic disease states, it is likely that reduction of the blood homocysteine level may be an oversimplified approach to a complex biologic perturbation. The methionine-homocysteine cycle and folate metabolism regulate redox and methylation reactions and are, in turn, regulated by redox and methylation status. Under normal conditions, a normal redox-methylation balance, or “methoxistasis”, exists, coordinated by the methionine-homocysteine cycle. An abnormal homocysteine level seen in pathologic states may reflect a disturbance of methoxistasis. We propose that future research should be targeted at estimating the deviation from methoxistasis and how best to restore it. This approach could lead to significant advances in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure.

  9. High Preformed Vitamin A Intake during Pregnancy Prevents Embryonic Accumulation of Intact β-Carotene from the Maternal Circulation in Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Costabile, Brianna; Rodas, Rebeka; Quadro, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The vitamin A precursor β-carotene (BC) promotes mammalian embryonic development by serving as a source of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) to the developing tissues. In the Western world, increased consumption of dietary supplements, including vitamin A and BC, is common; however, the consequences of maternal high preformed vitamin A intake on embryonic uptake and metabolism of BC are poorly understood.

  10. Association of Methylentetraydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677 C > T gene polymorphism and homocysteine levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients from Malaysia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew Siaw C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methyl donors. The methyl donors are required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Mutation of MTHFR 677 C > T disrupts its thermostability therefore leads to defective enzyme activities and dysregulation of homocysteine levels. Methods This case-control study (n = 367 was conducted to investigate the correlation of the MTHFR gene polymorphism [NM_005957] and psoriasis vulgaris amongst the Malaysian population. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from a subgroup of consented psoriasis vulgaris patients and matched controls (n = 84 for the quantification of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Results There was no significant increase of the MTHFR 677 C > T mutation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris compared with controls (χ2 = 0.733, p = 0.392. No significant association between homocysteine levels and MTHFR gene polymorphism in cases and controls were observed (F = 0.91, df = 3, 80, p = 0.44. However, homocysteine levels in cases were negatively correlated with vitamin B12 (r = -0.173 and folic acid (r = -0.345 levels. Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in cases were also negatively correlated (r = -0.164. Conclusions Our results indicate that there was no significant association between the MTHFR gene polymorphism and psoriasis vulgaris in the Malaysian population. There was no significant increase of the plasma homocysteine level in the psoriasis patients compared to the controls.

  11. Markedly increased circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate levels in hypophosphatasia. Alkaline phosphatase acts in vitamin B6 metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Vrabel, L A; Coburn, S P

    1985-01-01

    Markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) were found in each of 14 patients representing all clinical forms of hypophosphatasia, an inborn error characterized by deficient activity of the tissue nonspecific (bone/liver/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (AP). The mean PLP concentration in plasma was 1174 nM (range, 214-3839 nM) in the patients and 57 +/- 26 nM (mean +/- SD) in 38 control subjects. In four affected children, urinary excretion of the P...

  12. Homocysteine and Fibrinogen Changes with L-thyroxine in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Çakal, Başak; Çakal, Erman; Demirbaş, Berrin; ÖZKAYA, Mesut; Karaahmetoğlu, Selma; Serter, Rüştü; Aral, Yalçin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma total homocysteine (Hcys) and serum fibrinogen concentrations in subclinical hypothyroid (SH) and overt hypothyroid patients before and after L-thyroxine (LT4) replacement and to compare them in euthyroid subjects. Fifteen SH and 20 hypothyroid premenopausal women were recruited in the study. We measured fasting plasma levels of Hcys and serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyrotropin (TSH), folate, vitamin B12...

  13. The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Ueland, P. M.; Clarke, R; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van, R.; Groot, de, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the one-carbon metabolites, choline and homocysteine, to brain function is well known. However, the associations between the one-carbon metabolites choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine with cognition in elderly are unclear. We therefore examined the associations of these metabolites with cognition in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Individuals (n 195) were randomized to receive daily oral capsules with either 1000 ¿g cobalamin (vitamin B12), or 1000 ¿g ...

  14. Menadione (vitamin K3) is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in the intestine and a circulating precursor of tissue menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yoshihisa; Tsugawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Kimie; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Uchino, Yuri; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Sawada, Natsumi; Kamao, Maya; Wada, Akimori; Okitsu, Takashi; Okano, Toshio

    2013-11-15

    Mice have the ability to convert dietary phylloquinone (vitamin K1) into menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) and store the latter in tissues. A prenyltransferase enzyme, UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing 1 (UBIAD1), is involved in this conversion. There is evidence that UBIAD1 has a weak side chain cleavage activity for phylloquinone but a strong prenylation activity for menadione (vitamin K3), which has long been postulated as an intermediate in this conversion. Further evidence indicates that when intravenously administered in mice phylloquinone can enter into tissues but is not converted further to menaquinone-4. These findings raise the question whether phylloquinone is absorbed and delivered to tissues in its original form and converted to menaquinone-4 or whether it is converted to menadione in the intestine followed by delivery of menadione to tissues and subsequent conversion to menaquinone-4. To answer this question, we conducted cannulation experiments using stable isotope tracer technology in rats. We confirmed that the second pathway is correct on the basis of structural assignments and measurements of phylloquinone-derived menadione using high resolution MS analysis and a bioassay using recombinant UBIAD1 protein. Furthermore, high resolution MS and (1)H NMR analyses of the product generated from the incubation of menadione with recombinant UBIAD1 revealed that the hydroquinone, but not the quinone form of menadione, was an intermediate of the conversion. Taken together, these results provide unequivocal evidence that menadione is a catabolic product of oral phylloquinone and a major source of tissue menaquinone-4. PMID:24085302

  15. Homocysteine levels are associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitender; Das, Swapan K; Sharma, Priyanka; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2005-01-01

    An elevated level of homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with other complex disorders. Homocysteine levels can be elevated due to dietary and/or genetic factors. A majority of Indian population have a low level of vitamin B12 (presumably due to vegetarian diet)--a critical nutritional factor, deficiency of which results in hyperhomocysteinemia. Hence, polymorphisms in the genes responsible for homocysteine metabolism can be perceived to have a greater impact in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia in Indian population. For this reason, the effects of diet and/or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism were assessed in 200 individuals having varying homocysteine levels. Homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in individuals adhering to a vegetarian diet (P = 0.019) or having MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (P = 0.006). The minor allele frequency (MAF) of MTHFR C677T and A1298C was 0.15 and 0.44 respectively in this cohort. Since the MAF of these polymorphisms differed considerably from Caucasian and other Asian populations, frequencies of these polymorphisms were also determined in more than 400 individuals from different ethnic populations, selected from the entire country based on their geographical location and linguistic lineage, and was found to be similar to that of our cohort. The fact that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is significantly associated with homocysteine levels, and that the CC genotype is present at a higher frequency in the Indian population, makes it extremely relevant in terms of its potential impact on hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:16244782

  16. Homocysteine and Familial Longevity: The Leiden Longevity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsman, Carolien A.; Diana van Heemst; Rozing, Maarten P.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Marian Beekman; Anton J M de Craen; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Henk J. Blom; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine concentrations are a read-out of methionine metabolism and have been related to changes in lifespan in animal models. In humans, high homocysteine concentrations are an important predictor of age related disease. We aimed to explore the association of homocysteine with familial longevity by testing whether homocysteine is lower in individuals that are genetically enriched for longevity. We measured concentrations of total homocysteine in 1907 subjects from the Leiden Longevity St...

  17. Effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of white pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Tang, Jing; Wen, Zhiguo; Huang, Wei; Hou, Shuisheng

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with seven supplemental pyridoxine levels (0, 0.66, 1.32, 1.98, 2.64, 3.30, and 3.96 mg/kg) was conducted to investigate the effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of White Pekin ducks and to estimate pyridoxine requirement for these birds. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 28 d of age. At 28 d of age, the weight gain, feed intake, feed/gain, and the aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and homocysteine in plasma of ducks from each pen were all measured. In our study, the pyridoxine deficiency of ducks was characterized by growth depression, decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. The ducks fed vitamin B6-deficient basal diets had the worst weight gain and feed/gain among all birds and this growth depression was alleviated (pPekin ducks from hatch to 28 days of age was 2.44 mg/kg for feed/gain and 2.08 mg/kg for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and the corresponding total requirements of this vitamin for these two criteria were 4.37 and 4.01 mg/kg when the pyridoxine concentration of basal diets was included, respectively. All data suggested that pyridoxine deficiency could cause growth retardation in ducks and the deficiency of this vitamin could be indicated by decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. PMID:25358368

  18. Homocysteine and disability in hospitalized geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Cossi, Stefania; De Martinis, Monica; Calabrese, Paolo A; Orini, Stefania; Grassi, Vittorio

    2004-08-01

    Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease and dementia in old age. The present study was performed to identify the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and to analyze the association between tHcy concentration and sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional parameters, and cognitive and functional status in this sample of hospitalized geriatric patients. A total of 214 patients (77% females) 65+ years old admitted into an acute care geriatric ward of an internal medical department in the Northern Italy were studied. tHcy concentration was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-F). Information about nutrition (body mass index [BMI], serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin) was collected on admission. Functional status was investigated with the Basic Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL); cognitive and affective status were assessed by the Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean tHcy concentration was 18.4 +/- 13.1 micromol/L; 74.2% of males and 68.9% of females had HHcy (> 12 micromol/L). Sixty-four percent of patients with normal serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations had HHcy. Elevated tHcy concentrations were associated with older age, male gender, increasing serum creatinine, lower MMSE score, and disability. The mean tHcy concentration depended on the occurrence of different diseases. Patients affected by atherosclerotic diseases, such as ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and dementia had higher mean tHcy concentration than those without diagnosed vascular diseases. In multivariate analysis, vitamin B12, folate, serum albumin, creatinine, and disability emerged as factors associated with tHcy, adjusted for age, gender, education, MMSE score, and atherosclerotic diseases. Our results suggest that the

  19. Potential biomarkers predicting risk of pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease: the role of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ling; Sun Shuo; Li Yufen; Pan Wei; Xie Yumei; Wang Shushui; Zhang Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD).Although risk stratification is vital for prognosis and therapeutic guidance,the need for understanding the role of novel biomarkers cannot be overlooked.The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide levels and find potential biomarkers for early detection and treatment.Methods Between September 2012 and April 2013,we prospectively collected data on 158 pediatric patients with left to right shunt CHD at our institution.Standard right heart catheterizations were performed in all cases.Seventy-seven cases were associated with PH.The levels of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide were detected with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and a sensitive silver-sulphur electrode,respectively.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR),cystathionine β-synthase (CBS),and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE).Radioimmunoassays were used to obtain folic acid and vitamin B12 levels.Results The difference in the levels of homocysteine,folic acid,vitamin B12,hydrogen sulfide,as well as the MTHFR and CSE expression between patients with PH and without PH were statistically significant (all P <0.05).Homocysteine had the best sensitivity and specificity to predict PH (P <0.001).Subgroup analysis showed that the levels of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide,and the expression of CSE and MTHFR between patients with dynamic and obstructive PH were significantly different (all P <0.05).Based on the ROC curve,homocysteine had the best sensitivity and specificity to predict obstructive PH (P=0.032),while CSE had the most significant sensitivity and specificity to predict the dynamic PH (P=0.008).Conclusions Increased levels of homocysteine and decreased levels of hydrogen sulfide were significantly negatively correlated in PH associated with CHD.The underlying mechanism

  20. The difficulties with vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ruth; Alvares, Debie

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with progressive sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy. Previous investigation by her general practitioner had found a low serum vitamin B12, which had been corrected with oral supplementation. Neurological investigations showed raised plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid towards the upper limit of normal with a low serum vitamin B12 MRI showed an extensive cord lesion in keeping with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. We treated her with high dose parenteral vitamin B12 and she has made a partial recovery. We discuss the management of patients who present with neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency; highlighting the fact that parenteral replacement is needed in such cases, even if the serum vitamin B12 level appears to be normal. We also discuss ancillary investigations that should be performed in patients with suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27009308

  1. 血清同型半胱氨酸、叶酸及维生素B12与老年血管性痴呆的相关性研究%Study on the correlation between plasma homocysteine,folate acid and vitamin B12 levels and vascular de-mentia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 王红灵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study on the correlation between plasma homocysteine (Hcy),folate acid(FA) and vitamin B12(VitB12) levels and vascular dementia (VD).Methods To measure plasma Hcy, FA and vitamin B12 in 96 patients with VD ,in 152 non-dementia cerebrovascular disease ( NDCVD ) and in 80 normal controls re-spectively,and results werw compared between each two groups by using student test .Cognitive status was evaluar by using mini mentai state examination(MMSE).The effect of Hcy,FA and VitB12 on VD and its cognitive function were analyzed.Results The levels of plasma Hcy in VD and NDCVD were higher than those in normal control grop ,and there was significantly difference (t=3.26,3.14,all P<0.01),and the best high one is VD;The levels of plasma FA and VitB12 in VD and NDCVD were lower than those in normal control grop ,and there was significantly difference ( t=3.16,2.98,3.21,2.91,all P<0.01),and the best low one is VD.The levels of plasma Hcy concentrations were in-creased and MMSE scores were decreased with severity of dementia , and there were negative correlation between MMSE scores and plasma Hcy concentrations (r=-0.69,P<0.05).Conclusion The levels of plasma Hcy corre-lated with VD.High-Hcy is one of possible rise factor for VD in senior .Both low-FA and low-VitB12 were indirect fac-tors for VD.%目的:探讨血清同型半胱氨酸( Hcy)、叶酸( FA)及维生素B12( VitB12)与老年血管性痴呆( VD)的相关性。方法检测96例VD患者、152例脑梗死非痴呆患者及80例健康对照者Hcy、FA、VitB12水平并分析其变化;按MMSE评分标准评估VD患者的认知功能,按痴呆程度将其分为重度、中度及轻度三组,并检测各组血清Hcy浓度,分析Hcy水平与痴呆程度的关系。结果 VD组及脑梗死非痴呆组血清Hcy水平均显著高于对照组(t=3.26、3.14,均P<0.01),其中以VD组最高;VD组及脑梗死非痴呆组血清FA及VitB12水平均显著低于对照组(t=3

  2. Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B 12and folic acid on fracture incidence

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijngaarden Janneke P; Dhonukshe-Rutten Rosalie AM; van Schoor Natasja M; van der Velde Nathalie; Swart Karin MA; Enneman Anke W; van Dijk Suzanne C; Brouwer-Brolsma Elske M; Zillikens M Carola; van Meurs Joyce BJ; Brug Johannes; Uitterlinden André G; Lips Paul; de Groot Lisette CPGM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12 and folate status are associated with an increased fracture risk. As vitamin B12 and folate intake and status play a large role in homocysteine metabolism, it is hypothesized that supplementation with these B-vitamins will reduc...

  3. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  4. Hyperhomocysteinemia and the role of B vitamins in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients suffering from malignancies have increased complications due to corresponding cardiovascular diseases and risk factor for the development of venous thromboembolism. Epidemiological studies have shown that increased homocysteine plasma concentration (hyperhomocysteinemia) is related to a higher risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and malignancies. Homocysteine (tHcy) is an intermediate sulfur-containing amino acid produced from methionine during processing of dietary proteins. The plasma homocysteine levels are strongly influenced by diet, as well as by genetic factors. Folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 are dietary components which influence the plasma homocysteine levels the most. Several studies have found that high blood levels of B vitamins are related to the integrity and function of DNA, and, are at least related to lower concentration of homocysteine. Folate depletion has been found to change DNA methylation and DNA synthesis in both animal and human studies. Because of this critical role of folate, most studies including homocysteine have focused on these two actions. Hyperhomocysteinemia proves to be the most common condition highly associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis in many cancer patients, while the associated pathophysiology has not been precisely established yet. Therefore, of current interest is the possible role of folate metabolism developing into a cancer initiating hyperhomocysteinemia. This review will discuss this possibility

  5. Higher homocysteine associated with thinner cortical gray matter in 803 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Joshi, Shantanu H; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    A significant portion of our risk for dementia in old age is associated with lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and cardiovascular health) that are modifiable, at least in principle. One such risk factor, high-homocysteine levels in the blood, is known to increase risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular disorders. Here, we set out to understand how homocysteine levels relate to 3D surface-based maps of cortical gray matter distribution (thickness, volume, and surface area) computed from brain magnetic resonance imaging in 803 elderly subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data set. Individuals with higher plasma levels of homocysteine had lower gray matter thickness in bilateral frontal, parietal, occipital, and right temporal regions and lower gray matter volumes in left frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions, after controlling for diagnosis, age, and sex and after correcting for multiple comparisons. No significant within-group associations were found in cognitively healthy people, patients with mild cognitive impairment, or patients with Alzheimer's disease. These regional differences in gray matter structure may be useful biomarkers to assess the effectiveness of interventions, such as vitamin B supplements, that aim to prevent homocysteine-related brain atrophy by normalizing homocysteine levels. PMID:25444607

  6. The effect of the dietary constituent conjugated linoleic acid and homocysteine on vascular endothelial cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Coen, Paul Martin

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between circulating dietary constituents and the vascular endothelial monolayer is vital to the proper maintenance o f vascular homeostatic mechanisms, such as vasoregulation. Endothelial dysfunction with subsequent loss of vasoregulatory function are implicated in the early stages of atherosclerosis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and homocysteine are dietary constituents that have been implicated in the aetiology of atherosclerosis. CLA is the collective term used for po...

  7. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  8. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  9. Critical levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2014-09-01

    Few B-vitamin trials to lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment. Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance. Supplements, food sources, and effects of folic acid fortification are discussed in relation to B12 deficiency. PMID:24927906

  10. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic a

  11. Homocysteine, Cobalamin and Folate Status and their Relations to Neurocognitive and Psychological Markers in Elderly in Northeasten of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Lida Manavifar; Habibollah Nemati Karimooy; jamshid Jamali; Morteza Talebi doluee; Abbas Shirdel; Amireh Nejat shokohi; Mahdie Fatemi nayyeri

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Incidence of neurocognitive and psychological disorders may be related to serum homocystein (Hcy), cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate levels in old people. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between Hcy, cobalamin, folate and neurocognitive and/or psychological disorders in the elderly. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 280 subjects with ≥ 65 years old ,were evaluated. The subjects were selected from 12 regions of Mashhad, Iran, over March to Oc...

  12. Left Atrial Thrombus Despite Anticoagulation: The Importance Of Homocystein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J. David Spence

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients in atrial fibrillation may have left atrial thrombi or strokes despite adequate anticoagulation. It is important to consider elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy as a treatable clotting factor that may explain such cases. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common even in patients with a “normal” serum B12. Measurement of holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid or, in folate-replete patients, tHcy are necessary to diagnose metabolic B12 deficiency when the serum B12 is below 400 pmol/L. Elevated tHcy quadruples the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation, and is far more common than the usual clotting factors for which testing is commonly performed: among patients attending a secondary stroke prevention clinic, tHcy > 14 mmol/L is present in 20% at age 40, and in 40% at age 80. B vitamin therapy does reduce the risk of stroke; key issues are renal impairment and adequacy of vitamin B12. This intervention should be considered routinely in patients with AF.

  13. Influence of low-protein dietetic foods consumption on quality of life and levels of B vitamins and homocysteine in patients with chronic renal failure Influencia del consumo de alimentos dietéticos bajos en proteína sobre la calidad de vida y los niveles de vitaminas B y homocisteína en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether the consumption of low protein dietetic foods® improved the quality of life and nutritional status for vitamins B and homocysteine in patients with chronic renal failure. Methodology: This nutritional-intervention involved 28 men and 21 women, divided into two groups. The control-group consumed a low-protein diet prescribed, and the experimental-group consumed a diet in which some commonly used foods were replaced by low-protein dietetic foods. The study lasted 6 months. Food consumption was assessed by 24-h recall. Vitamin B6 as αEAST was measured in blood. Creatinine, urea, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in plasma. The impact on the patients' quality of life from consuming the dietetic foods was assessed via the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: After 6 months, the protein intake among the experimental-group had decreased by 40%, and the urea/creatinine ratio and αEAST activity were also lower. The results of the SF-36 questionnaire show that the patients in the experimental-group obtained higher scores in the categories of general health and physical status. Conclusions: The dietetic foods were very well accepted by all patients and their use allowed a better control of the protein intake, improved B6 status and a better quality of life.Objetivo: Se estudió si el consumo de productos dietéticos bajos en proteína® mejora la calidad de vida y el estado nutricional en vitaminas B y homocisteína en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC. Material y métodos: La intervención nutricional se llevó a cabo durante 6 meses en un grupo de pacientes con IRC (28 hombres y 21 mujeres divididos en dos grupos. El grupo control consumió la dieta prescrita para la IRC. El grupo experimental consumió una dieta en donde parte de los alimentos fueron sustituidos por los productos dietéticos bajos en proteína. El consumo de alimentos fue analizado mediante recordatorio

  14. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: human liver genotype-phenotype correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Qiping; Kalari, Krishna; Fridley, Brooke L.; Jenkins, Gregory; Ji, Yuan; Abo, Ryan; Hebbring, Scott; Zhang, Jianping; Nye, Monica D.; Leeder, J Steven; Weinshilboum, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine. BHMT is highly expressed in the human liver. In the liver, BHMT catalyzes up to 50% of homocysteine metabolism. Understanding the relationship between BHMT genetic polymorphisms and function might increase our understanding of the role of this reaction in homocysteine remethylation and in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation. To help achieve those goals, we measured levels of BHMT enzyme activity ...

  15. Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes and homocysteine levels in a Pakistani population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 µmol/L is highly prevalent in South Asian populations including Pakistan. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of this condition, we studied 6 polymorphisms in genes of 3 enzymes--methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T; A1298C, methionine synthase (MS; A2756G, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS; T833C/844ins68, G919A involved in homocysteine metabolism and investigated their interactions with nutritional and environmental factors in a Pakistani population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males and 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low-income urban population in Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum homocysteine; folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal phosphate and blood lead. DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism based assays. The average changes in homocysteine levels for MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were positive [β(SE β, 2.01(0.63 and 16.19(1.8 µmol/L, respectively]. Contrary to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the average changes in plasma homocysteine levels for MS 2756AG and GG variants were negative [β(SE β, -0.56(0.58 and -0.83(0.99 µmol/L, respectively]. The average change occurring for CBS 844ins68 heterozygous genotype (ancestral/insertion was -1.88(0.81 µmol/L. The combined effect of MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G and CBS 844ins68 genotypes for plasma homocysteine levels was additive (p value <0.001. Odds of having hyperhomocysteinemia with MTHFR 677TT genotype was 10-fold compared to MTHFR 677CC genotype [OR (95%CI; 10.17(3.6-28.67]. Protective effect towards hyperhomocysteinemia was observed with heterozygous (ancestral/insertion genotype of CBS 844ins68 compared to homozygous ancestral type [OR (95% CI; 0.58 (0.34-0.99]. Individuals with MTHFR 677CT or TT genotypes were at a greater risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in folate and

  16. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  17. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B₆, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B₆ deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol <9.3 µmol/L). Our results illustrate the importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. PMID:27005657

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Effect of 2-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Physical Performance, Strength, and Falling: Additional Findings from the B-PROOF Study

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Karin M.A.; Ham, Annelies C.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Enneman, Anke W.; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Sohl, Evelien; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; Carola Zillikens, M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Brug, Johannes; Uitterlinden, André G; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Lips, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with a decline in physical function in elderly persons. Homocysteine-lowering therapy may slow down this decline. This study aimed to examine the effect of a 2-year intervention of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on physical performance, handgrip strength, and risk of falling in elderly subjects in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants aged ≥65 years with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations [12–...

  19. 血清同型半胱氨酸和叶酸及维生素B12水平与冠状动脉病变程度的关系%Relation among serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and coronary artery lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 贺建勋; 徐品颖; 孙建武; 李凤梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation among serum homocysteine (HCY), folic acid (FA),vitamin B12 and the extent of coronary artery lesion in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The study included 68 CHD patients and 30 non-CHD patients diagnosed according to the coronary angiography findings.Venous blood samples were taken in all subjects and analyzed for HCY, FA, VitB12. Results The concentration of HCY in CHD group was significantly higher than that in non-CHD control group ( P <0. 01 ). HCY and FA or VitB12 were remarkably negative related(r = - 0. 678, r = - 0. 6719, P < 0. 05 ) in single-vessel group; while in multi-vessel group HCY and FA or VitB12 are remarkably negative related(r= -0.7619, r = -0.7894, P<0. 01). Conclusions The high level of HCY is closely related to the extent of coronary artery lesion. Serum FA and VitB12 play an important role in the regulation of serum HCY level.%目的 探讨血清同型半胱氨酸(HCY)、叶酸、维生素B12水平与冠状动脉病变程度的关系.方法 将98例患者根据冠状动脉造影结果分为单支病变组(33例)、多支病变组(35例)和正常组(30例),对3组患者血清HCY、叶酸、维生素B12进行测定.结果 病变组HCY[单支病变组(15.94±6.53)μmol/L,多支病变组(20.79±8.75)μmol/L]高于正常组(9.61±4.71)μmol/L,(P<0.01),差异有统计学意义,单支病变组患者血浆HCY与叶酸、维生素B12水平呈负相关(r=-0.678,r=-0.6719,P<0.05),多支病变组HCY与叶酸、维生素B12呈明显负相关(r=-0.7619,r=-0.7894,P<0.01).结论 高HCY水平与冠状动脉病变程度密切相关,叶酸及维生素B12浓度是影响血清HCY水平的重要因素.

  20. Standardization of homocysteine on HPLC using DTT as reductant

    OpenAIRE

    Ashavaid, Tester F.; Eghlim, Farah F.; Shalia, Kavita K.; Nair, Kappiareth G.

    2003-01-01

    Determination of plasma total homocysteine by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) usually requires reduction of protein bound or free homocysteine-disulphides into thiols by a reducing agent and the liberated thiols are then derivatized by a fluorescent marker. In this study we have standardized the HPLC method for homocysteine measurement using dithiothreitol (DTT) as reductant.

  1. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  2. Combination of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and homocysteine may predict an increased risk of coronary artery disease in Korean population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHO Doo-Yeoun; KIM Kyu-Nam; KIM Kwang-Min; LEE Duck-Joo; KIM Bom-Taeck

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of emerging biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP),homocysteine and fibrinogen with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still uncertain in Asian population including Koreans and little is known about the combined effect of biomarkers on the risk of CAD.Methods A total of 10 650 subjects (6538 men and 4112 women) were enrolled in this study.A 10-year CAD risk was calculated using Framingham risk score modified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (ATP Ⅲ ) and levels of circulating hs-CRP,homocysteine and fibrinogen were measured using validated assays.Results The 10-year CAD risk gradually augmented with increase in the circulating levels of hs-CRP,homocysteine and fibrinogen.For the highest quartile of hs-CRP,odds ratio (OR) of high-risk for CAD (10-year risk ≥20%) compared with the lowest quartile was 3.97 (95% C/:2.51-6.29).For homocysteine and fibrinogen,ORs in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile were 5.10 (95% Cl:3.05-8.53,P <0.001) and 1.46 (95% Cl:0.69-3.11,P=0.325),respectively.OR of high-risk for CAD in both the highest quartile of hs-CRP and homocysteine was 9.05 (95% CI:5.30-15.45) compared with the below median of hs-CRP and homocysteine.Conclusions The present study demonstrated that hs-CRP and homocysteine are well associated with the 10-year CAD risk estimated using NCEP ATP Ⅲ in Koreans and combination of hs-CRP and homocysteine can have strong synergyin predicting the development of CAD.

  3. Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Refsum, Helga; de Jager, Celeste A; Jacoby, Robin; Nichols, Thomas E; Smith, Stephen M; Smith, A David

    2013-06-01

    Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe. In the placebo group, higher homocysteine levels at baseline are associated with faster GM atrophy, but this deleterious effect is largely prevented by B-vitamin treatment. We additionally show that the beneficial effect of B vitamins is confined to participants with high homocysteine (above the median, 11 µmol/L) and that, in these participants, a causal Bayesian network analysis indicates the following chain of events: B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline. Our results show that B-vitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific brain regions that are a key component of the AD process and that are associated with cognitive decline. Further B-vitamin supplementation trials focusing on elderly subjets with high homocysteine levels are warranted to see if progression to dementia can be prevented. PMID:23690582

  4. Homocysteine, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Atticus H; Yeo, Natalie E; Weekman, Erica M; Wilcock, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    Homocysteine is produced physiologically in all cells, and is present in plasma of healthy individuals (plasma [HCy]: 3-10μM). While rare genetic mutations (CBS, MTHFR) cause severe hyperhomocysteinemia ([HCy]: 100-200μM), mild-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia ([HCy]: 10-100μM) is common in older people, and is an independent risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. As B-vitamin supplementation (B6, B12 and folate) has well-validated homocysteine-lowering efficacy, this may be a readily-modifiable risk factor in vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Here we review the biochemical and cellular actions of HCy related to VCID. Neuronal actions of HCy were at concentrations above the clinically-relevant range. Effects of HCy vitamin supplementation are called for, incorporating lessons from previous trials and from recent experimental work. To maximise likelihood of treatment effect, a future trial should: supply a high-dose, combination supplement (B6, B12 and folate); target the at-risk age range; and target cohorts with low baseline B-vitamin status. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26689889

  5. Homocysteine and cognitive impairment; a case series in a General Practice setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaddon Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An elevated blood level of homocysteine is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Homocysteine can be lowered by folate and/or vitamin B12 supplementation; antioxidants might also be required for optimal reduction in neurovascular tissue. This report presents clinical and radiological findings from administering the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine together with B vitamins to cognitively impaired patients with hyperhomocysteinaemia. Methods A case series (n = 7 performed in a semi-rural General Practice setting. Formal cognitive assessments were performed in five patients, and radiological assessments in one patient, before and after supplementation. Results and discussion The addition of N-acetylcysteine resulted in subjective clinical improvement in all patients, and an objective improvement in cognitive scores in five patients. One patient had radiological evidence of halted disease progression over a twelve month period. Conclusion N-acetylcysteine, together with B vitamin supplements, improves cognitive status in hyperhomocysteinaemic patients. Randomized controlled clinical trials are required to formally evaluate this treatment approach.

  6. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Brouwer, E.M.; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, O.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; Velde, van der N.; Schoor, van N.M.; Cammen, van der T.J.M.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  7. Homocysteine thiolactone affects protein ubiquitination in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretes, Ewa; Zimny, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    The formation of homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTl) from homocysteine occurs in all examined so far organisms including bacteria, yeast, and humans. Protein N-homocysteinylation at the ε-amino group of lysine is an adverse result of HcyTl accumulation. Since tagging of proteins by ubiquitination before their proteasomal degradation takes place at the same residue, we wondered how N-homocysteinylation may affect the ubiquitination of proteins. We used different yeast strains carrying mutations in genes involved in the homocysteine metabolism. We found positive correlation between the concentration of endogenous HcyTl and the concentration of ubiquitinated proteins. This suggests that N-homocysteinylation of proteins apparently does not preclude but rather promotes their decomposition. PMID:24051443

  8. [Mechanisms that protect against homocysteine toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Jarosław

    2008-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) in human tissues have been correlated with some diseases, such as cardio-vascular, neurodegenerative, and kidney disorders. Hcy occurs in human blood in several forms. The most reactive is homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTl). It spontaneously homocysteinylates proteins impairing their functions. As has been evidenced recently, organisms developed protective mechanisms against the HcyTl toxicity. The first mechanism discovered was the calcium-dependent enzyme occurring in mammalian sera, known till then as paraoxonase, which hydrolyzes HcyTl to Hcy. Chronologically second mechanism discovered was urinary excretion of HcyTl. The third protective mechanism is the HcyTl hydrolysis catalyzed by intracellular enzyme known as bleomycin hydrolase. This review outlines current knowledge of the Hcy toxicity and of the three aforementioned protective mechanisms, emphasizing the role of bleomycin hydrolase/ homocysteine-thiolactonase. PMID:18610586

  9. Vitamin D and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LauraVuolo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D system is a complex pathway that includes precursors, active metabolites, enzymes and receptors activating several molecular pathways and mediating a multitude of functions. In addition to the classical role of vitamin D metabolites in calcium and bone homeostasis, many in vitro and in vivo studies recognized several "non calcemic" effects involved in host defence, inflammation, immunity and cancer processes. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between vitamin D and cancer, summarizing several mechanisms proposed to explain the potential protective effect of vitamin D against the development and progression of cancer. Vitamin D acts like a transcription factor that influences central mechanisms of tumorigenesis: growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis. In addition to cellular and molecular studies, epidemiological surveys have shown that sunlight exposure and consequent increased circulating levels of vitamin D are associated not only with reduced occurrence but also with reduced mortality for different histological types of cancer. Another recent field of interest concerns polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor: in this context, preliminary data suggest that vitamin D receptor polymorphisms more frequently associated with tumorigenesis are Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1, EcoRV, Cdx2, although further studies are needed to clarify any discrepancies. In this review, the relationship between vitamin D and cancer is discussed.

  10. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  11. Association of homocysteine level with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yining; Zhu, Jinzhou; Meng, Di; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between plasmatic higher of homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We aimed to investigate this association by conducting a meta-analysis. Literature was searched on PubMed from inception to January 2015. Eight studies evaluating plasma level of homocysteine in biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects compared to healthy controls were included. Compared with the controls, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients witnessed a higher level of homocysteine [standard mean difference (SMD): 0.66 µmol/L, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.92 µmol/L], and were associated with a significant increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia [odds ratio (OR) 5.09, 95% CI: 1.69, 15.32]. In addition, patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver presented 0.45 µmol/L higher levels of homocysteine compared to healthy controls (95% CI: 0.09, 0.82 µmol/L), whereas non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients had 1.02 µmol/L higher levels of homocysteine (95% CI: 0.28, 1.76 µmol/L). There was neither difference of folate level nor vitamin B12 level between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects and healthy controls. This study revealed that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients presented an increased serum concentration of homocysteine, and were associated with an increased risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. Further studies are needed to demonstrate a causal role of hyperhomocysteinemia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26798201

  12. Association between serum homocysteine with subclinical atherosclerosis markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fakhrzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular diseases has been elucidated since many years ago. In this study, the association between serum levels of homocysteine with the pulse wave velocity and Buckberg index (markers of sub-clinical atherosclerosis was assessed in diabetics and non-diabetic subjects. Methods: Fifty seven individuals with type 2 diabetes who referred to diabetes clinic and 36 non-diabetic individuals who referred to general internal medicine clinics of Dr.Shariati academic hospital, were enrolled in this study. Fasting serum glucose, lipid profile, HbA1C, vitamin B12, C- reactive protein, folic acid and serum homocysteine levels were measured. The pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index were estimated using Sphygmocor. The relationship between sub-clinical atherosclerosis markers with other risk factors was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Results: Diabetic and non-diabetic subjects differed in terms of age, history of hypertension, serum levels of homocysteine, and LDL-C. The pulse wave velocity in diabetics and non-diabetics  was 60.91 m/s and 41.91 m/s, respectively (P <0.05. After adjustment for confounding factors, pulse wave velocity was associated with age and homocysteine levels in non-diabetic group, and it related to age, diastolic blood pressure and serum levels of C-reactive protein in diabetic subjects. The Buckberg index had an association with triglyceride levels in non-diabetics  and with sex and age in diabetics. Conclusion: We found that homocysteine levels in non-diabetic individuals were associated to sub-clinical atherosclerosis markers but we could not find this association in diabetic participants.

  13. Aspirin decreases the risk of depression in older men with high plasma homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, O. P.; Flicker, L.; Yeap, B B; Alfonso, H; McCaul, K.; Hankey, G J

    2012-01-01

    High total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and depression. Consumption of B-vitamins (B6, B9 and B12) reduces tHcy by about 15%, but has equivocal effects on these health outcomes, suggesting that this relationship is either not causal or is confounded by other factors. The results of recent randomized trials suggest that antiplatelet therapy may confound these associations. This cross-sectional study assessed 3687 men aged 69–87 years for...

  14. Homocysteine and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Are These the Tools for Early Intervention in the Dementia Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Z

    2016-02-01

    Dementia, being a neurodegenerative disease, has devastating consequences not just for the ailing but also for the carers as it has a tremendous negative impact on the quality of life. The pathophysiology of dementia commences far earlier than its diagnosis. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a stage prior to definite dementia. The progression from MCI to dementia is insidious with no definite demarcation, thus making diagnosis clinically difficult at an early stage. This paper attempts to throw light on the epidemiology, risk factors and the aetiopathogenesis of MCI. It further attempts to elaborate on the rate of conversion of MCI to definite dementia and the factors influencing the same. Many established as well as probable, modifiable as well as non-modifiable risk factors influence the progress of MCI to definite dementia. Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino-acid has been identified as a probable risk factor for the dementia spectrum. Various existing clinical evidences and biological plausibility towards probable link between homocysteine and dementia are discussed in this paper. B vitamin mediated homocysteine reduction and cognitive outcomes demonstrate mixed results. This review attempts to evaluate hyperhomocysteinaemia and MCI as a brain risk marker and assess their potential for future research with a view to attempt early intervention. PMID:26812511

  15. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level. PMID:26678812

  16. The current situations of clinical research of homocysteine-lowing therapy to prevent stroke%降同型半胱氨酸治疗预防脑卒中的临床研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雅婧; 余丹

    2015-01-01

    In light of numerous prospective studies have found that a positive association between plasma homocysteine and stroke, homocysteine is surely the risk of stroke. However, homocysteine-lowing therapy with folic acid and vitamin B has revealed no significant clinical benefit. This paper discussed some problems about homocysteine-lowing trials, homocysteine gene polymorphism and the relationship with homocysteine and healthy individuals, it will be possible to improve the clinical benefit of homocysteine therapy in stroke prevention.%大量前瞻性研究表明同型半胱氨酸与脑卒中显著相关,是脑卒中的独立危险因素之一。但到目前为止,降低同型半胱氨酸治疗在预防心脑血管疾病方面并没有取得显著的临床收益。本文就临床降同型半胱氨酸治疗、同型半胱氨酸基因多态性以及与健康人群之间相关关系进行探讨,将有可能提高降同型半胱氨酸治疗预防卒中的临床收益。

  17. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardioprotective effects of vitamin B-6 independent of homocysteine suggest that additional mechanisms may be involved. Objective: Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of ...

  18. Homocysteine and cognitive functions in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Permoda-Osip

    2014-12-01

    The results obtained show higher HCY concentration in considerable proportion of patients with bipolar depression, especially in men. They also confirm a connect between high homocysteine concentration and worse performance in some neuropsychological tests. Such relationship was more marked in men.

  19. Betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase--a new assay for the liver enzyme and its absence from human skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J A; Dudman, N P; Lynch, J; Wilcken, D E

    1991-12-31

    Chronic elevation of plasma homocysteine is associated with increased atherogenesis and thrombosis, and can be lowered by betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) treatment which is thought to stimulate activity of the enzyme betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase. We have developed a new assay for this enzyme, in which the products of the enzyme-catalysed reaction between betaine and homocysteine are oxidised by performic acid before being separated and quantified by amino acid analysis. This assay confirmed that human liver contains abundant betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (33.4 nmol/h/mg protein at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4). Chicken and lamb livers also contain the enzyme, with respective activities of 50.4 and 6.2 nmol/h/mg protein. However, phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured human skin fibroblasts contained no detectable betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (less than 1.4 nmol/h/mg protein), even after cells were pre-cultured in media designed to stimulate production of the enzyme. The results emphasize the importance of the liver in mediating the lowering of elevated circulating homocysteine by betaine. PMID:1819467

  20. Vitamin B₁₂ and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuschner, Carol L; Hokin, Bevan D; Marsh, Kate A; Saunders, Angela V; Reid, Michelle A; Ramsay, Melinda R

    2013-08-19

    Vitamin B₁₂ is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B₁₂-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B₁₂ deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B₁₂ status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B₁₂ status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B₁₂ level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B₁₂ to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B₁₂, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B₁₂, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities. PMID:25369926

  1. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions. PMID:22217304

  2. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Gushulak; Hassanali Vatanparast; Christine Nisbet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral conte...

  3. The determination of homocysteine-thiolactone in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwatko, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2005-02-15

    The thioester homocysteine-thiolactone, a reactive metabolite of homocysteine, has been implicated in human cardiovascular disease. However, data on the levels of homocysteine-thiolactone in humans are limited, mostly due to a lack of facile and reliable assays. Here we describe a sensitive assay for the determination of plasma homocysteine-thiolactone and demonstrate its utility with a cohort of 60 healthy human subjects. Plasma homocysteine-thiolactone is first separated from macromolecules by ultrafiltration and then selectively extracted with chloroform/methanol. Further purification of plasma homocysteine-thiolactone is achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a cation exchange microbore column. The detection and quantification is by monitoring fluorescence after postcolumn derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde. The limit of detection is 0.36 nM. Using this assay, homocysteine-thiolactone concentrations in plasma from normal healthy human subjects (n=60) were found to vary from zero to 34.8 nM, with an average of 2.82+/-6.13 nM. In 29 of the 60 human plasma samples analyzed, homocysteine-thiolactone levels were below the detection limit. Homocysteine-thiolactone represented from 0 to 0.28%, on average 0.023+/-0.05%, of plasma total homocysteine. PMID:15691507

  4. Association of blood lead (Pb and plasma homocysteine: a cross sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High blood lead (Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR blood Pb of 10.82 microg/dL (8.29-13.60. Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels>10 microg/dL was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value=0.05. Mean+/-SD/median (IQR value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13+/-11.2 micromol/L vs 13.28+/-9.7micromol/L/13.15 (10.33-17.81 micromol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31 micromol/L (p value<0.001. Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85 for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  5. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Cantorna, Margherita T.

    2008-01-01

    Observational studies document a positive relationship between vitamin D from the environment (sunlight or diet), circulating vitamin D status, and improved symptoms or prevention of multiple sclerosis (MS). Experimental animal models of MS reproduce the beneficial effects of vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D3. The geographical distribution of MS can be explained by both the hygiene hypothesis and the vitamin D hypothesis. It therefore seems more likely that both hypotheses may be correct and that the...

  6. Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Shuler, Franklin D.; Wingate, Matthew K.; Moore, G. Hunter; Giangarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery. Evidence Aquisition: PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skele...

  7. [Thromboembolic events, abortions and a sick infant--unusual presentation of a vitamin deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, I; Hennermann, J B; von Arnim-Baas, A; Driever, P H; Massenkeil, G

    2008-12-01

    Homocysteine is a risk factor for the development of thromboembolic disorders and vascular diseases. Furthermore, complications during pregnancy have been ascribed to hyperhomocysteinemia. We report on a pregnant woman being substituted by high doses folic acid for hyperhomocysteinemia. Thereby, the underlying pernicious anemia was masked. After birth, the neonate was exclusively breastfed. At the age of 5 months, the infant had to be admitted to hospital due to severe vitamin B(12)-deficiency. Using parenteral vitamin B(12) substitution, homocystein levels of the mother normalized and the infant throve and prospered again. PMID:18815762

  8. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But foods made from milk, like cheese and ice cream, are usually not fortified. Vitamin D is added ... bone pain and muscle weakness. What are some effects of vitamin D on health? Vitamin D is being studied for its possible ...

  9. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  10. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  11. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  12. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  13. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  14. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used around the world as medicine. Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone) are available in North ... hypoprothrombinemia: 2.5-25 mg of vitamin K1 (phytonadione). For counteracting bleeding that can occur when too ...

  15. 癫痫患者血浆同型半胱氨酸水平及多维生素补充疗法的干预效果研究%Effects of multi-vitamin supplement therapy on plasma homocysteine level in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单峤; 王世勋; 李培栋; 吴建珩; 王新军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨常用抗癫痫药物(antiepilepsy drugs,AEDs)对癫痫患者血浆同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine,Hcy)的影响,以及多维生素补充疗法对癫痫患者高同型半胱氨酸血症(hyperhomocysteinemia,HHcy)、癫痫发作状态的干预效果.方法:依据服药种类,将105例患者分为卡马西平(carbamazepine,CMZ)组25例、丙戊酸(valproic acid,VPA)组23例,苯妥英钠(phenytoin,PHT)组30例、托吡酯(topiramate,TPM)组12例,拉莫三嗪(lamotrigine,LTG)组15例,选择同期门诊健康体检者30例为健康对照组;并选择同期就诊的未口服AEDs的癫痫患者30例为癫痫对照组,分别对各组患者进行Hcy、叶酸(folacin,Fol)、维生素B12(vitamin B12,VitB12)水平测定,比较各AEDs药物组与健康对照组、癫痫对照组患者间各指标的差异;从HHcy患者中随机选取32例进行叶酸和VitB 12补充治疗,随访观察6月,比较患者治疗前、治疗后4周、治疗后6月的Hcy、Fol及VitB 12水平;比较维生素辅助治疗患者和单一AEDs治疗患者间癫痫发作改善情况.结果:CMZ组、PHT组、TPM组Hcy水平高于健康对照组和癫痫对照组(FHcy=31.581,P=0.000),VPA组、LTG组Hcy水平与健康对照组和癫痫对照组间均无统计学差异(x2=0.077,P=0.782);癫痫对照组、VPA组、LTG组发生HHcy症患者均为2例,分别占6.67%、8.70%和13.33%,3组间无统计学差异(P>0.05);CMZ组、PHT组、TPM组HHcy患者分别为20例(占80.00%)、20例(占66.67%)、8例(占66.67),发生比例均高于癫痫对照组(x2=30.556,P=0.000);30例接受AEDs药物治疗的HHcy患者服用维生素干预后不同时间点Hcy、Fol和VitB12水平有统计学差异(FHcy=482.541,P=0.000; FFol=48.123,P=0.000; FVitB12=26.286,P=0.000),服药后血浆Hcy明显下降,Fol和VitB 12则明显升高;给予维生素干预治疗的30例HHcy患者中,12例完全控制癫痫的发作,13例显效,3例有效,总有效率为93.33%,1例无效,1例恶化;仅给予AEDs治疗的22

  16. Homocysteine Levels in Parkinson's Disease: Is Entacapone Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Hayat; Comoglu, Selim Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels may increase in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as a consequence of levodopa methylation via catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Results from previous studies that assessed the effect of COMT inhibitors on levodopa-induced hyperhomocysteinemia are conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the effects of levodopa and entacapone on plasma Hcy levels. A hundred PD patients were enrolled to the study and divided into three treatment groups (group I: levodopa and/or dopamine agonists; group II: levodopa, entacapone, and/or a dopamine agonist; and group III: dopamine agonist alone). We measured the serum B12, folic acid, and Hcy levels in all patients. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of modified Hoehn and Yahr stages, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II/III, Standardized Mini-Mental Test scores, and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Plasma median Hcy levels were found above the normal laboratory values in groups I and II, but they were normal in group III. However, there was no statistically significant difference in plasma Hcy levels between groups. Our results showed that levodopa treatment may cause a slight increase in the Hcy levels in PD compared with dopamine agonists and that COMT inhibitors may not have a significant effect on preventing hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:27493964

  17. Homocysteine alters monocyte-endothelial interaction in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether homocysteine induced endothelial damage through monocyte-endothelial interaction and to characterize both cell types in vitro.Methods Radiomethods were performed on monocyte adhesion to/through endothelium and endothelial damage experiments. Results Homocysteine-treated endothelial cells increased monocyte adhesion and transmigration. Homocysteine-treated monocytes induced endothelial detachment, but this effect was blocked by catalase. These effects were increased with higher concentrations of homocysteine. Monocyte surface glycoprotein antibodies CD11b/CD18 and CD14 inhibited these processes.Conclusions Homocysteine alters monocyte-endothelial interaction in vitro, eventually bringing about endothelial damage through release of H2O2. These phenomena are mediated through monocyte surface glycoproteins CD11b/CD18 and CD14. Upregulation of these processes in vivo may contribute to acceleration of atherosclerosis in patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

  18. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  19. Plasma homocysteine in adolescents depends on the interaction between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, lipids and folate: a seroepidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ángel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many publications link high homocysteine levels to cardiovascular disease. In Spain there is little information on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia and associated vitamin factors among the general population, and less still among children. Cardiovascular risk factors in the childhood population may be related to the appearance of cardiovascular disease at adult age. The aim of this study is to establish a definition of hyperhomocysteinaemia in adolescents and to analyze the influence of vitamin and metabolic factors in homocysteine levels in this population group. Methods Descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study to estimate serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels, as well as plasma total, HDL- and LDL- cholesterol in a schoolgoing population aged 13 to 17 years in Madrid, Spain. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to ascertain quantitative comparison, Pearson's χ2 test (frequency Results Based on the classic values for definition of hyperhomocysteinaemia in adults, prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in the study population was: 1.26% for 15 μmol/L; and 2.52% for 12 μmol/L. Deficits in HDL cholesterol and serum folate levels yielded adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for hyperhomocysteinemia of 2.786, 95% CI (1.089-7.126, and 5.140, 95% CI (2.347-11.256 respectively. Mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T genotype also raises the risk of hyperhomocysteinaemia (CC→CT: OR = 2.362; 95% CI (1.107-5.042 CC→TT: OR = 6.124, 95% CI (2.301-16.303 Conclusion A good definition of hyperhomocysteinaemia in adolescents is the 90th percentile, equivalent to 8.23 μmol/L. Risk factors for hyperhomocysteinaemia are cHDL and folate deficiency, and the MTHFR C677T mutant genotype. No significant effect could be assessed for vitamin B12. Coexistence of all three factors increases the risk of suffering from hyperhomocysteinaemia 87-fold.

  20. Homocysteine effects on brain volumes mapped in 732 elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopalan, Priya; Hua, Xue; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels are a known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular disorders. Here we applied tensor-based morphometry to brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 732 elderly individuals from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, to determine associations between homocysteine and brain atrophy. Those with higher homocysteine levels showed greater frontal, parietal, and occipital white matter atrophy in the entire cohort, irrespective of diagnosis, age,...

  1. Therapeutical approach to plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Ciaccio; Giulia Bivona; Chiara Bellia

    2008-01-01

    Marcello Ciaccio, Giulia Bivona, Chiara BelliaDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing aminoacid produced during metabolism of methionine. Since 1969 the relationship between altered homocysteine metabolism and both coronary and peripheral atherotrombosis is known; in recent years experimental evidences have shown that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with an...

  2. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation is needed among adults with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, A M; Nexo, E; Nielsen, J B

    2006-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of the enzyme phelnylalanine hydroxylase leading to a failure to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. To avoid irreversible neurological damage because of increased phenylalanine, treatment is instituted rapidly after birth. We examined 31 adult PKU patients living on a less protein-restricted diet. Theoretically, these PKU patients had an increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) and B(6) deficiency because of a limited intake of animal products. Besides laboratory tests (n = 31) we obtained clinical information (n = 30) and detailed information on food consumption (n = 28). Three-quarters of the patients had early biochemical signs of vitamin B(12) deficiency. In spite of a normal folate status, 9 (29%) had a plasma homocysteine above 12 micromol/L. In accord with these findings, the food questionnaires indicated that 11 (39%) patients received less than the recommended daily vitamin B(12), and 20 (71%) received less vitamin B(6) than recommended. A significant association was found between reduced vitamin B(12) intake and both reduced serum cobalamins (p = 0.04) and reduced serum transcobalamin saturation (p = 0.03). Eleven patients took a vitamin pill daily, and these patients had a significantly lower plasma homocysteine compared to the rest. The present study suggests that adult PKU patients were at increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) deficiency, and their intake of vitamin B(6) was below the recommended daily intake. In conclusion PKU patients need continuing dietary guidance throughout adult life, and considering the risks, costs and potential benefits, daily vitamin supplementation seems justified in these patients. PMID:16601867

  3. Homosistein, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Levels in Patients with Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Beker Şanlı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our aim in this study was to investigate effects of vitamin B12 and folic acid malabsorption to homocysteine levels in celiac patients. Materials and Methods: Between 2-17 years of ages 32 celiac patients before treatment, 14 celiac patient in remission and 30 healthy controls involved in this study. Homocystein levels were evaluated in all groups. In addition plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid determined in celiac and remission groups. Results: Homocysteine levels as arithmetic mean±SD found 22.8±1.69 µmol/L in celiac group, 17.31±1.94 µmol/L in remission group and 15.21±1.69 µmol/L in control group. Folic acid levels as arithmetic mean±SD found 7.04±0.74 ng/ml in celiac patients and 12.95±1.9 ng/ml in remission group. There is statistically significant difference between folic acid and homocysteine levels of two groups (p0.05. Conclusions: In our study homocysteine levels were found to be higher in celiac group than remission group. In this study, difference in folic acid levels between two groups may show that changes in folic acid levels related to changes in homocysteine levels.

  4. Homocysteine and cognitive function in elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Angeles; Zanibbi, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    DEMENTIA IS HIGHLY PREVALENT AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE, and projections show that the number of people affected might triple over the next 50 years, mainly because of a large increase in the oldest-old segment of the population. Because of this and the disease's devastating effects, measures for the prevention and early detection of dementia are crucial. Age and years of education are among the most relevant risk factors for dementia, but in recent years the role of homocysteine has also been inve...

  5. Homocysteine to Hydrogen Sulfide or Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Utpal; Mishra, Paras K.; Tyagi, Neetu; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, an increased level of plasma homocysteine, is an independent risk factor for the development of premature arterial fibrosis with peripheral and cerebro-vascular, neurogenic and hypertensive heart disease, coronary occlusion and myocardial infarction, as well as venous thromboembolism. It is reported that hyperhomocysteinemia causes vascular dysfunction by two major routes: (1) increasing blood pressure and, (2) impairing the vasorelaxation activity of endothelial-derived...

  6. The Serum High-Sensitive C Reactive Protein and Homocysteine Levels to Evaluate the Prognosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Yoldas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and is most often caused by thrombotic processes. We investigated the changes in hsCRP and homocysteine levels, two of these risk factors, during the acute period of ischemic stroke and evaluated the relationship between these levels and the short-term prognosis. HsCRP and homocysteine levels were measured at the 2nd, 5th, and 10th days in forty patients admitted within second of an ischemic stroke. The clinical status of the patients was simultaneously evaluated with the Scandinavian stroke scale. The results were compared with 40 healthy control subjects whose age and sex were matched with the patients. The mean hsCRP levels of the patients were 9.4±7.0 mg/L on the 2nd day, 11.0±7.4 mg/L on the 5th day, and 9.2±7.0 mg/L on the 10th day. The mean hsCRP level of the control subjects was 1.7±2.9 mg/L. The mean hsCRP levels of the patients on the 2nd, 5th, and 10th days were significantly higher than the control subjects (P<.001. The patients' mean homocysteine levels were 40.6±9.6μmol/L on the 2nd day, 21.7±11.1μmol/L on the 5th day, and 20.7±9.2μmol/L on the 10th day. The mean homocysteine level of the control subjects was 11.2±1.1μmol/L. The homocysteine levels of the patients were higher than the control subjects at all times (P<.01. In conclusion, patients with stroke have a higher circulating serum hsCRP and homocysteine levels. Short-term unfavorable prognosis seems to be associated with elevated serum hsCRP levels in patients with stroke. Although serum homocysteine was found to be higher, homocysteine seems not related to prog nosis.

  7. Homocysteine metabolism and the associations of global DNA methylation with selected gene polymorphisms and nutritional factors in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska-Makaruk, Małgorzata; Graban, Ałła; Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; Harrington, Dominic J; Mitchell, Michael; Voong, Kieran; Dai, Letian; Łojkowska, Wanda; Bochyńska, Anna; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Wiśniewska, Anna; Wehr, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetics (particularly DNA methylation) together with environmental and genetic factors, are key to understanding the pathogenesis of many diseases including dementia. Disturbances in DNA methylation have already been implicated in dementia. Homocysteine metabolism, with folate and vitamin B12 as essential cofactors, is integral to methylation processes. We evaluated in a case-control study the association of global DNA methylation, homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 status with dementia. Selected polymorphisms of genes previously associated with dementia development and the influence of various factors on DNA methylation were also investigated. 102 patients with dementia (53 with Alzheimer's disease, 17 with vascular dementia and 32 with mixed dementia) were recruited. The non-demented controls consisted of 45 age-matched subjects without dementia and 47 individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Global DNA methylation was determined by Imprint Methylated DNA Quantification Kit MDQ1 (Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, Dorset, UK). Plasma homocysteine, serum folate and vitamin B12 were determined by chemiluminescence. Plasma and erythrocyte 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and plasma methylmalonic acid (markers of folate and vitamin B12 status) were measured by HPLC. APOE, PON1 p.Q192R, MTHFR 677C>T (c.665C>T) and IL1B-511C>T polymorphisms were identified using PCR-RFLP methods. Patients with dementia had significantly higher concentrations of homocysteine (p=0.012) and methylmalonic acid (p=0.016) and lower folate (p=0.002) and plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (p=0.005) than non-demented subjects. There was no difference in DNA methylation between patients and controls. A non-significant tendency to higher DNA methylation in patients with vascular dementia (p=0.061) was observed. Multivariate regression analysis of all recruited individuals demonstrated a significant positive association between DNA methylation and folate (p=0.013), creatinine (p=0.003) concentrations and IL

  8. Dietary Intake of Folate, but not Vitamin B(2) or B (12), Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density 5 Years after the Menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, L; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P;

    2008-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), and vitamin B(12 )may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data...

  9. Study on the homocysteine metabolism of patients with unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the metabolism abnormality of homocysteine(Hcy) in unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion(URSA).Methods:The level of Hcy in sera was measured with hyperpressure liquid chromatography(HPLC);Folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected by radioimmune assay;anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was detected by ELISA.Results:(1)The level of serum Hcy in URSA group was significantly higher than that in control group,showing a statistical significant difference(P<0.01).The level of Hcy was correlated with ages,but not correlated with areas,numbers of miscarriage,gestation age,primary or secondary abortions.(2)The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in URSA group were significantly lower than those in control group.The levels of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were not correlated with age,area,numbers of miscarriage and abortion periods.(3)ACA positive rate in URSA was significantly higher than that in control group.The level of Hcy in ACA(+) group was significantly higher than that in ACA(-) group among URSA patients.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia,low folic acid state,and ACA were all the independent risk factors for URSA.Lacking of folic acid and vitamin B12 is one of the important causes of hyperhomocysteinemia.ACA and hyperhomocysteinemia may have synergistic action in the occurrence of URSA.

  10. Homocysteine level in Iranian patients with premature acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shojaie; Farzan Naghshvar; Hamid Reza Izadi; Ahad Eshraghian; Morteza Pourahmad

    2009-01-01

    @@ Homocysteine may impair vascular endothelial cell function.Besides,it may also induce cell damage,smooth muscle cell proliferation,thrombogenesis and oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.1 The possible role of elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine in cardiovascular disease was firstly hypothesized after the observation of high incidence of premature occlusive vascular disease in children with homozygous homocystinuria.2

  11. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson’s disease (PD through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI = (0.30, 1.01, while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  12. Protective mechanisms against homocysteine toxicity: the role of bleomycin hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Jaroslaw; Sikora, Marta; Guranowski, Andrzej; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2006-08-11

    Homocysteine (Hcy) editing by methionyl-tRNA synthetase results in the formation of Hcy-thiolactone and initiates a pathway that has been implicated in human disease. In addition to being cleared from the circulation by urinary excretion, Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified by the serum Hcy-thiolactonase/paraoxonase carried on high density lipoprotein. Whether Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified inside cells was unknown. Here we show that Hcy-thiolactone is hydrolyzed by an intracellular enzyme, which we have purified to homogeneity from human placenta and identified by proteomic analyses as human bleomycin hydrolase (hBLH). We have also purified an Hcy-thiolactonase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified it as yeast bleomycin hydrolase (yBLH). BLH belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved cysteine aminopeptidases, and its only known biologically relevant function was deamidation of the anticancer drug bleomycin. Recombinant hBLH or yBLH, expressed in Escherichia coli, exhibits Hcy-thiolactonase activity similar to that of the native enzymes. Active site mutations, C73A for hBLH and H369A for yBLH, inactivate Hcy-thiolactonase activities. Yeast blh1 mutants are deficient in Hcy-thiolactonase activity in vitro and in vivo, produce more Hcy-thiolactone, and exhibit greater sensitivity to Hcy toxicity than wild type yeast cells. Our data suggest that BLH protects cells against Hcy toxicity by hydrolyzing intracellular Hcy-thiolactone. PMID:16769724

  13. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Refsum, Helga; de Jager, Celeste A.; Jacoby, Robin; E. Nichols, Thomas; Smith, Stephen M.; Smith, A. David

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) ...

  14. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE MARIE

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED PubMed ID: 17991650 BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Exa...

  15. The role of B-vitamins in preventing and treating cognitive impairment and decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiologic studies have considered the question of whether markers of B-vitamin status are associated with cognitive function and cognitive decline. This avenue of research was sparked by the homocysteine (Hcy) theory of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which was extended to Alzheimer’s disease...

  16. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met) and its increase in IBD patients indicates a disruption of Met metabolism, yet the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well und...

  17. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance: Secondary data from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Rest, O. van de; Veld, P.H. In 't; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. van der; Swart, K.M.; Velde, N. van der; Schoor, N.M. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  18. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance Secondary data from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Rest, O. van de; Veld, P.H. in 't; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; Velde, N. van der; Schoor, N.M. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  19. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meckling Kelly A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5 years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin, B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP, erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin and homocysteine (Hcy. The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin or high metabolite (homocysteine levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 13.3 μmol/L in 31/75 (41.3%. There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44, mild (n = 14, or normal (n = 9 cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid. Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p Conclusion Given the prevalence data on vitamin status in this sample population, the possible benefits of vitamin supplementation should be considered in clinical intervention studies using these populations of elderly.

  20. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in ... system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds Leafy ...

  1. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  2. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your ... healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  3. Vitamin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  4. Detection of vitamin B12 levels with the aid of some hematological and biochemical parameters that are more sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyl Asma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is a health problem, which is usually seen in elderly patients and results in hematological and neurological disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of vitamin B12 could represent the real tissue levels with con-sidering some hematological and biochemical parameters. 128 patients whose vitamin B12 levels have been detected to be low and their ages are ranged from 16 to 90, have been investigated. Fifty three of them were females. Complete blood counts, antiparietal antibody(APA, homocysteine levels, peripheral blood smear evaluations and findings of gastroduodenoscopy were assessed. Mean volume of erythrocytes has been found as 107 fl in patient group (group 1, in which vitamin B12 level has been detected lower than 60 pg/mL. Thehigher homocysteine values in 85% cases, neutrophil hyper-segmentation in 82%, atrophic gastritis in 53 % and APA positivity in 47 % of cases have been detected. The average of agehas been detected as 65 in this group. High level of homocysteine has been present in 44 % of cases and MCV has been 91 fl in group 2, in which the vitamin B12 levels are between 61–100 pg/ mL. In group ( group 3, in which vitamin levels are between 101 – 140 pg /mL,elevated homocysteine levels in 27 % cases and MCV as 89 fl have been detected. In group 4, in which vitamin levels are between 141–178 pg/mL, homocysteine elevation in 16 % of cases and MCV as

  5. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; Sola, R.; V. Lemmen; Castillo, M.J.; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  6. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  7. Specific potassium ion interactions facilitate homocysteine binding to betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mládková, Jana; Hladílková, Jana; Diamond, C. E.; Tryon, K.; Yamada, K.; Garrow, T. A.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Koutmos, M.; Jiráček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2014), s. 2552-2564. ISSN 0887-3585 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/1277; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : BHMT * homocysteine * potassium * crystal structure * molecular dynamics * simulations * enzyme kinetics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.627, year: 2014

  8. Effects of antioxidants on homocysteine thiolactone-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun GU; Juming LU; Guoqing YANG; Qinghua GUO; Baoan WANG; Yiming MU; Changyu PAN

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT), one of the homocysteine metabolites in vivo, is toxic both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HcyT on apoptotic damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the role of antioxidants in the reduction of HcyT-induced apoptosis. Methods HUVECs were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 20% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum cell cultures were maintained in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37 ℃. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay,which consists of hypodiploid cells with propidium iodide labeling and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as the probe by flow cytometry. Results HcyT (250-2000μM) induced HUVECs apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species levels rose in response to increasing HcyT concentrations at 24-h incubation.The reduction of cell apoptosis by N-acetylcysteine, vitamin E, or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, occurred simultaneously with a significant decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. Conclusion HcyT exerts its cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells through an apoptotic mechanism involving cellular reactive oxygen species production. The capacity of N-acetylcysteine, vitamin E, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate to scavenge HcyT-induced cellular reactive oxygen species correlates well with their efficiency to protect against HcyT-promoted apoptotic damage. The protective effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on cell apoptosis indicates HcyT-generated hydrogen peroxide may provoke cell apoptosis via activating nuclear factor-kappa binding protein.

  9. Low Vitamin D Status: Definition, Prevalence, Consequences and Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, Neil; Ramamurthy, Rekha; Krueger, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is obtained from cutaneous production when 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by ultraviolet B radiation or by oral intake of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3. An individual's vitamin D status is best evaluated by measuring the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. Though controversy surrounds the definition of low vitamin D status, there is increasing agreement that the optimal circulating 25(OH)D level should be ~30-32 ng/ml or a...

  10. Genome-wide meta-analysis of homocysteine and methionine metabolism identifies five one carbon metabolism loci and a novel association of ALDH1L1 with ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating homocysteine levels (tHcy), a product of the folate one carbon metabolism pathway (FOCM) through the demethylation of methionine, are heritable and are associated with an increased risk of common diseases such as stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and dementia. The FOCM is the ...

  11. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  12. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors. PMID:25838876

  13. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  14. Vitamins, Minerals and Flavonoids Intake and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Keshavarz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of heart and stroke cause most deaths in both sexes of all ethnic groups. For more than 40 years epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical trials have shown that numerous dietary risk factors affect serum lipids, atherogenesis and coronary heart disease (CHD. Substantial interest has recently focused on the hypothesis that the naturally occurring antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and ß-carotene may prevent myocardial infarction, progression of coronary heart disease. Substantial laboratory, animal, and human data suggest that oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol is an important step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidation of LDL cholesterol is important in both the initiation and progression of plaque or increases the risk for plaque rupture. The major lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamins are vitamin E ( -tocopherol and ß-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. The major water-soluble antioxidant vitamin is vitamin C (ascorbic acid. Vitamin E is important in preventing oxidation of LDL cholesterol. ß-Carotene prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Vitamin C prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol and preserves vitamin E and ß-carotene levels during oxidative stress. It is increasingly recognized that folate and vitamin B6 may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The primary mechanism proposed for their effect on coronary vascular disease (CVD is a reduction in plasma homocysteine concentration by remethylation of homocysteine back to methionine. Minerals like magnesium, Potassium and calcium and also vitamin D have protective effect in blood pressure. Selenium is an important component of antioxidant defence and flavonoids which are derived from plants have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion, which may be another way they lower the risk of heart disease. In this article the role of micronutrients in prevention of cardiovascular

  15. Vitamin K status in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, E; Magdeleyns, E J; Braam, L A J L M; Teunissen, K J; Knapen, M H; Binnekamp, I A G; van Summeren, M J H; Vermeer, C

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin K's recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is based on the hepatic requirement for clotting factor synthesis, but substantial concentrations of undercarboxylated extra-hepatic Gla-proteins are found in the circulation of non-supplemented individuals. This suggests that vitamin K intake above the RDA is required for an optimal extra-hepatic vitamin K status. Circulating uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) are considered markers of the vitamin K status in bone and the vasculature, respectively. We measured these markers in 896 samples of healthy volunteers and defined target groups for vitamin K supplementation based on increased levels indicative of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency. We studied the response to vitamin K supplements at different states of vitamin K deficiency by measuring the circulating dp-ucMGP level in samples from two short-term trials on menaquinone-7 (MK-7, vitamin K2) supplementation in 42 children and 68 adults. Children had high ucOC levels (3.4-96.9 ng ml(-1)); other age groups had values in the range of 1.5-5.0 ng ml(-1). From the age of 40 years, dp-ucMGP levels gradually increased. Children and adults with more pronounced vitamin K deficiency gave the highest responses to MK-7 supplementation. Children and adults above 40 years showed the largest tissue-specific vitamin deficiency and accordingly may benefit from MK-7 supplementation to improve their extra-hepatic vitamin K status. PMID:24296867

  16. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  17. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  18. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in healthy Swiss senior citizens: a prospective study evaluating reference intervals and decision limits

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, Martin; Meier, Dominik W.; Sakem, Benjamin; Medina Escobar, Pedro; Risch, Corina; Nydegger, Urs; Risch, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Background The vitamin B12 and folate status in nonanaemic healthy older persons needs attention the more so as decrease in levels may be anticipated from reduced haematinic provision and/or impaired intestinal uptake. Methods A total of 1143 subjectively healthy Swiss midlands participants (637 females and 506 males), ≥60 years of age were included in this study. Levels of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), homocysteine (Hcy), serum folate, red blood cell (RB...

  19. Role of homocysteine in age-related vascular and non-vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnetti, L; Bottiglieri, T; Lowenthal, D

    1997-08-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) may represent a metabolic link in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases and old-age dementias. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, and is also associated with cerebrovascular disease; specifically, the risk of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis significantly increases in relation to Hcy levels. Hcy is a reliable marker of vitamin B12 deficiency, a common condition in the elderly which is known to induce neurological deficits including cognitive impairment; a high prevalence of folate deficiency has been reported in psychogeriatric patients suffering from depression and dementia. Both these vitamins occupy a key position in the remethylation and synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a major methyl donor in CNS; therefore, deficiencies in either of these vitamins lead to a decrease in SAMe and increase in Hcy, which can be critical in the aging brain. Another pathogenetic mechanism linking high Hcy levels to reduced cognitive performances in the elderly might be represented by excitotoxicity, since hyperhomocysteinemia may lead to an excessive production of homocysteic acid and cysteine sulphinic acid, which act as endogenous agonists of NMDA receptors. Considering the reasonably high prevalence in the general population of a genetic predisposition to a thermolabile form of the enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), hyperhomocysteinemia can be seen as the result of multiple genetic and environmental factors leading to vascular and/or neurodegenerative disorders where age-related involutive phenomena represent a common pathogenetic ground. Systematic studies in different psychogeriatric conditions monitoring Hcy levels and clinical features before and after vitamin supplementation are therefore highly recommended. PMID:9359935

  20. C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and plasma homocysteine levels among Thai vegans and omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajanachumpol, Saowanee; Atamasirikul, Kalayanee; Tantibhedhyangkul, Phieuvit

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia among vegetarians and vegans is caused mostly by vitamin B12 deficiency. A C-to-T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene results in a thermolabile MTHFR, which may affect homocysteine (Hcy) levels. The importance of this gene mutation among populations depends on the T allele frequency. Blood Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T mutation status were determined in 109 vegans and 86 omnivores aged 30 - 50 years. The vegans had significantly higher Hcy levels than the omnivores, geometric means (95 % CI) 19.2 (17.0 - 21.7) µmol/L vs. 8.53 (8.12 - 8.95) µmol/L, p vegans increased plasma Hcy, albeit insignificantly; geometric means 18.2 µmol/L, 20.4 µmol/L, and 30.0 µmol/L respectively in CC, CT, and TT MTHFR genotypes. There was also a significant decrease in serum folate; geometric means 12.1 ng/mL, 9.33 ng/mL, and 7.20 ng/mL respectively, in the CC, CT, and TT mutants, p = 0.006, and particularly, in the TT mutant compared with the CC wild type, 7.20 ng/mL vs. 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.023. These findings were not seen in the omnivores. It was concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia is prevalent among Thai vegans due to vitamin B12 deficiency. C-to-T MTHFR mutation contributes only modestly to the hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:24491881

  1. Relationship between Homocysteine Metabolism and Ischemic Stroke%同型半胱氨酸的代谢与缺血性卒中的相互关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 周云涛; 田卫; 曹亦宾

    2014-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia was believed to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Based on the background of homocysteine metabolic pathways, with homocysteine and related lipid causing arterial sclerosis as foundmental basis, this article elaborates the relationship between homocysteine and ischemic stroke. As discussed, there is a positive correlation between the level of homocysteine and the severity of ischemic stroke. There are different conclusions whether the lower homocysteine caused by vitamins can or cannot affect the prognosis of stroke. The results of the studies remain controversial on the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and various subtypes of ischemic stroke.%高同型半胱氨酸血症被认为是卒中的独立危险因素。本文以同型半胱氨酸代谢途径为背景,以同型半胱氨酸及相关血脂致动脉粥样硬化为基础,阐述同型半胱氨酸与缺血性卒中的关系。其中,同型半胱氨酸水平与卒中的严重程度成正比,维生素降低同型半胱氨酸对卒中预后的影响各研究结果不一。高同型半胱氨酸血症与各型缺血性卒中的关系研究结果仍存在争议。

  2. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form of vitamin B12 ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. ...

  3. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  4. Homocysteine levels in schizophrenia and affective disorders—focus on cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Hewedi, Doaa H.; Eissa, Abeer M.; Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, Błażej

    2014-01-01

    Although homocysteine (Hcy) has been widely implicated in the etiology of various physical health impairments, especially cardiovascular diseases, overwhelming evidence indicates that Hcy is also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. There are several mechanisms linking Hcy to biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. It has been found that Hcy interacts with NMDA receptors, initiates oxidative stress, induces apoptosis, triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to vascular damage. Elevated Hcy levels might also contribute to cognitive impairment that is widely observed among patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia. Supplementation of vitamins B and folic acid has been proved to be effective in lowering Hcy levels. There are also studies showing that this supplementation strategy might be beneficial for schizophrenia patients with respect to alleviating negative symptoms. However, there are no studies addressing the influence of add-on therapies with folate and vitamins B on cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. In this article, we provide an overview of Hcy metabolism in psychiatric disorders focusing on cognitive correlates and indicating future directions and perspectives. PMID:25339876

  5. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanjie Zheng; Jindong Wang; Lei Yi; Hui Yu; Lingli Kong; Weizhen Cui; Hong Chen; Chunxia Wang

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy) among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine co...

  6. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage.

  7. Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljevic Dragan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the control group and the connection between homocysteine and parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Sixty RA patients and 20 healthy controls were included in the study, and clinical examination and investigation were performed during which disease activity was assessed. Peripheral blood samples were used for all of the assays. Levels of Hcy were 33% higher in the RA patients than in the control subjects (mean +/− SD 11.79±3.72 μmol/L versus 8.90±1.38 μmol/L; p< 0.01. A significant correlation was found between parameters of inflammation (C-reactive protein and homocysteine in patients (r=0.322, p=0.012. Patients with high disease activity had a significantly greater increase in homocysteine (p<0.05. An increase in plasma homocysteine in RA patients is related to the parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Elevated Hcy levels occur commonly in patients with RA and may explain some of the increased cardiovascular mortality seen in RA patients.

  8. Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteine-lowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations and risk of CA...

  9. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    1998-01-01

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  10. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  11. Homocystein og livsstil. Resultater fra Homocysteinundersøkelsen i Hordaland 1992-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Nygård

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGTotal homocystein (tHcy er etablert som risikofaktor for hjerte- og karsykdom. Vi har studert determinanterav plasma tHcy i et utvalg av den voksne norske befolkning basert på undersøkelse utført av Statenshelseundersøkelser i samarbeid med Universitetet i Bergen i 1992-1993. Data ble innhentet ved kliniskundersøkelse, utfylling av tre spørreskjema og ved blodtester. I alt 18 043 personer i alderen 40-67 år møttetil undersøkelse og fikk målt plasma tHcy. Plasma folat, plasma kobalamin og 677C →T mutasjonen i genetfor metylentetrahydrofolatreduktase (MTHFR er bestemt i et underutvalg på 329 personer og på personermed svært høye tHcy verdier ( ≥ 40 μmol/L. Resultatene fra Homocysteinundersøkelsen i Hordaland harvist at kjønn, alder, folatinntak, røykevaner og kaffeforbruk er de sterkeste determinanter for plasma tHcynivå, mens kobalamininntak, fysisk aktivitet, blodtrykk og kolesterolnivå er mindre sterke determinanter.Bruk av multivitaminer eller B-vitaminer er forbundet med spesielt lave tHcy nivåer. Personer med tHcy ≥40 μmol/L er karakterisert ved høy forekomst (73% av homozygositet for 677C →T mutasjonen i MTHFRgenet og lavt folatnivå. Vi konkluderer derfor med at livsstil og etablerte risikofaktorer for hjerte- ogkarsykdom er vesentlige for nivået av plasma tHcy i den generelle voksne norske befolkning.Nygård O, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Tverdal A, Vollset SE. Homocysteine and lifestyle. The HordalandHomocysteine Study. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (2: 221-224.ENGLISH SUMMARYTotal homocysteine (tHcy concentration is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We have studieddeterminants of plasma tHcy among 18 043 subjects aged 40-67 years from Hordaland county in WesternNorway who participated in a health screening programme in 1992-1993. Gender, age, folate intake,smoking habits and coffee consumption are the strongest determinants of plasma tHcy level, whereascobalamin intake, physical activity

  12. Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, William B; Tangpricha, Vin

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that vitamin D reduces the risk of many types of disease is increasing exponentially. In 2011, 3,100 publications with “vitamin D” in the title or abstract were published, up from 2,606 in 2010, 1,303 in 2005, and 796 in 2000. A committee operating under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the US National Academies reviewed the evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin D. Their report, issued at the end of 2010, 1 found what they considered to be strong evidence for o...

  13. Homocysteine and cognitive functions in bipolar depression

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Permoda-Osip; Jacek Kisielewski; Jolanta Dorszewska; Janusz Rybakowski

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate a relationship between concentrations of hoocysteine (HCY), vitamin B12 and folic acid and disturbances of cognitive functions during acute episode of bipolar depression. Methods 116 patients were studied (93 women, 23 men), aged 20-78 (mean 51±13) years during acute episode of bipolar depression. Depression was evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton’s Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The following tests measuring cognitive functions were ap...

  14. Vitamin D and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Minu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone is synthesized in response to sunlight. Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of cancer through regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as inhibition of angiogenesis. These anticancer properties have been attributed primarily to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH 2 D] (calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D. Extensive research has shown that cells, including cancer cells, express specific receptors (VDR for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. When bound to the VDR, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates> 60 genes that exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects on cells, including effects on cell cycle. The amount of exposure to the sun has been found to correlate inversely with cancer mortality and survival in numerous epidemiological studies. An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against prostate, colon, rectal, female breast and ovarian cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world. Some analytical studies also suggest a protective association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D. Paricalcitol (calcitriol analogue is as effective as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in transactivating the prostatic VDR and in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cultures of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Promising preclinical evaluations of calcitriol and analogues have appeared in prostate cancer animal models.

  15. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Circulation Updated:Jul 8,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  16. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Stroke. Population research suggests that dietary intake of vitamin K1 is not linked with a reduced risk of stroke. Spider veins. Bruises. Scars. Stretch marks. Burns. Swelling. Other ...

  17. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  18. SERUM METHYLMALONIC ACID DAN HOMOCYSTEIN DALAM MENDIAGNOSIS ANEMIA MEGALOBLASTIK AKIBAT DEFISIENSI KOBALAMIN DAN FOLAT PADA TRAVEL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Gian Indra Rahayuda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia adalah salah satu masalah kesehatan global yang utama, terutama pada negara-negara berkembang.Anemia adalah kondisi dimana massa sel darah merah dan/atau massa hemoglobin yang beredar dalam tubuh menurun hingga dibawah kadar normal sehingga tidak dapat berfungsi dengan baik dalam menyediakan oksigen untuk jaringan tubuh. Salah satu jenis yang banyak ditemukan adalah anemia megaloblastik.Anemia megaloblastik paling banyak disebabkan oleh kekurangan vitamin B12(kobalamin dan folat.Salah satu penyebab anemia defisiensi kobalamin dan folat adalah tropical sprue.Anemia defisiensi kobalamin dan asam folat memberikan gambaran yang serupa namun pada defisiensi kobalamin terdapat gejala neuropati.Batas normal serum folat antara 3-15 ng/mL.Folat eritrosit batas normalnya dari 150 – 600 ng/mL.Pada defisiensi kobalamin, serum kobalamin menurun di bawah cut off point100pg/mL (normalnya 100- 400pg/mL.Pemeriksaan lain seperti homocystein, methylmalonic acid, atau formioglutamic acid(FIGLU yang meningkat pada urin dapat memastikan diagnosis defisiensi kobalamindan asam folat. Belum ada konsensus mengenai cut off point Homocystein dan MMA. Homocysteine telah dianggap meningkat bila kadarnya di atas 12-14 µmol/L pada wanita dan di atas 14-15 µmol/L. Menurut penelitian yang dilakukan Robert et al pada kasus defisiensi kobalamin, kadar serum tHcy> 15.0 µmol/L.Kebanyakan penelitian menganggap peningkatan MMA pada defisiensi kobalamin adalah >0.28 µmol/L, tapi cut off point yang beredar bervariasi antara 0.21-0.48 µmol/L.Kadar MMA meningkat dalam serumdan urin pada defisiensi kobalamin, sedangkan pada defisiensi folat MMA normal.

  19. Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Thomas H; Pickersgill, Trevor T; J Peall, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with a 5-week history of ascending limb paraesthesiae and balance difficulties. He had no medical or travel history of note, but admitted habitual nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation. Neurological examination revealed a sensory ataxia with pseudoathetosis in the upper limbs and reduced vibration sensation to the hips bilaterally. Significant investigation results included a low serum vitamin B12 concentration, mild macrocytosis and raised serum homocysteine concentration. T2 MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated increased signal extending from C1 to T11 in keeping with a longitudinal myelitis. The patient was diagnosed with a myeloneuropathy secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting from heavy N2O inhalation. He was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections and received regular physiotherapy. At discharge, he was able to mobilise short distances with the aid of a zimmer frame, and was independently mobile 8 weeks later. PMID:27247211

  20. Apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells caused by homocysteine via activating JNK signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are capable of homing to and repair damaged myocardial tissues. Apoptosis of BMSCs in response to various pathological stimuli leads to the attenuation of healing ability of BMSCs. Plenty of evidence has shown that elevated homocysteine level is a novel independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate whether homocysteine may induce apoptosis of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Here we uncovered that homocysteine significantly inhibited the cellular viability of BMSCs. Furthermore, TUNEL, AO/EB, Hoechst 333342 and Live/Death staining demonstrated the apoptotic morphological appearance of BMSCs after homocysteine treatment. A distinct increase of ROS level was also observed in homocysteine-treated BMSCs. The blockage of ROS by DMTU and NAC prevented the apoptosis of BMSCs induced by homocysteine, indicating ROS was involved in the apoptosis of BMSCs. Moreover, homocysteine also caused the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential of BMSCs. Furthermore, apoptotic appearance and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in homocysteine-treated BMSCs was significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor but not p38 MAPK and ERK inhibitors. Western blot also confirmed that p-JNK was significantly activated after exposing BMSCs to homocysteine. Homocysteine treatment caused a significant reduction of BMSCs-secreted VEGF and IGF-1 in the culture medium. Collectively, elevated homocysteine induced the apoptosis of BMSCs via ROS-induced the activation of JNK signal, which provides more insight into the molecular mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia-related cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, M R; Verhoef, P

    2005-02-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in homocysteine remethylation, but effects on homocysteine have been less thoroughly investigated. Betaine in high doses (6 g/d and higher) is used as homocysteine-lowering therapy for people with hyperhomocysteinemia due to inborn errors in the homocysteine metabolism. Betaine intake from foods is estimated at 0.5-2 g/d. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor choline. Studies in healthy volunteers with plasma homocysteine concentrations in the normal range show that betaine supplementation lowers plasma fasting homocysteine dose-dependently to up to 20% for a dose of 6 g/d of betaine. Moreover, betaine acutely reduces the increase in homocysteine after methionine loading by up to 50%, whereas folic acid has no effect. Betaine doses in the range of dietary intake also lower homocysteine. This implies that betaine can be an important food component that attenuates homocysteine rises after meals. If homocysteine plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, a diet rich in betaine or choline might benefit cardiovascular health through its homocysteine-lowering effects. However betaine and choline may adversely affect serum lipid concentrations, which can of course increase risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the potential beneficial health effects of betaine and choline outweigh the possible adverse effects on serum lipids is as yet unclear. PMID:15720203

  2. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  3. Vitamin D in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D functions in the body through both an endocrine mechanism (regulation of calcium absorption) and an autocrine mechanism (facilitation of gene expression). The former acts through circulating calcitriol, whereas the latter, which accounts for more than 80% of the metabolic utilization of the vitamin each day, produces, uses, and degrades calcitriol exclusively intracellularly. In patients with end-stage kidney disease, the endocrine mechanism is effectively disabled; however, the aut...

  4. Serum Homocysteine level in patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ashtari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic demyelinative disease-is unknown. The damage of blood–brain barrier (BBB vasculature is a characteristic of MS and Homocystein (Hcy can damage BBB, then increase in total Hcy may be important in MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare the serum level of total Hcy in MS patients with control group. Methods: In a case control study, serum level of total Hcy measured in 35 MS patient and compared with 30 healthy matched controls. All patients had definitive MS according to Poser criteria, without history of myocardial infarction, stroke, neuropathy, transient ischemic attack, homocystinuria or renal failure. Results: The serum concentration of total homocystein was significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients than healthy controls. The mean total Hcy level was 17.92± 6.9 mmol/lit in cases and 14.6±2.92 mmol/lit in controls (P=0.013. Conclusion: Serum total Homocystein may have a role in MS pathogenesis and reduction of it should be studied moreover. Key words: Multiple Sclerosis, Homocystein, Serum level

  5. Performance evaluation of six homocysteine cycle enzymatic detection systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安崇文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of six homocysteine(Hcy)analysis systems.Methods This is a methodological evaluation study.We analyzed six cycle enzymatic systems,and their correlation and deviation compared with chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay(CMIA)from Abbott Architect plus i2000 system,Precision,accuracy,anti-interference and analytical

  6. Targeted Metabolomics for Homocysteine-Related Metabolites in Primary Hepatocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selicharová, Irena; Kořínek, M.

    New York: Humana Press, 2015 - (Vinken, M.; Rogiers, V.), s. 267-277. (Methods in Molecular Biology . 1250). ISBN 978-1-4939-2073-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/1277 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cell culture * homocysteine * intracellular metabolites Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Biochemistry of homocysteine in health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, S; Sulochana, K N; Lakshmi, S; Selvi, R; Angayarkanni, N

    2006-10-01

    The amino acid homocysteine (Hcy), formed from methionine has profound importance in health and diseases. In normal circumstances, it is converted to cysteine and partly remethylated to methionine with the help of vit B12 and folate. However, when normal metabolism is disturbed, due to deficiency of cystathionine-beta-synthase, which requires vit B6 for activation, Hcy is accumulated in the blood with an increase of methionine, resulting into mental retardation (homocystinuria type I). A decrease of cysteine may cause eye diseases, due to decrease in the synthesis of glutathione (antioxidant). In homocystinurias type II, III and IV, there is accumulation of Hcy, but a decrease of methionine, thus, there is no mental retardation. Homocysteinemia is found in Marfan syndrome, some cases of type I diabetes and is also linked to smoking and has genetic basis too. In hyperhomocysteinemias (HHcys), clinical manifestations are mental retardation and seizures (type I only), ectopia lentis, secondary glaucoma, optic atrophy, retinal detachment, skeletal abnormalities, osteoporosis, vascular changes, neurological dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Thrombotic and cardiovascular diseases may also be encountered. The harmful effects of homocysteinemias are due to (i) production of oxidants (reactive oxygen species) generated during oxidation of Hcy to homocystine and disulphides in the blood. These could oxidize membrane lipids and proteins. (ii) Hcy can react with proteins with their thiols and form disulphides (thiolation), (iii) it can also be converted to highly reactive thiolactone which could react with the proteins forming -NH-CO- adducts, thus affecting the body proteins and enzymes. Homocystinuria type I is very rare (1 in 12 lakhs only) and is treated with supplementation of vit B6 and cystine. Others are more common and are treated with folate, vit B12 and in selected cases as in methionine synthase deficiency, methionine, avoiding excess. In this review, the role

  8. Vitamin D as a marker of cognitive decline in elderly Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Tejal Kanhaiya Vedak; Vaishali Ganwir; Arun B Shah; Charles Pinto; Lele, Vikram R.; Alka Subramanyam; Hina Shah; Sudha Shrikant Deo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Very few studies in India have addressed the role of vitamin D in cognitive function. The present study was conducted to assess the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and its association with markers of cognitive impairment and homocysteine levels in the elderly Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of patients with dementia (Group A, n = 32), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; Group B, n = 24), and elderly age-matched controls (Group C, ...

  9. The Role of B Vitamins in Preventing and Treating Cognitive Impairment and Decline123

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Martha Savaria

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have considered whether markers of B-vitamin status are associated with cognitive function and cognitive decline. This avenue of research was sparked by the homocysteine (Hcy) theory of cardiovascular disease, which was extended to Alzheimer’s disease when a link between vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease was discovered. Hcy could cause cognitive impairment via direct neurotoxicity. However, decreased remethylation of Hcy to methionine might also compromise c...

  10. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Maira A. Moreno-Garcia; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory l...

  11. B-vitamin deficiency causes hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular cognitive impairment in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Troen, Aron M; Shea-Budgell, Melissa; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Smith, Donald E.; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2008-01-01

    In older adults, mildly elevated plasma total homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease, but it is uncertain whether this is due to underlying metabolic, neurotoxic, or vascular processes. We report here that feeding male C57BL6/J mice a B-vitamin-deficient diet for 10 weeks induced hyperhomocysteinemia, significantly impaired spatial learning and memory, and caused a significant rarefaction ...

  12. Vitamin Supplementation as Possible Prophylactic Treatment against Migraine with Aura and Menstrual Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Munvar Miya Shaik; Siew Hua Gan

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction a...

  13. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Tanner, Rikki M.; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...

  14. Vitamin D Signaling in the Bovine Immune System: A Model for Understanding Human Vitamin D Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corwin D. Nelson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance.

  15. Homocysteine and reactive oxygen species in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: The pleiotropic effects of folate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homocysteine has emerged as a novel independent marker of risk for the development of cardiovascular disease over the past three decades. Additionally, there is a graded mortality risk associated with an elevated fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy. Metabolic syndrome (MS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are now considered to be a strong coronary heart disease (CHD risk enhancer and a CHD risk equivalent respectively. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy in patients with MS and T2DM would be expected to share a similar prevalence to the general population of five to seven percent and of even greater importance is: Declining glomerular filtration and overt diabetic nephropathy is a major determinant of tHcy elevation in MS and T2DM. There are multiple metabolic toxicities resulting in an excess of reactive oxygen species associated with MS, T2DM, and the accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy. HHcy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and its individual role and how it interacts with the other multiple toxicities are presented. The water-soluble B vitamins (especially folate and cobalamin-vitamin B12 have been shown to lower HHcy. The absence of the cystathionine beta synthase enzyme in human vascular cells contributes to the importance of a dual role of folic acid in lowering tHcy through remethylation, as well as, its action of being an electron and hydrogen donor to the essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. This folate shuttle facilitates the important recoupling of the uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme reaction and may restore the synthesis of the omnipotent endothelial nitric oxide to the vasculature.

  16. Konsensuspapier der D.A.CH.-Liga Homocystein über den rationellen klinischen Umgang mit Homocystein, Folsäure und B-Vitaminen bei kardiovaskulären und thrombotischen Erkrankungen - Richtlinien und Empfehlungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanger O

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Etwa die Hälfte aller Todesfälle sind auf Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen bzw. deren Komplikationen zurückzuführen. Volkswirtschaft und Gesundheitswesen werden zusätzlich durch gewaltige Kosten für Arbeitsausfälle, Folgeerkrankungen und -behandlungen belastet, besonders unter dem Aspekt einer raschen Zunahme älterer Bevölkerungsschichten. Nachdem die konventionellen Risikofaktoren einen Teil der Fälle nicht erklären können, wird dem "neuen" Risikofaktor Homocystein großes Interesse entgegengebracht. Homocystein ist ein schwefelhaltiges Intermediärprodukt im Stoffwechsel der essentiellen Aminosäure Methionin. Defizite der Vitamine Folsäure, Vitamin B12 und B6 sowie eingeschränkte Enzymaktivitäten führen durch Abbauhemmung zur intrazellulären Konzentrationserhöhung von Homocystein. Zahlreiche retrospektive und prospektive Studien finden übereinstimmend eine unabhängige Beziehung zwischen bereits leicht erhöhtem Homocystein und kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen sowie der Gesamtmortalität. Eine Risikoerhöhung ist ab einem Homocysteinwert von etwa 10 mmol/l in einer linearen Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehung ohne Schwellenwert darstellbar. Die Hyperhomocysteinämie als unabhängiger Risikofaktor für Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen wird für etwa 10 % des Gesamtrisikos verantwortlich gemacht. Erhöhte Konzentrationen (moderate Hyperhomocysteinämie, über 12 µmol/l gelten als zelltoxisch und werden bei 5-10 % der Allgemeinbevölkerung und bei bis zu 40 % der Patienten mit Gefäßerkrankungen gemessen. Zusätzliche Risikofaktoren (Rauchen, arterieller Hypertonus, Diabetes und Hyperlipidämie können das Gesamtrisiko additiv oder durch Interaktion mit Homocystein synergistisch und überproportional erhöhen. Bei Hyperhomocysteinämie kommt es neben Veränderungen der Gefäßmorphologie zu einem Verlust der antithrombotischen Endothelfunktion und zur Induktion eines prokoagulatorischen Milieus. Den meisten der bekannten Schädigungen liegen

  17. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated data supports the argument that vitamin D possesses several biological and molecular actions apart from its role in calcium absorption and facilitation of gene expression. Vitamin D deficiency has been an associated risk factor for cardiovascular disease,metabolic syndrome and ocular complications. The aim of this review is to summarise the most relevant data regarding these associations and to try to clarify whether, and to what extent, oral vitamin D supplementation could be used as a beneficial intervention in such diseases.Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  18. Extrahepatic tissue concentrations of vitamin K are lower in rats fed a high vitamin E diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson James W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An adverse hematological interaction between vitamins E and K has been reported, primarily in patients on anticoagulants. However, little is known regarding circulating levels or tissue concentrations of vitamin K in response to vitamin E supplementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different levels of dietary α-tocopherol on phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 concentrations, while maintaining a constant intake of phylloquinone, in rat tissues. Methods Male 4-wk old Fischer 344 rats (n = 33 were fed one of 3 diets for 12 wk: control (n = 13 with 30 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate/kg diet; vitamin E-supplemented (n = 10 with 100 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate/kg diet; and vitamin E-restricted (n = 10 with Results Phylloquinone concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05 in the vitamin E-supplemented compared to the vitamin E-restricted group (mean ± SD spleen: 531 ± 58 vs.735 ± 77; kidney: 20 ± 17 vs. 94 ± 31, brain: 53 ± 19 vs.136 ± 97 pmol/g protein respectively; no statistically significant differences between groups were found in plasma, liver or testis. Similar results were noted with menaquinone-4 concentrations in response to vitamin E supplementation. Conclusion There appears to be a tissue-specific interaction between vitamins E and K when vitamin E is supplemented in rat diets. Future research is required to elucidate the mechanism for this nutrient-nutrient interaction.

  19. VITAMIN D STATUS IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Tawfik Soliman

    2013-01-01

    The survival of patients with thalassemia major has progressively improved with advances in therapy; however, osteoporosis and cardiac dysfunction remain frequent complications. Adequate circulating levels of vitamin D are essential for optimal skeletal health and reducing fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is reported to be high in thalassemic patients in many countries despite the presence of good sunshine and routine prescription of 400–1,000 IU vitamin D per day. The ri...

  20. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B12 (2000μgkg-1). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg-1). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B12

  1. Vitamin D and airway infections: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin; Pilz, Stefan; Hoffmann, Harald; März, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has immuno-modulatory properties, and deficient levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (migration background. While results of RCTs do not support the concept of beneficial adjunctive effects of vitamin D supplements in anti-TB treatment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.86; 95% CI 0.62-1.19], the few published RCTs on the prophylaxis of TB suggest some protective vitamin D effects in individuals with deficient circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Regarding acute respiratory tract infection, RCTs indicate a significant risk reduction by vitamin D supplements [OR = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.85]. There is evidence that daily administration is more effective than high-dose bolus administration [OR = 0.48 (95% CI 0.30-0.77) vs. OR = 0.87 (95% CI 0.67-1.14)] and that individuals with deficient or insufficient (30-50 nmol/l) circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels benefit most. Several vitamin D effects on innate immunity may explain these protective effects. In summary, there is possible evidence from RCTs for protective vitamin D effects on TB and likely evidence for protective effects on acute airway infection. Since vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Europe, especially in institutionalised individuals and non-European immigrants, daily oral vitamin D intake, e.g. 1000 international units, is an inexpensive measure to ensure adequate vitamin D status in individuals at risk. PMID:27009076

  2. Lung Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  3. Unsuccessful vitamin D treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Anne; Hey, Henrik; Larsson, Iben;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) analyses have increased exponentially and vitamin D deficiency (D2). Lack of effect of treatment can be due to: 1......) too low dose, 2) incorrect analytical methods when injection treatment (vitamin D2) is used, 3) obesity, 4) seasonal variations, and 5) poor compliance. Treatment is mandatory in order to prevent osteopenia and osteoporosis. Vitamin D3 is more potent than vitamin D2. Injections with vitamin D2 should...... be replaced by vitamin D3....

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on plasma homocysteine: results from a Danish twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Petersen, Inge; Christiansen, Lene;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma homocysteine has been linked to many clinical conditions including atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. We assessed the genetic and environmental influences on homocysteine in adult twins and tested the influence of 3 candidate polymorphisms. METHODS: Homocysteine...... were analyzed using biometric structural equation models as well as a combined association and linkage analysis in 2 age cohorts. RESULTS: Age, sex, and MTHFR genotype have a significant impact on homocysteine concentrations, whereas the other genotypes were not associated with homocysteine...... concentrations. The variance in homocysteine could be solely ascribed to additive genetic and nonshared environmental factors, with an estimated additive genetic proportion of total variation at age 18-39 years of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.71) and at age 40-65 years of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.10-0.41). The impact...

  5. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  6. Correlation between behavioural and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer type dementia and plasma homocysteine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhanjie; Wang, Jindong; Yi, Lei; Yu, Hui; Kong, Lingli; Cui, Weizhen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Chunxia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy) among 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD. PMID:24995291

  7. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100 nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700 nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300 pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5 μmol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400 μg/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2 μg/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences.

  8. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, Michael, E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 10041 Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100 nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700 nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300 pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5 {mu}mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400 {mu}g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2 {mu}g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences.

  9. The Causal Effect of Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP) Levels on Calcemic and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Aaron; Rehman, Waheed; Dastani, Zari; Greenwood, Celia; Timpson, Nicholas; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; ,; Fu, Lei; Wong, Betty Y. L.; Malik, Suneil; Malik, Rainer; Hanley, David A; Cole, David E.C.; Goltzman, David

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly common public health concern. According to some estimates, more than a billion people worldwide may be vitamin D deficient. Indeed, many people living in the US and Europe (in particular, elderly people, breastfed infants, people with dark skin, and obese individuals) have serum (circulating) 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels below 50 nmol/l, the threshold for vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium, a...

  10. Study on the Relationship between Plasma Homocysteine and Acute Cerebral Vascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The levels of plasma homocysteine were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. It was found that plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the patients with stroke than that in the controls. There was no correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and hypertension, smoking, concentrations of blood glucose or hypertriglyceridesemia. It was suggested that hyperhomocysteinemia may be an independent risk factor for acute cerebral vascular disease.

  11. Homocysteine Serum Levels in Diabetic Patients with Non Proliferative, Proliferative and without Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Malaguarnera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine has been associated with extracellular matrix changes. The diabetic retinopathy is a neurovascular complication of diabetes mellitus and it is the leading cause of vision loss among working adults worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the role of homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy analyzing the plasma levels of homocysteine in 63 diabetic type 2 patients with nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR, 62 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, 50 healthy subjects used as control group, and 75 randomly selected patients.

  12. Homocystein, Liquorparameter und Apolipoprotein E bei Demenzerkrankungen und leichter kognitiver Störung

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Florian

    2010-01-01

    1. Hintergrund und Ziele Weder klinische noch experimentelle Studien lassen derzeit eine klare Definition der Bedeutung des Homocysteins in der Pathophysiologie von Demenzerkrankungen zu. Insbesondere ist die Frage ungeklärt, ob erhöhte Homocystein-Werte im Plasma kausal in der Pathogenese neurodegenerativer Erkrankungen integriert sind oder ob sie eher als Epiphänomen anderer pathologischer Prozesse angesehen werden müssen. Primäres Ziel der Studie war es, die Relation des Plasma-Homocystein...

  13. Direct homocysteine biosynthesis from O-succinylhomoserine in Escherichia coli: an alternate pathway that bypasses cystathionine.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Simon; Hong, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Mutations were found which enable Escherichia coli K-12 to form homocysteine in the absence of cystathionase. The formation of homocysteine in the mutant strains required cystathionine gamma-synthetase, the metB gene product, but bypassed the normal intermediate cystathionine. It is concluded that cystathionine gamma-synthetase catalyzes the formation of homocysteine directly from O-succinylhomoserine and an as-yet-unidentified sulfur donor. The mutation apparently causes the formation of thi...

  14. Revisiting the Role of First Trimester Homocysteine as an Index of Maternal and Fetal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Mascarenhas; Syed Habeebullah; M. G. Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To revisit the role of first trimester homocysteine levels with the maternal and fetal outcome. Methods. This was a cohort study comprising 100 antenatal women between 8 and 12 weeks of gestation. Serum homocysteine levels were checked after overnight fasting. Results. There were significantly elevated homocysteine levels among women with prior history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and prior second or third trimester pregnancy losses. There was no significant difference in homoc...

  15. A general review on vitamin B12 deficiency with focus on the situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential nutrient that is only obtained from foods of animal origin, such as meat, eggs and dairy products. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis and neurological function. Thus its deficiency can lead to several neurological symptoms such as memory loss, dizziness and in severe cases may lead to dementia. Many factors can cause or lead to vitamin B-12 deficiency. Among these are malabsorption, several gastron intestinal problems (i.e. celiac disease, Crobn's disease) and gastrointestinal surgeries. diagnosis of vitamin B-12 status depends commonly on serum vitamin B12 which is nonspecific tool for the deficiency. Other more specific tests, which reflect true deficiency, include serum and urine methylmalonic aci de, total serum homocysteine and serum holotranscobalamin. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a worldwide public health problem; epidemiological studies showed that its prevalence in industrialized countries ranges from 5-60% of the population depending on the used cutoff point of cobalamin level. In Jordan, many reports were published on vitamin B 12 deficiency. However, these reports gave different results of its prevalence ranging from 16-48% depending on the serum vitamin B12 cutoff point used. A recent study showed a prevalence of true deficiency of 32.7% based on measuring both serum vitamin B12 level and plasma methylmalonic acid. (authors).

  16. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  17. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. It ... that are needed for normal blood clotting. Vitamin K is also needed for making important bone proteins. ...

  18. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  19. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  20. VITAMIN D STATUS IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tawfik Soliman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of patients with thalassemia major has progressively improved with advances in therapy; however, osteoporosis and cardiac dysfunction remain frequent complications. Adequate circulating levels of vitamin D are essential for optimal skeletal health and reducing fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is reported to be high in thalassemic patients in many countries despite the presence of good sunshine and routine prescription of 400–1,000 IU vitamin D per day. The risk of vitamin D deficiency in thalassemia and its relation to bone disease; including osteoporosis, rickets, scoliosis, spinal deformities and fractures as well as to cardiac dysfunction is discussed in this mini-review. Monitoring and maintaining normal serum level of 25-OH vitamin D through oral intake of vitamin D and early correction of VDD by oral or parental use of vitamin D may significantly improve bone mineral accretion and ameliorate cardiac function. The survival of patients with thalassemia major has progressively improved with advances in therapy; however, osteoporosis and cardiac dysfunction remain frequent complications. Adequate circulating levels of vitamin D are essential for optimal skeletal health and reducing fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is reported to be high in thalassemic patients in many countries despite the presence of good sunshine and routine prescription of 400–1,000 IU vitamin D per day. The risk of vitamin D deficiency in thalassemia and its relation to bone disease; including osteoporosis, rickets, scoliosis, spinal deformities and fractures as well as to cardiac dysfunction is discussed in this mini-review. Monitoring and maintaining normal serum level of 25-OH vitamin D through oral intake of vitamin D and early correction of VDD by oral or parental use of vitamin D may significantly improve bone mineral accretion and ameliorate cardiac function.

  1. The influence of homocysteine and oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Micle, O; Muresan, M; Antal, L; Bodog, F; Bodog, A

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress in utero–placental tissues plays an important role in the development of placental-related diseases. Maternal hiperhomocysteinemia is associated with placental mediated diseases, such as preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion and placental abruption. The aim of our study is to appreciate the clinical usefulness of the dosage serum homocysteine and malondialdehyde, as an oxidative stress marker, in the pregnancies complicated with risk of abortion or preterm birth. The study was p...

  2. Risk prediction—Homocysteine in Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harish, Rao B; Govindaraju, V.; C N Manjunath

    2007-01-01

    Majority of patients who experience a Coronary Heart disease event have one or more of the conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis and so do many people who have not yet experienced such an event. Thus predictive models based on conventional risk factors have lower than the desired accuracy, providing a stimulus to search for new factors to predict accurately the risk of CHD. In this regard newer risk factors like homocysteine, Lp(a), insulin resistances are the important ones and are c...

  3. Role of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone in dementia: A hospital-based study in north Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Rachna; Chhillar Neelam; Kushwaha Suman; Singh Neeraj; Tripathi Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B 12 and folate represent modifiable risk factors for dementia. They may increase the risk of Alzheimer′s dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) as their deficiency can increase the homocysteine level due to slowed methylation reaction. Homocysteine has a neurotoxic effect that could lead to neurologic disturbances. Hence, it is important to explore the status of serum B 12 and folate in AD and VaD to evolve the treatment strategies for the same. Objectives: A re...

  4. Role of vitamin B12, folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone in dementia: A hospital-based study in north Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Kushwaha, Suman; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Tripathi, Chandra Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 and folate represent modifiable risk factors for dementia. They may increase the risk of Alzheimer′s dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) as their deficiency can increase the homocysteine level due to slowed methylation reaction. Homocysteine has a neurotoxic effect that could lead to neurologic disturbances. Hence, it is important to explore the status of serum B12 and folate in AD and VaD to evolve the treatment strategies for the same. Objectives: A retrospecti...

  5. Homocysteine as risk factor for coronary artery disease in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)

  6. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  7. Algorithm for the early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Palacios

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The elderly population is particularly at risk for developing vitamin B12-deficiency. Serum cobalamin does not necessarily reflect a normal B12 status. The determination of methylmalonic acid is not available in all laboratories. Issues of sensitivity for holotranscobalamin and the low specificity of total homocysteine limit their utility. The aim of the present study is to establish a diagnostic algorithm by using a combination of these markers in place of a single measurement. Methods: We compared the diagnostic efficiency of these markers for detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in a population (n = 218 of institutionalized elderly (median age 80 years. Biochemical, haematological and morphological data were used to categorize people with or without vitamin B12 deficiency. Results: In receiver operating curves characteristics for detection on vitamin B12 deficiency using single measurements, serum folate has the greatest area under the curve (0.87 and homocysteine the lowest (0.67. The best specificity was observed for erythrocyte folate and methylmalonic acid (100% for both but their sensitivity was very low (17% and 53%, respectively. The highest sensitivity was observed for homocysteine (81% and serum folate (74%. When we combined these markers, starting with serum and erythrocyte folate, followed by holotranscobalamin and ending by methylmalonic acid measurements, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm, which combines erythrocyte folate, serum folate, holotranscobalamin and methylmalonic acid, but eliminate B12 and tHcy measurements, is a useful alternative for vitamin B12 deficiency screening in an elderly institutionalized cohort.

  8. Vitamin A levels and human immunodeficiency virus load in injection drug users.

    OpenAIRE

    SEMBA, R. D.; Farzadegan, H; Vlahov, D

    1997-01-01

    Although low plasma vitamin A levels are associated with increased mortality and higher vertical transmission during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it is unknown whether plasma low vitamin A levels are a marker for circulating HIV load. We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort study of injection drug users in order to evaluate the relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and HIV viral load. Plasma vitamin A level was measured by high-performance liqu...

  9. Vitamin D: Are We Ready to Supplement for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Crew, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Preclinical studies support various antitumor effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. Numerous observational studies have reported an inverse association between vitamin D status, including circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and breast cancer risk. The relationship between vitamin D and mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, remai...

  10. Distribution of hydroxylated vitamin D metabolites [25OHD3 and 1,25(OH)2D3] in domestic pigs: evidence that 1,25(OH)2D3 is stored outside the blood circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungby, J; Mortensen, L; Jakobsen, K; Brock, A; Mosekilde, L

    1993-03-01

    1. The distribution of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] in various organs from domestic pigs was examined by HPLC. 2. Plasma levels of both metabolites corresponded to those found in healthy human subjects. 3. Tissue concentrations of 25OHD3 in fat, kidney, liver, and intestinal mucosa were low (< 1/3 of plasma levels), whereas tissue concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 exceeded plasma levels by factors 3-7, adipose tissue concentrations being the highest. 4. Substantial amounts of activated vitamin D are stored outside the blood-streams and may actively participate in vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. PMID:8097149

  11. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember a prescription medication called ... Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin, B6, Chlorhydrate ... Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5- ...

  12. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  13. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D? We get vitamin D from three sources—food, supplements, and sunlight. Sunlight When exposed to sunlight, the ... dark skin get extra vitamin D from fortified foods or supplements. How much is too much? Vitamin D toxicity ...

  14. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin ...

  15. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin A Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Vitamin B12 and Folate , Vitamin D Tests , Iron Tests , ...

  16. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also ... is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember ...

  17. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  18. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name: Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) Other ways to measure: Vitamin B6 functional test, Urine 4-pyridoxic acid, urine xanthurenic acid B7, Biotin Also known as: Vitamin H, Vitamin B-w Role: B7 is a ...

  19. Perinatal hypophosphatasia: tissue levels of vitamin B6 are unremarkable despite markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. Evidence for an ectoenzyme role for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase.

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Fedde, K. N.; Cole, F. S.; McCabe, E. R.; Coburn, S P

    1988-01-01

    "Perinatal" hypophosphatasia is the most severe form of this inborn error of metabolism, which is characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (TNSALP). We report that autopsy tissue from three affected subjects, which was profoundly low in ALP activity, had essentially unremarkable levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal, and total vitamin B6 content despite markedly elevated plasma PLP levels (5,800, 14,5...

  20. Alleviation of hepatic fat accumulation by betaine involves reduction of homocysteine via up-regulation of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chul Won; Jun, Doo Sung; Na, Jong Deok; Choi, Yeo Jin; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the anti-lipogenic effect of betaine in rats fed methionine and choline-deficient diet (MCD). Intake of MCD for 3 wk resulted in a significant accumulation of hepatic lipids, which was prevented by betaine supplementation in drinking water (1%). Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) was inhibited by MCD intake, and these changes were all inhibited by betaine feeding. Meanwhile, betaine supplementation reversed the reduction of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and the elevation of homocysteine levels in the liver, which could be attributable to the induction of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Different cell lines were used to clarify the role of homocysteine on activation of the AMPK pathway. Homocysteine treatment decreased pAMPK, pACC, pSREBP-1c and pLKB1 in HepG2 cells. Metformin-induced activation of AMPK was also inhibited by homocysteine. Treatment with hydroxylamine, a cystathionine β-synthase inhibitor, resulted in a reduction of pAMPK, pACC and pSREBP-1c, accompanied by an elevation of intracellular homocysteine. Betaine treatment prevented the homocysteine-induced reduction of pAMPK, pACC, pSREBP-1c and pLKB1 in H4IIE cells, but not in HepG2 cells. Also the elevation of cellular homocysteine and inhibition of protein expression of BHMT were prevented by betaine only in H4IIE cells which express BHMT. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of betaine against hepatic lipid accumulation may be attributed, at least in part, to the depletion of homocysteine via up-regulation of BHMT in hepatocytes. PMID:27320863

  1. Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid on fracture incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, van S.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Zillikens, M.C.; Meurs, van J.B.J.; Brug, J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12 and folate status are associated with an

  2. Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B 12and folic acid on fracture incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); K.M.A. Swart (Karin); A.W. Enneman (Anke); S.C. van Dijk (Suzanne); E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); J. Brug (Johannes); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Lips (Paul); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12and folate status are associ

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; de Jager, Celeste A

    2015-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:26757190

  4. Vitamins and Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Russo; Francesca Caroppo; Mauro Alaibac

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamin...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  6. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The B-vitamins comprise a group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules. However, human epidemiological and controlled trial investigations, and the resultant scientific commentary, have focused almost exclusively on the small sub-set of vitamins (B9/B12/B6 that are the most prominent (but not the exclusive B-vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism. Scant regard has been paid to the other B vitamins. This review describes the closely inter-related functions of the eight B-vitamins and marshals evidence suggesting that adequate levels of all members of this group of micronutrients are essential for optimal physiological and neurological functioning. Furthermore, evidence from human research clearly shows both that a significant proportion of the populations of developed countries suffer from deficiencies or insufficiencies in one or more of this group of vitamins, and that, in the absence of an optimal diet, administration of the entire B-vitamin group, rather than a small sub-set, at doses greatly in excess of the current governmental recommendations, would be a rational approach for preserving brain health.

  7. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O

    2016-02-01

    The B-vitamins comprise a group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules. However, human epidemiological and controlled trial investigations, and the resultant scientific commentary, have focused almost exclusively on the small sub-set of vitamins (B9/B12/B6) that are the most prominent (but not the exclusive) B-vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism. Scant regard has been paid to the other B vitamins. This review describes the closely inter-related functions of the eight B-vitamins and marshals evidence suggesting that adequate levels of all members of this group of micronutrients are essential for optimal physiological and neurological functioning. Furthermore, evidence from human research clearly shows both that a significant proportion of the populations of developed countries suffer from deficiencies or insufficiencies in one or more of this group of vitamins, and that, in the absence of an optimal diet, administration of the entire B-vitamin group, rather than a small sub-set, at doses greatly in excess of the current governmental recommendations, would be a rational approach for preserving brain health. PMID:26828517

  8. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  9. Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein as Useful Surrogate Markers for Evaluating CKD Risk in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chuang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP as potential markers for chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults in Taiwan, and to identify associations between these factors and CKD, stratifying by gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed multi-center data retrospectively. Data were collected from 22,043 adult Taiwanese at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2011. Smoking/drinking history, personal medical/medication history, pregnancy, fasting times as well as laboratory parameters, including homocysteine and CRP were measured and analyzed. Results: Significant differences were observed between four homocysteine and CRP quartiles in eGFR and CKD. For males, only one model showed significant associations between plasma homocysteine and CKD, while in females, all three models showed significant associations with CKD. On the contrary, the gender difference in the case of CRP was opposite. Combined homocysteine and CRP were associated with CKD in males but not in females. Conclusion: Among Taiwanese adults, plasma homocysteine is associated with CKD in females and plasma hsCRP is associated with CKD in males. High hsCRP/high homocysteine is associated with elevated CKD risk in male. Our results suggest that homocysteine and hsCRP may be useful surrogate markers for evaluating CKD risk in adults.

  10. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    Determination of homocysteine in plasma or serum for evaluation of cobalamin and folate deficiency is becoming an important diagnostic procedure. Accurate, rapid and low cost methods for measuring homocysteine are therefore required. We have improved an HPLC method and made it suitable for clinic...

  11. The development of a new class of inhibitors for betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pícha, Jan; Vaněk, Václav; Buděšínský, Miloš; Mládková, Jana; Garrow, T. A.; Jiráček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, July (2013), s. 256-275. ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/1277 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : BHMT * inhibitor * homocysteine * phosphonate * phosphinate * amino acid derivative * bioisostere * S-alkylated homocysteine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2013

  12. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism interacts with smoking to increase homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, K.S.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Young, I.S.; Murray, L.; McMaster, D.; Woodside, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Boreham, C.A.; McNulty, H.; Strain, J.J.; McPartlin, J.; Scott, J.M.; Mitchell, L.E.; Whitehead, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine is a risk marker for several human pathologies. Risk factors for elevated homocysteine include low folate and homozygosity for the T allele of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism. Because nitric oxide may inhibit folate catabolism and endothe

  13. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in neuropsychiatric diseases: review and treatment recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Olaf; Fowler, Brian; Petrzik, Klaus; Huemer, Martina; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Semmler, Alexander; Lorenzl, Stefan; Linnebank, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, neuropsychiatric diseases currently make up approximately a third of the total burden of disease. In 2004, 27% of the overall population was affected by at least one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke or depression. The annual costs of care exceed those of cancer, cardiovascular conditions and diabetes. In order to delay the onset or course of neurodegenerative diseases, the available potential should be utilized...

  14. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Türksoy N; Bilici R; Yalçıner A; Özdemir YÖ; Örnek I; Tufan AE; Kara A

    2014-01-01

    Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hosp...

  15. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    OZDEMIR, YUSUF OZAY

    2014-01-01

    Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hosp...

  16. Correlations of folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and thrombopoietin to platelet count in HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayh S. Eissa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion This study concluded that TCP in HCV-related chronic liver diseases is multifactorial and decreased FA is involved in its pathogenesis as an independent risk factor. Increased Hcy may cause TCP through platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction.

  17. The influence of β-carotene on homocysteine level and oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kasperczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is involved in lead toxicity. This suggests that some antioxidants may play a role in the treatment of lead poisoning. In the light of this, the aim of the study was to determine whether β-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and homocysteine level in workers chronically exposed to lead. Material and Methods: The exposed population included healthy male workers exposed to lead who were randomly divided into 2 groups (mean blood lead level ca. 44 μg/dl. Workers in the 1st group (N = 49, reference group had no antioxidants, drugs, vitamins or dietary supplements administered, while workers in the 2nd group (N = 33 had β-carotene administered in a dose of 10 mg per day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included markers of lead-exposure and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker. We also measured the level of homocysteine (Hcy and thiol groups as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and its isoenzyme EC-SOD in serum. Results: After supplementation, the level of MDA significantly decreased, compared to baseline, by 16%, and to the reference group. When compared to the reference group, Hcy level was also significantly decreased. However, the level of thiol groups was significantly higher after supplementation with β-carotene compared to the reference group. Analogically, the activity of SOD and EC-SOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline and to the reference group. Conclusions: Despite some controversies over antioxidant properties of β-carotene, our results indicate that its antioxidant action could provide some beneficial effects in lead poisoning independent of chelation. Med Pr 2014;65(3:309–316

  18. A pilot study of folic acid supplementation for improving homocysteine levels, cognitive and depressive status in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Loria-Kohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Several authors have reported low folate intake in patients with eating disorders (ED. This vitamin plays an essential role in synthesis reactions for neurotransmitters and structural elements of neurons, and therefore its deficiency has been associated with the presence of different disorders linked to mental function. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine levels and the cognitive and depressive status of a group of patients with eating disorders with low folate intake. Subjects/methods: The study was designed as a randomised, prospective clinical trial, which included 24 participants assigned to two treatment groups for six months: supplemented group (SG (10 mg/day of folic acid [ACFOL®] and a placebo group (PG. Both groups maintained their medical, dietary and psychological treatment. At baseline and end of the intervention, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical parameters (plasma homocysteine [Hcy], serum and red blood cell folate were recorded. Cognitive and depressive status questionnaires were administered (Stroop Test, Trail Making Test and Beck Depression Inventory. Results: Twenty-two patients completed the study (SG: 12, PG: 10, mean age: 24.2 ± 8.8 years, BMI 18, ± 3.5 kg/m². The SG significantly increased their serum and red blood cell folate levels and lowered Hcy levels (9.4 ± 2.4 µmol/l vs. 7.5 ± 1.7 µmol/l, P < 0.01. The SG also significantly improved most of their test scores for cognitive and depressive status. The PG showed no significant changes in any of the evaluated variables. Conclusions: The results show that folic acid supplementation may be used as another tool within the comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatment applied to patients with ED.

  19. Central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine microinjected into ventrolateral medullary autonomic areas of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2016-09-01

    Elevated L-homocysteine concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are related to cardiovascular and neuronal diseases, and could contribute to disease development. However, the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine in two important autonomic regulating areas remain unknown: the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), including pre-sympathetic neurons, and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including interneurons projecting to pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of L-homocysteine microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM areas on changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats, as well as the influence of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors on the central actions of L-homocysteine. L-Homocysteine solutions were microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM, which were defined according to pressor and depressor responses to L-glutamate microinjections, respectively. ABP and HR increased in the RVLM and decreased in the CVLM after microinjection with L-homocysteine, similar to L-glutamate, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting mediation of EAA receptors. Prior microinjection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) iEAA receptor antagonist MK801, but not the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX, abolished the observed responses to L-homocysteine in both the RVLM and CVLM. These results indicate the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine via MK801-sensitive receptors of the medullary autonomic neurons in the rat RVLM and CVLM. It remains unknown if the central cardiovascular actions are related to cardiovascular diseases after endogenously and locally augmented L-homocysteine production by disordered metabolism. Further studies on functional significance of L-homocysteine may provide some clue to understand its toxic mechanism. PMID:27178024

  20. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  1. The influence of homocysteine and oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micle, O; Muresan, M; Antal, L; Bodog, F; Bodog, A

    2012-02-22

    Oxidative stress in utero-placental tissues plays an important role in the development of placental-related diseases. Maternal hiperhomocysteinemia is associated with placental mediated diseases, such as preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion and placental abruption. The aim of our study is to appreciate the clinical usefulness of the dosage serum homocysteine and malondialdehyde, as an oxidative stress marker, in the pregnancies complicated with risk of abortion or preterm birth. The study was performed at the Obstetric Gynecology Clinical Hospital Oradea from December 2009 until April 2010. It included 18 patients with risk of abortion (group 1), 22 with preterm birth (group 2). The results were compared with a control group composed by 14 healthy pregnant women. Serum homocysteine level was measured by an enzymatic method, on the instrument Hitachi 912, Roche, reagent: Axis-Shield Enzymatic. For proving the oxidative stress we established the level of malondialdehyde using a method with thiobarbituric acid TBA (Kei Satoh 1978) and the level of ceruloplasmin with the Ravin method .Also AST, ALT,CRP, iron, uric acid, urea were assessed.High level of homocysteine in both groups of study in comparison with the control group was found. The concentration of MDA was significantly higher in pregnancies complicated with risk of abortion and preterm birth compared to the control group (p=0.040, p=0.031). Considerable differences of ceruloplasmin concentration between group 1 and group 2 (p=0.045), and between group 2 and control group (p=0.034), was noticed but not any important differences between group 1 and control group (p=0.683). In women with risk of abortion or with preterm birth an oxidative stress and a hyperhomocysteinemia are present. PMID:22574089

  2. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: human liver genotype-phenotype correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiping; Kalari, Krishna; Fridley, Brooke L.; Jenkins, Gregory; Ji, Yuan; Abo, Ryan; Hebbring, Scott; Zhang, Jianping; Nye, Monica D.; Leeder, J. Steven; Weinshilboum, Richard. M.

    2010-01-01

    Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine. BHMT is highly expressed in the human liver. In the liver, BHMT catalyzes up to 50% of homocysteine metabolism. Understanding the relationship between BHMT genetic polymorphisms and function might increase our understanding of the role of this reaction in homocysteine remethylation and in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation. To help achieve those goals, we measured levels of BHMT enzyme activity and immunoreactive protein in 268 human hepatic surgical biopsy samples from adult subjects as well as 73 fetal hepatic tissue samples obtained at different gestational ages. BHMT protein levels were correlated significantly (p<0.001) with levels of enzyme activity in both fetal and adult tissue, but both were decreased in fetal tissue when compared with levels in the adult hepatic biopsies. To determine possible genotype-phenotype correlations, 12 tag SNPs for BHMT and the closely related BHMT2 gene were selected from SNPs observed during our own gene resequencing studies as well as from HapMap data were used to genotype DNA from the adult hepatic surgical biopsy samples, and genotype-phenotype association analysis was performed. Three SNPs (rs41272270, rs16876512, and rs6875201), located 28 kb upstream, in the 5′-UTR and in intron 1 of BHMT, respectively, were significantly correlated with both BHMT activity (p=3.41E-8, 2.55E-9 and 2.46E-10, respectively) and protein levels (p=5.78E-5, 1.08E-5 and 6.92E-6, respectively). We also imputed 230 additional SNPs across the BHMT and BHMT2 genes, identifying an additional imputed SNP, rs7700790, that was also highly associated with hepatic BHMT enzyme activity and protein. However, none of the 3 genotyped or one imputed SNPs displayed a “shift” during electrophoretic mobility shift assays. These observations may help us to understand individual variation in the regulation of BHMT in the human liver and its possible relationship

  3. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  4. Hyperhomocysteinaemia, vascular related pregnancy complications and the response to vitamin supplementation in pregnant women of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elaborate the relationship between serum homocysteine (hcy) levels and vascular related pregnancy complications in pregnant women as well as to assess the homocysteine lowering effects of folate, vitamin B12 and B6. The secondary objectives were to establish a link between serum homocysteine levels and maternal age, parity, gestational age, foetal birth weight, mean arterial pressure and albuminuria. Methods: A total of 332 pregnant women (gestational age: >24 weeks) attending Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan, were enrolled. Of these 112 were healthy normal pregnant women; 61 pregnant women had pre-eclampsia, 49 with eclampsia and 110 with placental abruption. A cohort of 30 patients with elevated hcy levels (>8.2 mu mol/liter), were given folate, vitamin B12 and B6 as supplements for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected, centrifuged and stored at 2 to 8 deg. C. Hcy levels were determined by IMx immunoassay. Results: Higher serum hcy levels, higher mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), pre-term deliveries and low foetal birth weights were noted in women with pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia as compared to control and those with placental abruption. Significant hcy lowering effects of folate, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation were observed. Significant and positive correlation was found between hhcy and MAP (r = 0.001; p<0.001), albuminuria (r = 0.004; p< 0.01) and low birth weights (r= 0.05; p<0.06). Conclusion: Higher hcy levels in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia have been noted. Data support the hypothesis that folate, vitamin B12 and B6 lower hcy levels in hyperhomocysteinaemic women. (author)

  5. Reduction of homocysteine in elderly with heart failure improved vascular function and blood pressure control but did not affect inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven E; Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2005-11-01

    We have previously shown that hyperhomocysteinaemia is common in elderly heart failure patients, and is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired vasodilatory capacity and a low-grade inflammation. In the present study we examined if supplementation with B6, B12 and folate could normalize the hyperhomocysteinaemia and if so, in turn, would improve the associated parameters. This was an open study without placebo control on heart failure patients with plasma homocysteine > 15 microM. Measurements of cutaneous vascular reactivity, blood pressure, inflammatory activity and endothelial function were performed before and after intervention with intra-individual comparisons. The treatment reduced homocysteine to near normal values and enhanced the hyperaemic response to acetylcholine related to the response to heat. The mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate was reduced. There was no effect on inflammatory activity, plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, subjective health quality or the hyperaemic responses to sodium nitroprusside or local warming. Hyperhomocysteinaemia in heart failure patients is multifactorial in origin. Folate deficiency, inflammatory activity and reduced renal function could be contributing. It is suggested that supplementation with B-vitamins can improve the vasodilatory capacity and reduce the blood pressure but additional studies are required to confirm this. PMID:16236143

  6. Defective Homocysteine Metabolism: Potential Implications for Skeletal Muscle Malfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C. Tyagi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy is a systemic medical condition and has been attributed to multi-organ pathologies. Genetic, nutritional, hormonal, age and gender differences are involved in abnormal homocysteine (Hcy metabolism that produces HHcy. Homocysteine is an intermediate for many key processes such as cellular methylation and cellular antioxidant potential and imbalances in Hcy production and/or catabolism impacts gene expression and cell signaling including GPCR signaling. Furthermore, HHcy might damage the vagus nerve and superior cervical ganglion and affects various GPCR functions; therefore it can impair both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation in the blood vessels of skeletal muscle and affect long-term muscle function. Understanding cellular targets of Hcy during HHcy in different contexts and its role either as a primary risk factor or as an aggravator of certain disease conditions would provide better interventions. In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. Overall, the impact of HHcy in various skeletal muscle malfunctions is underappreciated; future studies in this area will provide deeper insights and improve our understanding of the association between HHcy and diminished physical function.

  7. Effects of Four-Week Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Preparation on Mood and Blood Biomarkers in Young Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of four-week multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM supplementation on mood and neurocognitive function in healthy, young adults. Fifty-eight healthy adults, 18–40 years of age (M = 25.82 years, SD = 4.87 participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which mood and blood biomarkers were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of supplementation. Compared to placebo, MVM supplementation was associated with significantly lowered homocysteine and increased blood B-vitamin levels (p < 0.01. MVM treatment was also associated with significantly improved mood, as measured by reduced scores on the “depression-dejection” subscale of the Profile of Mood States (p = 0.018. These findings suggest that the four weeks of MVM supplementation may have beneficial effects on mood, underpinned by elevated B-vitamins and lowered homocysteine in healthy young adults.

  8. METHYLMALONIC ACID AND HOMOCYSTEIN SERUM IN DIAGNOSING MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA DUE TO COBALAMIN AND FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN TRAVEL MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Made Gian Indra Rahayuda; Sianny Herawati

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is a major global health problem, especially in developing countries. Anemia is a condition where the red blood cell mass and / or hemoglobin mass that circulating in the body was decreased to below normal level so it can not function well in providing oxygen to the body tissues. One of the most common type is megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is mostly caused by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folate deficiency. One of the causes of cobalamin and folate deficiency anemia is trop...

  9. Taurine antagonized oxidative stress injury induced by homocysteine in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHANG; Jian-xin XU; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Yong-fen QI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe protective effects of taurine on reactive oxygen species generation induced by homocysteine in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). METHODS: Rat VSMC was incubated with various concentrations of homocysteine and taurine. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity which released into culture medium was elevated as an indicator for VSMC injury. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2- )were measured with luminol or lucigenin chemiluminescences method, and the mitochondria Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also measured in treated VSMC. RESULTS: LDH leakage from cultured VSMC treated with homocystenie, was increased (P<0.01 vs control), and it was markedly inhibited when co-incubated with taurine (P<0.01). Homocysteine induced H2O2 generation from VSMC in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.01 vs control). However, taurine (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) significantly antagonized 0.5 mmol/L homocysteine-induced H2O2 generation in VSMC in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.01 vs homocysteine alone group), although taurine itself did not alter the H2O2 generation in VSMC (P>0.05 vs control).In this study, the superoxide anion in VSMC was not detectable by chemiluminent method. In addition, treatment of VSMC with taurine increased mitochondria Mn-SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05), but homocysteine decreased mitochondria Mn-SOD and CAT activity (P<0.01 vs control). In addition,co-administration of taurine markedly ameliorated homocysteine-induced inhibition of Mn-SOD and CAT activity in VSMC (P<0.01 vs homocysteine alone group). CONCLUSION: Taurine antagonized the effects of homocysteine on ROS generation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in rat VSMC in vitro.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL AND GRADING OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Mirhoseini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy levels constitute a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. A possible relationship was investigated between admission plasma homocysteine level and the angiographic severity and extension of coronary artery disease in patients with CAD. This study looks at the relationship between total plasma homocysteine and severity of coronary artery disease. From April 2006 to December 2006, 100 consecutive patients (65 male and 35 female that referred to our institute for coronary artery bypass graft surgery enrolled. Fasting blood samples for homocysteine were obtained on admission. Plasma homocysteine concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Our patients presented in Group 1, total plasma homocysteine >12 micromoles per liter and Group 2, total plasma homocysteine =<12 micromoles per liter. Vessel score assessed the number of vessels with significant stenosis and grading of atherosclerosis (Extent Score was intended to assess the atherosclerotic involvement of the entire arterial length and circumscribe. Our study was shown age > 60 years was correlated with high tHcy, but gender, hypertension, history of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, family history, and diabetes mellitus were not statistically difference between two groups. A positive correlation was found between abnormal plasma homocysteine level and vessel score (r = 0.35; p=0.002. Moreover, a positive correlation was also found with extent score (r = 0.46; p =0.002. As results of these scoring, there was a better correlation between the tHcy level and the extent of CAD when compared with the vessel score (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Abnormal elevated homocysteine levels in patients with coronary artery disease correlated with the extent of atherosclerotic disease.

  11. Seaweed vitamins as nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are a good source of some water- (B(1), B(2), B(12), C) and fat-soluble (β-carotene with vitamin A activity, vitamin E) vitamins. To ensure that the adequate intake of all vitamins is received in the diet, people (especially people on special diet, strict vegetarians, and vegans) can consume foods enriched with vitamins, for example, in the form of functional foods with vitamins as nutraceuticals, extracted from natural sources such as seaweeds. Seaweed vitamins are important not only due to their biochemical functions and antioxidant activity but also due to other health benefits such as decreasing of blood pressure (vitamin C), prevention of cardiovascular diseases (β-carotene), or reducing the risk of cancer (vitamins E and C, carotenoids). PMID:22054961

  12. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gushulak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OHD for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OHD than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health.

  13. Association of plasma vitamin B6 with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Wang, Hansong; Selhub, Jacob; Vogt, Thomas M.; Yokochi, Lance; Decker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Circulating level of vitamin B6 has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but, unlike for folate, few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B6 to colorectal adenoma, the precursor lesion to most CRCs. We measured plasma levels of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in 241 patients with pathologically confirmed first occurrence of colorectal adenoma and 280 controls among Caucasians, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy sc...

  14. Plasma homocysteine, Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology: a population-based autopsy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Tanskanen, Maarit; Myllykangas, Liisa; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Mäkelä, Mira; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, Anders; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elizabeth C. W.; Sulkava, Raimo; Solomon, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer’s disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged ≥85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-β and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and α-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28–5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-β accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88–7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12–12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14–19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of

  15. Comparing statistical methods for removing seasonal variation from vitamin D measurements in case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Ahn, Jiyoung; Yu, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with multiple clinical outcomes, including osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and colorectal cancer. In studies of vitamin D effect on disease outcome, vitamin D status is usually measured by a serum biomarker, namely 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. Since the circulating 25(OH)D concentration varies from season to season and not all blood samples are collected at the same time, the disease-vitamin D relationship can be obscured if the seasona...

  16. [A case of subacute combined degeneration with normal serum vitamin B12 level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Akiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuo; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2003-09-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Two months later she complained of rapidly progressive gait disturbance and numbness in the distal part of limbs. She also told that her hair had turned totally gray in the third decade. Neurologically, mental state, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were normal. Superficial sensations were impaired below the lower thoracic level and deep sensations were completely lost in the lower limbs. Moderate weakness was found in the lower limbs, symmetrically. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs. Babinski's reflex was positive bilaterally. MR images of the spinal cord showed hyperintensity in the posterior column below the thoracic cord. Although the serum level of vitamin B12 was within normal range, serum homocysteine level was elevated markedly. Under the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) due to possible vitamin B12 deficiency, the treatment with intravenous injections of 500 micrograms/day of mecobalamin was undertaken. Muscle strength and sensory impairment improved progressively and she became able to walk with a cane. The coloration of her gray hair was also noted. After treatment, pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia also markedly improved. Vitamin B12 became high in serum concentration and the serum level of homocysteine became normal. These clinical and laboratory findings support the diagnosis of SCD with normal serum level of vitamin B12 in our case, suggesting that the level of vitamin B12 in serum does not always correlate with that in tissue and, therefore, SCD should not be excluded just only by the reason of normal serum vitamin B12 level. PMID:14727562

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (422 K) On this page: Why Buy Vitamins? Vitamin Facts ... body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic ...

  18. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D and Disease Prevention Why is vitamin D important for health? Vitamin D is a hot topic in the news, thanks ... is controversy, though, over the effects of vitamin D on health other than the bones. Doctors have ...

  19. Vitamins and Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Russo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence.

  20. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, En-Pei; Smith, Donald E.; Selhub, Jacob; Dallal, Gerard; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2005-01-01

    Previously we observed strong and consistent associations between vitamin B6 status and several indicators of inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical indicators, including the disability score, the length of morning stiffness, and the degree of pain, and biochemical markers, including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, were found to be inversely correlated with circulating vitamin B6 levels. Such strong associations imply that impaired vitam...

  1. Circulating Nonphosphorylated Carboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Predicts Survival in ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Schlieper, Georg; Westenfeld, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo; Cranenburg, Ellen C.; Magdeleyns, Elke J.; Brandenburg, Vincent M.; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Ketteler, Markus; Vermeer, Cees; Dimkovic, Nada; Floege, Jürgen; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for vascular calcification and its associated cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD are not completely understood. Dialysis patients exhibit profound vitamin K deficiency, which may impair carboxylation of the calcification inhibitor matrix gla protein (MGP). Here, we tested whether distinct circulating inactive vitamin K–dependent proteins associate with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. We observed higher levels of both desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) a...

  2. The Intriguing Correlation between Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasinsup, Shutipen; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) or bone Gla protein (BGP), a bone specific protein, is one of circulating biomarkers that can be used to determine the quality of bone tissues. It is synthesized by the osteoblast and the odontocyte. The process of OC production requires two types ofvitamin: vitamin D and vitamin K. Vitamin D is requiredfor the production of immature OC or undercarboxylated OC (UcOC) whereas vitamin K is requiredfor the transformation of UcOC to mature OC. In the past, several researchers believed that UcOC was the sensitive marker to determine vitamin K status. In fact, the level of UcOC also depends on vitamin D. This study aims to know the correlation between the levels ofvitamin D and UcOC. The collected data of UcOC and vitamin D levels from 95 healthy volunteers were analyzed. The finding was that there was a weak correlation between UcOC and vitamin D (r = 0.238; p = 0.020) together with UcOC and reciprocal ofvitamin D (r = 0.267; p = 0.009). From this correlation, the serum level of UcOC may be not the real marker for vitamin K. PMID:26529809

  3. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. PMID:26597770

  4. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  5. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  6. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  7. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation is described of specified vitamin D3 esters containing alkyl and hydroxy groups. They can be used, in particular, for preparing radiolabeled vitamin D3 compounds of high specific activity. (U.K.)

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12)

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for cobalamin (vitamin B12). The Panel considers that the approach based on a combination of biomarkers of cobalamin status, i.e. serum cobalamin, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), is the most suitable approach to derive DRVs for cobalamin. The Panel notes the uncertainties with re...

  9. A turn-on fluorescent sensor for the discrimination of cystein from homocystein and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Ya; Guan, Ying-Shi; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2013-02-14

    We report a turn-on fluorescent sensor based on nitrothiophenolate boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivatives for the discrimination of cystein (Cys) from homocystein (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). The sensor was applied for detection of Cys in living cells. PMID:23295243

  10. Vitamin D Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    THACHER, Tom D; Clarke, Bart L.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, which classically manifests as bone disease (either rickets or osteomalacia), is characterized by impaired bone mineralization. More recently, the term vitamin D insufficiency has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with other disease outcomes. Reliance on a single cutoff value to define vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is problematic because of the wide individual variability of the functional effects of vitamin D an...

  11. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...

  12. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence

  13. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzelcan Yener

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The Netherlands. Aim To examine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Turkish descent and compare it to the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Dutch descent. Methods The present study is a comparative cross-sectional study of 47 patients of Turkish descent and 28 of Dutch descent. The depressive disorder diagnosis and differential diagnosis were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition text revision (SCID. The severity of the depressive symptoms was determined using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-21. Serum baseline vitamin B6 and B12, folic acid and total serum homocysteine (tHcy levels were measured. Results The average ages of the patients of Turkish and Dutch descent were 40.57 and 44.75 years, respectively. There were no demonstrable differences between the serum vitamin B6, folic acid and tHcy levels in the two groups. The serum vitamin B12 levels were however clearly lower in the patients of Turkish descent than in those of Dutch descent. Vitamin B12 deficiency was however observed in 14 patients of Turkish descent and 1 of Dutch descent. This difference was significant. On the BDI, the patients of Turkish descent scored significantly higher than those of Dutch descent. Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and those with hyperhomocysteinaemia had a significantly higher BDI score than patients with normal vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels. No relationship was observed with vitamin B12 and tHcy. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs more frequently in depressive

  14. Reagent-loaded plastic microfluidic chips for detecting homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices

  15. Genome-wide meta-analysis of homocysteine and methionine metabolism identifies five one carbon metabolism loci and a novel association of ALDH1L1 with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating homocysteine levels (tHcy, a product of the folate one carbon metabolism pathway (FOCM through the demethylation of methionine, are heritable and are associated with an increased risk of common diseases such as stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD, cancer and dementia. The FOCM is the sole source of de novo methyl group synthesis, impacting many biological and epigenetic pathways. However, the genetic determinants of elevated tHcy (hyperhomocysteinemia, dysregulation of methionine metabolism and the underlying biological processes remain unclear. We conducted independent genome-wide association studies and a meta-analysis of methionine metabolism, characterized by post-methionine load test tHcy, in 2,710 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS and 2,100 participants from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP clinical trial, and then examined the association of the identified loci with incident stroke in FHS. Five genes in the FOCM pathway (GNMT [p = 1.60 × 10(-63], CBS [p = 3.15 × 10(-26], CPS1 [p = 9.10 × 10(-13], ALDH1L1 [p = 7.3 × 10(-13] and PSPH [p = 1.17 × 10(-16] were strongly associated with the difference between pre- and post-methionine load test tHcy levels (ΔPOST. Of these, one variant in the ALDH1L1 locus, rs2364368, was associated with incident ischemic stroke. Promoter analyses reveal genetic and epigenetic differences that may explain a direct effect on GNMT transcription and a downstream affect on methionine metabolism. Additionally, a genetic-score consisting of the five significant loci explains 13% of the variance of ΔPOST in FHS and 6% of the variance in VISP. Association between variants in FOCM genes with ΔPOST suggest novel mechanisms that lead to differences in methionine metabolism, and possibly the epigenome, impacting disease risk. These data emphasize the importance of a concerted effort to understand regulators of one carbon metabolism as potential therapeutic targets.

  16. The B-VITAGE trial: A randomized trial of homocysteine lowering treatment of depression in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bockxmeer Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and depressive symptoms are common in later life. Observational evidence suggests that depression is more prevalent among people with high plasma homocysteine (tHcy, but the results of randomized trials to date have been unable to show that lowering tHcy through the supplementation of vitamins B6, B12 and folate benefits depressive symptoms. We designed the B-VITAGE trial to determine whether adjunctive treatment with vitamins B6, B12 and folate increases the efficacy of standard antidepressant treatment. Methods/Design The B-VITAGE trial is a 12-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of daily citalopram (20 to 40 mg plus B12(0.4 mg, B6 (25 mg and folic acid (2 mg or citalopram (20 to 40 mg plus placebo for the treatment of depression in later life. The trial aims to recruit over 300 older adults with major depression (DSM-IV and has been powered to detect the impact of an intervention associated with moderate effect size. Depressive symptoms will be rated with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The trial has two main outcomes of interest: a reduction of 50% or more in the MADRS total score between baseline and week 12 and the remission of the depressive episode at weeks 12, 26 and 52 according to DSM-IV criteria. We hypothesize that subjects randomly allocated to the vitamin arm of the study will be more likely to show a clinically significant improvement and achieve and maintain remission of symptoms at 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes of interest include compliance with treatment, reduction in the severity of depressive symptoms, switching to different antidepressants, the use of non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments, response to treatment according to MTHFRC677T genotype, and changes in cognitive function over 52 weeks. Conclusions The results of this trial will clarify whether the systematic use of B-vitamins

  17. Effect of L-dopa on plasma homocysteine in elderly patients with Parkinson’ s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of L-dopa on plasma homocysteine and folic acid in patients with Parkinsons’s disease (PD). Methods Twenty eight elderly PD patients and thirty normal subjects were enrolled in this group. The homocysteine, cobalamin and folate were examined in normal group and in PD group before treatment and after being treated with L-dopa for six months respec-

  18. Correlative research between homocysteine,cystatin C and patients with essential hypertension and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙屿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between homocysteine(Hcy),cystatin C(Cys C)and patients with essential hypertension and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.Methods Subjects were divided into hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage group(108 cases),essential hypertension group(100 cases)and control group(100 cases),and their cystatin C,homocysteine and total cholesterol(TC)and triglycerides(TG)were surveyed.Results The patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and essential hypertension had higher

  19. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim H; Lee KJ

    2014-01-01

    Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77) and control subjects (n=37) were included in ...

  20. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee(이복, Bok-Rye, 례)

    2014-01-01

    Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77) and control subjects (n=37) were included...

  1. Higher homocysteine associated with thinner cortical gray matter in 803 ADNI subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Shantanu H Joshi; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of our risk for dementia in old age is associated with lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and cardiovascular health) that are modifiable, at least in principle. One such risk factor – high homocysteine levels in the blood – is known to increase risk for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular disorders. Here we set out to understand how homocysteine levels relate to 3D surface-based maps of cortical gray matter distribution (thickness, volume, surface area) computed from brain ...

  2. Simultaneous, noninvasive, and transdermal extraction of urea and homocysteine by reverse iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Congo Tak-Shing Ching1,2,3, Tzong-Ru Chou1, Tai-Ping Sun1,2, Shiow-Yuan Huang3, Hsiu-Li Shieh21Graduate Institute of Biomedicine and Biomedical Technology; 2Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, Taiwan; 3Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaBackground: Cardiovascular and kidney diseases are a global public health problem and impose a huge economic burden on health care services. Homocysteine, an amino acid, is associated with coronary heart disease, while urea is a harmful metabolic substance which can be used to reflect kidney function. Monitoring of these two substances is therefore very important. This in vitro study aimed to determine whether homocysteine is extractable transdermally and noninvasively, and whether homocysteine and urea can be extracted simultaneously by reverse iontophoresis.Methods: A diffusion cell incorporated with porcine skin was used for all experiments with the application of a direct current (dc and four different symmetrical biphasic direct currents (SBdc for 12 minutes via Ag/AgCl electrodes. The dc and the SBdc had a current density of 0.3 mA/cm2.Results: The SBdc has four different phase durations of 15 sec, 30 sec, 60 sec, and 180 sec. It was found that homocysteine can be transdermally extracted by reverse iontophoresis. Simultaneous extraction of homocysteine and urea by reverse iontophoresis is also possible.Conclusion: These results suggest that extraction of homocysteine and urea by SBdc are phase duration-dependent, and the optimum mode for simultaneous homocysteine and urea extraction is the SBdc with the phase duration of 60 sec.Keywords: reverse iontophoresis, homocysteine, urea, monitoring, noninvasive, transdermal

  3. The effect of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini; Samaneh Farahati; Mohammad Ali Sardar; Mohsen Nematy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increased levels of certain markers like fibrinogen and Homocysteine are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Considering the numerous favorable effects of healthful nutrition and physical activity on reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, in this study we intend to take into account fasting and physical activity during the month of Ramadan and their impacts on Homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women. Materials and Met...

  4. Homocysteine and cognitive function in institutionalised elderly : a cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Manders, M.; Vasse, E.; Groot, de, H.L.F.; Staveren, van, W.A.; Bindels, J.G.; Blom, H. J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Several cross¿sectional, case¿control and prospective studies revealed a relation between homocysteine and cognitive function or dementia. These studies included either patient populations or healthy, community¿ dwelling elderly people. Aim of the study In this study we tested the hypothesis that homocysteine was inversely associated with cognitive function in a population of institutionalised elderly (aged ¿ 60 y; n = 157). For testing this hypothesis baseline data of a recently conducted in...

  5. Sex Difference in the Association between Serum Homocysteine Level and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Bo-Youn; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Moon-Jong; Park, Kye-Seon; Kim, Young-Sang; Haam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Yuk; Kim, Hye-Jung; Park, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 150 men and 132 women who participated in medical examination programs in Korea from January 2014 to December 2014. Patients were screened for fatty liver by abdominal ultrasound and patient blood samples were collected to measure homocysteine levels. Patients that consumed more than 20 grams of alcohol per day were excluded from this study. Results The homocysteine level (11.56 vs. 8.05 nmol/L) and the proportion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (60.7% vs. 19.7%) were significantly higher in men than in women. In men, elevated serum homocysteine levels were associated with a greater prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (quartile 1, 43.6%; quartile 4, 80.6%; P=0.01); however, in females, there was no significant association between serum homocysteine levels and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age and potential confounding parameters, the odds ratio for men was significantly higher in the uppermost quartile (model 3, quartile 4: odds ratio, 6.78; 95% confidential interval, 1.67 to 27.56); however, serum homocysteine levels in women were not associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the crude model or in models adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Serum homocysteine levels were associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in men. PMID:27468343

  6. Serum homocysteine level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkan, Bedriye Mermerci; Sivas, Filiz; Aktekin, Lale Akbulut; Doğan, Yasemin Pekin; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-10-01

    In this study serum homocystein (Hcy) level was measured and its relationship with disease activity criteria and treatment protocols was investigated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Ninety-two AS patients and 58 healthy individuals were recruited. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein were determined. Bath AS disease activity index and Bath AS functional index were calculated. Serum Hcy levels >15 micromol/l were considered as hyperhomocysteinemia. The mean serum homocysteine levels were 14.40 and 12.60 micromol/l in patients with AS and the control group, respectively, and the difference between two groups was significant. While there was no significant difference between the sulfasalazine (SSZ) group with 14.25 micromol/l mean Hcy level and the methotrexate (MTX)/SSZ group with 16.05 micromol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the Hcy levels of these two groups and Hcy level of 12.15 micromol/l of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group, and 12.60 micromol/l Hcy level of the control group. Mean serum Hcy level was 13.65 micromol/l in patients with active AS and 14.60 micromol/l in patients with inactive AS, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In our study serum Hcy level was found to be significantly higher in patients with AS than in healthy control subjects. Especially for the AS patients receiving MTX and SSZ treatment without folic acid supplementation, addition of folic acid to their therapy may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease which in turn decreases the mortality in these patients, but further prospective studies are needed for supporting these results. PMID:19288264

  7. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  8. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo;

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  9. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... ODS: ods.od.nih.gov/contact What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  10. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  11. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  12. Comparison of Serum Homocystein and Folic Acid Levels in Gestational Diabetes with Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Movahed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: High levels of homocystein are a risk factor for insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardio-vascular complications. This study was done to assess serum homocystein and folic acid levels and their relationship in women with gestational diabetes and compare them with normal pregnant women. Materials & Methods: This analytic epidemiologic case-control study was performed in Qazvin Kosar hospital in 2013-2015. 120 singleton pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestation according to 2-hour 75g oral glucose tolerance test were assigned to two groups; gestational diabetes (n=60, and normal pregnancy (n=60. Serum homocystein and folic acid levels were measured in two groups. Data were analyzed with statistical t-test and correlation method. Results: In gestational diabetes serum homocystein level was significantly higher (P<0.001 and folic acid was significantly lower (P<0.001 than normal pregnancy group .No relation-ship was observed between serum homocystein and serum folate. In both groups, serum folic acid was significantly related to fasting blood sugar. This relationship was inverse in gesta-tional diabetes group (P<0.001, r = - 0.512 and direct in normal pregnancy group (P=0.001 r =0.417. Conclusion: It seems folic acid has a role in regulation of serum homocystein level and blood sugar.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 93-98

  13. Homocysteine and copper interact to promote type 5 phosphodiesterase expression in rabbit cavernosal smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew Hotston; Jamie Y.Jeremy; Jonathon Bloor; Nick S.Greaves; Raj Persad; Giarmi Angelini; Nilima Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of homocysteine and copper on type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) expression in cavernosal vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs) and to investigate superoxide (O2) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase as homocysteine and copper generate O2, and O2- upregulates PDE5 expression.Methods: CVSMCs derived from rabbit penis were incubated with homocysteine or copper chloride with or without superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, sildenafil citrate, or apocynin (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibitor) for 16 h. The expression of PDE5 and of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (internal standard) was assessed using Western blot analysis. In parallel, O2 was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: CuCl2alone (up to 10 μmol/L) and homocysteine alone (up to 100 μmol/L) had no effect on O2 formation in CVSMCs compared to controls. In combination, however, homocysteine and CuCl2 arkedly increased O2 formation, an effect blocked by SOD, catalase, apocynin, and sildenafil (1 μmol/L) when co-incubated over the same time course.PDE5 expression was also significantly increased in CVSMCs incubated with homocysteine and CuCl2, compared to controls. This effect was also negated by 16-h co-incubation with SOD, catalase, apocynin and sildenafil. Conclusion:This represents a novel pathogenic mechanism underlying ED, and indicates that the therapeutic actions of prolonged sildenafil use are mediated in part through inhibition of this pathway.

  14. Homocysteine status and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A-M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.

  15. Homocysteine, Cobalamin and Folate Status and their Relations to Neurocognitive and Psychological Markers in Elderly in Northeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Manavifar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available       Objective(s: Incidence of neurocognitive and psychological disorders may be related to serum homocystein (Hcy, cobalamin (vitamin B12 and folate levels in old people. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between Hcy, cobalamin, folate and neurocognitive and/or psychological disorders in the elderly.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 280 subjects with ≥ 65 years old, were evaluated. The subjects were selected from 12 regions of Mashhad, Iran, over March to October 2009. After blood sampling, data were collected by questionnaire, face to face interview and performing neurocognitive and psychological tests. The sera of 250 persons were analyzed for cobalamin and folate by RIA method. Amongst the aforementioned samples, 78 cases with cobalamin Results: Amongst the people, 126 (45% were male and 154 (55% were female. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy was 59.5% and 37.1% in male and female respectively (P -value =0.049. Hcy inversely correlated to cobalamin (r=-0.282, P=0.014 and to folate (r=-0.203, P=0.014. Hcy, cobalamin and folate correlations to neurocognitive and psychological impairments were not statically significant. Conclusion: Hyper Hcy or low cobalamin and folate in the elderly, are prevalent but their relationships with neurocognitive and psychological impairments is controversial. If these relationships had been confirmed, performing a single serum Hcy or cobalamin test would have been enough to diagnose and prevent neurocognitive impairments and inversely, neurocognitive-psychological sign and symptoms could have meant probable tissue vitamin deficiencies. However methods of assessing neurocognitive and psychological markers with validity and reliability of clinical and laboratory tests for finding aforementioned relationships should be revised.  

  16. The involvement of homocysteine in stress-induced Aβ precursor protein misprocessing and related cognitive decline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Zhao, Yun; Ma, Jing; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Shi-Da; Zhang, Liang; Gao, Xiu-Jie; Qian, Ling-Jia

    2016-09-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor in the development of cognitive decline and even Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous data demonstrated that the level of homocysteine (Hcy) was significantly elevated in the plasma of stressed animals, which suggests the possibility that Hcy is a link between stress and cognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, we compared the cognitive function, plasma concentrations of Hcy, and the brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) level between rats with or without chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS). A lower performance by rats in behavioral tests indicated that a significant cognitive decline was induced by CUMS. Stress also disturbed the normal processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and resulted in the accumulation of Aβ in the brains of rats, which showed a positive correlation with the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) that appeared in stressed rats. Hcy-targeting intervention experiments were used to verify further the involvement of Hcy in stress-induced APP misprocessing and related cognitive decline. The results showed that diet-induced HHcy could mimic the cognitive impairment and APP misprocessing in the same manner as CUMS, while Hcy reduction by means of vitamin B complex supplements and betaine could alleviate the cognitive deficits and dysregulation of Aβ metabolism in CUMS rats. Taken together, the novel evidence from our present study suggests that Hcy is likely to be involved in chronic stress-evoked APP misprocessing and related cognitive deficits. Our results also suggested the possibility of Hcy as a target for therapy and the potential value of vitamin B and betaine intake in the prevention of stress-induced cognitive decline. PMID:27435080

  17. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke.

  18. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  19. Role of vitamin C and E supplementation on IL-6 in response to training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Fischer, Christian P.; Nielsen, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin C and E supplementation has been shown to attenuate the acute exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration. Here, we studied the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the regulation of IL-6 expression in muscle and the circulation in response to acute exercise before...

  20. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  1. Distribution of and Factors Associated with Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Wuhan Residents: A Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春平; 邵姣梅; 严江涛; 范巧; 刘珍君; 田橙; 吴林海; 李小平; 汪道文

    2004-01-01

    HOMOCYSTEINE, an amino acid with a sulfhy-dryl group, is an important intermediate product inthe metabolism of methionine and cysteine.Homocysteine itself, however, does not participatein the synthesis of protein products.1 Epidemiologicstudies by Wilcken et al. were the first to charac-terize homocysteine (Hcy) as an independent riskfactor for cardiovascular disease.2 This observationhas been confirmed by subsequent studies whichhave correlated Hcy levels and the risk of acutemyocardial infarction, stroke,...

  2. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, van, W.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M. B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, each la...

  3. [Vitamin D and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachi, Alexandra; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Courbebaisse, Marie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is characterized, since 2005, by 25(OH)D concentration less than 75 nmol/L (or 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D could interfere with many mechanisms involved in preeclampsia's pathogenesis including trophoblastic invasion and immunomodulation as well as blood pressure control and proteinuria. Occurrence of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes seems to be linked to vitamin D deficiency but recent data in the literature are contradictory. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy is controversial. Some societies consider it unnecessary and others recommend up to 2000 UI/d. There is no reported case of teratogenicity linked with vitamin D intake. PMID:24054765

  4. Concepts and Controversies in Evaluating Vitamin K Status in Population-Based Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kyla Shea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of vitamin K’s role in health and disease requires the assessment of vitamin K nutritional status in population and clinical studies. This is primarily accomplished using dietary questionnaires and/or biomarkers. Because food composition databases in the US are most complete for phylloquinone (vitamin K1, the primary form in Western diets, emphasis has been on phylloquinone intakes and associations with chronic diseases. There is growing interest in menaquinone (vitamin K2 intakes for which the food composition databases need to be expanded. Phylloquinone is commonly measured in circulation, has robust quality control schemes and changes in response to phylloquinone intake. Conversely, menaquinones are generally not detected in circulation unless large quantities are consumed. The undercarboxylated fractions of three vitamin K-dependent proteins are measurable in circulation, change in response to vitamin K supplementation and are modestly correlated. Since different vitamin K dependent proteins are implicated in different diseases the appropriate vitamin K-dependent protein biomarker depends on the outcome under study. In contrast to other nutrients, there is no single biomarker that is considered a gold-standard measure of vitamin K status. Most studies have limited volume of specimens. Strategic decisions, guided by the research question, need to be made when deciding on choice of biomarkers.

  5. Concepts and Controversies in Evaluating Vitamin K Status in Population-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Booth, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of vitamin K's role in health and disease requires the assessment of vitamin K nutritional status in population and clinical studies. This is primarily accomplished using dietary questionnaires and/or biomarkers. Because food composition databases in the US are most complete for phylloquinone (vitamin K1, the primary form in Western diets), emphasis has been on phylloquinone intakes and associations with chronic diseases. There is growing interest in menaquinone (vitamin K2) intakes for which the food composition databases need to be expanded. Phylloquinone is commonly measured in circulation, has robust quality control schemes and changes in response to phylloquinone intake. Conversely, menaquinones are generally not detected in circulation unless large quantities are consumed. The undercarboxylated fractions of three vitamin K-dependent proteins are measurable in circulation, change in response to vitamin K supplementation and are modestly correlated. Since different vitamin K dependent proteins are implicated in different diseases the appropriate vitamin K-dependent protein biomarker depends on the outcome under study. In contrast to other nutrients, there is no single biomarker that is considered a gold-standard measure of vitamin K status. Most studies have limited volume of specimens. Strategic decisions, guided by the research question, need to be made when deciding on choice of biomarkers. PMID:26729160

  6. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Suever, Barbara L.; Shaurya Prakash, Ruchika; Colcombe, Stanley J.; McAuley, Edward; Arthur F Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamin B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamin B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized ...

  7. Relationship Between Plasma Homocystein Levels and Polyneuropaty in Patients Using Levodopa For Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat Bedir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies showed high plasma homocysteine levels in patients treated with Levodopa for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Homocysteine, due to its exotoxic effect, might be the cause of polyneuropathy seen in PD. In this study, our aim was to show the correlation between high concentration of plasma homocysteine levels and polyneuropathy associated with PD.. Material and Methods: Forty-one patients with PD receiving levodopa treatment (patient group and 30 healthy subjects (control group were included in this study. We compared the two groups in terms of electrophysiological findings. Twelve patients had high plasma homocysteine levels and 29 of them had low plasma homocysteine levels. Results: Six of the 41 patients had sensorial polyneuropathy and decreased compound muscle action potantiel amplitude compared to controls. Two patients had high plasma homocysteine levels, two patients had nearly high plasma homocysteine levels, two patients had low plasma homocysteine levels who had sensorial polyneuropathy. Conclusion: Although in our study, we did not show any correlation between polyneuropathy and high plasma homocysteine levels, further studies including homogeneous groups of younger patients with PD are needed. (The Me di cal Bul - le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 53-8

  8. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm. PMID:27486161

  9. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Clemens C; Odin, Elisabeth A; Carlsson, Göran U; Kurlberg, Göran K; Björkqvist, Hillevi G; Tångefjord, Maria T; Gustavsson, Bengt G

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  10. Hyperhomocysteinaemia And Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Ischaemic Strokes In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadia R S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognised risk factor for stroke and ischemic heart disease (HID. Vit B12 Folate and pyridoxine deficiency are important causes of raised serum homocysteine. As a vegetarian diet is very poor in Vit B12 we sought to study the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in our stroke populating and to measure Vit B12 and folate in these cases. Consecutive cases of ischaemic stroke, either arterial or venous, admitted over a period of 2 1/2 years were studied. Embolic strokes and those on vitamin supplements were excluded. cases were divided into vegetarian (including those taking milk and / Or eggs, those who took non-vegetarian 4 or less times a month, and frequent non-vegetarians taking 5 or more times a month. Serum total homocysteine, serum B12 and folate levels were studied along with all other routine parameters. For comparison we examined 101 controls without HID, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, rental failure or recent vitamin intake. With the international norm for homocysteine given as 5-15 umol/litre (1we called serum homocysteine 16 umol/litre or more as raised. There were 147 cases of ischcmic stroke :119 arterial and 28 venous infarcts. In the arterial strokes 99 of 119 cases (83.19% had raised serum Homocysteine including 25 of 27 (92.5% of those with arterial stroke before age 45. Of 28 cases with venous infarct 21 (75% had raised homocysteine (HCY. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest risk factor for stroke in our populations. Out of the total 147 cases the exact dietary intake was not known for ten cases., 58 were vegetarians, 54 were occasional non vegetarians (NV and 25 were frequent NV. In the 58 vegetarians, 55 had serum HCY> 16 umol/1 (94.8% and of those vegetarians with HCY> 16, serum B12 <200pg/ml was seen in 44 (75.8% and between 200-300 pg/ml in five (8.6%. Of the 54 occasional NV, 46 had HCY>16umo/1 (85.2% Of those with HCY >16, serum B12 level of <200 pg/ ml was seen in 28 (51.85% occ. NV and

  11. Quantification of homocysteine-related metabolites and the role of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase in HepG2 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, M.; Šístek, V.; Mládková, Jana; Mikeš, P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Selicharová, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2013), s. 111-121. ISSN 0269-3879 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/1277 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : homocysteine * BHMT * LC-MS/MS * HepG2 * metabolites Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  12. Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother's and the developing fetus's health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E and C deficiencies can cause fetal growth and developmental disorders in addition to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Moreover, insufficient intake of these vitamins during maternal period increases the risk of permanent health problems for the baby. Additionally, it is stated that vitamin deficiencies during the maternal period can have negative effects even on cognitional development of the children. Nowadays, only folic acid supplementation is applied to prevent the risk of neural tube defect, and recently studies are being conducted on vitamin supplementations in the maternal stage. It is stated that the effects of folic acid together with vitamin B12 on lowering the homocysteine levels can protect against the risks of insufficient fetal growth and low birth weight. Additionally, it is reported that vitamin D can be protective against bone development problems, diabetes, preeclampsia, inflammation, and infection. Studies carried on vitamins E and C (antioxidant vitamins were focused on their effects on preventing the risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the exact effects and mechanisms of vitamins during the maternal period. Future research in this area may lead to successful vitamin supplementation practices during pregnancies in the future. Nowadays, following a sufficient and balance diet starting at pre-gestational period leads to early

  13. 同型半胱氨酸与缺血性卒中%Homocysteine and ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晟; 柯开富

    2012-01-01

    Homocystine (Hcy) is an important intermediate product of amino acid metabolism.It is dual-regulated by both gene and environmental factors.The key enzyme of metabolic reaction is dependent on vitamin B class.The studies of in vitro experiment and animal models have demonstrated that Hcy may aggravate atherosclerosis by reducing the nitric oxide activity,enhancing intracellular oxidative stress,and promoting thrombosis,etc.Epidemiological studies have also demonstrated that hyperhomocystinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis.However,large randomized controlled trials have failed to confirm the close correlation between HHcy and ischemic stroke.By supplementing vitamin B class to decrease the Hcy level is still controversial in the primary and secondary prevention.The therapeutic dose of vitamin B class may be unable to obtain additional benefits in patients with ischemic stroke.%同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine,Hcy)是氨基酸代谢的一种重要中间产物,受基因和环境的双重调控,其代谢反应关键酶依赖于维生素B类.离体实验和动物模型研究表明,Hcy可通过降低一氧化氮活性、增强细胞内氧化应激、促进血栓形成等途径加重动脉粥样硬化.流行病学研究也显示,高同型半胱氨酸血症(hyperhomocystinemia,HHcy)是动脉粥样硬化的独立危险因素.不过,大样本随机对照试验未能证实HHcy与缺血性卒中的密切相关性,通过补充维生素B类降低Hcy水平在卒中一级或二级预防中的作用尚存争议,治疗剂量的维生素B类可能无法使缺血性卒中患者获得额外的益处.

  14. Vitamin K: an old vitamin in a new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gröber, U; Reichrath, J.; Holick, MF; Kisters, K. (Klaus)

    2015-01-01

    The topic of “Vitamin K” is currently booming on the health products market. Vitamin K is known to be important for blood coagulation. Current research increasingly indicates that the antihaemorrhagic vitamin has a considerable benefit in the prevention and treatment of bone and vascular disease. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K2 menaquinones (especially MK-7, menaquinone-7). Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling with...

  15. The sunshine vitamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Jagatia, Pritpal; Lee, Deborah; Knuckey, Steven; Cook, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The musculoskeletal function of vitamin D has been well defined, prompting the population to supplement with vitamin D and calcium to maximise bone growth. However the role of vitamin D in pregnancy has not been systematically studied and is permeated with continuing controversy regarding the cause and effect relationship of vitamin D and pregnancy outcomes. Although further research is needed, the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2008) recommend that all pregnant and breastfeeding women supplement with 10 microgrammes of vitamin D daily. Furthermore midwives and health visitors are asked to educate women about the importance of vitamin D supplementation, at booking and throughout antenatal care. Each appointment presents an opportunity to address concerns and explore options to increase levels through diet and supplementation and address any difficulties in obtaining supplements. PMID:23252066

  16. Vitamin D and Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ozmen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D was originally discovered as a factor that regulates calcium and bone metabolism. Recent advances in investigation have shown that vitamin D also functions as a regulator of cellular growth and differentiation in various tissues. Evidence has accumulated showing that the active form of vitamin D and its analogs suppress growth and stimulate the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Also, vitamin D stimulates the synthesis of melanin and release of interleukins. On the other hand, vitamin D has been used in the treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo and morfea for a long time. In this review, we summarize the fundamental features of vitamin D and the clinical application for psoriasis and other dermatological disorders.

  17. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Kema, Ido P.; van der Veer, E.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D-2 + 25(OH)D-3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA)

  18. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  19. Nonclassical Vitamin D Action

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Zittermann; Jan F Gummert

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most important...

  20. Scurvy and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mayberry, Jason A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of scurvy and vitamin C. The first section of the paper outlines the science of vitamin C. The second discusses outlines the medical progression of vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. The third section gives a brief timeline of scurvy throughout human history. The fourth section discusses the conditions during the age of sail that combined to make scurvy the greatest killer of sailors. The final section follows the scientific drive to find a cure and eventual elim...

  1. A Mendelian Randomization Study of Plasma Homocysteine and Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yang; Li, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Zhong-Qian; Teng, Zhi-Mei; Hu, Dao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level and risk of multiple myeloma (MM). However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to evaluate whether genetically increased Hcy level influences the risk of MM. We used the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism as an instrumental variable, which affects the plasma Hcy levels. Estimate of its effect on plasma Hcy level was based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 44,147 individuals, while estimate of its effect on MM risk was obtained through meta-analysis of case-control studies with 2,092 cases and 4,954 controls. By combining these two estimates, we found that per one standard-deviation (SD) increase in natural log-transformed plasma Hcy levels conferred a 2.67-fold increase in risk for MM (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–6.38; P = 2.7 × 10−2). Our study suggests that elevated Hcy levels are causally associated with an increased risk of developing MM. Whether Hcy-lowering therapy can prevent MM merits further investigation in long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PMID:27126524

  2. METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE C677T GENE POLYMORPHISM AND HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS ARE RISK FACTORS FOR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasaradhi Reddy Tanguturi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy levels shown to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. The common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T polymorphism has been reported to be a strong predictor of mild hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy. We assessed whether this mutation was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI and plasma levels of tHcy.The study group consisted of 210 angiographically proven MI patients, and 202 age and sexmatched healthy individuals as controls. MTHFR (C677T gene polymorphism was detected based on the polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion with HinfI. Total homocysteine plasma concentration was measured using immunoassay. T allele frequency was not found to be significantly higher in patients than in the control group: T vs. Cwas χ2=0.19, OR 1.0, CI 95% 0.8–1.4, p=0.6; and TT vs. CCwas χ2=0.24, OR 1.2, CI 95% 0.6–2.3, p=0.6.We found significantly elevated levels of mean homocysteine in the patient group when compared to the control group (p =0.00. Our findings showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is not a risk factor for myocardial infarction in South Indian population and higher levels of homocysteine in patients indicated that the severity of the disease is independentof homocystein levels.

  3. Salidroside improves homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sin Bond; Zhang, Huina; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu; Lin, Zhixiu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases through increased oxidative stress. Salidroside is an active ingredient of the root of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative, antihypoxia and neuroprotective properties. However, the vascular benefits of salidroside against endothelial dysfunction have yet to be explored. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the protective effect of salidroside on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Functional studies on the rat aortas were performed to delineate the vascular effect of salidroside. DHE imaging was used to evaluate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in aortic wall and endothelial cells. Western blotting was performed to assess the protein expression associated with oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Exposure to homocysteine attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations in rat aortas while salidroside pretreatment rescued it. Salidroside inhibited homocystein-induced elevation in the NOX2 expression and ROS overproduction in both aortas and cultured endothelial cells and increased phosphorylation of eNOS which was diminished by homocysteine. The present study shows that salidroside is effective in preserving the NO bioavailability and thus protects against homocysteine-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, largely through inhibiting the NOX2 expression and ROS production. Our results indicate a therapeutic potential of salidroside in the management of oxidative-stress-associated cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:23589720

  4. Salidroside Improves Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Bond Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases through increased oxidative stress. Salidroside is an active ingredient of the root of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative, antihypoxia and neuroprotective properties. However, the vascular benefits of salidroside against endothelial dysfunction have yet to be explored. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the protective effect of salidroside on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Functional studies on the rat aortas were performed to delineate the vascular effect of salidroside. DHE imaging was used to evaluate the reactive oxygen species (ROS level in aortic wall and endothelial cells. Western blotting was performed to assess the protein expression associated with oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Exposure to homocysteine attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations in rat aortas while salidroside pretreatment rescued it. Salidroside inhibited homocystein-induced elevation in the NOX2 expression and ROS overproduction in both aortas and cultured endothelial cells and increased phosphorylation of eNOS which was diminished by homocysteine. The present study shows that salidroside is effective in preserving the NO bioavailability and thus protects against homocysteine-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, largely through inhibiting the NOX2 expression and ROS production. Our results indicate a therapeutic potential of salidroside in the management of oxidative-stress-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.

  5. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  6. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  7. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Marcelo Lakryc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol, Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate and Group C received a placebo (control. The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels.

  8. The J-shape association of ethanol intake with total homocysteine concentrations: the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitsavos Christos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest a non-monotonic effect of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular risk, while there is strong evidence concerning the involvement of homocysteine levels on thrombosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association between usual ethanol consumption and homocysteine levels, in cardiovascular disease free adults. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 women, without any evidence of cardiovascular disease, stratified by age – gender (census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, Greece. Among the variables ascertained we measured the daily ethanol consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Results Data analysis revealed a J-shape association between ethanol intake (none, 48 gr per day and total homocysteine levels (mean ± standard deviation among males (13 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 4 vs. 18 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 3 μmol/L, respectively, p Conclusion We observed a J-shape relationship between homocysteine concentrations and the amount of ethanol usually consumed.

  9. Lower Circulating B12 Is Associated with Higher Obesity and Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy in a Non-Diabetic White British Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bridget Ann Knight; Shields, Beverley M; Adam Brook; Anita Hill; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Hattersley, Andrew T; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin B12 and folate are critical micronutrients needed to support the increased metabolic demands of pregnancy. Recent studies from India have suggested that low vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with increased obesity; however differences in diet, antenatal vitamin supplementation, and socioeconomic status may limit the generalisability of these findings. We aimed to explore the cross-sectional relationship of circulating serum vitamin B12 and fol...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding back to top Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including ... vitamins are absorbed into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  12. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as one of those recommended in ...

  14. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Vitamin D and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Vitamin D ... to get it. Who's at Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency? Things like a lack of direct sunlight ...

  15. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the ...

  17. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do ... for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the limbs, ...

  19. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer;

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented by...... increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  20. Vitamin C In Neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are necessary factors in human development and normal brain function. Vitamin C is a hydrosoluble compound that humans cannot produce; therefore, we are completely dependent on food intake for vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidative agent and is present in high concentrations in neurons and is also crucial for collagen synthesis throughout the body. Ascorbic acid has a role in modulating many essential neurotransmitters, enables neurogenesis in adult brain and protects cells against infection. While SVCT1 enables the absorption of vitamin C in the intestine, SVCT2 is primarily located in the brain.

  1. Vitamin D and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamzam Paknahad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hypertension is one of the most important causes of death all over the world because of its adverse effects on cardiovascular system. For this reason its study is very valuable. Vitamin D is one of the important factors that may influence blood pressure. Many studies have shown the modulatory effect of this vitamin on rennin-angiotensin system as well as its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy. According to the fact that vitamin receptors are distributed in almost all organs of human body, we can't consider its role just as factor in calcium homeostasis. Therefore many other important roles could be attributed to it. So vitamin D deficiency could arise many problems. There are many causes for vitamin D deficiency. The most important is insufficient exposure to UV-B. In epidemiological studies the vitamin D deficiency is considered to be associated with high blood pressure, as emphasized in many cross-sectional studies. Concerning the cohort prospective studies, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension is reported in some cases. The interventional studies about the association between vitamin D and hypertension are not many and the results are different or contradictory. Controversial results might be due to differences in dose of supplements or duration of supplement therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the researches about the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension and discuss the power of them. This can be helpful to lighten the path to prospective investigations.

  2. Sunshine and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraff, Vrinda; Shaw, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D is vital for bone health and its deficiency deemed as a disease of the past has re-emerged as an important health concern. Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet B radiation is the major source of vitamin D and only a small proportion is derived from dietary intake. We review the various factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D and the recommendations regarding safe sun exposure and dietary supplementation to achieve adequate vitamin D levels proposed for optimal bone health. PMID:26323284

  3. The role of B vitamins in preventing and treating cognitive impairment and decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Savaria

    2012-11-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have considered whether markers of B-vitamin status are associated with cognitive function and cognitive decline. This avenue of research was sparked by the homocysteine (Hcy) theory of cardiovascular disease, which was extended to Alzheimer's disease when a link between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease was discovered. Hcy could cause cognitive impairment via direct neurotoxicity. However, decreased remethylation of Hcy to methionine might also compromise cognitive function by means other than mere Hcy lowering. Folate and vitamin B-12 participate in Hcy remethylation and largely determine Hcy status. Consequently, much of the relevant research has focused on these 2 B vitamins. The many subtly different hypotheses that investigators have addressed by attempting to link several B-vitamin status indicators to diverse cognition-related outcomes have created a confusing body of conflicting studies that seems to defy summarization. Nevertheless, themes are discernible that aid interpretation, foster hypothesis generation, and inform future study design. For example, despite a shared metabolic pathway, Hcy, vitamin B-12, and folate are differently related to specific cognitive outcomes. Although consistency of findings across studies is often touted as essential to distinguishing causal from coincidental relationships, discrepancies among study findings can be even more informative. PMID:23153734

  4. A case of vitamin B12 deficiency with involuntary movements and bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Taisuke; Gotoh, Seiji; Takaki, Hayato; Kiyuna, Fumi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Fujii, Kenichiro

    2016-07-28

    An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml. Anti-intrinsic factor and anti-parietal cell antibody tests were positive. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed atrophic gastritis. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia. Involuntary movements and MRI abnormalities improved with parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are rare manifestations of adult vitamin B12 deficiency. The present case is considered valuable in identifying the pathophysiology of involuntary movement due to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27356735

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Relationship to Vitamin B Level

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    Hae-Won Shin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasma homocysteine (Hcy levels are increased in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD undergoing levodopa treatment. We measured the Hcy levels in PD patients and assessed the relationship between Hcy level and features of PD, cognitive function and vitamin B status. Methods: Concentrations of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate were measured in 33 PD patients and 41 normal control individuals. Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE was assessed in all subjects. In PD patients, Hoehn & Yahr stage and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS motor scores were also examined. Results: Plasma Hcy levels were lower in PD patients than in control individuals. Hcy level was inversely correlated with vitamin B12 and folate levels in the PD group but not in control individuals. Age, symptom duration, UPDRS motor scores, MMSE score, levodopa dose and duration of treatment did not differ between patients with Hcy >14 μmol/L and those with Hcy <14 μmol/L. Conclusions: Plasma Hcy levels were increased in PD patients with levodopa treatment and were related to vitamin B level. These results indicate that vitamin supplementation may be beneficial in levodopa-treated PD patients, although hyperhomocysteinemia did not affect the motor and cognitive status of PD patients.

  6. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  7. Dietary serine and cystine attenuate the homocysteine-raising effect of dietary methionine: A randomized crossover trial in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Steenge, G.R.; Boelsma, E.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The increase in tHcy induced by methionine, the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine, might be modulated by other amino acids present in dietary proteins. Objectives: Our objectives were

  8. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on serum homocysteine levels in perimenopausal women : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, AE; Bak, AAA; Lindemans, J; Planellas, J; Bennink, HJTC; Hofman, A; Grobbee, DE; Witteman, JCM

    2001-01-01

    Serum homocysteine levels may be lowered by hormone replacement therapy, but randomized controlled trial data are scarce. We performed a single center randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the 6 months effect of hormone replacement therapy compared with placebo on fasting serum homocysteine

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency: An important reversible co-morbidity in neuropsychiatric manifestations

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    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2015-01-01

    significantly prevalent in neurological disorders when compared with primary psychiatric illnesses (P = 0.001. Mean folate and mean homocysteine in our study was 11.7 ± 6.44 ng/ml and 17.77 ± 5.45 μmol/L, respectively. Eighty percent of the population had normal folate levels whereas mean homocysteine values were much higher than that of the western population (10-12 μmol/L. Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency though common in India is often overlooked. It increases the load of cognitive decline and accentuates vascular risk factors in neuropsychiatric illnesses. Vitamin B12 deficiency also increases homocysteine levels contributing to the vascular comorbidity in cerebro and cardiovascular illnesses. So prevention, early detection, and management of this reversible Vitamin B12 deficiency state is of profound importance.

  10. Vitamin E Inadequacy in Humans: Causes and Consequences12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traber, Maret G.

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that >90% of Americans do not consume sufficient dietary vitamin E, as α-tocopherol, to meet estimated average requirements. What are the adverse consequences of inadequate dietary α-tocopherol intakes? This review discusses health aspects where inadequate vitamin E status is detrimental and additional vitamin E has reversed the symptoms. In general, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations <12 μmol/L are associated with increased infection, anemia, stunting of growth, and poor outcomes during pregnancy for both the infant and the mother. When low dietary amounts of α-tocopherol are consumed, tissue α-tocopherol needs exceed amounts available, leading to increased damage to target tissues. Seemingly, adequacy of human vitamin E status cannot be assessed from circulating α-tocopherol concentrations, but inadequacy can be determined from “low” values. Circulating α-tocopherol concentrations are very difficult to interpret because, as a person ages, plasma lipid concentrations also increase and these elevations in lipids increase the plasma carriers for α-tocopherol, leading to higher circulating α-tocopherol concentrations. However, abnormal lipoprotein metabolism does not necessarily increase α-tocopherol delivery to tissues. Additional biomarkers of inadequate vitamin E status are needed. Urinary excretion of the vitamin E metabolite α-carboxy-ethyl-hydroxychromanol may fulfill this biomarker role, but it has not been widely studied with regard to vitamin E status in humans or with regard to health benefits. This review evaluated the information available on the adverse consequences of inadequate α-tocopherol status and provides suggestions for avenues for research. PMID:25469382

  11. Vitamin d deficiency in a multiethnic healthy control cohort and altered immune response in vitamin D deficient European-American healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L Ritterhouse

    Full Text Available In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals.Healthy individuals (n = 774 comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470, African-Americans (AA, n = 125, and Native Americans (NA, n = 179 were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (24.8 ng/mL vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed.Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30 demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05. Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04, decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04 and CD8+ T (p = 0.04 cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels.A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation.

  12. Low birthweight (LBW and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH in an Indian cohort: association of homocysteine, its metabolic pathway genes and micronutrients as risk factors.

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    Krishna Kishore Sukla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indian subcontinent has the highest child mortality rates along with a very high frequency of low birthweight (LBW. Folate and vitamin B12 (Vit-B12 are necessary during foetal development and their deficiency prevalence in Indians is very high. The objective of the present paper is to assess whether foetal homocysteine (Hcy/folate metabolic pathway genes, their cofactors and homocysteine level independently (or collectively predispose children to Low birth weight. METHODS: Cord blood was collected for the study. Frequency of 5 SNPs in 4-Hcy-pathway genes, and levels of Hcy, Vit-B12 and folate were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 421 newborns recruited for the study, 38% showed low birth weight (<2.5 kg and 16% were preterm babies. 101 neonates developed neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH. High prevalence of Vit-B12 (65% and folate (27% deficiency was observed in newborns along with hyperhomocystinemia (hypHcy-25%. Preterm delivery, micronutrient deficiency, hypHcy and MTHFR 677T SNP are associated as risk factor while G allele of TCN2 C776G is protective against LBW. MTHFR 677T allele and folate deficiency are also independent risk factors for NNH. CONCLUSION: We record the highest incidence of Vit-B12, folate deficiency and elevated Hcy levels, of all the studies so far reported on neonates. These together with MTHFR 677T are potential risk factors for LBW. Association of impaired folate/Hcy metabolism with NNH is reported for the first time and the possible way of interaction is discussed. It appears that proper nutritional management during pregnancy would reduce the risk of complex clinical outcomes.

  13. A fluorescence enhancement probe based on BODIPY for the discrimination of cysteine from homocysteine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Deyan; Tian, Yuejun; Yang, Chengduan; Iqbal, Anam; Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu; Zhu, Xiangtao; Guo, Huichen

    2016-11-15

    Herein, a fluorescent probe BODIPY-based glyoxal hydrazone (BODIPY-GH) (1) for cysteine based on inhibiting of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) quenching process upon reaction with the unsaturated aldehyde has been synthesized, which exhibits longer excitation wavelength, selective and sensitive colorimetric and fluorimetric response toward cysteine in natural media. The probe shows highly selectivity towards cysteine over homocysteine and glutathione as well as other amino acids with a significant fluorescence enhancement response within 15min In the presence of 50 equiv. of homocysteine, the emission increased slightly within 15min and completed in 2.5h to reach its maximum intensity. Therefore, the discrimination of cysteine from homocysteine and glutathione can be achieved through detection of probe 1. It shows low cytotoxicity and excellent membrane permeability toward living cells, which was successfully applied to detect and image intracellular cysteine effectively by confocal fluorescence imaging. PMID:27176916

  14. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2010-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthe...

  15. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk.

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    Hannah Arem

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713 and controls (n = 878. The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830. Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186, LRP2 (rs4668123, CYP24A1 (rs2762932, GC (rs2282679, and CUBN (rs1810205 genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037, but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  16. Chemical pathology of homocysteine. V. Thioretinamide, thioretinaco, and cystathionine synthase function in degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2011-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia was first associated with degenerative disease by observation of accelerated arteriosclerosis in children with inherited disorders of cystathionine synthase, methionine synthase, and methylene tetrohydrofolate reductase. The metabolic blockade of sulfate synthesis from homocysteine thiolactone in malignant cells is ascribed to a deficiency of a chemopreventive derivative of homocysteine thiolactone that occurs in normal cells. Its chemical structure was elucidated by the organic synthesis of thioretinamide from retinoic acid and homocysteine thiolactone. Oxidation of the sulfur atom of homocysteine is inhibited in scorbutic guinea pigs, demonstrating ascorbate function in sulfate synthesis from homocysteine. Studies of homocysteine metabolism in protein energy malnutrition led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of thioretinamide from the retinol of transthyretin is catalyzed by dehydroascorbate and superoxide generated from the heme oxygenase group of cystathionine synthase. Newly synthesized thioretinamide is complexed with cobalamin to form thioretinaco, which is activated by ozone and oxygen to function as the active site of oxidative phosphorylation. In accordance with the trophoblastic theory of cancer, pancreatic enzymes are believed to be oncolytic because they hydrolyze the homocysteinylated proteins, nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans of malignant tissues. The clonal selection of malignant cells that are deficient in the heme oxygenase function of cystathionine synthase produces cells dependent upon glycolysis for ATP synthesis, since they are deficient in synthesis of thioretinamide, thioretinaco and thioretinaco ozonide. The vulnerable plaque of arteriosclerosis originates from complexes of microbes with homocysteinylated lipoproteins, obstructing vasa vasorum narrowed by endothelial dysfunction, causing arterial ischemia, and intimal micro-abscesses. Degenerative diseases may be ameliorated by a proposed therapeutic protocol

  17. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  18. Effect modification by population dietary folate on the association between MTHFR genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Newcombe, Paul; Hubacek, Jaroslav A;

    2011-01-01

    The MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism has been associated with raised homocysteine concentration and increased risk of stroke. A previous overview showed that the effects were greatest in regions with low dietary folate consumption, but differentiation between the effect of folate and small-study bias...... was difficult. A meta-analysis of randomised trials of homocysteine-lowering interventions showed no reduction in coronary heart disease events or stroke, but the trials were generally set in populations with high folate consumption. We aimed to reduce the effect of small-study bias and investigate whether...

  19. The relationship between cholesterol and cognitive function is homocysteine-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yibin Cheng,1 Yinlong Jin,1 Frederick W Unverzagt,2 Liqin Su,1 Lili Yang,3 Feng Ma,1 Ann M Hake,4,5 Carla Kettler,3 Chen Chen,1 Jingyi Liu,1 Jianchao Bian,6 Ping Li,7 Jill R Murrell,8 Hugh C Hendrie,2,9,10 Sujuan Gao3 1Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Biostatistics, 4Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 6Shandong Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease in China, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 7Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in China, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 9Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 10Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Introduction: Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures.Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores.Results: There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Total Plasma Homocysteine by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libin; Sharer, J Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine is a nonessential, sulfur-containing amino acid involved in one-carbon (folate) metabolism. A number of inherited and acquired conditions cause increased accumulation of this metabolite in blood (homocysteinemia) and other biofluids. Homocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including recurrent thrombosis. Accurate measurement of total plasma homocysteine is an important element in the diagnostic evaluation of these disorders. While a number of different methods have been developed for this purpose, the focus of this unit will be on a specific technique utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which provides several advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity, and specificity. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27037487