WorldWideScience

Sample records for circularly polarized x-rays

  1. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  2. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  3. Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the relative phase changes of σ and π electric field components on Bragg reflection from and transmission through multilayers are presented. Large relative phase changes can be calculated in certain cases, which may lead to utility of multilayers as quarter-wave plates for generation and analysis of circularly polarized soft x-radiation. Similar behavior may be expected for perfect crystals in the hard x-ray range. 24 refs., 4 figs

  4. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Lindahl, A. O.; Knie, A.; Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Shevchuk, I.; Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Kazansky, A. K.; Liu, J.; Marinelli, A.; Mazza, T.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J.; Meyer, M.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M.

    2016-08-01

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O2 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  5. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of producing highly circularly polarized X-ray radiation, especially in the soft X-ray region, is an important asset at XFELs. However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only. The lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, to exploit the microbunching from the baseline FEL. 5m-long APPLE II undulators are standard devices at synchrotrons. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. Slits can be inserted behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section f...

  6. Optical converters for circularly polarized VUV and soft-x-ray radiation (invited)(abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchst, Hartmut

    1995-02-01

    During the last few years considerable effort was spent at various laboratories to evaluate the possibilities of optical devices to generate circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. These instruments convert linearly polarized radiation by utilizing the phase-shifting properties of multiple reflectors or multilayer transmission optics. In the VUV and soft-x-ray range, the figure of merit TP2, where P is the degree of circular polarization and T the optical transmission, of specially tailored reflection coatings or multilayer structures can be considerably higher than what can be achieved with conventional insertion devices such as the crossed field undulator. In addition to being considerably less expensive, the various optical designs have the great advantage of not being an integral part of the storage ring and, as such, completely transparent to the operation and other users of the storage ring. Various phase-shifter designs will be discussed in terms of their performance, e.g., optical throughput, degree of polarization, and capabilities to modulate between left and right circular light. Recent MCD experiments utilizing optical phase shifters not only demonstrate the proof of principle, but also provide strong evidence of the potential capabilities of ``optical insertion'' devices as an alternative tool to generate variably polarized synchrotron radiation.

  7. Measurement of the polarization for soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    CERN Document Server

    Zhi-Ying, Guo; Jing-Tao, Zhu; YI-Dong, Zhao; Lei, Zheng; Cai-Hao, Hong; Kun, Tang; Dong-Liang, Yang; Ming-Qi, Cui

    2012-01-01

    Three ultra-short-period W/B4C multilayers (1.244nm, 1.235nm and 1.034nm) have been fabricated and used for polarization measurement at the 4B7B Beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). By rotating analyzer ellipsometry method, the linear polarization degree of light emerging from this beamline has been measured and the circular polarization evaluated for 700eV-860eV. The first soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out at BSRF by positioning the beamline aperture out of the plane of the electron storage ring.

  8. Soft x-ray circular dichroism and scattering using a modulated elliptically polarizing wiggler and double synchronous detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Polewski, K.; Monteleone, D.C. [and others

    1998-01-23

    We have constructed an experimental station (beamline) at the National Synchrotron Light Source to measure circular dichroism (CD) using soft x-rays (250 {le} hv {le} 900 eV) from a time modulated elliptically polarizing wiggler. The polarization of the soft x-ray beam switches periodically between two opposite polarizations, hence permitting the use of phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection. While the wiggler can be modulated at frequencies up to 100 Hz, switching transients limit the actual practical frequency to {approx}25 Hz. With analog detection, switching transients are blocked by a chopper synchronized to the frequency and phase of the wiggler. The CD is obtained from the ratio of the signal recovered at the frequency of polarization modulation, f, to the average beam intensity, which is recovered by synchronous detection at frequency 2f.

  9. Polarization effects in radiation from compact X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory of polarization of X rays emitted by magnetized neutron stars, white dwarfs and black hole accretion disks is presented and predictions are compared with polarimetric data. Polarization occurs in accreting neutron stars and white dwarfs in binary systems as plasma travels along magnetic field lines formed between the companions. Movement parallel to the field produces circular polarization, transverse propagation yields linear polarization and elliptical polarization arises from other angles. The actual mechanism is alterations in the absorption coefficients of magnetized plasma, changes introduced by available bremsstrahlung and electron scattering processes. Thomson scattering is an origin of X ray polarization in black hole and neutron star accretion disks, with the type of polarization being dependent on the radiation density near the boundary, the presence of Faraday rotation and the geometry of the disk magnetic field. Polarimetric data on 10 stellar objects are presented as supportive evidence for the theory. 14 references

  10. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements using an X-ray phase retarder on the BM25 A-SpLine beamline at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental set-up at SpLine (BM25A, ESRF) to measure XMCD by using a diamond X-ray phase retarder to obtain circularly polarized X-rays is described. Circularly polarized X-rays produced by a diamond X-ray phase retarder of thickness 0.5 mm in the Laue transmission configuration have been used for recording X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) on the bending-magnet beamline BM25A (SpLine) at the ESRF. Field reversal and helicity reversal techniques have been used to carry out the measurements. The performance of the experimental set-up has been demonstrated by recording XMCD in the energy range from 7 to 11 keV

  11. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Daniel J; Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L; Jal, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Edwin; Liu, Tianmin; Lutman, Alberto A; MacArthur, James P; Arenholz, Elke; Chen, Zhao; Coslovich, Giacomo; Denes, Peter; Granitzka, Patrick W; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Joseph, John; Le Guyader, Loïc; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Shafer, Padraic; Stöhr, Joachim; Tsukamoto, Arata; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H; Dürr, Hermann A; Schlotter, William F

    2016-03-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L(3,2)-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature. PMID:27036761

  12. X-ray Polarization Probes of SNR and PWN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray synchrotron radiation traces the high energy extrema of e+/e- accelerated by pulsar magnetospheres and supernova shocks. X-ray polarization lets us probe the unresolved geometry of these relativistic shock structures. I summarize what we know about magnetic field geometries in these nebulae and the prospects for learning more from X-ray polarimetry.

  13. Energy-dispersive phase plate for magnetic circular dichroism experiments in the X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 220 diamond phase plate was combined with an energy-dispersive absorption spectrometer to convert linearly polarized X-rays into circularly polarized photons and to detect circular magnetic X-ray dichroism (CMXD) from ferromagnetic samples. In these experiments, carried out at LURE, the energy-dispersive spectrometer was equipped with a bent Si (311) polychromator and vertically collimating slits accepting essentially a linearly polarized incident beam. The quarter-wave plate was operated in the Bragg geometry but well outside the range of quasi total reflection, with the consequence that the forward-diffracted beam was circularly polarized with a polarization rate approaching 80% over the whole energy bandpass of the polychromator. CMXD spectra of GdFe2 and GdCo2 intermetallic compounds were recorded at ca 7.2 keV near the Gd LIII absorption edge: they are essentially identical to the spectra commonly recorded with elliptically polarized X-ray photons collected out of the orbit plane of the storage ring. It is suggested that the energy-dispersive phase plate will be very useful to detect CMXD spectra with energy-dispersive spectrometers exploiting the well collimated linearly polarized emission of standard undulators installed on the storage rings of the third generation. (orig.)

  14. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter are investigated in a study of solar hard X-rays. Effect of backscatter are found particularly important for anisotropic sources which emit hard X-rays predominantly toward the photosphere; for such anisotropic primary X-ray sources, the observed X-ray flux near 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of the flare. In addition, the degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies in the 15 to 30 keV range may be as high as 30%. Determination of the height and anisotropy of the primary X-ray sources from study of the albedo patch is also discussed.

  15. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  16. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Chang, Hao [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel; Miller, Dean; Freeland, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hla, Saw-Wai [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    A tunneling smart tip of a synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope provides simultaneously localized topographic, elemental and magnetic information. Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain.

  17. X-ray Orbital Modulations in Intermediate Polars

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, T L; Mukai, K

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of 30 archival ASCA and RXTE X-ray observations of 16 intermediate polars to investigate the nature of their orbital modulation. We show that X-ray orbital modulation is widespread amongst these systems, but not ubiquitous as indicated by previous studies that included fewer objects. Only seven of the sixteen systems show a clearly statistically significant modulation depth whose amplitude decreases with increasing X-ray energy. Interpreting this as due to photoelectric absorption in material at the edge of an accretion disc would imply that such modulations are visible for all system inclination angles in excess of 60 degrees. However, it is also apparent that the presence of an X-ray orbital modulation can appear and disappear on a timescale of ~years or months in an individual system. This may be evidence for the presence of a precessing, tilted accretion disc, as inferred in some low mass X-ray binaries.

  18. X-ray linear dichroism dependence on ferroelectric polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy are techniques commonly used to determine the magnetic properties of thin films, crystals, and heterostructures. Recently, these methods have been used in the study of magnetoelectrics and multiferroics. The analysis of such materials has been compromised by the presence of multiple order parameters and the lack of information on how to separate these coupled properties. In this work, we shed light on the manifestation of dichroism from ferroelectric polarization and atomic structure using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Linear dichroism arising from the ferroelectric order in the PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin films was studied as a function of incident x-ray polarization and geometry to unambiguously determine the angular dependence of the ferroelectric contribution to the dichroism. These measurements allow us to examine the contribution of surface charges and ferroelectric polarization as potential mechanisms for linear dichroism. The x-ray linear dichroism from ferroelectric order revealed an angular dependence based on the angle between the ferroelectric polarization direction and the x-ray polarization axis, allowing a formula for linear dichroism in ferroelectric samples to be defined. (paper)

  19. Asymmetry of parametric X rays from polarized electrons (quantum approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry ratio of parametric X rays from polarized electrons is considered using the quantum approach. The asymmetry ratio was investigated for photons emitted both along Bragg direction and for angles around γ-1 relative to the Bragg direction. Calculation of asymmetry for longitudinal and transverse electron polarization has been carried out

  20. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    CERN Document Server

    Worpel, H; Granzer, T; Reinsch, K; Schwarz, R; Traulsen, I

    2016-01-01

    We aim to study the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar CVs from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and to search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. We analysed four XMM X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered in SDSS, one in RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometry and spectroscopy and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. SDSSJ0328 was X-ray bright in two XMM and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states over a few months. It has no strong soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main pole to be 39 MG, the inclination to be 45X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which spends almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76...

  1. Probing magnetar magnetosphere through X-ray polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, R.; Muleri, F.; Turolla, R.; Soffitta, P.; Fabiani, S.; Nobili, L.

    2014-02-01

    The study of magnetars is of particular relevance since these objects are the only laboratories where the physics in ultra-strong magnetic fields can be directly tested. Until now, spectroscopic and timing measurements at X-ray energies in soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) have been the main source of information about the physical properties of a magnetar and of its magnetosphere. Spectral fitting in the ˜0.5-10 keV range allowed us to validate the `twisted magnetosphere' model, probing the structure of the external field and estimating the density and velocity of the magnetospheric currents. Spectroscopy alone, however, may fail in disambiguating the two key parameters governing magnetospheric scattering (the charge velocity and the twist angle) and is quite insensitive to the source geometry. X-ray polarimetry, on the other hand, can provide a quantum leap in the field by adding two extra observables, the linear polarization degree and the polarization angle. Using the bright AXP 1RXS J170849.0-400910 as a template, we show that phase-resolved polarimetric measurements can unambiguously determine the model parameters, even with a small X-ray polarimetry mission carrying modern photoelectric detectors and existing X-ray optics. We also show that polarimetric measurements can pinpoint vacuum polarization effects and thus provide indirect evidence for ultra-strong magnetic fields.

  2. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism facility at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Xui, Wei; Chen, Dong-liang; Cui, Ming-Qi; Zhao, YI-Dong

    2014-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has become an important and powerful tool because it allows the study of material properties in combination with elemental specificity, chemical state specificity, and magnetic specificity. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus has been developed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The apparatus combines three experimental conditions: ultra-high-vacuum environment, moderate magnetic fields and in-situ sample preparation to measure the absorption signal. We designed a C type dipole electromagnet that provides magnetic fields up to 0.5T in parallel (or anti-parallel) direction relative to the incoming X-ray beam. The performances of the electromagnet are measured and the results show good agreement with the simulation ones. Following film grown in situ by evaporation methods, XMCD measurements are performed. Combined polarization corrections, the magnetic moments of the Fe and Co films determined by sum rules are consistent with other t...

  3. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worpel, H.; Schwope, A. D.; Granzer, T.; Reinsch, K.; Schwarz, R.; Traulsen, I.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar cataclysmic variables from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. Methods: We obtained and analysed four XMM-Newton X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered with the SDSS and one in the RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometric and spectroscopic observations and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. Results: SDSSJ032855.00+052254.2 was X-ray bright in two XMM-Newton and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states on a timescale of a few months. The source shows no significant soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole to be 39 MG and the inclination to be 45° ≤ i ≤ 77°, and we refined the long-term ephemeris. SDSSJ133309.20+143706.9 was X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which seems to spend almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76°. 1RXSJ173006.4+033813 was X-ray bright in the XMM-Newton observation. Its spectrum contained a modest soft blackbody component, not luminous enough to be considered a significant soft excess. We inferred a magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole of 20 to 25 MG, and that the inclination is less than 77° and probably less than 63°. V808 Aur, also known as CSS081231:J071126+440405, was X-ray faint in the Swift observation, but there is nonetheless strong evidence for bright and faint phases in X-rays and perhaps in UV. Residual X-ray flux from the faint phase is difficult to explain by thermal emission from the white dwarf surface, or by accretion onto the second pole. We present a revised distance estimate of 250 pc. Conclusions: The three systems we were able to study in detail

  4. First-principles analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for transition metal complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hidekazu

    2016-10-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is widely used for the characterization of magnetism of materials. However, information from XMCD related to the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures is not fully utilized due to the lack of reliable theoretical tools for spectral analysis. In this work, the first-principles configuration interaction (CI) calculations for X-ray absorption spectra developed by the author were extended for the calculation of XMCD, where the Zeeman energy was taken into the Hamiltonian of the CI to mimic magnetic polarization in the solid state. This technique was applied to interpret the L2,3 XMCD from 3d transition metal complex oxides, such as NiFe2O4 and FeTiO3. The experimental XMCD spectra were quantitatively reproduced using this method. The oxidation states as well as the magnetic ordering between transition metal ions on crystallographically different sites in NiFe2O4 can be unambiguously determined. A first-principles analysis of XMCD in FeTiO3 revealed the presence of Fe3+ and Ti3+ ions, which indicates that the charge transfer from Fe to Ti ions occurs. The origin of magnetic polarization of Ti ions in FeTiO3 was also discussed.

  5. Probing magnetars magnetosphere through X-ray polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Taverna, Roberto; Turolla, Roberto; Soffitta, Paolo; Fabiani, Sergio; Nobili, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    The study of magnetars is of particular relevance since these objects are the only laboratories where the physics in ultra-strong magnetic fields can be directly tested. Until now, spectroscopic and timing measurements at X-ray energies in soft gamma-repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXPs) have been the main source of information about the physical properties of a magnetar and of its magnetosphere. Spectral fitting in the ~ 0.5-10 keV range allowed to validate the "twisted magnetosphere" model, probing the structure of the external field and estimating the density and velocity of the magnetospheric currents. Spectroscopy alone, however, may fail in disambiguating the two key parameters governing magnetospheric scattering (the charge velocity and the twist angle) and is quite insensitive to the source geometry. X-ray polarimetry, on the other hand, can provide a quantum leap in the field by adding two extra observables, the linear polarization degree and the polarization angle. Using the bright AXP ...

  6. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, Tod E

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles. We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using Monte Carlo simulations and chi-squared fitting methods. We compare our results to those derived using the traditional probability density used to characterize polarization measurements and quantify how they deviate as the intrinsic modulation amplitude grows. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by beta, the "number of sigma's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well known minimum detectable polarization (MDP) it is, on a...

  7. Measurement of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering from induced Cu polarizations in exchange-coupled Co/Cu multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An avalanche photodiode detector has been commissioned to measure weak resonant x-ray magnetic scattering (RXMS) from induced magnetic polarizations in Cu layers in exchange-coupled Co/Cu multilayers using circularly polarized x-rays from synchrotron sources. The detector can count x-rays at rates of 107 photons s-1, giving good estimates of the RXMS at superlattice Bragg peaks in a reasonably short time when count losses due to the time structure of the synchrotron x-rays are corrected for. RXMS superlattice Bragg peaks as small as 1 x 10-4 in flipping ratio have been measured from a Co/Cu multilayer at the K absorption edge of Cu. The data are fitted by an oscillatory model magnetization profile in the Cu layers derived from a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida theory of exchange coupling adapted to a planar geometry

  8. Detection Limits for Natural Circular Dichroism of Chiral Complexes in the X-ray Range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulon, José; Sette, Francesco; Moise, Claude; Fontaine, Alain; Perey, Danièle; Rudolf, Petra; Baudelet, François

    1993-01-01

    Whereas both Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Faraday Rotation studies have been successfully carried out at the K-, L- and M- absorption edges of metal atoms in ferromagnetic systems, Natural optical activity of chiral complexes has not yet been detected quite unambiguously in the X-ray range. We re

  9. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, MacCallum J. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Agostino, Christopher J. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); N' Diaye, Alpha T. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Gong [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Im, Mi-Young [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Fischer, Peter, E-mail: PJFischer@lbl.gov [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities.

  10. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities

  11. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, MacCallum J.; Agostino, Christopher J.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Chen, Gong; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities.

  12. Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Cr tellurides

    OpenAIRE

    Yaji, Koichiro; Kimura, Akio; Koyama, Michie; Hirai, Chiyuki; Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Tanaka, Arata; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic chromium tellurides Cr5 Te6 (δ=0.17) and Cr2 Te3 (δ=0.33) have been investigated by Cr 2p x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The observed XMCD spectra have been analyzed by means of a configuration-interaction cluster model calculation. From calculated results, we suggest that the doped holes created by the Cr deficiency exist mainly in the Te 5p orbital of Cr1-δ Te.

  13. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism facility at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Hong, Cai-Hao; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Zheng, Lei; Xui, Wei; Chen, Dong-Liang; Cui, Ming-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2015-04-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has become an important and powerful tool because it allows the study of material properties in combination with elemental specificity, chemical state specificity, and magnetic specificity. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus has been developed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The apparatus combines three experimental conditions: an ultra-high-vacuum environment, moderate magnetic fields and in-situ sample preparation to measure the absorption signal. We designed a C-type dipole electromagnet that provides magnetic fields up to 0.5 T in parallel (or anti-parallel) direction relative to the incoming X-ray beam. The performances of the electromagnet are measured and the results show good agreement with the simulation ones. Following film grown in situ by evaporation methods, XMCD measurements are performed. Combined polarization corrections, the magnetic moments of the Fe and Co films determined by sum rules are consistent with other theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61204008)

  14. The X-Ray Polarization Signature of Quiescent Magnetars: Effect of Magnetospheric Scattering and Vacuum Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from Anomalous X-ray Pulsars and Soft-Gamma Repeaters is thought to arise from resonant comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally-twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed pho...

  15. Polarization from Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sourses: The PRAXyS Small Explorer Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; The PRAXyS Team

    2016-04-01

    Polarization is a sensitive probe of geometry near compact objects, but remains largely unexplored in the X-ray band. Polarization is expected from cosmic X-ray sources, yielding insight into the geometry of black hole emission, and the origin and nature of X-ray emission in neutron stars and magnetars. Recent progress with detectors capable of imaging the track of a photoelectron generated by a detection of a cosmic X-ray have made sensitive X-ray polarization observatories possible within the constraints of a NASA Small Explorer mission. We report on the observational capabilities and the scientific goals of the "Polarization from Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources" (PRAXyS) Observatory. PRAXyS is a small explorer which has been selected by NASA for a phase A study.

  16. Polarization dependent soft x-ray spectro-microscopy of local spin structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Maccallum; Agostino, Christopher; Im, Mi-Young; Montoya, Sergio; Fullerton, Eric; Fischer, Peter

    Quantitative information about element-specific contributions to local magnetic spin and orbital moments is readily available by XMCD spectroscopy and images of magnetic domain patterns with a few tens of nanometer spatial resolution. We show that the x-ray spectroscopic analysis of x-ray microscopy images provides quantitative information about local spin structures. We have investigated two prototypical multilayered PMA film systems prepared by sputtering, specifically (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm)x30 and (Fe 0.7nm/Gd 0.4nm)x100 systems. A spectroscopic sequence of full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy (MTXM) images covering about 8mm field-of-views with a spatial resolution of about 20nm were recorded across the Co and Fe L edges, resp. To modulate the magnetic contrast, two sets of images were obtained with left and right circular polarization. Standard XMCD spectroscopy analysis procedures were applied to retrieve the local spectroscopic behavior. We observe a decrease of the L3/L2 ratio when approaching the domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration along the vertical profile of a domain, which we will discuss in view of both systems' magnetic anisotropies. U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231.

  17. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  18. Sub-MeV tunably polarized X-ray production with laser Thomson backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, K.; Kando, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Daito, I.; Kondo, S.; Homma, T.; Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Chen, L.-M.; Fukuda, Y.; Faenov, A.; Shizuma, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.

    2008-05-01

    Reported in this article is the generation of unique polarized x-rays in the sub-MeV region by means of the Thomson backscattering of the Nd:YAG laser photon with a wavelength of 1064nm on the 150MeV electron from the microtron accelerator. The maximum energy of the x-ray photons is estimated to be about 400keV. The total energy of the backscattered x-ray pulse is measured with an imaging plate and a LYSO scintillator. The angular divergence of the x-rays is also measured by using the imaging plate. We confirm that the x-ray beam is polarized according to the laser polarization direction with the Compton scattering method. In addition, we demonstrate the imaging of the object shielded by lead with the generated x-rays.

  19. X-rays and magnetism: a review of program in magnetic studies with polarized soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  20. Magnetic moments in a gadolinium iron garnet studied by soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.; Tjeng, L.H.; Meigs, G.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic moments of Gd and Fe in gadolinium iron garnet (Gd3Fe5O12) were probed at 77 and 300 K by soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD) measurements at the GdMa4,5 and at the FeL2,3 absorption edges. The SXMCD signal at each edge allows one to independently determine the magnetic order

  1. Measuring x-ray polarization in the presence of systematic effects: Known background

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, Ronald F; Weisskopf, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    The prospects for accomplishing x-ray polarization measurements of astronomical sources have grown in recent years, after a hiatus of more than 37 years. Unfortunately, accompanying this long hiatus has been some confusion over the statistical uncertainties associated with x-ray polarization measurements of these sources. We have initiated a program to perform the detailed calculations that will offer insights into the uncertainties associated with x-ray polarization measurements. Here we describe a mathematical formalism for determining the 1- and 2-parameter errors in the magnitude and position angle of x-ray (linear) polarization in the presence of a (polarized or unpolarized) background. We further review relevant statistics-including clearly distinguishing between the Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) and the accuracy of a polarization measurement.

  2. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  3. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardif, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.tardif@spring8.or.jp [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); SP2M, INAC, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Titov, Andrey [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); SP2M, INAC, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble (France); A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Arras, Emmanuel; Slipukhina, Ivetta [SP2M, INAC, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Hlil, El-Kébir [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Cherifi, Salia [IPCMS, CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, F-67034 Strasbourg (France); Joly, Yves [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Jamet, Matthieu; Barski, André [SP2M, INAC, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Cibert, Joël [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Kulatov, Erkin [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Uspenskii, Yurii A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Avenue Leninskii, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pochet, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.pochet@cea.fr [SP2M, INAC, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-15

    X-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the L{sub 2,3} edges of Mn in (Ge,Mn) compounds have been measured and are compared to the results of first principles calculation. Early ab initio studies show that the Density Functional Theory (DFT) can very well describe the valence band electronic properties but fails to reproduce a characteristic change of sign in the L{sub 3} XMCD spectrum of Mn in Ge{sub 3}Mn{sub 5}, which is observed in experiments. In this work we demonstrate that this disagreement is partially related to an underestimation of the exchange splitting of Mn 2p core states within the local density approximation. It is shown that the change in sign experimentally observed is reproduced if the exchange splitting is accurately calculated within the Hartree–Fock approximation, while the final states can be still described by the DFT. This approach is further used to calculate the XMCD in different (Ge,Mn) compounds. It demonstrates that the agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be improved by combining state of the art calculations for the core and valence states respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra are measured and compared to first principles calculations in (Ge,Mn) compounds. • Standard density functional theory fails in properly describing peculiar features observed in the experiment. • A new approach to calculate theoretical X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra is proposed. • Improved modeling of the core levels splitting using the Hartree–Fock approximation allows for a better matching with the experiment. • This new method could be generalized to any 3d metallic-like system.

  4. The spatial, spectral and polarization properties of solar flare X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Natasha L S

    2014-01-01

    X-rays are a valuable diagnostic tool for the study of high energy accelerated electrons. Bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by, and directly related to, high energy electrons accelerated during a flare, provide a powerful diagnostic tool for determining both the properties of the accelerated electron distribution, and of the flaring coronal and chromospheric plasmas. This thesis is specifically concerned with the study of spatial, spectral and polarization properties of solar flare X-ray sources via both modelling and X-ray observations using the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Firstly, a new model is presented, accounting for finite temperature, pitch angle scattering and initial pitch angle injection. This is developed to accurately infer the properties of the acceleration region from the observations of dense coronal X-ray sources. Moreover, examining how the spatial properties of dense coronal X-ray sources change in time, interesting trends in length, width, position, number density ...

  5. Polarized NIR and X-ray flares from Sagittarius A*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eckart; F.K. Baganoff; M. Zamaninasab; M.R. Morris; R. Schödel; L. Meyer; K. Muzic; M.W. Bautz; W.N. Brandt; G.P. Garmire; G.R. Ricker; D. Kunneriath; C. Straubmeier; W. Duschl; M. Dovciak; V. Karas; S. Markoff; F. Najarro; J. Mauerhan; J. Moultaka; A. Zensus

    2008-01-01

    Context. Stellar dynamics indicate the presence of a supermassive 3 - 4 x 10(6) M-circle dot black hole at the Galactic Center. It is associated with the variable radio, near-infrared, and X-ray source Sagittarius A*(SgrA*). Aims. The goal is the investigation and understanding of the physical proce

  6. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (@16 eV to 500 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestre, M.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bustamante, C. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Snyder, P. (Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Rowe, E.; Hansen, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI (United States). Synchrotron Radiation Center)

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Measuring X-Ray Polarization in the Presence of Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; ODell, S. L.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the 1 and 2 parameter errors in the magnitude and position angle of X ]ray polarization. The formalism includes a treatment of systematic effects, such as background and instrumental bias.

  8. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, M. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Hague, C.F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  9. The X-ray Polarization Signature of Quiescent Magnetars: Effect of Magnetospheric Scattering and Vacuum Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at ~100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  10. Multilayer polarization elements and their applications to polarimetric studies in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WATANABE Makoto; WANG Zhangshan; CUI Mingqi; YAMAMOTO Masaki; YANAGIHARA Mihiro; HATANO Tadashi; SAITO Katsuhiko; HU Weibing; EJIMA Takeo; TSURU Toshihide; TAKAHASHI Masahiko; KIMURA Hiroaki; HIRONO Toko

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer polarization elements and their applications to polarimetric studies in 20~400 eV region are mainly reviewed.General principle of selecting material combinations to get high linear polarizance multilayers of reflection type is given with practical examples,with periodic or non-periodic layer structures depending on the usage.Transmission type is introduced as linear polarizer and phase shifter.Their applications include polarization diagnosis of laboratory optical systems and synchrotron radiation beamlines of linear and circular polarization,magnetic rotation experiments such as Faraday rotation and magnetic Kerr rotation on magnetic films and multilayers,and ellipsometry to measure optical constants of thin films precisely.Polarization analysis of soft X-ray fluorescence using multilayer-coated grating is also mentioned.Finally this review is summarized with outlook of further developments.

  11. Circular Polarization of Radio Emission from Relativistic Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Beckert, T; Beckert, Thomas; Falcke, Heino

    2002-01-01

    In inhomogeneous optically thick synchrotron sources a substantial part of the electron population at low energies can be hidden by self-absorption and overpowered by high energy electrons in optically thin emission. These invisible electrons produce Faraday rotation and conversion, leaving their footprints in the linear and circular polarized radiation of the source. An important factor is also the magnetic field structure, which can be characterized in most cases by a global magnetic field and a turbulent component. We present the basic radiative transfer coefficients for polarized synchrotron radiation and apply them to the standard jet model for relativistic radio jets. The model can successfully explain the unusual circular and linear polarization of the Galactic Centre radio source Sgr A* and its sibling M81*. It also can account for the circular polarization found in jets of more luminous quasars and X-ray binaries. The high ratio of circular to linear polarization requires the presence of a significan...

  12. Detection of X-ray polarization of Ar Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jun, E-mail: shijun@cqu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Xiao Shali; Qian Jiayu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang Xianbin; Cai Hongchun [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2010-12-01

    An X-ray polarization spectrometer has been developed for diagnostic applications of X-ray line polarization spectroscopy in Ar Z-pinch plasmas. The diagnosis was based on theoretical modeling of X-ray line polarization-dependent spectra that have been measured simultaneously by a pair of convex crystal analyzers. Surfaces of the crystals were orthogonal with each other in order to diffract the X-ray spectra. The spectrometer was equipped with two pieces of X-ray films that work as the spectral detector. The experimental results have confirmed that there are considerable differences in relative intensities for the Ar XVII resonance line w (1s2p {sup 1}P{sub 1}-1s{sup 21}S{sub 0}), the Ar XVII intercombination line y (1s2p {sup 3}P{sub 1}-1s{sup 21}S{sub 0}) and the Li-like satellites with directions perpendicular and parallel to the Z-pinch axis. Linear polarization of the resonance line and the intercombination line has been calculated according to intensity of the spectra. A value of +0.25 was obtained for the polarization of w and a value of +0.14 for the polarization of y.

  13. Simulation of one-dimensionally polarized X-ray semiconductor detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, K.J.; C. Herrmann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A pixelated X-ray semiconductor detector (=“direct converter”) is studied which contains an inhomogeneous electric field parallel to the depth axis caused by different concentrations of p- or n-doping. The X-ray energy deposition and charge movement within the detector is modeled in Monte-Carlo simulations which give access to astatistical analysis of electron drift times and current pulse widths for various degrees of static polarization. Integral charges induced on the pixel elect...

  14. Polarization dependent interface properties of ferroelectric Schottky barriers studied by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Denlinger, M. Meier J.; Guo, J.; Wanli, Y.; A. Scholl; Freelon, B.; Schneller, T.; Waser, R.; Yu, P; Ramesh, R.; Learmonth, T.; Glans, P.-A.; Smith, K. E.

    2008-01-01

    We applied soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the Ti L-edge in ferroelectric capacitors using a modified total electron yield method. The inner photo currents and the X-ray absorption spectra were polarization state dependent. The results are explained on the basis of photo electric effects and the inner potential in the ferroelectric capacitors as a result of back-to-back Schottky barriers superimposed by the potential due to the depolarization field. In general, the presented metho...

  15. Influence of the electron beam emittance on the polarization of a laser--electron X-ray generator

    CERN Document Server

    Artyukov, I A; Feshchenko, R M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the polarization of the X-ray radiation coming from laser--electron X-ray generator (LEXG). We obtain general relations connecting the polarization state of outgoing X-ray radiation to the polarization state of laser beam as well as to the parameters of electron beam. We demonstrate that finite electron beam emittance causes a partial depolarization of initially fully polarized X-ray radiation even when the laser beam is fully polarized. We demonstrate with a number of numerical experiments that finite electron beam emittance can in some cases fundamentally alter the polarization state of X-ray radiation as compared to the polarization state of X-ray radiation scattered by electron beam with a zero emittance. Possible applications of polarized LEXG's radiation are discussed.

  16. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism used to image magnetic domains

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, P; Kalchgruber, R; Schütz, G M; Schmahl, G; Guttmann, P; Bayreuther, G

    1999-01-01

    A new technique to image magnetic domain structures has been established by the combination of the high resolution transmission X- ray microscope (TXM) at BESSY I based on the zone plate technique with the X-ray magnetic circular $9 dichroism (X-MCD) providing a huge magnetic contrast. A lateral spatial resolution down to 30 nm could be achieved. Basic features of X-MCD are the inherent element- specificity and the potential to gain information on the local spin $9 and orbital moments of the absorbing species applying magneto-optical sum rules. Key results at the Fe L/sub 3,2/ edges of Fe in a layered GdFe system and at the Co L/sub 3/ edge of a PtCo layered system demonstrate the potential of $9 this microscopy. The images can be recorded in varying magnetic fields which allows to study the evolution of magnetic domains within a complete hysteresis loop. (8 refs).

  17. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  18. X-ray polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczynski, Henric S.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter,radiation ...

  19. X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Measurement of Fe-Co Alloy Films Prepared by Electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zong-Mu; XU Fa-Qiang; WANG Li-Wu; WANG Jie; ZHU Jun-Fa; ZHANG Wen-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The macro- and micro-magnetic properties of Fe-Co alloy films eletrodeposited on GaAs(100) are studied by synchrotron radiation x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in combination with the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The orbital and spin magnetic moments of each element in the Fe-Co alloy are determined by the sum rules of XMCD. Element-specific hysteresis loops (ESHL) are obtained by recording the La MCD signals as a function of applied magnetic field. MOKE results reveal that the amorphous films are magnetically isotropic in the surface plane. The MFM image shows that the dimension of the magnetic domains is about 1-2 μm, which is much larger than that of the grains, indicating that there are intergranular correlations among these grains. Both ESHL and MOKE hysteresis loops indicate the strong ferromagnetic coupling of Fe and Co in the alloy films.

  20. Pulsar Polar Cap Heating and Surface Thermal X-ray Emission. 1; Curvature Radiation Pair Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pulsar polar cap (PC) heating produced by positrons returning from the upper pair formation front. Our calculations are based on a self-consistent treatment of the pair dynamics and the effect of electric field screening by the returning positrons. We calculate the resultant X-ray luminosities and discuss the dependence of the PC heating efficiencies on pulsar parameters, such as characteristic spin-down age, spin period, and surface magnetic field strength. In this study we concentrate on the regime where the pairs are produced in a magnetic field by curvature photons emitted by accelerating electrons. Our theoretical results are not in conflict with the available observational x-ray data and suggest that the effect of PC heating should significantly contribute to the thermal x-ray fluxes from middle-aged and old pulsars. The implications for current and future x-ray observations of pulsars are briefly outlined.

  1. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Li, Chengyang; Burns, Clement

    2016-08-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.

  2. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Li, Chengyang; Burns, Clement

    2016-08-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.

  3. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Li, Chengyang; Burns, Clement

    2016-08-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals. PMID:27587100

  4. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; She, R.; Tayabaly, K.; Wen, M.; Banham, R.; Costa, E.; Feng, H.; Giglia, A.; Huang, Q.; Muleri, F.; Pareschi, G.; Soffitta, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Wang, Z.

    2015-09-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers dspacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we present the results of the X-ray reflectivity campaign performed at the BEAR beamline of Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste on multilayer coatings of various composition (Cr/C, Co/C), deposited with different sputtering parameters on nickel, silicon, and glass substrates, using polarized X-rays in the spectral range 240 - 290 eV.

  5. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism strongly influenced by non-magnetic cover layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, K.; Audehm, P.; Schütz, G. [Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems (Former Metals Research), Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Goering, E., E-mail: goering@is.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems (Former Metals Research), Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Pathak, M.; Chetry, K.B.; LeClair, P.R.; Gupta, A. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Energy filtering gives much larger sampling depth and escape length as expected. •XMCD sum rules could be dramatically altered by this effect. •Strong enhanced effective escape length for buried layers. •A “universal curve” model gives semi quantitative understanding. •Buried layers are more sensitive to self-absorption phenomena. -- Abstract: Total electron yield (TEY) is the dominating measurement mode in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), where the sampling depth is generally assumed to be quite small and constant, and the related self-absorption or saturation phenomena are about to be negligible at normal incidence conditions. From the OK edge to CrL{sub 2,3} edge XAS ratio we determined a strong change in the effective electron escape length between an uncovered and a RuO{sub 2} covered CrO{sub 2} sample. This effect has been explained by a simple electron energy filtering model, providing a semi quantitative description. In addition, this simple model can quantitatively describe the unexpected reduced and positive CrL{sub 2,3} X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) signal of a RuO{sub 2}/CrO{sub 2} bilayer, while previous results have identified a clear negative Cr magnetization at the RuO{sub 2}/CrO{sub 2} interface. In our case this escape length enhancement has strong impact on the XMCD sum rule results and in general it provides much deeper sampling depth, but also larger self-absorption or saturation effects.

  6. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra and distortions at Fe2+ L(2,3) edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; de Groot, F.M.F.; Cramer, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have shown from ligand field multiplet calculations that the shape of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra changes drastically with the distortion parameter Ds. The temperature dependence study of XMCD makes it possible to determine both Ds and spin-orbit coupling.

  7. Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the Origin of the Galactic Center Hard X-ray Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin;

    2016-01-01

    Recently, unresolved hard (20-40 keV) X-ray emission has been discovered within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, possibly indicating a large population of intermediate polars (IPs). Chandra and XMM-Newton measurements in the surrounding ∼50 pc imply a much lighter population of IPs with 〈MWD〉≈0.5...

  8. Ab initio calculations of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra within the projector augmented wave method: An implementation into the VASP code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anant; Alouani, M.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray absorption and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) are very powerful tools for probing the orbital and spin moments of each atomic species orbital of magnetic materials. In this work, we present the implementation of a module for computing the X-ray absorption and XMCD spectra into the VASP code. We provide a derivation of the absorption cross-section in the electric dipole approximation. The matrix elements, which make up the X-ray absorption cross-section for a given polarization of light, are then computed using either the momentum operator p or the position operator r, within the projector augmented wave method. The core electrons are described using the relativistic basis-set whereas for the valence electrons, the spin-orbit coupling is added perturbatively to the semi-relativistic Hamiltonian. We show that both the p and the r implementations lead to the same results. The results for the K-edge and L23-edges of bcc-iron are then computed and compared to experiment.

  9. Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chintan; Amaro, Pedro; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-06-01

    We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work.

  10. Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work.

  11. On understanding the figures of merit for detection and measurement of x-ray polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; O'Dell, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for accomplishing X-ray polarization measurements appear to have grown in recent years after a more than 35-year hiatus. Unfortunately, this long hiatus has brought with it some confusion over the statistical uncertainties associated with polarization measurements of astronomical sources. The heart of this confusion stems from a misunderstanding (or potential misunderstanding) of a standard figure of merit-the minimum detectable polarization (MDP)-that one of us introduced many years ago. We review the relevant statistics, and quantify the differences between the MDP and the uncertainty of an actual polarization measurement. We discuss the implications for future missions.

  12. Local electronic states of Fe{sub 4}N films revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Keita, E-mail: keita.ito.729@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kimura, Akio [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-05-21

    We performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at Fe L{sub 2,3} and N K-edges for Fe{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In order to clarify the element specific local electronic structure of Fe{sub 4}N, we compared experimentally obtained XAS and XMCD spectra with those simulated by a combination of a first-principles calculation and Fermi's golden rule. We revealed that the shoulders observed at Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges in the XAS and XMCD spectra were due to the electric dipole transition from the Fe 2p core-level to the hybridization state generated by σ* anti-bonding between the orbitals of N 2p at the body-centered site and Fe 3d on the face-centered (II) sites. Thus, the observed shoulders were attributed to the local electronic structure of Fe atoms at II sites. As to the N K-edge, the line shape of the obtained spectra was explained by the dipole transition from the N 1s core-level to the hybridization state formed by π* and σ* anti-bondings between the Fe 3d and N 2p orbitals. This hybridization plays an important role in featuring the electronic structures and physical properties of Fe{sub 4}N.

  13. Two new Intermediate Polars with a soft X-ray component

    CERN Document Server

    Anzolin, G; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Mouchet, M; Gänsicke, B T; Matt, G; Mukai, K

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the first X-ray observations with XMM-Newton of RXS J070407.9+262501 and 1RXS 180340.0+401214, in order to characterize their broad-band temporal and spectral properties, also in the UV/optical domain, and to confirm them as Intermediate Polars. For both objects, we performed a timing analysis of the X-ray and UV/optical light curves to detect the white dwarf spin pulsations and study their energy dependence. For 1RXS 180340.0+401214 we also analyzed optical spectroscopic data to determine the orbital period. X-ray spectra were analyzed in the 0.2-10.0 keV range to characterize the emission properties of both sources. We find that the X-ray light curves of both systems are energy dependent and are dominated, below 3-5 keV, by strong pulsations at the white dwarf rotational periods (480 s for 1RXS J070407.9+262501 and 1520.5 s for 1RXS 180340.0+401214). In 1RXS 180340.0+401214 we also detect an X-ray beat variability at 1697 s which, together with our new optical spectroscopy, favours an orbital per...

  14. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  15. Polarized triplet production by circularly polarized photons

    CERN Document Server

    Bytev, V V; Galynsky, M V; Potylitsin, A P

    2002-01-01

    A process of the pair production by a circularly polarized photon in the field of unpolarized atomic electron has been considered in the Weizaecker-Williams approximation. The degree of longitudinal polarization of positron and electron has been calculated. An exclusive cross-section as well as a spectral distribution are obtained. We estimate the accuracy of our calculations at the level of a few percent. We show the identity of the positron polarization for considered process and for process of pair production in the screened Coulomb field of nucleus.

  16. Attosecond x-ray source generation from two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liqiang [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Minghu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Chu, Tianshu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The plasmonic field enhancement from the vicinity of metallic nanostructures as well as the polarization gating technique has been utilized to the generation of the high order harmonic and the single attosecond x-ray source. Through numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, for moderate the inhomogeneity and the polarized angle of the two fields, we find that not only the harmonic plateau has been extended and enhanced but also the single short quantum path has been selected to contribute to the harmonic. As a result, a series of 50 as pulses around the extreme ultraviolet and the x-ray regions have been obtained. Furthermore, by investigating the other parameters effects on the harmonic emission, we find that this two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement scheme can also be achieved by the multi-cycle pulses, which is much better for experimental realization.

  17. Circularly polarized open-loop antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rong-Lin; Fusco, Vincent F.; Nakano, Hisamatsu

    2003-01-01

    A printed circular open-loop antenna is introduced as a simple structure for producing circular polarization; the antenna is fed with a coaxial probe. By introducing a gap within the circular loop a traveling-wave current is excited and thus circularly polarized radiation can be achieved. An optimized circularly polarized antenna is designed through numerical analysis using a so-called parametric method of moment technique. Experimental verification of the new antenna is presented. The antenn...

  18. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung are calculated from electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the...

  19. X-Ray Polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Daniel; Ingram, Adam R; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Madsen, Kristin K; Aaron, Kim M; Aminia, Rashied; Baring, Matthew G; Bodaghee, Arash; Booth, Jeffrey; Borden, Chester; Boettcher, Markus; Christensen, Finn E; Coppi, Paolo S; Davis, Shane; Dexter, Jason; Done, Chris; Dominguez, Luis A; Ellison, Don; English, Robin J; Fabian, Andrew C; Falcone, Abe; Favretto, Jeffrey A; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W; Kara, Erin; Lee, Chung H; Lyutikov, Maxim; Maccarone, Thomas; McKinney, Jonathan; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miller, Jon M; Narayan, Ramesh; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Oezel, Feryal; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Pravdo, Steven; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Okajima, Takashi; Toma, Kenji; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. The PolSTAR design is based on the technology developed for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission launched in June 2012. In particular, it uses the same X-ray optics, extendable telescope boom, optical bench, and CdZnTe detectors as NuSTAR. The mission has the sensitivity to measure ~1% linear polarization fractions for X-ray sources with fluxes down to ~5 mCrab. This paper describes the PolSTAR design as well as the science drivers and the potential science return.

  20. Inelastic magnetic X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzman, P. M.; Tzoar, N.

    1985-04-01

    The theory of magnetic X-ray scattering is used to discuss the possibilities for employing inelastic scattering to probe the magnetic properties of condensed matter systems. In particular, it is shown how the interference between the nonmagnetic (Compton) and magnetic scattering arising from the use of circularly polarized X-rays is absolutely essential in such experiments. The very beautiful preliminary experiments by Sakai and Ono (1976) on Fe which use circularly polarized Moessbauer gamma-rays will be discussed. They already show the sensitivity of the technique to the 'magnetic form factor'. In addition, the physics of a unique quarter wave plate employed in obtaining circularly polarized X-rays is considered, and the implications of this advance for doing such experiments on existing synchrotron X-ray sources are discussed.

  1. Circular Polarization in Pulsar Integrated Profiles: Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We update the systematic studies of circular polarization in integrated pulse profiles by Han et al. Data of circular polarization profiles are compiled. Sense reversals can occur in core or cone components, or near the intersection between components. The correlation between the sense of circular polarization and the sense of position angle variation for conal-double pulsars is confirmed with a much large database. Circular polarization of some pulsars has clear changes with frequency.Circular polarization of millisecond pulsars is marginally different from that of normal pulsars.

  2. Investigation of X-Ray Harmonics in the Polarized Nonlinear Inverse Compton Scattering Experiment at UCLA

    CERN Document Server

    Doyuran, Adnan; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Lim, Jae; Rosenzweig, James E; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya; Travish, Gil; Williams, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    An Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) experiment investigating the polarized harmonic production in the nonlinear regime has begun which will utilize the existing terawatt CO2 laser system and 15 MeV photoinjector in the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA. A major motivation for a source of high brightness polarized x-rays is the production of polarized positrons for use in future linear collider experiments. Analytical calculations have been performed to predict the angular and frequency spectrums for various polarizations and different scattering angles. Currently, the experiment is running and we report the set-up and initial results. The advantages and limitations of using a high laser vector potential, ao, in an ICS-based polarized positron source are expected to be revealed with further measurement of the harmonic spectrum and angular characteristics.

  3. Energy-dependent polarization study of the x-ray magnetic scattering in terbium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.C. [Physics Department, School of Physical Science and Engineering, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Costa, M.M.R. [Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Stirling, W.G.; Longfield, M.J.; Mannix, D. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Brueckel, T. [HASYLAB, DESY, Notketstrasse 85, 22063 Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-03-09

    A detailed study of the x-ray magnetic scattering from Tb has been performed, including polarization analysis of the scattered intensity as a function of energy close to the L{sub n} and L{sub m} absorption edges. Large enhancements of the magnetic signal are observed at these energies. It is found that the enhancement at the L{sub m} edge is consistent with a simple dipole transition model, whereas the enhancement at the L{sub n} edge shows an anomalous {approx}5 eV splitting. The angular and polarization dependences of this resonance are investigated, and various explanations are discussed. (author)

  4. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D; She, R; Tayabaly, K; Wen, M; Banham, R; Costa, E; Feng, H; Giglia, A; Huang, Q; Muleri, F; Pareschi, G; Soffitta, P; Tagliaferri, G; Valsecchi, G; Wang, Z

    2016-01-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers d-spacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we pres...

  5. Comparative study of different scattering geometries for the proposed Indian X-ray polarization measurement experiment using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadawale, S.V., E-mail: santoshv@prl.res.i [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Paul, B. [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivnagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Pendharkar, J.; Naik, Sachindra [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2010-06-21

    Polarization is a very important property of radiation from astrophysical sources. It carries unique information regarding the emission mechanism, physical conditions as well as emission geometry at the origin. Polarization measurements in X-rays can provide unique opportunity to study the behavior of matter and radiation under extreme magnetic fields and extreme gravitational fields. Unfortunately, over past two decades, when X-ray astronomy witnessed multiple order of magnitude improvement in temporal, spatial and spectral sensitivities, there is no (or very little) progress in the field of polarization measurements of astrophysical X-rays. Recently, a proposal has been submitted to Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for a dedicated small satellite based experiment to carry out X-ray polarization measurement, which aims to provide the first X-ray polarization measurements since 1976. This experiment will be based on the well known principle of polarization measurement by Thomson scattering and employs the baseline design of a central low Z scatterer (typically Lithium, Lithium Hydride or Beryllium) surrounded by X-ray detectors to measure the angular intensity distribution of the scattered X-rays. The sensitivity of such experiment is determined by the collecting area, scattering and detection efficiency, X-ray detector background, and the modulation factor. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully select the scattering geometry which can provide the highest modulation factor and thus highest sensitivity within the specified experimental constraints. The effective way to determine optimum scattering geometry is by studying various possible scattering geometries by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Here we present results of our detailed comparative study based on Geant4 simulations of five different scattering geometries which can be considered within the weight and size constraints of the proposed small satellite based X-ray polarization measurement

  6. Molecular alignment using circularly polarized laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Smeenk, C T L

    2013-01-01

    We show that circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produce field-free alignment in linear and planar molecules. We study the rotational wavepacket evolution of O$_2$ and benzene created by circularly polarized light. For benzene, we align the molecular plane to the plane of polarization. For O$_2$, we demonstrate that circular polarization yields a net alignment along the laser propagation axis at certain phases of the evolution. Circular polarization gives us the ability to control alignment of linear molecules outside the plane of polarization, providing new capabilities for molecular imaging.

  7. Polarization modulation from Lense-Thirring precession in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam; Poutanen, Juri; Krawczynski, Henric

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognised that quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray light curves of accreting black hole and neutron star binaries have the potential to be powerful diagnostics of strong field gravity. However, this potential cannot be fulfilled without a working theoretical model, which has remained elusive. Perhaps the most promising model associates the QPO with Lense-Thirring precession of the inner accretion flow, with the changes in viewing angle and Doppler boosting modulating the flux over the course of a precession cycle. Here, we consider the polarization signature of a precessing inner accretion flow. We use simple assumptions about the Comptonization process generating the emitted spectrum and take all relativistic effects into account, parallel transporting polarization vectors towards the observer along null geodesics in the Kerr metric. We find that both the degree of linear polarization and the polarization angle should be modulated on the QPO frequency. We calculate the predicted...

  8. A compact tunable polarized X-ray source based on laser-plasma helical undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Vieira, Jorge; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Silva, Luis O; Jaroszynski, Dino A; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators have great potential as the basis for next generation compact radiation sources because their accelerating gradients are three orders of magnitude larger than traditional accelerators. However, X-ray radiation from such devices still lacks of tunability, especially the intensity and polarization distribution. Here we propose a tunable polarized radiation source from a helical plasma undulator based on plasma channel guided wakefield accelerator. When a laser pulse is initially incident with a skew angle relative to the channel axis, the laser and accelerated electrons experience collective spiral motions, which leads to elliptically polarized synchrotron-like radiation with flexible tunability on radiation intensity, spectra and polarization. We demonstrate that a radiation source with millimeter size and peak brilliance of $2\\times10^{19} photons/s/mm^{2}/mrad^{2}/0.1%$ bandwidth can be made with moderate laser and electron beam parameters. This brilliance is comparable with the ...

  9. On the circular polarization of pulsar radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubarskii, Y. E.; Petrova, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the polarization behaviour of radio waves propagating through an ultrarelativistic highly magnetized electron-positron plasma in a pulsar magnetosphere. The rotation of magnetosphere gives rise to the wave mode coupling in the polarization-limiting region. The process is shown to cause considerable circular polarization in the linearly polarized normal waves. Thus, the circular polarization observed for a number of pulsars, despite the linear polarization of the emitted normal wav...

  10. Dosimetric Characteristics of Circular 6-MeV X-Ray Beams for Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, A.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Bulski, W.; Fijuth, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics of 6 MeV circular X-ray beams of diameters ranging from 7.5 to 35.0 mm are reported. The 6-MeV X-ray beam from Clinac 2300CD was formed using additional cylindrical BrainLAB's collimators. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. Specific quantities measured include tissue maximum ratios (TMR), beam profiles (off-axis ratios OAR) and relative output factors. Measurements of these parameters were performed in a water phantom using small cylindrical ionization chambers and a diamond detector. Comparison of TMR values measured with the ionization chamber and the diamond detector showed no significant differences. It was shown that the latter yields more accurate results for beam profiles than ionization chambers. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of this radiotherapy unit are found to be suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy.

  11. X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism studies of Co2FeAl in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebke, D.; Kugler, Z.; Thomas, P.; Schebaum, O.; Schafers, M.; Nissen, D.; Schmalhorst, J.; Hutten, A.; Arenholz, E.; Thomas, A.

    2010-01-11

    The bulk magnetic moment and the element specific magnetic moment of Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films were examined as a function of annealing temperature by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)/X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), respectively. A high magnetic moment can be achieved for all annealing temperatures and the predicted bulk and interface magnetic moment of about 5 {tilde A}{sub B} are reached via heating. We will also present tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) values of up to 153% at room temperature and 260% at 13 K for MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Co{sub 2}FeAl and Co-Fe electrodes.

  12. Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the Origin of the Galactic Center Hard X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin; Canipe, Alicia M.; Hong, Jaesub; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Nynka, Melania; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, unresolved hard (20-40 keV) X-ray emission has been discovered within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, possibly indicating a large population of intermediate polars (IPs). Chandra and XMM-Newton measurements in the surrounding ˜50 pc imply a much lighter population of IPs with ≈ 0.5{M}⊙ . Here we use broadband NuSTAR observations of two IPs: TV Columbae, which has a fairly typical but widely varying reported mass of {M}{{WD}}≈ 0.5-1.0{M}⊙ , and IGR J17303-0601, with a heavy reported mass of {M}{{WD}}≈ 1.0-1.2{M}⊙ . We investigate how varying spectral models and observed energy ranges influences estimated white dwarf mass. Observations of the inner 10 pc can be accounted for by IPs with ≈ 0.9{M}⊙ , consistent with that of the CV population in general and the X-ray observed field IPs in particular. The lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton appears to be an artifact of narrow energy-band fitting. To explain the (unresolved) central hard X-ray emission (CHXE) by IPs requires an X-ray (2-8 keV) luminosity function (XLF) extending down to at least 5 × 1031 erg s-1. The CHXE XLF, if extended to the surrounding ˜50 pc observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton, requires that at least ˜20%-40% of the ˜9000 point sources are IPs. If the XLF extends just a factor of a few lower in luminosity, then the vast majority of these sources are IPs. This is in contrast to recent observations of the Galactic ridge, where the bulk of the 2-8 keV emission is ascribed to non-magnetic CVs.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy in electrical fields: An element-selective probe of atomic polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Ney, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied a range of polar and nonpolar materials using x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) in external electric fields. An energy shift of the XANES by a few meV/kV is found which scales linearly with the applied voltage, thus being reminiscent of the linear Stark effect. This is corroborated by the consistent presence of this energy shift in polar thin films and bulk crystals and its absence in nonpolar materials as well as in conducting films. The observed energy shift of the XANES is different between two atomic species in one specimen and appears to scale linearly with the atomic number of the studied element. Therefore, XANES in electrical fields opens the perspective to study atomic polarization with element specificity in a range of functional materials.

  14. Magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms at Co2MnGe/MgO interfaces seen via soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, D.; Koide, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Shioya, T.; Amemiya, K.; Singh, V. R.; Kataoka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Taira, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms in Co-rich Co2MnGe Heusler alloy thin films facing an MgO barrier were studied by means of soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In particular, the Co2MnGe film-thickness dependence of the Mn and Co magnetic moments was investigated. With a decrease in the Co2MnGe film thickness to 1-2 monolayers (MLs), the spin magnetic moment of Mn decreased and the MnL2,3 -edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) showed a Mn2+ -like multiplet structure in MnO, in contrast to samples thicker than 4 ML, indicating that the Mn atoms of the 1 and 2 ML samples were oxidized. The Co spin magnetic moment increased slightly with decreasing thickness. A Co2+ -like multiplet structure in CoO was not observed in all the CoL2,3 -edge XAS and XMCD, indicating that, even in the ultrathin samples, the Co atoms were not oxidized, and were more strongly spin polarized than those in the thicker samples. Co spin magnetic moments of 1.40-1.77μB larger than the theoretical value for ideal stoichiometric Co2MnGe (˜1μB) and the Co-rich film composition imply the presence of Co antisites that would lower the spin polarization.

  15. POLAR: A Space-borne X-Ray Polarimeter for Transient Sources

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    POLAR is a novel compact Compton X-ray polarimeter designed to measure the linear polarization of the prompt emission of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) and other strong transient sources such as soft gamma repeaters and solar flares in the energy range 50-500 keV. A detailed measurement of the polarization from astrophysical sources will lead to a better understanding of the source geometry and emission mechanisms. POLAR is expected to observe every year several GRBs with a minimum detectable polarization smaller than 10%, thanks to its large modulation factor, effective area, and field of view. POLAR consists of 1600 low-Z plastic scintillator bars, divided in 25 independent modular units, each read out by one flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier. The design of POLAR is reviewed, and results of tests of one modular unit of the engineering and qualification model (EQM) of POLAR with synchrotron radiation are presented. After construction and testing of the full EQM, we will start building the flight model in 2011, ...

  16. Hard X-Ray Polarization from Non-vertical Solar Flare Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. Gordon; Bradsher, Henry L.; McConnell, Mark L.

    2008-02-01

    McConnell et al. have reported preliminary results of hard X-ray polarization measured by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in an intense solar flare on 2002 July 23. The magnitude of the reported polarization is broadly consistent with the predictions of existing solar flare models which invoke the precipitation of a nonthermal electron beam into a dense chromospheric target. However, the orientation of the polarization vector lies at a substantial angle to the local solar radial direction. This is inconsistent with model predictions of a polarization vector along the local radial direction, a prediction that is a direct consequence of the assumption of a vertical guiding magnetic field. Smith et al., in a study of the same 2002 July 23 event, have suggested that the magnetic structure in which the flare occurs is tilted relative to the local vertical. Motivated by this observation, and by the preliminary nonradial polarization vector reported by McConnell et al., we explore the effect of tilt of the flaring loop on the magnitude and orientation of the predicted polarization vector. We find that allowing loops tilted from the local solar vertical does indeed permit a much wider range of polarization vector orientations than allowed by purely vertical loop geometries. In particular, adding tilt of the magnitude inferred by Smith et al. for the 2002 July 23 event can in principle account for both the magnitude and direction of the polarization vector reported by McConnell et al. for that event.

  17. Neutron star population in the Galactic center region as a potential source of polarized X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Eckart, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We analyse the emission properties of neutron stars that are predicted to exist in large numbers of the order of 10000 in the innermost parts of the Galactic center. A part of the population of isolated neutron stars propagates supersonically through denser ionized streams of the Minispiral (Sgr A West), forming bow shocks where particles are accelerated and are expected to produce polarized X-ray synchrotron signal. Another source of the synchrotron emission is an elongated magnetosphere and tail. We investigate whether the polarized X-ray emission from Galactic center neutron stars will be potentially detectable in the framework of future X-ray polarimeters. A special case is a detected young neutron star - magnetar SGRJ1745-2900 - that has undergone a series of outbursts with a peak X-ray luminosity of the order of 10^{35} erg s^{-1} (1-10 keV). Apart from an intrinsic X-ray emission, the X-ray emission from neutron star outbursts may be scattered by molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone by Thomson scattering, which is another potential source of polarized X-ray emission.

  18. Discovery of the optical polarization flare following the X-ray giant outburst of V0332+53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowikowska, Agnieszka; Reig, Pablo; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Zejmo, M. Michal

    2016-07-01

    V0332+53 is a transient Be X-ray binary that went through a giant outburst between June 2015 and October 2015 registered by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GMB) on board of the Fermi satellite. We present the discovery of a flare of linearly polarized optical light in V0332+53 that followed the X-ray outburst. We monitored the source with the multi-wavelength optical polarimeter RINGO3 on the 2-m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma. RINGO3 measures polarization simultaneously in three spectral wavelength bands: blue (350-640 nm), green (650-760 nm) and red (770-1000 nm). The polarized optical flare went off around 90 days after the X-ray burst and lasted another 90 days in all three wavelength bands of RINGO3. Polarization degree reached up to 6% in blue and up to 4% in red, while the PA changed by more than 100 degrees during the flare. This is the first detection of optical polarization flare of high mass X-ray binary correlated with a preceding X-ray outburst. Our observations shed new light on the activities of X-ray binaries.

  19. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    OpenAIRE

    V. Jebaraj; K.R.S. Ravi Kumar; D. Mohanageetha

    2014-01-01

    Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation techni...

  20. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. Methods: HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung emission are calculated from various electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere to study the observed (primary and albedo) sources. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. Results: We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the extent of the HXR source at a given disk location. In the radial direction, the polarization magnitude and direction at specific positions along the HXR source will either increase or decrease with increased photon distribution directivity towards the photosphere. We also show how high electron cutoff energies influence the direction of polarization at above ~100 keV. Conclusions: Spatially resolved HXR polarization measurements can provide important information about the directivity and energetics of the electron distribution. Our results indicate the preferred angular resolution of polarization measurements required to distinguish between the scattered and primary components. We also show how spatially resolved polarization measurements could be used to probe the emission pattern of an HXR source, using both the magnitude and the direction of the polarization.

  1. Sensitivity of stacked imaging detectors to hard X-ray polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Muleri, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The development of multi-layer optics which allow to focus photons up to 100 keV and more promises an enormous jump in sensitivity in the hard X-ray energy band. This technology is already planned to be exploited by future missions dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging at energies >10 keV, e.g. Astro-H and NuSTAR. Nevertheless, our understanding of the hard X-ray sky would greatly benefit from carrying out contemporaneous polarimetric measurements, because the study of hard spectral tails and of polarized emission often are two complementary diagnostics of the same non-thermal and acceleration processes. At energies above a few tens of keV, the preferred technique to detect polarization involves the determination of photon directions after a Compton scattering. Many authors have asserted that stacked detectors with imaging capabilities can be exploited for this purpose. If it is possible to discriminate those events which initially interact in the first detector by Compton scattering and are subsequently abso...

  2. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. 4: Polarization, directivity and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1976-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method is described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. the accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. Using the characteristics of the incident X-rays of the model for solar X-ray flares, the spectrum, directivity and polarization of the reflected and the total X-ray fluxes are evaluated. The results are compared with observations.

  3. Magnetism of unconventional nanoscaled materials. An X-ray circular dichroism and muon spin rotation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of nanoparticles deviate strongly from its bulk counterparts. In particular, the magnetic properties change strongly due to an elevated number of surface compared to bulk atoms. As a consequence the orbital magnetic moment in nanoparticles as well as the magnetic anisotropy is enhanced. Therefore, such nanoparticles have great potential in e.g. next generation high density data storage devices. A promising way to realize such devices is to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. Depending on the preparation conditions the templated growth of nanocluster arrays with different particle size and shape is possible. Since graphene possesses outstanding properties as well it is congruous to combine the advantages of both systems and to investigate its principle properties in more detail. Thus, one part of this work is dedicated to the size and shape dependence of electronic and magnetic properties of Ni nanoclusters on graphene. The magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). From the corresponding absorption spectra, the electronic structure and the nanoparticle substrate interaction could be determined. Two sets of nanoparticles were investigated, with triangular and spherical shape. For each set the size was varied. Nonmagnetic absorption spectra indicate a strong interaction between the Ni nanoclusters and the graphene substrate. The integrated absorption signal which is a measure of the number of unoccupied states in the Ni d shell decreases strongly with decreasing cluster size. This means an enhanced occupancy of the Ni d states, most likely caused by charge transfer at the Ni nanocluster/graphene interface. As a consequence the magnetic moment was much smaller than expected for nanoclusters for all samples investigated. The smallest value obtained was only 50% of the respective bulk magnetic moment. The magnetic moment increases disproportionally and converges towards bulk properties above 2 ML. No

  4. Magnetism of unconventional nanoscaled materials. An X-ray circular dichroism and muon spin rotation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Thomas Hermann

    2014-12-15

    The physical properties of nanoparticles deviate strongly from its bulk counterparts. In particular, the magnetic properties change strongly due to an elevated number of surface compared to bulk atoms. As a consequence the orbital magnetic moment in nanoparticles as well as the magnetic anisotropy is enhanced. Therefore, such nanoparticles have great potential in e.g. next generation high density data storage devices. A promising way to realize such devices is to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. Depending on the preparation conditions the templated growth of nanocluster arrays with different particle size and shape is possible. Since graphene possesses outstanding properties as well it is congruous to combine the advantages of both systems and to investigate its principle properties in more detail. Thus, one part of this work is dedicated to the size and shape dependence of electronic and magnetic properties of Ni nanoclusters on graphene. The magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). From the corresponding absorption spectra, the electronic structure and the nanoparticle substrate interaction could be determined. Two sets of nanoparticles were investigated, with triangular and spherical shape. For each set the size was varied. Nonmagnetic absorption spectra indicate a strong interaction between the Ni nanoclusters and the graphene substrate. The integrated absorption signal which is a measure of the number of unoccupied states in the Ni d shell decreases strongly with decreasing cluster size. This means an enhanced occupancy of the Ni d states, most likely caused by charge transfer at the Ni nanocluster/graphene interface. As a consequence the magnetic moment was much smaller than expected for nanoclusters for all samples investigated. The smallest value obtained was only 50% of the respective bulk magnetic moment. The magnetic moment increases disproportionally and converges towards bulk properties above 2 ML. No

  5. Swift J2218.4+1925: a new hard X-ray selected Polar observed with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Federico; Mukai, Koji; Falanga, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Swift J2218.4+1925, a hard X-ray source detected by Swift BAT, has been proposed as a candidate magnetic cataclysmic variable of the polar type from optical spectroscopy. Using XMM-Newton we perform detailed timing and spectral analysis with simultaneous X-ray ($0.3-10$ keV) and optical B band data. We complement the spectral study with archival hard X-ray (14-70 keV) spectra collected by Swift BAT as well as with optical, near and mid-infrared photometry from $SDSS$, $2MASS$ and $WISE$ archive, respectively. A strong periodic X-ray signal at 2.16 h, consistent with the recently determined spectroscopic orbital period, adds Swift J2218.4+1925 to the small group of hard X-ray polars and locates it at the low edge of the orbital period gap. The X-ray pulse profile shows the typical bright and faint phases seen in polars ($\\sim 70%$ and $\\sim 30%$ of the orbit, respectively). A pronounced dip centred on the bright phase is also detected. It is stronger at lower energies and is mainly produced by photoelectric ab...

  6. High orbital angular momentum quantum numbers in the electronic ground states of Fe$_2^+$ and Co$_2^+$ as determined by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, V; Langenberg, A; Lawicki, A; Terasaki, A; Issendorff, B v; Lau, J T

    2015-01-01

    The $^6\\Delta$ electronic ground state of the Co$_2^+$ diatomic molecular cation has been assigned experimentally by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap. Three candidates, $^6\\Phi$, $^6\\Gamma$, and $^8\\Gamma$, for the electronic ground state of Fe$_2^+$ have been identified. These states carry sizable ground-state orbital angular momenta that disagree with theoretical predictions from multireference configuration interaction and density functional theory. Our results show that the ground states of neutral and cationic diatomic molecules of $3d$ elements cannot be assumed to be connected by a one-electron process.

  7. Reconfigurable Monopole Antennas With Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents research on printed circularly-polarized monopole antennas and their application in reconfigurable monopole antennas. The proposed circularly-polarised monopole antennas benefit from advantages such as small size, low-cost, low-profile and simple designs. The first part of this thesis introduces three printed circularly-polarized monopole antennas for global navigation satellite systems and Wi-Fi applications. The primary focus is on the ground plane which is used as a ra...

  8. Influence of Polarization of the Incident Beam on Integrated Intensities in X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Buras, B.; Jensen, T.;

    1978-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the primary X-ray beam produced by thick copper and tungsten anodes are reported and formulas derived for integrated intensities of Bragg reflections in energy-dispersive diffractometry with the polarization of the primary beam taken into account. It was found that for...... photon energies and at scattering angles close to 90...

  9. Evidence for intermediate polars as the origin of the Galactic Center hard X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Hailey, Charles J; Perez, Kerstin; Canipe, Alicia M; Hong, Jaesub; Tomsick, John A; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fornasini, Francesca; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Harrison, Fiona A; Nynka, Melania; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W

    2016-01-01

    Recently, unresolved hard (20-40 keV) X-ray emission has been discovered within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, possibly indicating a large population of intermediate polars (IPs). Chandra and XMM-Newton measurements in the surrounding ~50 pc imply a much lighter population of IPs with $\\langle M_{\\rm WD} \\rangle \\approx 0.5 M_\\odot$. Here we use broad-band NuSTAR observations of two IPs: TV Columbae, which has a fairly typical but widely varying reported mass of $M_{\\rm WD} \\approx 0.5-1.0 M_\\odot$, and IGR J17303-0601, with a heavy reported mass of $M_{\\rm WD} \\approx 1.0-1.2 M_\\odot$. We investigate how varying spectral models and observed energy ranges influence estimated white dwarf mass. Observations of the inner 10 pc can be accounted for by IPs with $\\langle M_{\\rm WD} \\rangle \\approx 0.9 M_\\odot$, consistent with that of the CV population in general, and the X-ray observed field IPs in particular. The lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton appears to be an artifact of narrow energy band fittin...

  10. Circular polarization memory in polydisperse scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Callum M; Meglinski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survival of circularly polarized light in random scattering media. The surprising persistence of this form of polarization has a known dependence on the size and refractive index of scattering particles, however a general description regarding polydisperse media is lacking. Through analysis of Mie theory, we present a means of calculating the magnitude of circular polarization memory in complex media, with total generality in the distribution of particle sizes and refractive indices. Quantification of this memory effect enables an alternate pathway towards recovering particle size distribution, based on measurements of diffusing circularly polarized light.

  11. X-ray polarization fluctuations induced by cloud eclipses in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, F

    2014-01-01

    Context: A fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show dramatic X-ray spectral changes on the day-to-week time scales associated with variation in the line of sight of the cold absorber. Aims: We intend to model the polarization fluctuations arising from an obscuration event, thereby offering a method of determining whether flux variations are due to occultation or extreme intrinsic emission variability. Methods: Undertaking 1 - 100 keV polarimetric simulations with the Monte Carlo code STOKES, we simulated the journey of a variety of cold gas clouds in front of an extended primary source. We varied the hydrogen column density nH and size of the absorber, as well as the initial polarization state of the emitting source, to cover a wide range of scenarios. Results: For unpolarized primary fluxes, large (about 50deg) variations of the polarization position angle psi are expected before and after an occultation event, which is associated with very low residual polarization degrees (P lower than 1 per cent). In...

  12. X-ray Polarization Signatures of Compton Scattering in Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, Aimee; Wu, Kinwah

    2008-01-01

    Compton scattering within the accretion column of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) can induce a net polarization in the X-ray emission. We investigate this process using Monte Carlo simulations and find that significant polarization can arise as a result of the stratified flow structure in the shock-ionized column. We find that the degree of linear polarization can reach levels up to ~8% for systems with high accretion rates and low white-dwarf masses, when viewed at large inclination angles with respect to the accretion column axis. These levels are substantially higher than previously predicted estimates using an accretion column model with uniform density and temperature. We also find that for systems with a relatively low-mass white dwarf accreting at a high accretion rate, the polarization properties may be insensitive to the magnetic field, since most of the scattering occurs at the base of the accretion column where the density structure is determined mainly by bremsstrahlung cooling instead of cy...

  13. Soft X-ray Observation of electronic contribution to ferroelectric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials open up new interesting possibilities for devices by enabling the switching of an electric state by magnetic field or vice-versa. In addition to this functionality, multiferroics are intriguing from a fundamental physics perspective, raising interesting questions concerning coupling of the electric and magnetic order parameters. To date, most coupling mechanisms are understood to occur due to distortions in the crystal lattice. Here we present experimental evidence that in the multiferroics RMn2O5 (where R is a rare earth) there exists a new, purely electronic contribution to the ferroelectric polarization, which can exist in the absence of any lattice distortions. This contribution arises due to spin-dependent hybridization of O 2p and Mn 3d states and was observed through soft x-ray resonant scattering, which has proved to be a very useful tool in the study of the magnetic structure of multiferroics[1]. Through resonant x-ray scattering at the oxygen K-edge, we find that such spin dependent hybridization occurs in both TbMn2O5[2] and YMn2O5[3]. Remarkably, in YMn2O5 we find that the temperature dependence of the integrated intensity of the signal at the oxygen K-edge closely follows the macroscopic electric polarization [3], and hence is proportional to the ferroelectric order parameter. This is in contrast with the temperature dependence observed at the Mn L3 edge, which reflects the Mn magnetic order parameter. Work performed at BNL was supported by the US Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science, under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. [4pt] [1] S.B. Wilkins et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 207602 (2009)[0pt] [2] T.A.W. Beale, S. B. Wilkins et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 087203 (2010)[0pt] [3] S. Partzsch, S. B. Wilkins et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 057201 (2011)

  14. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and reflection anisotropy spectroscopy Kerr effect studies of capped magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunniffe, J. P.; McNally, D.E.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; McGuinness, C.; McGilp, J. F.

    2010-03-02

    Aligned Co wires grown on Pt(997) under ultra-high vacuum conditions have been capped successfully by the epitaxial growth of Au monolayers (ML) at room temperature. The samples were kept under vacuum except when transferring between apparatus or when making some of the measurements. No degradation of the Co wires was detected during the measurements. The magneto-optic response of the system was measured using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Co L{sub 2,3} edge and reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) at near normal incidence, which is sensitive to the normal component of the out-of-plane magnetization via the Kerr effect (MOKE). Capping the wires significantly impacts their magnetic properties. Comparison of the magneto-optic response of the system at X-ray and optical energies reveals small differences that are attributed to the induced moment in the Pt substrate and Au capping layer not picked up by the element specific XMCD measurements. The sensitivity of RAS-MOKE is sufficient to allow the determination of the easy axis direction of the capped wires to within a few degrees. The results for a 6-atom-wide Co wire sample, capped with 6 ML of Au, are consistent with the capped wires possessing perpendicular magnetization.

  15. Gigantic transverse x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in ultrathin Co in Au/Co/Au(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse-geometry x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) measurements on Au/Co-staircase/Au(001) reveal the orbital origin of intrinsic in-plane magnetic anisotropy A gigantic TXMCD was successfully observed at the Co L3,2 edges for Co thickness (tC0) in the 2-monolayer regime. A TXMCD-sum-rule analysis shows a remarkable enhancement of an orbital-moment anisotropy (Δmorb) and of an in-plane magnetic dipole moment (m||T). Both Δmorb and m||T exhibit close similarity in tCo dependence, reflecting the in-plane magnetic anisotropy These observations evidence that extremely strong, intrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy originates from the anisotropic orbital part of the wave function, dominating the dipole-dipole-interaction-derived, extrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  16. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering study of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; Pinel, E. F.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ. Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado UCM; Univ. Pisa; Univ. di Padova

    2009-11-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  17. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering studies of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; te Velthuis, S. G. E; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian Fernandez, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado; Univ. of Pisa; Lab. di Magnetismo Molecolare

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  18. Polarized synchrotron emission in quiescent black hole X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David M; Lewis, Fraser; Gallo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared polarimetric observations of the black hole X-ray binaries Swift J1357.2-0933 and A0620-00. In both sources, recent studies have demonstrated the presence of variable infrared synchrotron emission in quiescence, most likely from weak compact jets. For Swift J1357.2-0933 we find that the synchrotron emission is polarized at a level of 8.0 +- 2.5 per cent (a 3.2 sigma detection of intrinsic polarization). The mean magnitude and rms variability of the flux (fractional rms of 19-24 per cent in K_s-band) agree with previous observations. These properties imply a continuously launched (stable on long timescales), highly variable (on short timescales) jet in the Swift J1357.2-0933 system in quiescence, which has a moderately tangled magnetic field close to the base of the jet. We find that for A0620-00, there are likely to be three components to the optical-infrared polarization; interstellar dust along the line of sight, scattering within the system, and an additional source that changes th...

  19. Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    1986-01-01

    Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.

  20. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  1. Dual-band Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Narbudowicz, Adam; Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2013-01-01

    A dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna is proposed. The antenna comprises back-to-back microstrip patches fed by a coplanar waveguide. A very low frequency ratio of 1.182 has been achieved, which can be easily tuned by adjusting four lumped capacitors incorporated into the antenna. An analysis of the omnidirectional circular polarization mechanism as well the dual band operation is provided and confirmed by numerical and experimental data. Key parameters to tune the resonant...

  2. Circular polarization opportunities at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    XFELs provide X-ray pulses with unprecedented peak brightness and ultrashort duration. They are usually driven by planar undulators, meaning that the output radiation is linearly polarized. For many experimental applications, however, polarization control is critical: besides the ability to produce linearly polarized radiation, one often needs the possibility of generating circularly polarized radiation with a high, stable degree of polarization. This may be achieved by using a first part of the XFEL undulator to produce bunching and then, by propagating the the bunched beam through an "afterburner" - a short undulator with tunable polarization, where only limited gain takes place. One of the issues that one needs to consider in this case is the separation of the circularly polarized radiation obtained in the radiator from the linearly polarized background produced in the first part of the FEL. In this article we review several methods to do so, including the inverse tapering technique. In particular, we use ...

  3. GROUND-STATE OF FERROMAGNETIC NICKEL AND MAGNETIC CIRCULAR-DICHROISM IN 2P AND 3P CORE X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JO, T; YOSHIDA, A; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    The electronic state of ferromagnetic Ni and an interpretation of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in Ni 2p --> 3d and 3p --> 3d X-ray absorption (XAS) are discussed from a viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction. Inclusion of the 3d8 configuration and an orbital-magnetic-moment contribution of 0

  4. Direct evidence of Ni magnetic moment in TbNi{sub 2}Mn—X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.H., E-mail: dyu@ansto.gov.au [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, Sydney, NSW 2234 (Australia); Huang, Meng-Jie [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.L. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, Sydney, NSW 2234 (Australia); School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Canberra at the Australian Defense Force Academy, Sydney, ACT 2600 (Australia); Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Su, Hui-Chia; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Campbell, S.J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Canberra at the Australian Defense Force Academy, Sydney, ACT 2600 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    We have investigated the individual magnetic moments of Ni, Mn and Tb atoms in the intermetallic compound TbNi{sub 2}Mn in the Laves phase (magnetic phase transition temperature T{sub C} ∼131 K) by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies at 300 K, 80 K and 20 K. Analyses of the experimental results reveal that Ni atoms at 20 K in an applied magnetic field of 1 T carry an intrinsic magnetic moment of spin and orbital magnetic moment contributions 0.53±0.01 μ{sub B} and 0.05±0.01 μ{sub B}, respectively. These moment values are similar to those of the maximum saturated moment of Ni element. A very small magnetic moment of order <0.1 μ{sub B} has been measured for Mn. This suggests that Mn is antiferromagnetically ordered across the two nearly equally occupied sites of 16d and 8a. A magnetic moment of up to ∼0.3 μ{sub B} has been observed for the Tb atoms. Identification of a magnetic moment on the Ni atoms has provided further evidence for the mechanism of enhancement of the magnetic phase transition temperature in TbNi{sub 2}Mn compared with TbNi{sub 2} (T{sub C}∼37.5 K) and TbMn{sub 2} (T{sub C}∼54 K) due to rare earth–transition metal (R–T) and transition metal–transition metal (T–T) interactions. The behaviour of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of TbNi{sub 2}Mn at 300 K, 80 K and 20 K – above and below the magnetic ordering temperature T{sub C} ∼131 K – is discussed. - Highlights: • We study the magnetic moment of TbNi{sub 2}Mn with XMCD. • We observe directly the Ni intrinsic magnetic moment in TbNi{sub 2}Mn. • We find that Mn ordered antiferromagnetically across the 16d and 8a sites. • We confirm the mechanism for increasing the magnetic phase transition temperature.

  5. Polarized thermal emission from X-ray dim isolated neutron stars: the case of RX J1856.5-3754

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Caniulef, D.; Zane, S.; Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.; Wu, K.

    2016-07-01

    The observed polarization properties of thermal radiation from isolated, cooling neutron stars depend on both the emission processes at the surface and the effects of the magnetized vacuum which surrounds the star. Here, we investigate the polarized thermal emission from X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, taking RX J1856.5-3754 as a representative case. The physical conditions of the star outermost layers in these sources is still debated, and so we consider emission from a magnetized atmosphere and a condensed surface, accounting for the effects of vacuum polarization as the radiation propagates in the star magnetosphere. We have found that, for a significant range of viewing geometries, measurement of the phase-averaged polarization fraction and phase-averaged polarization angle at both optical and X-ray wavelengths allow us to determine whether this neutron star has an atmosphere or a condensed surface. Our results may therefore be relevant in view of future developments of soft X-ray polarimeters.

  6. Polarized thermal emission from X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars: the case of RX J1856.5-3754

    CERN Document Server

    Caniulef, Denis Gonzalez; Taverna, Roberto; Turolla, Roberto; Wu, Kinwah

    2016-01-01

    The observed polarization properties of thermal radiation from isolated, cooling neutron stars depend on both the emission processes at the surface and the effects of the magnetized vacuum which surrounds the star. Here we investigate the polarized thermal emission from X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars, taking RX J1856.5-3754 as a representative case. The physical conditions of the star outermost layers in these sources is still debated, and so we consider emission from a magnetized atmosphere and a condensed surface, accounting for the effects of vacuum polarization as the radiation propagates in the star magnetosphere. We have found that, for a significant range of viewing geometries, measurement of the phase-averaged polarization fraction and phase-averaged polarization angle at both optical and X-ray wavelengths allow us to determine whether this neutron star has an atmosphere or a condensed surface. Our results may therefore be relevant in view of future developments of soft X-ray polarimeters.

  7. Swift J2218.4+1925: a new hard-X-ray-selected polar observed with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, F.; de Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Falanga, M.

    2014-12-01

    Swift J2218.4+1925, a hard-X-ray source detected by Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), has been proposed as a candidate magnetic cataclysmic variable of the polar type from optical spectroscopy. Using XMM-Newton we perform detailed timing and spectral analysis with simultaneous X-ray (0.3-10 keV) and optical B-band data. We complement the spectral study with archival hard-X-ray (14-70 keV) spectra collected by Swift BAT as well as with optical, near and mid-infrared photometry from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two-Micron All Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer archive, respectively. A strong periodic X-ray signal at 2.16 h, fully consistent with the recently determined spectroscopic orbital period, adds Swift J2218.4+1925 to the small group of hard-X-ray polars and locates it at the low edge of the orbital period gap. The X-ray pulse profile shows the typical bright and faint phases seen in polars, that last ˜70 and ˜30 per cent of the orbit, respectively. A pronounced dip centred on the bright phase is also detected. It is stronger at lower energies and is mainly produced by photoelectric absorption. A binary inclination i ˜ 40°-50° and a magnetic colatitude β ˜ 55°-64° are estimated. The source appears to accrete over a large area ˜24° wide. A multitemperature optically thin emission with complex absorption well describes the broad-band (0.3-70 keV) spectrum, with no signs of a soft X-ray blackbody component. The spectral shape strongly varies with the source rotation reaching plasma temperatures up to 55 keV, hardening at the dip and being softer during the faint phase (˜7 keV). We also find the first indication of an absorption edge due to a warm absorber in a polar. Indication of overabundance of neon is found in the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra. The UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution reveals an excess in the near and mid-IR, likely due to low cyclotron harmonics. We further estimate a white dwarf mass of 0.97 M

  8. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  9. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of epitaxial magnetite ultrathin film on MgO(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. Q.; Xu, Y. B., E-mail: yongbing.xu@york.ac.uk, E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn [York-Nanjing International Center for Spintronics (YNICS), School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Song, M. Y.; Lin, J. G. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Maltby, N. J.; Li, S. P. [Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Bencok, P.; Steadman, Paul; Dobrynin, Alexey [Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Zhang, R., E-mail: yongbing.xu@york.ac.uk, E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn [York-Nanjing International Center for Spintronics (YNICS), School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-07

    The spin and orbital magnetic moments of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial ultrathin film synthesized by plasma assisted simultaneous oxidization on MgO(100) have been studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The ultrathin film retains a rather large total magnetic moment, i.e., (2.73 ± 0.15) μ{sub B}/f.u., which is ∼70% of that for the bulk-like Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. A significant unquenched orbital moment up to 0.54 ± 0.05 μ{sub B}/f.u. was observed, which could come from the symmetry breaking at the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO interface. Such sizable orbital moment will add capacities to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based spintronics devices in the magnetization reversal by the electric field.

  10. Circularly polarized U-Slot antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, K. F.; Wong, T P

    2007-01-01

    Circularly polarized single-layer U-slot microstrip patch antenna has been proposed. The suggested asymmetrical U-slot can generate the two orthogonal modes for circular polarization without chamfering any corner of the probe-fed square patch microstrip antenna. A parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effects caused by different arm lengths of the U-slot. The thickness of the foam substrate is about 8.5% of the wavelength at the operating frequency. The 3 dB axial ratio ban...

  11. Broadband Suspended Microstrip Antenna For Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Kasabegoudar, VG; Vinoy, KJ

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna on a suspended substrate with a coplanar capacitive feed and a slot within the rectangular patch. The antenna has an axial ratio bandwidth (< 3 dB) of 7.1%. The proposed antenna exhibits a much higher impedance bandwidth of about 49% (S11 < -10 dB) and also yields return loss better than -15 dB in the useful range of circular polarization. Measured characteristics of the antenna are in good agreement with the simulated re...

  12. Stable and polarized Betatron x-ray radiation from a laser plasma accelerator in ionization injection regime

    CERN Document Server

    Doepp, Andreas; Doche, Antoine; Thaury, Cedric; Guillaume, Emilien; Lifschitz, Agustin; Grittani, Gabriele; Lund, Olle; Hansson, Martin; Gautier, Julien; Kozlova, Michaela; Goddet, Jean Philippe; Rousseau, Pascal; Tafzi, Amar; Malka, Victor; Rousse, Antoine; Corde, Sebastien; Phuoc, Kim Ta

    2015-01-01

    Betatron x-ray source from laser plasma interaction combines high brightness, few femtosecond duration and broad band energy spectrum. However, despite these unique features the Betatron source has a crippling drawback preventing its use for applications. Its properties significantly vary shot-to-shot and none of the developments performed so far resolved this problem. In this letter we present a simple method that allows to produce stable and bright Betatron x-ray beams. In addition, we demonstrate that this scheme provides polarized and easily tunable radiation. Experimental results show that the pointing stability is better than 10% of the beam divergence, with flux fluctuation of the order of 20% and a polarization degree reaching up to 80%

  13. On the spin modulated circular polarization from the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGRJ1509-6649

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Stephen B; Kotze, Marissa; Zietsman, Ewald; Butters, O W; Pekeur, Nikki; Buckley, David A H

    2011-01-01

    We report on high time resolution, high signal/noise, photo-polarimetry of the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGRJ1509-6649. Our observations confirm the detection and colour dependence of circular polarization from NY Lup and additionally show a clear white dwarf, spin modulated signal. From our new high signal/noise photometry we have unambiguously detected wavelength dependent spin and beat periods and harmonics thereof. IGRJ1509-6649 is discovered to also have a particularly strong spin modulated circularly polarized signal. It appears double peaked through the I filter and single peaked through the B filter, consistent with cyclotron emission from a white dwarf with a relatively strong magnetic field. We discuss the implied accretion geometries in these two systems and any bearing this may have on the possible relationship with the connection between polars and soft X-ray-emitting IPs. The relatively strong magnetic fields is also suggestive of them being polar progenitors.

  14. A versatile facility for the calibration of X-ray polarimeters with polarized and unpolarized controlled beams

    CERN Document Server

    Muleri, Fabio; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Costa, Enrico; Frutti, Massimo; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Pinchera, Michele; Rubini, Alda; Spandre, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    We devised and built a versatile facility for the calibration of the next generation X-ray polarimeters with unpolarized and polarized radiation. The former is produced at 5.9 keV by means of a Fe55 radioactive source or by X-ray tubes, while the latter is obtained by Bragg diffraction at nearly 45 degrees. Crystals tuned with the emission lines of X-ray tubes with molybdenum, rhodium, calcium and titanium anodes are employed for the efficient production of highly polarized photons at 2.29, 2.69, 3.69 and 4.51 keV respectively. Moreover the continuum emission is exploited for the production of polarized photons at 1.65 keV and 2.04 keV and at energies corresponding to the higher orders of diffraction. The photons are collimated by means of interchangeable capillary plates and diaphragms, allowing a trade-off between collimation and high fluxes. The direction of the beam is accurately arranged by means of high precision motorized stages, controlled via computer so that long and automatic measurements can be do...

  15. Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a Circular X-ray tube: Its image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and the image characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. O.; Hong, D. K.; Cho, H. S.; Je, U. K.; Oh, J. E.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, W. S.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce an effective imaging system for digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a circular X-ray tube, the so-called circular-DTS (CDTS) system, and its image reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization method for low-dose, high-accuracy X-ray imaging. Here, the X-ray tube is equipped with a series of cathodes distributed around a rotating anode, and the detector remains stationary throughout the image acquisition. We considered a TV-based reconstruction algorithm that exploited the sparsity of the image with substantially high image accuracy. We implemented the algorithm for the CDTS geometry and successfully reconstructed images of high accuracy. The image characteristics were investigated quantitatively by using some figures of merit, including the universal-quality index (UQI) and the depth resolution. For selected tomographic angles of 20, 40, and 60°, the corresponding UQI values in the tomographic view were estimated to be about 0.94, 0.97, and 0.98, and the depth resolutions were about 4.6, 3.1, and 1.2 voxels in full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a next-generation dental or breast X-ray imaging system.

  16. Observation of polarized hard X-ray emission from the Crab by the PoGOLite Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Iyudin, A.; Arimoto, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Mizuno, T.; Ryde, F.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, T.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured the linear polarization of hard X-ray emission from the Crab in a previously unexplored energy interval, 20-120 keV. The introduction of two new observational parameters, the polarization fraction and angle stands to disentangle geometrical and physical effects, thereby providing information on the pulsar wind geometry and magnetic field environment. Measurements are conducted using the PoGOLite Pathfinder - a balloon-borne polarimeter. Polarization is determined by measuring the azimuthal Compton scattering angle of incident X-rays in an array of plastic scintillators housed in an anticoincidence well. The polarimetric response has been characterized prior to flight using both polarized and unpolarized calibration sources. We address possible systematic effects through observations of a background field. The measured polarization fraction for the integrated Crab light curve is 18.4^{+9.8}_{-10.6} per cent, corresponding to an upper limit (99 per cent credibility) of 42.4 per cent, for a polarization angle of (149.2 ± 16.0)°.

  17. Resonant X-Ray Scattering and Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.

    This chapter outlines some of the basic ideas behind nonresonant and resonant X-ray scattering, using classical or semiclassical pictures wherever possible; specifically, we highlight symmetry arguments governing the observation of X-ray optical effects, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and resonant "forbidden" diffraction. Without dwelling on the microscopic physics that underlies resonant scattering, we outline some key steps required for calculating its rotation and polarization dependence, based on Cartesian and spherical tensor frameworks. Several examples of resonant scattering, involving electronic anisotropy and magnetism, are given as illustrations. Our goal is not to develop or defend theoretical concepts in X-ray scattering, but to bring together existing ideas in a pragmatic and utilitarian manner.

  18. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. III - Polarization, directivity, and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the spectrum, directivity, and state of polarization of the bremsstrahlung radiation expected from a beam of high-energy electrons spiraling along radial magnetic field lines toward the photosphere. A Monte Carlo method is then described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. The accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. The calculated characteristics of the incident X-rays are used to evaluate the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of the reflected and total X-ray fluxes. The results are compared with observations.

  19. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  20. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism: Orbital and spin moments of iron single-crystal thin film deposited on MgO substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Honghong; WANG Jie; LI Ruipeng; GUO Yuxian; WANG Feng; HU Zhiwei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in absorption of the single-crystal iron layer deposited epitaxially on MgO substrate is studied. Spin and orbital moment, 0.069 and 2.33 -B, respectively, are calculated in terms of the XMCD sum rules. Our results are accordant to those published. Experiments show that the orbital moment would be decreased to that in bulk materials as iron film is thinned down, but spin moment changes little.

  1. Continuous-wave circular polarization terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jillian P.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) radiation are appealing because THz radiation is nonionizing and has the demonstrated ability to detect intrinsic contrasts between cancerous and normal tissue. A linear polarization-sensitive detection technique for tumor margin delineation has already been demonstrated; however, utilization of a circular polarization-sensitive detection technique has yet to be explored at THz frequencies. A reflective, continuous-wave THz imaging system capable of illuminating a target sample at 584 GHz with either linearly or circularly polarized radiation, and capable of collecting both cross- and copolarized signals remitted from the target, is implemented. To demonstrate the system's utility, a fresh ex vivo human skin tissue specimen containing nonmelanoma skin cancer was imaged. Both polarization-sensitive detection techniques showed contrast between tumor and normal skin tissue, although some differences in images were observed between the two techniques. Our results indicate that further investigation is required to explain the contrast mechanism, as well as to quantify the specificity and sensitivity of the circular polarization-sensitive detection technique.

  2. RX J1016.9-4103 A new soft X-ray polar in the period gap

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J; Greiner, Jochen; Schwarz, Robert

    1998-01-01

    We have discovered a new AM Her system as the optical counterpart of the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey source RX J1016.9-4103 (= 1RXS J101659.4-410332). The X-ray spectrum is very soft and the X-ray intensity is strongly modulated with the orbital period. Optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations reveal a synchronously rotating binary with an orbital period of 134 min, placing RX J1016.9-4103 in the period gap. The strength of the TiO bands suggests a secondary spectral type later than M3 V and a distance of 615+/-150 pc. Based on two clearly visible broad humps in the optical spectrum (interpreted as cyclotron features) a magnetic field strength of 52 MG is deduced thus proving the polar classification.

  3. Analysis of the Data from Compton X-ray Polarimeters which Measure the Azimuthal and Polar Scattering Angles

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry has the potential to make key-contributions to our understanding of galactic compact objects like binary black hole systems and neutron stars, and extragalactic objects like active galactic nuclei, blazars, and neutron stars. Furthermore, several particle astrophysics topics can be addressed including uniquely sensitive tests of Lorentz invariance. In the energy range from 10-20 keV to several MeV, Compton polarimeters achieve the best performance. In this paper we evaluate the benefit that comes from using the azimuthal and polar angles of the Compton scattered photons in the analysis, rather than using the azimuthal scattering angles alone. We study the case of an ideal Compton polarimeter and show that a Maximum Likelihood analysis which uses the two scattering angles lowers the Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) by ~20% compared to a standard analysis based on the azimuthal scattering angles alone. The accuracies with which the polarization fraction and the polarization direction can ...

  4. VUV and X-ray coherent light with tunable polarization from single-pass free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzani, C; Diviacco, B; Ferrari, E; Geloni, G; Karantzoulis, E; Mahieu, B; Vento, M; De Ninno, G

    2011-01-01

    Tunable polarization over a wide spectral range is a required feature of light sources employed to investigate the properties of local symmetry in both condensed and low-density matter. Among new-generation sources, free-electron lasers possess a unique combination of very attractive features, as they allow to generate powerful and coherent ultra-short optical pulses in the VUV and X-ray spectral range. However, the question remains open about the possibility to freely vary the light polarization of a free-electron laser, when the latter is operated in the so-called nonlinear harmonic-generation regime. In such configuration, one collects the harmonics of the free-electron laser fundamental emission, gaining access to the shortest possible wavelengths the device can generate. In this letter we provide the first experimental characterization of the polarization of the harmonic light produced by a free-electron laser and we demonstrate a method to obtain tunable polarization in the VUV and X-ray spectral range....

  5. Chirality and Circular Polarization in Models of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Sims, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a chiral asymmetry during inflation can manifest as net circular polarization in photons. Using an example known to produce a helicity imbalance in fermions, we show that superhorizon photon modes produced during inflation acquire net circular polarization. Modes that reenter the horizon around last scattering can thermalize into the Cosmic Microwave Background while retaining a portion of their net circular polarization. We also consider the possibility of direct detection of the circular polarization in the CMB.

  6. High pressure study of gadolinium (silicon-germanium) giant magnetocaloric materials using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    The role of Si-doping in enhancing the magnetic ordering temperature (Tc) of Gd5(SixGe1--x )4 giant magnetocaloric compounds was investigated using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and diamond anvil cell (DAC) techniques. The purpose of the study is to understand the mechanism of doping-induced ferromagnetic order in these compounds that may advance the magnetic refrigeration technology. The results demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure leads to similar effects as Si-doping for x ≥ 0.125 because the P-T phase diagram reproduces the most notable features of the x-T phase diagram, indicating that the magnetic properties of these compounds are volume-driven. The low-x (0 < x ≤ 0.75) region exhibits an inhomogeneous magneto-structural ground state featured by a mixed antiferromagnetic (orthorhombic (II))--ferromagnetic (orthorhombic (I)) phase at low temperature. Pressure was found to remove this magneto-structural inhomogeneity by fully restoring the magnetization that is obtained for x ≥ 0.125. However, unlike the nearly constant dTc/dP obtained for 0.125 ≤ x < 0.5, dTc/dP of the low-x samples is strongly x-dependent. This suggests that the emergence of the ferromagnetic order from within the antiferromagnetic phase of Gd 5Ge4 parent compound cannot be simply described as a volume-effect due to the existence of the magneto-structural inhomogeneity. Finally, the quantitative correspondence between Si-doping and hydrostatic pressure was examined in order to know if the properties of these materials are monotonically volume-dependent. It was found that Si-doping increases Tc much more effectively than pressure, by a factor of ˜ 11 for a given volume reduction. A local lattice contraction was found around Si atoms as a result of the substitution of Ge by the smaller Si atoms resulting in a remarkably high local chemical pressure. This local contraction results in a stronger Si 3p-Gd 5d orbital hybridization benefiting the indirect ferromagnetic exchange

  7. Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.

  8. X-ray variability and period determinations in the eclipsing polar DP Leonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Craig R.; Cordova, France A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of our ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations on the eclipsing magnetic cataclysmic variable DP Leo. The soft X-ray spectrum is modeled by a blackbody of kT = 24.8(sup +2.6 sub -8.1) eV. Severe limits are placed upon the flux from any hard bremsstrahlung component. A strong soft X-ray excess, with respect to hard X-ray emission, is found. The soft X-ray blackbody luminosity is larger than both the cyclotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. An upper limit of 500 pc is obtained for the system's distance based upon the X-ray absorption (N(sub H) less than 5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm) and an estimate of 260(sup +150 sub -100) pc is determined from a published measurement of the secondary's flux. For the derived blackbody fit, the bolometric luminosity is found to be L(sub bb, bol) = 1.4(sup +7.1 sub -0.3) x 10(exp 31)(d/260 pc)(exp 2) ergs/s. Absorption by the accretion stream produces an intensity dip prior to each eclipse. Extreme variability in the shape of the light curve from eclipse to eclipse demonstrates that changes in the rate of accretion onto the white dwarf, the sizes of accretion filaments, or variations in the location or amount of absorbing matter in the system occur on timescales shorter than the orbital period (89.8 minutes). No evidence exists for accretion onto the stronger (59 MG) magnetic pole in the ROSAT data. A new ephemeris is presented for the eclipse of the white dwarf emission region by the secondary star and another is produced for the orbital conjunction of the two components. The rotation of the white dwarf is shown to be faster than the orbital period by (5.3 +/- 1.1) x 10(exp -3) s. The origin of the asynchronous rotation may be activity cycle included orbital period variations or oscillations of the white dwarf's main pole about an equilibirium position. The accretion stream is modeled assuming that disruption of the stream along magnetic field lines occurs close to the white dwarf. The ROSAT

  9. Broadband circularly polarized antennas for UHF SATCOM

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, İbrahim; Tekin, Ibrahim; Manzhura, Oksana; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    Novel circularly polarized (CP) antenna configurations derived from Moxon type antenna (bent dipole element over a ground plane) for broadband VHF SATCOM applications. A sequence of topologies starting from a single vertical element to two vertical elements of the Moxon arms, then widened strip arm elements were studied. Further, arms were widened to bow tie structures with bents at 900.for achieving broadband operation. Bow tie elements were further split and optimized at a certain angle to...

  10. Simple Broadband Circular Polarizer in Oversized Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a possibility is shown to realize a simple waveguide polarizer producing nearly the same circular polarization over a broad frequency range up to an octave. It is based upon the combination of two smoothly squeezed oversized waveguides with different diameters. The principle is similar to an achromatic lens in optics, where two counteracting lenses with differently sloped wavelength dependencies of the refractive index are combined to compensate the dispersion in the desired wavelength range. Consequently, two different wavelengths of light are brought into focus at the same plane. A waveguide for the transmission of microwaves has a similar frequency dependence of the refractive index resulting in a frequency-dependent phase shift between two propagating waves polarized along the symmetry axes of a waveguide with an elliptical cross section. For this reason, an incident wave with a linear polarization between the axes of symmetry can be only converted into a circularly polarized wave over a limited frequency range. However, the diameter and the shape along two counteracting squeezed waveguides can be adjusted in such a way that the frequency dependence of the resultant phase shift is finally canceled out.

  11. Probing the spin polarization of current by soft X-ray imaging of current-induced magnetic vortex dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, Shinya; Fischer, Peter; Im, Mi-Young; YAMADA, Keisuke; Nakatani, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ono, Teruo

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved soft X-ray transmission microscopy is applied to image the current-induced resonant dynamics of the magnetic vortex core realized in a micronsized Permalloy disk. The high spatial resolution better than 25 nm enables us to observe the resonant motion of the vortex core. The result also provides the spin polarization of the current to be 0.67 +/-0.16 for Permalloy by fitting the experimental results with an analytical model in the framework of the spin-transfer torque.

  12. A W:B4C multilayer phase retarder for broadband polarization analysis of soft x-ray radiation

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Michael A.; Schaefers, Franz; Pohl, R.; Poole, Ian B.; Gaupp, Andreas; Quinn, Frances M.

    2008-01-01

    A W:B4C multilayer phase retarder has been designed and characterized which shows a nearly constant phase retardance between 640 and 850 eV photon energies when operated near the Bragg condition. This freestanding transmission multilayer was used successfully to determine, for the first time, the full polarization vector at soft x-ray energies above 600 eV, which was not possible before due to the lack of suitable optical elements. Thus, quantitative polarimetry is now possible at the 2p edge...

  13. Structures of chiral smectic-C mesophases revealed by polarization-analyzed resonant x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report polarization-analyzed, resonant x-ray diffraction at the sulfur K edge performed upon free-standing liquid-crystal films. Our studies of the thiobenzoate liquid-crystal enantiomer 10OTBBB1M7 yield the polarization states of resonant satellite peaks arising from characteristic superlattices in the chiral smectic-C (SmC*) variant phases, including the antiferroelectric SmCA*, ferrielectric SmCFI1* and SmCFI2*, as well as SmCα*. The observed polarizations agree with the clock model of chiral smectic-C variants, and rule out other proposals made to date for these structures. Data from the 10OTBBB1M7 racemate also support the clock model. Our resonant diffraction results from a thiophene liquid-crystal compound reveal the same superlattice periodicities seen in corresponding antiferroelectric and ferrielectric phases of 10OTBBB1M7. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. X-ray polarization measurement for fast electrons in intense-laser-produced plasma under oblique incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y; Inubushi, Y; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Kai, T; Nakamura, T; Johzaki, T; Nagatomo, H; Mima, K [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kawamura, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Batani, D; Morace, A; Redaelli, R [University of Milan - Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fourment, C; Santos, J [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS/CEA, Talence (France); Malka, G [CENBG, Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS - IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Boscheron, A [CEA/CESTA Le BARP (France); Casner, A [CEA-DAM He de France, Bruyres-le-Chtel (France); Koenig, M [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex (France)], E-mail: okano-yas@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    Study on x-ray polarization spectroscopy was performed for intense-laser-produced plasma under laser-oblique incidence. The laser pulse was focused onto a polyvinylchloride target at angles of 67 degrees and 7 degrees to the target normal at average intensities of 10{sup 17-18} W/cm{sup 2}. There were differences in the spectra for shifted K{alpha} lines of C1 atoms between the oblique and nearly normal incidence, indicating the low laser-energy absorption in the oblique incidence. A difference in polarization degrees of C1 He{alpha} lines was also observed, and this means the polarization of incident laser pulse affect velocity distribution functions of fast electrons in intense-laser-produced plasma.

  15. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn2+ and Mn3+ are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 μB are created by 3d5(6S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 μB for Mn2+ and 16 μB for Mn3+, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum

  16. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamudio-Bayer, V. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; Kossick, M. [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ławicki, A.; Lau, J. T., E-mail: tobias.lau@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Terasaki, A. [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute, 717-86 Futamata, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Issendorff, B. von [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-06-21

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and Mn{sub 3}{sup +} are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 μ{sub B} are created by 3d{sup 5}({sup 6}S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and 16 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 3}{sup +}, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  17. Direct Observation of High-Spin States in Manganese Dimer and Trimer Cations by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy in an Ion Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, Vicente; Langenberg, Andreas; Kossick, Martin; Ławicki, Arkadiusz; Terasaki, Akira; von Issendorff, Bernd; Lau, J Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn$_2^+$ and Mn$_3^+$ are characterized by $2p$ x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results show directly that localized magnetic moments of 5 $\\mu_B$ are created by $3d^5 (^6\\mathrm{S})$ states at each ionic core, which are coupled in parallel to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly-occupied $4s$ derived orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 $\\mu_B$ for Mn$_2^+$ and 16 $\\mu_B$ for Mn$_3^+$, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  18. X-ray holographic imaging of magnetic order in meander domain structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouen Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed x-ray holography experiments using synchrotron radiation. By analyzing the scattering of coherent circularly polarized x-rays tuned at the Co-2p resonance, we imaged perpendicular magnetic domains in a Co/Pd multilayer. We compare results obtained for continuous and laterally confined films.

  19. Interfacial mixing in as-deposited Si/Ni/Si layers analyzed by x-ray and polarized neutron reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debarati, E-mail: debarati@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Basu, Saibal; Singh, Surendra [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Roy, Sumalay; Dev, Bhupendra Nath [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room temperature diffusion in Si/Ni/Si trilayer detected through complementary x-ray and polarized neutron reflectometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyses of XPNR data generated the construction of the layered structure in terms of physical parameters along with alloy layers created by diffusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattering length density information from XPNR provided quantitative assessment of the stoichiometry of alloys formed at the Si/Ni and Ni/Si interfaces. - Abstract: Interdiffusion occurring across the interfaces in a Si/Ni/Si layered system during deposition at room temperature was probed using x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR). Exploiting the complementarity of these techniques, both structural and magnetic characterization with nanometer depth resolution could be achieved. Suitable model fitting of the reflectivity profiles identified the formation of Ni-Si mixed alloy layers at the Si/Ni and Ni/Si interfaces. The physical parameters of the layered structure, including quantitative assessment of the stoichiometry of interfacial alloys, were obtained from the analyses of XRR and PNR patterns. In addition, PNR provided magnetic moment density profile as a function of depth in the stratified medium.

  20. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Braicovich, L; Dellea, G; Tacon, M Le; Sala, M Moretti; Morawe, C; Peffen, J-Ch; Supruangnet, R; Yakhou, F; Ghiringhelli, G; Brookes, N B

    2014-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B4C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF; it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L3 edge on a high-Tc superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the ...

  1. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  2. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence reveals polarized distribution of atomic elements during differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C Cardoso

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying pluripotency and differentiation in embryonic and reprogrammed stem cells are unclear. In this work, we characterized the pluripotent state towards neural differentiated state through analysis of trace elements distribution using the Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Naive and neural-stimulated embryoid bodies (EB derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem (ES and iPS cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 µm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. Results show that these embryo-like aggregates exhibit self-organization at the atomic level. Metallic elements content rises and consistent elemental polarization pattern of P and S in both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells were observed, indicating that neural differentiation and elemental polarization are strongly correlated.

  3. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a Polarized Hard X-Ray Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; McConnell, M L; Macri, J R; Bancroft, C M; Connor, T P; Ryan, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50 - 500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete "engineering model" of the GRAPE...

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, J. [Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koo, J. W.; Mitani, S. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sukegawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takagi, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Institute of Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3d{sub z}{sup 2} and O 2p{sub z} states.

  5. Relaxation of Cs atomic polarization at surface coatings characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kushida, K; Moriya, T; Shimizu, T; Meguro, K; Nakazawa, H; Hatakeyama, A

    2014-01-01

    Paraffin coatings on glass slides were investigated through both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spin relaxation measurement for cesium (Cs) vapor. The components of the glass substrate, such as silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), existed in the XPS spectra of the coated slides, indicating the imperfection of the prepared paraffin coatings. The substrate was not observed after the annealing of the coatings in Cs vapor, which is known as a `ripening' process for spin relaxation measurement. We found a general trend that effective anti-spin relaxation performance requires high paraffin and low Cs coverage on the surface. We also examined a type of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, anticipating the effect of anti-spin relaxation; our attempts have failed to date.

  6. Novel X band Compact Waveguide Dual Circular Polarizer

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Juwen

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of dual circular polarizer is developed to convert the TE10 mode into two different polarization TE11 modes in a circular waveguide. This design consists two major parts: a TE10 to TE10/TE20 converter and an overmoded TE10/TE20 to circular TE11 modes converter.

  7. Expected performance of a hard X-ray polarimeter (POLAR) by Monte Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Shaolin; Wu, Bobing

    2009-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the prompt emission in Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) can provide diagnostic information for understanding the nature of the central engine. POLAR is a compact polarimeter dedicated to the polarization measurement of GRBs between 50-300 keV and is scheduled to be launched aboard the Chinese Space Laboratory about year 2012. A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation has been accomplished to attain the expected performance of POLAR, while a prototype of POLAR is being constructed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The modulation factor, efficiency and effective area, background rates and Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) were calculated for different detector configurations and trigger strategies. With the optimized detector configuration and trigger strategy and the constraint of total weight less than 30 kg, the primary science goal to determine whether most GRBs are strongly polarized can be achieved, and about 9 GRBs/yr can be detected with MDP < 10...

  8. Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Rod Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Min Guo; Ji-Jun Yan; Shun-Shi Zhong; Zhu Sun

    2012-01-01

    A new dielectric rod antenna (DRA) is introduced to produce circular polarization (CP) over a wide frequency band without a complex feed network. Along with the simulated results, measured results of the antenna prototype are presented, showing a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) CP bandwidth of 17.7%. The radiation characteristics of the fabricated antenna are also demonstrated showing the measured gain of better than 6.2 dBi. Moreover, the measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤2) reaches 20.1%, from 8.75...

  9. Build a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisliuk, M.; Axelrod, A.

    1987-06-01

    The development and design of a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna are described. Consideration is given to the resonance frequency, radiation efficiencies, excitement, and resonant conductance of the transverse and longitudinal slots. The transverse and longitudinal slots in a rectangular guide are analyzed. The voltage distribution across the slot is calculated from the solution of a standard transmission line equation; and using the Poynting theorem the fields scattered by the slot in an arbitrary frequency range are determined. The proposed antenna is examined using an equivalent circuit; a diagram of the circuit is given. The radiation, slot, and antenna efficiencies are measured.

  10. Pulsar Polar Cap Heating and Surface Thermal X-ray Emission. 2; Inverse Compton Radiation Pair Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the production of electron-positron pairs by inverse Compton scattered (ICS) photons above a pulsar polar cap (PC) and calculate surface heating by returning positrons. This paper is a continuation of our self-consistent treatment of acceleration, pair dynamics, and electric field screening above pulsar PCs. We calculate the altitude of the inverse Compton pair-formation fronts, the flux of returning positrons, and present the heating efficiencies and X-ray luminosities. We revise pulsar death lines implying cessation of pair formation, and present them in surface magnetic field-period space. We find that virtually all known radio pulsars are capable of producing pairs by resonant and nonresonant ICS photons radiated by particles accelerated above the PC in a pure star-centered dipole field, so that our ICS pair death line coincides with empirical radio pulsar death. Our calculations show that ICS pairs are able to screen the accelerating electric field only for high PC surface temperatures and magnetic fields. We argue that such screening at ICS pair fronts occurs locally, slowing but not turning off acceleration of particles until screening can occur at a curvature radiation (CR) pair front at higher altitude. In the case where no screening occurs above the PC surface, we anticipate that the pulsar gamma-ray luminosity will be a substantial fraction of its spin-down luminosity. The X-ray luminosity resulting from PC heating by ICS pair fronts is significantly lower than the PC heating luminosity from CR pair fronts, which dominates for most pulsars. PC heating from ICS pair fronts is highest in millisecond pulsars, which cannot produce CR pairs, and may account for observed thermal X-ray components in the spectra of these old pulsars.

  11. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  12. Spin state transition in LaCoO3 studied using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, M W; Hu, Z; Cezar, J C; Burnus, T; Hartmann, H; Reuther, M; Zobel, C; Lorenz, T; Tanaka, A; Brookes, N B; Hsieh, H H; Lin, H-J; Chen, C T; Tjeng, L H

    2006-10-27

    Using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism at the Co-L(2,3) edge, we reveal that the spin state transition in LaCoO3 can be well described by a low-spin ground state and a triply degenerate high-spin first excited state. From the temperature dependence of the spectral line shapes, we find that LaCoO3 at finite temperatures is an inhomogeneous mixed-spin state system. It is crucial that the magnetic circular dichroism signal in the paramagnetic state carries a large orbital momentum. This directly shows that the currently accepted low- or intermediate-spin picture is at variance. Parameters derived from these spectroscopies fully explain existing magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance, and inelastic neutron data.

  13. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Deutsch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed.

  14. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  15. Similarities between circular polarization in Galactic jet sources and AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP; Wu, K; Hannikainen, DC; Sault, RJ; Jauncey, DL

    2003-01-01

    We compare the observational properties of the circular polarization in Galactic jet sources with that observed in AGN, and outline the constraints they place on the mechanism responsible for the circular polarization. We also discuss the implications of the time scale of polarization variations on

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Co2MnβSi/MgO interfaces studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic states of Co and Mn atoms at the interface of the Co2MnβSi (CMS)/MgO (β = 0.69, 0.99, 1.15, and 1.29) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In particular, the Mn composition (β) dependences of the Mn and Co magnetic moments were investigated. The experimental spin magnetic moments of Mn, mspin(Mn), derived from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition β in going from Mn-deficient to Mn-rich CMS films. This behavior was explained by first-principles calculations based on the antisite-based site-specific formula unit (SSFU) composition model, which assumes the formation of only antisite defect, not vacancies, to accommodate off-stoichiometry. Furthermore, the experimental spin magnetic moments of Co, mspin(Co), also weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition. This behavior was consistently explained by the antisite-based SSFU model, in particular, by the decrease in the concentration of CoMn antisites detrimental to the half-metallicity of CMS with increasing β. This finding is consistent with the higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratios which have been observed for CMS/MgO/CMS MTJs with Mn-rich CMS electrodes

  17. Microstrip-fed Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; McEvoy, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A wideband circularly-polarized printed antenna is proposed, which employs an asymmetrical dipole and a slit in the ground plane which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feedline using a via. The proposed antenna geometry is arranged so that the orthogonal surface currents, which are generated in the dipole, feedline and ground plane, have the appropriate phase to provide circular polarization. A parametric study of the key parameters is made and the mechanism for circular polarization is desc...

  18. High Performance Circularly Polarized Antenna Based on Fractal EBG Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; Ruvio, Giuseppe; John, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Circularly polarized patch antennas have been widely applied in wireless communication system, global positioning system, etc., because of their low-profile, lightweight, ease of fabrication and low lost [1,2]. To achieve high performance for circularly polarized patch antennas, some new structures were reported in the literature, such as antennas array, stack layer antennas, using periodic structures [3-7], etc. In this paper, a high performance circularly polarized low frequency patch anten...

  19. Employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Determining Layer Homogeneity in Mixed Polar Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing embedded dipolar groups offer the particular advantage of changing the electronic properties of a surface without affecting the SAM–ambient interface. Here we show that such systems can also be used for continuously tuning metal work functions by growing mixed monolayers consisting of molecules with different orientations of the embedded dipolar groups. To avoid injection hot-spots when using the SAM-modified electrodes in devices, a homogeneous mixing of the two components is crucial. We show that a combination of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with state-of-the-art simulations is an ideal tool for probing the electrostatic homogeneity of the layers and thus for determining phase separation processes in polar adsorbate assemblies down to inhomogeneities at the molecular level. PMID:27429041

  20. Employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Determining Layer Homogeneity in Mixed Polar Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, Iris; Schuster, Swen; Wächter, Tobias; Abu-Husein, Tarek; Terfort, Andreas; Zharnikov, Michael; Zojer, Egbert

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing embedded dipolar groups offer the particular advantage of changing the electronic properties of a surface without affecting the SAM-ambient interface. Here we show that such systems can also be used for continuously tuning metal work functions by growing mixed monolayers consisting of molecules with different orientations of the embedded dipolar groups. To avoid injection hot-spots when using the SAM-modified electrodes in devices, a homogeneous mixing of the two components is crucial. We show that a combination of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with state-of-the-art simulations is an ideal tool for probing the electrostatic homogeneity of the layers and thus for determining phase separation processes in polar adsorbate assemblies down to inhomogeneities at the molecular level. PMID:27429041

  1. Conversion from linear to circular polarization in FPGA

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Koyel; Keller, R; Tuccari, G

    2011-01-01

    Context: Radio astronomical receivers are now expanding their frequency range to cover large (octave) fractional bandwidths for sensitivity and spectral flexibility, which makes the design of good analogue circular polarizers challenging. Better polarization purity requires a flatter phase response over increasingly wide bandwidth, which is most easily achieved with digital techniques. They offer the ability to form circular polarization with perfect polarization purity over arbitrarily wide fractional bandwidths, due to the ease of introducing a perfect quadrature phase shift. Further, the rapid improvements in field programmable gate arrays provide the high processing power, low cost, portability and reconfigurability needed to make practical the implementation of the formation of circular polarization digitally. Aims: Here we explore the performance of a circular polarizer implemented with digital techniques. Methods: We designed a digital circular polarizer in which the intermediate frequency signals from...

  2. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  3. Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bandrauk, Andre D

    2014-01-01

    Various schemes are presented for the generation of circularly polarized molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) from molecules. In particular it is shown that combinations of counter-rotating circularly polarized pulses produce the lowest frequency Coriolis forces with the highest frequency recollisions, thus generating new harmonics which are the source of circular polarized attosecond pulses (CPAPs). These can be used to generate circularly polarized electronic currents in molecular media on attosecond time scale. Molecular attosecond currents allow then for the generation of ultrashort magnetic field pulses on the attosecond time scale, new tools for molecular atto-magnetism (MOLAM).

  4. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft X-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mosendz, O.; Mihailovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A

    2009-01-01

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L$_3$ absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu. Although electrical transport measurements in a non-local geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x-...

  5. Simultaneous resonant x-ray diffraction measurement of polarization inversion and lattice strain in polycrystalline ferroelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorfman, S.; Simons, Hugh; Iamsasri, T.;

    2016-01-01

    Structure-property relationships in ferroelectrics extend over several length scales from the individual unit cell to the macroscopic device, and with dynamics spanning a broad temporal domain. Characterizing the multi-scale structural origin of electric field-induced polarization reversal...... strain and, for the first time, polarization reversal during in-situ electrical perturbation. This technique is demonstrated for BaTiO3-BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3 (BT-BZT) polycrystalline ferroelectrics, a prototypical lead-free piezoelectric with an ambiguous switching mechanism. This combines the benefits...

  6. Theoretical computation of the polarization characteristics of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser with planar undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    We show that radiation pulses from an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) with a planar undulator, which are mainly polarized in the horizontal direction, exhibit a suppression of the vertical polarization component of the power at least by a factor $\\lambda_w^2/(4 \\pi L_g)^2$, where $\\lambda_w$ is the length of the undulator period and $L_g$ is the FEL field gain length. We illustrate this fact by examining the XFEL operation under the steady state assumption. In our calculations we considered only resonance terms: in fact, non resonance terms are suppressed by a factor $\\lambda_w^3/(4 \\pi L_g)^3$ and can be neglected. While finding a situation for making quantitative comparison between analytical and experimental results may not be straightforward, the qualitative aspects of the suppression of the vertical polarization rate at XFELs should be easy to observe. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation FEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  7. Theoretical computation of the polarization characteristics of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser with planar undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-12-01

    We show that radiation pulses from an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) with a planar undulator, which are mainly polarized in the horizontal direction, exhibit a suppression of the vertical polarization component of the power at least by a factor λw2/(4 πLg) 2, where λw is the length of the undulator period and Lg is the FEL field gain length. We illustrate this fact by examining the XFEL operation under the steady state assumption. In our calculations we considered only resonance terms: in fact, non-resonance terms are suppressed by a factor λw3/(4 πLg) 3 and can be neglected. While finding a situation for making quantitative comparison between analytical and experimental results may not be straightforward, the qualitative aspects of the suppression of the vertical polarization rate at XFELs should be easy to observe. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation FEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  8. Incident energy and polarization-dependent resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Hancock, J. N.; Chabot-Couture, G.; Ishii, K.; Vajk, O. P.; Yu, G.; Mizuki, J.; Casa, D.; Gog, T.; Greven, M.

    2006-12-01

    We present a detailed Cu K -edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) study of the Mott insulator La2CuO4 in the 1-7eV energy loss range. As initially found for the high-temperature superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ , the spectra exhibit a multiplet of weakly dispersive electron-hole excitations, which are revealed by utilizing the subtle dependence of the cross section on the incident photon energy. The close similarity between the fine structures for in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations is indicative of the central role played by the 1s core hole in inducing charge excitations within the CuO2 planes. On the other hand, we observe a polarization dependence of the spectral weight, and careful analysis reveals two separate features near 2eV that may be related to different charge-transfer processes. The polarization dependence indicates that the 4p electrons contribute significantly to the RIXS cross section. Third-order perturbation arguments and a shake-up of valence excitations are then applied to account for the final-energy resonance in the spectra. As an alternative scenario, we discuss fluorescence-like emission processes due to 1s→4p transitions into a narrow continuum 4p band.

  9. Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Rod Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dielectric rod antenna (DRA is introduced to produce circular polarization (CP over a wide frequency band without a complex feed network. Along with the simulated results, measured results of the antenna prototype are presented, showing a 3 dB axial ratio (AR CP bandwidth of 17.7%. The radiation characteristics of the fabricated antenna are also demonstrated showing the measured gain of better than 6.2 dBi. Moreover, the measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤2 reaches 20.1%, from 8.75 GHz to 10.7 GHz, while the CP beamwidth (AR ≤3 dB at the central frequency is measured over 120°.

  10. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  11. Circularly Polarized Light and Growth of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayev, Pavel; Pergolizzi, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The influence of linearly polarized light on the direction of plants growth has been recently demonstrated. The state of circularly polarized (CP) light can also change when it is reflected from the surface of leaves and stems. However, the role of light handedness in the development of plants and CP light interaction with the complexes of chlorophyll molecules have still not been studied enough. In this work, the role of left CP light in the accelerated growth of lentil and pea plants is revealed and studied. The mechanism of such an enhancement is discussed in terms of the model considering transmission, absorption, and scattering of CP light on micro and macro levels of leaf organization. Theoretical modeling of light interaction with the interior of the leaf was conducted for a number of recently proposed models of organization of chlorophyll molecules and chloroplasts. All the calculations were performed by employing a 4x4 matrix method in solving Maxwell equations. It is shown that left-handed chiral organization of chlorophyll molecules can greatly enhance the absorption of light and therefore lead to the enhanced growth of the whole plant under CP light.

  12. Dosimetric study of small circular X-rays fields used in radiosurgery with linear accelerator of 6 MV; Estudo dosimetrico de campos circulares pequenos de raios-X utilizados em radiocirurgia com um acelerador linear de 6 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Jose Carlos da [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena R. Comodo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina. Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: josecarlos@einstein.br

    2003-07-01

    Three dosimetric systems were compared regarding dosimetry of small circular x ray fields used in radiosurgery. The dosimetric parameters for circular cones, with diameters ranging from 7 to 30 mm, were acquired using a 6 MV Clinac 600 C linear accelerator. For the measurement of tissue maximum ratios, total scatter factor and radiation field profile, Kodak X-Omat type V radiographic films, and ionization chamber of 0.1 cm{sup 3} and a plane parallel ionization chamber type Markus were used. The plane parallel ionization chamber showed satisfactory results for measurement of tissue maximum ratios and total scatter only for cone sizes larger than 11 mm in diameter. Beam profile showed better spatial resolution when films ere used. The main physical parameters of small circular fields used in radiosurgery can be obtained by combining the dosimetry results of radiation therapy equipment used in current clinical practice. (author)

  13. Proximity effects and exchange bias in Co/MnF2(111) heterostructures studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suturin, S. M.; Fedorov, V. V.; Banshchikov, A. G.; Baranov, D. A.; Koshmak, K. V.; Torelli, P.; Fujii, J.; Panaccione, G.; Amemiya, K.; Sakamaki, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tabuchi, M.; Pasquali, L.; Sokolov, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt nano-structured ultrathin films were grown on orthorhombic MnF2 by molecular beam epitaxy on CaF2 epitaxial layers deposited on Si(111) substrates. The Co film was grown at room temperature. It was found to be polycrystalline, forming nano-islands with height≈diameter≤10 nm. X-ray absorption evidences the chemical stability of the Co/MnF2 interface. Remarkably, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) demonstrates that the Co induces a net magnetization on the Mn ions close to the interface. The magnetic moments of these Mn ions couple antiparallel to the Co and rotate upon field reversal following the magnetization of the Co both below and high above the Néel temperature of MnF2 (TN = 67 K). The density of coupled Mn moments is found to be temperature dependent, with an equivalent thickness of ˜1.5 MnF2 monolayers at 20 K, decreasing to about ˜0.5 ML as the temperature is raised to 300 K. Interestingly, the intensity of the Mn XMCD signal appears to be related to the coercivity of the Co layer. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the competition between thermal fluctuations, exchange coupling between Co and Mn at the interface and, at low temperature, the antiferromagnetic order in MnF2.

  14. Photo-induced magnetization dynamics of FeRh thin films investigated by time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Ilie [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Stamm, Christian; Kachel, Torsten; Pontius, Niko; Duerr, Hermann [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ramm, Paul; Back, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan [Hitachi GST, San Jose Research Center (United States)

    2008-07-01

    For close to equiatomic composition the FeRh alloy undergoes a first-order phase transition from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state upon heating above room temperature. We trigger the magnetic phase transition by femtosecond laser excitation and study the subsequent dynamics of the Fe and Rh magnetic moments in an element specific manner using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as a probing tool. For both elements we observe a gradual growth of ferromagnetic ordering that takes place on a 200 ps time scale after optical excitation. On the other hand, once in the FM state, FeRh can be demagnetized on a few picoseconds time interval, the observed dynamics being limited by the width of the X-ray probing pulse (here 10 ps). By comparison to the demagnetization dynamics measured on Ni under similar conditions, we retrieve the lower limit of the demagnetization process that evolves on a sub-picosecond time scale. Hence, the AFM-FM phase transition in conjunction with time-resolved XMCD allow us to study at a microscopic level the elementary processes involved in the magnetization growth, demagnetization and re-magnetization phenomena.

  15. Laser-induced generation and quenching of magnetization on FeRh investigated with time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Ilie [Regensburg University, Regensburg (Germany); BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Stamm, Christian; Pontius, Niko; Kachel, Torsten; Duerr, Hermann [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ramm, Paul; Back, Christian [Regensburg University, Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan-Ulrich [Hitachi Global Storage, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Upon heating, the equiatomic FeRh alloy exhibits a first-order magnetic phase transition from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) to the ferromagnetic (FM) state around room temperature. Here, we study the fs laser-induced AFM-FM phase transition as well as the transition from FM towards the paramagnetic state by employing the time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Both Fe and Rh elements show a gradual growth of the magnetic moment within 200 ps after laser excitation. Temperature-dependent data, measured at intermediate temperatures between AFM and FM state, provide evidence for the rapid nucleation and subsequent slow expansion of the FM regions within an AFM matrix. Once in the FM state, FeRh can be optically demagnetized on a few ps time scale (limited by the X-ray probing pulse). Further time-resolved magneto-optics measurements done in the visible spectral range reveal a demagnetization time constant of 200 fs. For the photo-induced demagnetization process we consider a mechanism that follows the transient electronic structure of the system.

  16. A comparison of FBP and BPF reconstruction methods for circular X-ray tomography with off-center detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, D.; Grass, M.; Van de Haar, P.

    2011-01-01

    Circular scanning with an off-center planar detector is an acquisi-tion scheme that allows to save detector area while keeping a largefield of view (FOV). Several filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithmshave been proposed earlier. The purpose of this work is to present twonewly developed back-

  17. Angle-resolved soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in a monatomic Fe layer facing an MgO(0 0 1) tunnel barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamiya, K. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Koide, T. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsuneharu.koide@kek.jp; Ishida, Y. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Osafune, Y. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Fujimori, A. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Katayama, T. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yuasa, S. [NanoElectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The electronic and magnetic states of a monatomic Fe(0 0 1) layer directly facing an MgO(0 0 1) tunnel barrier were studied by angle-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe L {sub 2,3} edges in the longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) arrangements. A strong XMCD reveals no oxidation of the 1-ML Fe, showing its crucial role in giant tunnel magnetoresistance effects in Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions. Sum-rule analyses of the angle-resolved XMCD give values of a spin moment, in-plane and out-of-plane orbital and magnetic dipole moments. Argument is given on their physical implication.

  18. Large anisotropic Fe orbital moments in perpendicularly magnetized Co2FeAl Heusler alloy thin films revealed by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Jun; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Wen, Zhenchao; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Heusler alloy Co2FeAl thin films sharing an interface with a MgO layer is investigated by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Orbital and spin magnetic moments are deduced separately for Fe and Co 3d electrons. In addition, the PMA energies are estimated using the orbital magnetic moments parallel and perpendicular to the film surfaces. We found that PMA in Co2FeAl is determined mainly by the contribution of Fe atoms with large orbital magnetic moments, which are enhanced at the interface between Co2FeAl and MgO. Furthermore, element specific magnetization curves of Fe and Co are found to be similar, suggesting the existence of ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Co PMA directions.

  19. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy of focused ion beam-induced magnetic patterns on iron–rhodium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohki, Atsushi; Aikoh, Kazuma; Shinoda, Ryoichi [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ohkochi, Takuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kotsugi, Masato [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kinoshita, Toyohiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Iwase, Akihiro [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Matsui, Toshiyuki, E-mail: t-matsui@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Iron–rhodium (FeRh) thin films were irradiated with a 30 keV Ga ion beam using a focused ion beam system to produce micrometer scale ferromagnetic square dot arrays. Two-dimensional magnetic square dot arrays with dimensions of 30 × 30, 10 × 10, and 5 × 5 μm were successfully produced on the FeRh surface, which was confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. The results of photoemission electron microscopy combined with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism revealed that the magnetization of the magnetic square dots could be controlled by changing the amount of irradiation. The magnetic domain structure of the magnetic square dots with sides of 5–30 μm was found to be a single domain structure, which was possibly influenced by the interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interfaces.

  20. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy of focused ion beam-induced magnetic patterns on iron-rhodium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohki, Atsushi; Aikoh, Kazuma; Shinoda, Ryoichi; Ohkochi, Takuo; Kotsugi, Masato; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Iwase, Akihiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    Iron-rhodium (FeRh) thin films were irradiated with a 30 keV Ga ion beam using a focused ion beam system to produce micrometer scale ferromagnetic square dot arrays. Two-dimensional magnetic square dot arrays with dimensions of 30 × 30, 10 × 10, and 5 × 5 μm were successfully produced on the FeRh surface, which was confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. The results of photoemission electron microscopy combined with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism revealed that the magnetization of the magnetic square dots could be controlled by changing the amount of irradiation. The magnetic domain structure of the magnetic square dots with sides of 5-30 μm was found to be a single domain structure, which was possibly influenced by the interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interfaces.

  1. Study on ferromagnetic ordering of FeRh thin films induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation by means of X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikoh, Kazuma; Tohki, Atsushi; Okuda, Shuichi; Saitoh, Yuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Iwase, Akihiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state of FeRh thin films with 10 MeV I ion beam by the measurements of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as well as of soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). It was clearly shown in the magnetization loops by SQUID measurements that the ion irradiation induced the ferromagnetic state in the FeRh thin films even below room temperature. This was also confirmed by the Fe L2,3-edge XMCD measurements for the irradiated FeRh film samples. However, we found that the irradiation ion fluence dependence on the magnetization was totally different between two measurement techniques. We also revealed by XMCD sum rule analysis that the ferromagnetism in the ion irradiated FeRh thin films was mainly dominated by the spin moment.

  2. Study on ferromagnetic ordering of FeRh thin films induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation by means of X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikoh, Kazuma; Tohki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Radiation Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Saitoh, Yuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan); Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kinoshita, Toyohiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Iwase, Akihiro [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Matsui, Toshiyuki, E-mail: t-matsui@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Research Organization of the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state of FeRh thin films with 10 MeV I ion beam by the measurements of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as well as of soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). It was clearly shown in the magnetization loops by SQUID measurements that the ion irradiation induced the ferromagnetic state in the FeRh thin films even below room temperature. This was also confirmed by the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edge XMCD measurements for the irradiated FeRh film samples. However, we found that the irradiation ion fluence dependence on the magnetization was totally different between two measurement techniques. We also revealed by XMCD sum rule analysis that the ferromagnetism in the ion irradiated FeRh thin films was mainly dominated by the spin moment.

  3. Conceptual design of X band waveguide dual circular polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Tantawi, Sami; Wang, Juwen

    2016-06-01

    A new design of dual circular polarizer is presented in this paper. This innovative design converts radiofrequency (rf) energy from TE10 mode in a rectangular waveguide to two polarized TE11 modes in a circular waveguide. A reflection less than -20 db is achieved and breakdown field is less than 42 MV /m at input of 1 MW. Meanwhile, this polarizer has a megahertz bandwidth, and the thermal stability is also discussed. This device can be used for broadcasting and receiving the circular polarized signals.

  4. Cluster model calculation for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at rare-earth (R) L sub 2 sub , sub 3 absorption edges in R sub 2 Fe sub 1 sub 4 B

    CERN Document Server

    Asakura, K; Harada, I; Ogasawara, H; Fukui, K; Kotani, A

    2002-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at the L sub 2 sub , sub 3 absorption edges for the entire series of rare-earth (RE) elements in R sub 2 Fe sub 1 sub 4 B (R=RE) is studied based on a cluster model including 10 RE and 16 Fe atoms. The cluster model takes into account band effects of RE 5d states, to which the electric dipole transition occurs from the core 2p states, as well as spin polarization of the 5d states due to the interatomic hybridization with the spin polarized Fe 3d states. We also take into account spin and orbital polarization of the 5d states due to the 5d-4f intra-atomic exchange interaction, and the 2p to 4f quadrupole transition. The calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones, suggesting that the cluster model calculation provides a new method to calculate quantitatively MCD spectra of RE systems with complicated atomic arrangements. (author)

  5. Polarized hard X-ray photoemission system with micro-positioning technique for probing ground-state symmetry of strongly correlated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hidenori; Naimen, Sho; Higashiya, Atsushi; Kanai, Yuina; Yomosa, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Kohei; Kiss, Takayuki; Kadono, Toshiharu; Imada, Shin; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Takase, Kouichi; Otsuka, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Suga, Shigemasa; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sekiyama, Akira

    2016-05-01

    An angle-resolved linearly polarized hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) system has been developed to study the ground-state symmetry of strongly correlated materials. The linear polarization of the incoming X-ray beam is switched by a transmission-type phase retarder composed of two diamond (100) crystals. The best value of the degree of linear polarization was found to be -0.96, containing a vertical polarization component of 98%. A newly developed low-temperature two-axis manipulator enables easy polar and azimuthal rotations to select the detection direction of photoelectrons. The lowest temperature achieved was 9 K, offering the chance to access the ground state even for strongly correlated electron systems in cubic symmetry. A co-axial sample monitoring system with long-working-distance microscope enables the same region on the sample surface to be measured before and after rotation. Combining this sample monitoring system with a micro-focused X-ray beam by means of an ellipsoidal Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror (25 µm × 25 µm FWHM), polarized valence-band HAXPES has been performed on NiO for voltage application as resistive random access memory to demonstrate the micro-positioning technique and polarization switching.

  6. Circularly Polarized Broadband RFID Microstrip Tag Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of radio frequency identification (RFID operating in the ultra-high frequency (UHF band (860-960MHz are expanding exponentially, due to the advantages such as long reading distance, high data transfer rate, and small tag size. So the design of a CP tag antenna with broadband characteristic is presently one of the most challenging topics. This project presents a square patch passive RFID tag antenna designed for UHF band. To achieve compact size broadband and circular polarization (CP radiation, the square patch is embedded with a cross slot, while an L-shaped open-end microstrip line coupled to the patch. By selecting an appropriate length for the microstrip line and its coupling distance with the radiating element, easy control on the input impedance of the designed tag antenna which leads to excellent impedance matching is achieved. The measured 10-dB return-loss bandwidth of the tag antenna is 27MHz (from 901–928 MHz.

  7. Polarized neutron reflectivity and X-ray scattering measurements as tools to study properties of Pt/Co/Pt ultrathin layers irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Wojciech; Ott, Frédéric; Kisielewski, Jan; Sveklo, Iosif; Dynowska, Elżbieta; Minikayev, Roman; Kurant, Zbigniew; Kuna, Rafał; Jakubowski, Marcin; Wawro, Andrzej; Sobierajski, Ryszard; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    We have used polarized neutron reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and magneto-optical Kerr effect in polar configuration to study the properties of ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films. Structures consisting of a 5-nm thick Pt buffer, 3-nm thick Co layer and 5-nm thick Pt cover layer were deposited onto (0001)-oriented Al2O3 substrate by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method. Irreversible modifications of film properties, resulting from its illumination by single femtosecond laser pulses, of duration of 40 fs and wavelength of 800 nm, were observed and analyzed. As prepared films exhibited magnetization in-plane, but after laser irradiation, the direction of magnetization was rotated to out-of-plane state. Formation of Co-Pt alloy phase caused by quasi-uniform film irradiation was demonstrated by the results of X-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Moreover, polarized neutron and X-ray reflectivity data showed that after illumination Co was distributed mostly in the area of nominal Co layer and Pt cover layer and its diffusion into the Pt buffer was less significant.

  8. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  9. High quality multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, H.; Boeni, P.; Breitmeier, U.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mertins, H.C.; Schaefers, F. [BESSY, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In an effort to develop optical components for X-rays with wavelengths in the water window (2.3 -4.4 nm) multilayer structures have been designed for the following applications: in transmission as phase shifters to change linear into circular polarization, in reflection as mirrors close to normal incidence and as linear polarizers at an angle of incidence of 45{sup o}. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  10. Polarized X-ray absorption spectra and electronic structure of molybdenite (2H-MoS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dien; Bancroft, G. M.; Kasrai, M.; Fleet, M. E.; Feng, X. H.; Tan, K. H.

    1995-03-01

    Polarized S K- and L-edge, Mo L3- and L2-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of natural molybdenite (2H-MoS2) have been measured with synchrotron radiation. These results are qualitatively interpreted using the energy band model of molybdenite and provide important information on the unoccupied states of molybdenite. The valence band (VB) maximum of molybdenite is characterized by fully occupied Mo 4dz 2, and the conduction band (CB) minimum of molybdenite is characterized by unoccupied Mo 4d states. The unoccupied Mo 4d band is split into two sub-bands, designated as t{2g/-}/t{2g/+}and e{g/-}/e{g/+}sets. Although the relative energy of these two sets are difficult to be evaluated, probably the former has the lower energy than the latter, both two sets have the combination wave functions of the other unoccupied Mo 4d components, rather than the simple 4dx 2 — y2 and 4dxy states. The unoccupied Mo 4d sub-bands contain significant DOS of both S 3 p- and 3 s-like states, indicating strong hybridization with S 3s and 3 p states. In the lower energy sub-band, the DOS of the S pz- and px,y-like states are very similar. However, in the higher energy sub-band, the DOS of the S 3 px,y-like state is lower than that of the S 3pz state. Polarized S K-edge XANES also reveal the features of antibonding S pz- and px,y-like states in molybdenite. The feature assigned to the S 3 pz-like states is stronger and sharper, and shifts to lower energy by about 2 eV relative to that for the S 3 px,y-like states.

  11. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    M Khalily; Kamarudin, M. R.; Mokayef, M.; Sh. Danesh; Ghahferokhi, S. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP) C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR) bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA) with good r...

  12. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.

  13. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: new evidences from element- and site-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Juhin, Amélie; Wang, Yinzhao; Chen, Haitao; Bunau, Oana; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Pan, Yongxin

    2016-08-01

    The biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science due to the precise morphology of the particles, the chain-like assembly and their unique magnetic properties. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. Despite some successful outcomes, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remain largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe(2+) ions by Co(2+) ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Both XMCD at Fe and Co L2,3 edges, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt occurring either in different particles or inside individual particles. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study also demonstrates that the addition of trace cobalt in the growth medium can significantly improve both the cell growth and the magnetosome formation within M. magneticum AMB-1. Together with the cobalt occupancy within the spinel structure of magnetosomes, this study indicates that MTB may provide a promising biomimetic system for producing chains of metal-doped single-domain magnetite with an appropriate tuning of the magnetic properties for technological and biomedical applications. PMID:27512138

  14. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin

    2015-12-01

    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge. PMID:26585281

  15. Metamaterial optical diodes for linearly and circularly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, E; Zheludev, N I

    2010-01-01

    The total intensity of light transmitted at non-normal incidence thorough planar metamaterials can be different for forward and backward propagation. For metamaterial patterns of different symmetries we observe this effect for circularly or linearly polarized light.

  16. Cascade effects on the polarization of He-like Fe 1s 2l - 1s2 X-ray line emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakel, P; Mancini, R; Harris, C; Neill, P; Beiersdorfer, P; Csanak, G; Zhang, H

    2006-12-21

    We calculate X-ray line polarization degrees for cases with axial symmetry using a collisional-radiative magnetic-sublevel atomic kinetics model and the properties of multipole radiation fields. This approach is well-suited for problems where the alignment is determined by the competition between many atomic processes. We benchmark this method against polarization measurements performed at the Livermore electron beam ion trap, and we study the 3-to-2 cascade effects on the polarization of 2-to-1 lines in He-like Fe.

  17. Probing Ferroelectricity in PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 with Polarized Soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Fraile-Rodriguez, A.; Yu, P.; He, Q.; Ramesh, R.

    2010-06-07

    The reduction in symmetry associated with the onset of ferroelectric order in PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films leads to a pronounced difference at the Ti L{sub 3,2} absorption edges between spectra measured with the x-ray linear polarization perpendicular and parallel to the ferroelectric polarization. We introduce a general method to analyze the observed difference spectra using atomic multiplet calculations. Moreover, we find experimental evidence for structural changes in PZT induced by the reversal of the ferroelectric polarization.

  18. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    OpenAIRE

    Airey Robert; Brasil Maria; Henini Mohamed; Orlita Milan; Kunc Jan; Maude Duncan; dos Santos Lara; Gobato Yara; Teodoro Márcio; Lopez-Richard Victor; Marques Gilmar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular ...

  19. Contactless Measurement of Angular Velocity using Circularly Polarized Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Sipal, Vit; Narbudowicz, Adam; Ammann, Max

    2014-01-01

    An innovative method to measure the angular velocity using circularly polarized antennas is proposed. Due to the properties of circular polarization, the angular velocity is frequency modulated (FM) on a wireless carrier. This enables a low-cost precise continuous measurement of angular velocity using a standard FM demodulator. The hardware can be easily adapted for both high and low angular velocity values. The precise alignment angle between the antennas can be determined if the initial ant...

  20. K-edge x-ray dichroism investigation of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si: Experimental evidence for spin polarization crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearne, G.R., E-mail: grhearne@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Diguet, G. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Baudelet, F.; Itié, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Manyala, N. [Department of Physics and Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2015-04-01

    Both Fe and Co K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) have been employed as element-specific probes of the magnetic moments in the composition series of the disordered ferromagnet Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si (for x=0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5). A definitive single peaked XMCD profile occurs for all compositions at both Fe and Co K-edges. The Fe 4p orbital moment, deduced from the integral of the XMCD signal, has a steep dependence on x at low doping levels and evolves to a different (weaker) dependence at x≥0.3, similar to the behavior of the magnetization in the Co composition range studied here. It is systematically higher, by at least a factor of two, than the corresponding Co orbital moment for most of the composition series. Fine structure beyond the K-edge absorption (limited range EXAFS) suggests that the local order (atomic environment) is very similar across the series, from the perspective of both the Fe and Co absorbing atom. The variation in the XMCD integral across the Co composition range has two regimes, that which occurs below x=0.3 and then evolves to different behavior at higher doping levels. This is more conspicuously present in the Fe contribution. This is rationalized as the evolution from a half-metallic ferromagnet at low Co doping to that of a strong ferromagnet at x>0.3 and as such, spin polarization crossover occurs. The Fermi level is tuned from the majority spin band for x<0.3 where a strongly polarized majority spin electron gas prevails, to a regime where minority spin carriers dominate at higher doping. The evolution of the Fe-derived spin polarized (3d) bands, indirectly probed here via the 4p states, is the primary determinant of the doping dependence of the magnetism in this alloy series. - Highlights: • Element-specific probing of the electronic structure of the Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si series. • XMCD at the level of 10{sup −4} at the K-edge in such low-moment systems. • Element-specific probing of magnetic contributions

  1. Broadband circularly polarized planar antenna using partially covered circular wide-slot and L-probe

    OpenAIRE

    Fukusako, Takeshi; Sakami, Ryo; Iwata, Kazuki; フクサコ, タケシ; サカミ, リョウ; イワタ, カズキ; 福迫, 武; 酒見, 遼; 岩田, 一樹

    2008-01-01

    The novel structure of a unique circularly polarized broadband antenna that combines an L-shaped probe with a partially covered circular slot has been presented. A principle that can be used to generate CP using the proposed structure has been presented using an L-shaped probe and a modified circular wide slot. Using the above, a 3 -dB AR bandwidth of 58% and matching bandwidth of 57% were obtained at 3.2 GHz.

  2. Dual frequency launcher for circularly polarized antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming H.

    1989-10-01

    A dual frequency antenna feed is formed from a central, circular waveguide connected to the flat boundry of circular, disk-shaped resonant cavity. A second circular waveguide is connected one end of a disk-shaped resonant cavity. Energy of one frequency enters and exits the cavity along the common axis of the waveguides. Energy of the second frequency is introduced to the same resonant cavity by way of a plurality of bandpass filters, also connected to the cavity. This energy enters by way of slots in the cylindrical walls of the cavity. The central circular waveguide is propagating at one frequency but cut off at the second frequency. These bandpass filters are at this pass band for the second frequency, but at the rejection band for the first frequency. Therefore, the isolation between these two input ports are obtained.

  3. Measuring magnetisation reversal in micron-sized Nd2Fe14B single crystals by microbeam x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Akira; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, T.; Lee, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetisation reversal of micron-sized Nd2Fe14B single crystals with magnetisation as weak as 10-9 emu (1 µm size) was studied. Single-crystal specimens (cylinders with diameter and height of 1 to 6 µm) were prepared by focused-ion beam so that both the magnetic easy and hard axes were included in the basal plane. Their magnetic hysteresis loops were measured when they were rotated with respect to the cylindrical axis by using microbeam hard-x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) under transmission geometry. It was found that coercivity is inversely proportional to the cosine of the angle between the magnetocrystalline easy axis and magnetic-field direction and that the magnetisation reversal is dominated by domain-wall pinning in two different modes. One is related to penetration of the reversed domain nucleated in a subsurface soft layer into the bulk hard phase, of which the hysteresis loops exhibit a single-stage abrupt jump in magnetization. The other mode is pinning of the walls within the bulk grain, of which the hysteresis loops exhibit a plateau. The multi-domain structure associated with the pinning was confirmed by XMCD mapping. The proposed method fills the gap between conventional bulk magnetic measurement and submicron-scale electrical-transport measurement for nanofabricated thin films and/or fine particles. It is expected to provide new insights into elemental magnetisation processes in micron-scale regions.

  4. The X-ray Spectrum and Spectral Energy Distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL Quasar with a Probable Polar Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Berrington, Robert C; Gallagher, Sarah C; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D; Hall, Patrick B; Laurent-Muehleisen, S A

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e., an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Gamma = 1.7 or flatter at a >99% confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 10^23 cm^-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providi...

  5. Simulation of erasure of photoinduced anisotropy by circularly polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, Á.; Barabás, M.;

    2001-01-01

    The temporal evolution of photoinduced birefringence is investigated on the basis of a model proposed by Pedersen and co-workers, This model is extended for the case of elliptically polarized light, and used to describe the erasure of photoinduced birefringence by circularly polarized light...

  6. Circular polarization measurements with a Ge(Li) detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1969-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in measurements of the degree of circular polarization of gamma transitions to bound states of 33S, 36Cl, 49Ti, 56Mn, 57Fe, 60Co and 64Cu following the capture of polarized thermal neutrons. Spin values have been determined on the basis of these results....

  7. Circular polarization of transmitted light by sapphirinidae copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Baar

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, generated from specific organs of the animal's body, especially on the dorsal cephalosome and prosome. Such CP transmittance may be generated by phase retardance either in the muscle fibers or in the multilayer membrane structure found underneath the cuticle. Although the role, if any, played by circularly polarized light in Sapphirinidae has yet to be clarified, in other animals it was suggested to take part in mate choice, species recognition, and other forms of communication.Planktonic Sapphirinidae copepods were found to circularly polarize the light passing through them. Circular polarization may be created by unique, multilayered features of the membrane structure found under their cuticle or by organized muscle fibers.

  8. Electrically small circularly polarized spherical antenna with air core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2013-01-01

    An electrically small circularly polarized self-resonant spherical antenna with air core is presented. The antenna is a modified multiarm spherical helix exciting TM10 and TE10 spherical modes with equal radiated power, and thus yielding perfect circular polarization over the entire far......-field sphere (except the polar regions, where the radiation is low). The self-resonance is achieved by exciting higher-order TM modes, which provide the necessary electric stored energy in the near-field, while contributing negligibly to the far-field radiation of the antenna. The antenna has electrical size...

  9. Electron-atom scattering in a circularly polarized laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Cionga, Aurelia; Zloh, Gabriela; 10.1103/PhysRevA.61.063417

    2013-01-01

    We consider electron-atom scattering in a circularly polarized laser field at sufficiently high electron energies, permitting to describe the scattering process by the first order Born approximation. Assuming the radiation field has sufficiently moderate intensities, the laser-dressing of the hydrogen target atom in its ground state will be treated in second order perturbation theory. Within this approximation scheme, it is shown that the nonlinear differential cross sections of free-free transitions do neither depend on the {\\it dynamical phase} $\\phi$ of the radiative process nor on the {\\it helicity} of the circularly polarized laser light. Relations to the corresponding results for linear laser polarization are established.

  10. Dissipation of non-linear circularly polarized Alfven waves

    CERN Document Server

    Turkmani, R

    2001-01-01

    We study propagating Alfven waves by solving the time-dependent equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in one dimension numerically. In a homogeneous medium the circularly polarized Alfven wave is an exact solution of the ideal MHD equations, and therefore it does not suffer from any dissipation. A high-amplitude linearly polarized Alfven wave, on the other hand, steepens and form current sheets, in which the Poynting flux is lost. In a stratified medium, however, a high-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave can also lose a significant fraction of its Poynting flux.

  11. Circularly polarized unidirectional emission via a coupled plasmonic spiral antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Guanghao; Nelson, Robert L; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-12-01

    In this Letter, we study the emission properties of an electric dipole emitter coupled to a plasmonic spiral structure. The plasmonic spiral structure functions as an optical antenna, coupling the electric dipole emission into circularly polarized unidirectional emission in the far field. Increasing number of turns of the spiral leads to narrower angular width of the emission pattern in the far field. For a spiral antenna with six turns, antenna directivity of 23.5 dB with a directional emission into a narrow angular cone of 4.3° can be achieved. The emitted photons carry spin that is essentially determined by the handedness of the spiral antenna. By reversing the spiral, one can switch the polarization of the emission field between left-hand and right-hand circular polarizations. The spiral antenna may be used as a nanoscale circular polarization source in single molecule sensing, single-photo sources, and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:22139233

  12. Developing a Compton Polarimeter to Measure Polarization of Hard X-Rays in the 50-300 keV Energy Range

    CERN Document Server

    Legere, J S; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead, to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern fo...

  13. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH(+) ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3 (+) has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10(13) W/cm(2) and 3.15 × 10(13) W/cm(2), respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3 (+). The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene. PMID:27586924

  14. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH+ ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3+ has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 1013 W/cm2 and 3.15 × 1013 W/cm2, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3+. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene.

  15. High-resolution dichroic imaging of magnetic flux distributions in superconductors with scanning x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoß, S., E-mail: ruoss@is.mpg.de; Stahl, C.; Weigand, M.; Schütz, G. [MPI for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, J. [Research Institute for Innovative Surfaces, FINO, Aalen University, Beethovenstr. 1, D-73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2015-01-12

    The penetration of magnetic flux into high-temperature superconductors has been observed using a high-resolution technique based on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Superconductors coated with thin soft-magnetic layers are observed in a scanning x-ray microscope under the influence of external magnetic fields. Resulting electric currents in the superconductor create an inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution above the superconductor and lead to a local reorientation of the ferromagnetic layer. Measuring the local magnetization of the ferromagnet by x-ray absorption microscopy with circular-polarized radiation allows the analysis of the magnetic flux distribution in the superconductor with a spatial resolution on the nanoscale.

  16. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    CERN Document Server

    Wiersema, K; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Gotz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Farina, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovski, V; Willingale, R

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet, when measured minutes after the burst, and the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after burst in GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and negligable circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blastwave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized optical light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.1...

  17. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airey Robert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T. The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects.

  18. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lara F; Gobato, Yara Galvão; Teodoro, Márcio D; Lopez-Richard, Victor; Marques, Gilmar E; Brasil, Maria Jsp; Orlita, Milan; Kunc, Jan; Maude, Duncan K; Henini, Mohamed; Airey, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects. PMID:21711613

  19. Design and simulation of a novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics was designed using co-simulation of Ansoft HFSS and Designer software. It consists of a dual-polarized antenna and phase switching network which act as the feed network for the dual-polarized antenna. The phase switching network was designed based on a Wilkinson power divider, where the output port was connected with SPDT to form a switching network. By controlling the SPDT state-off / on, the phase difference of the two ports could be alternated, which generated the orthogonal modes between the two ports of dual-polarized antenna. So that Left-hand circular polarization (LHCP and Right-hand circular polarization (RHCP could be achieved. The simulation shown that reflection coefficient was less than -12 dB and the axial ratio was below 3 dB between 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz with polarization reconfigurable characteristics.

  20. Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna with Post Manufacture Characteristic Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Narbudowicz, Adam; Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2013-01-01

    We propose an omnidirectional circularly polarised planar microstrip patch antenna, in which both impedance bandwidth and circular polarization properties can be adjusted after antenna manufacture. This is done by appropriately tuning four adjustable capacitors, incorporated into the patches. To demonstrate the properties, the proposed antenna is tuned to the GPS L1 band and then re-tuned for Beidou/Galileo E2 band by only changing capacitors values. Design guidelines for such retuning are pr...

  1. Sulfur K{beta} x-ray emission from carbonyl sulfide: Variations with polarization and excitation energy at the S K threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, K.E. [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Arp, U. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Southworth, S.H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Meehan, T.E.; Walsh, T.R.; Larkins, F.P. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, (Australia) 3052

    1998-04-01

    Sulfur K{beta} x-ray-emission spectra from carbonyl sulfide have been measured with resonant excitation at the sulfur K absorption threshold and compared with results of self-consistent field and singles-doubles configuration-interaction calculations. For excitation to the strong 4{pi} absorption resonance, a splitting of the main emission peak is interpreted in terms of influence of the 4{pi} electron on the final valence-hole states. The polarization selectivity of the emission spectrometer was used to distinguish emission polarized parallel versus perpendicular with respect to the polarization of the excitation radiation. The observed polarization dependence is consistent with the molecular symmetries of the calculated intermediate and final states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Frequency-reconfigurable water antenna of circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Meng; Pan, Jin [Department of Microwave Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China); Shen, Zhongxiang, E-mail: ezxshen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-04

    A circularly polarized frequency-reconfigurable water antenna with high radiation efficiency is proposed based on the design concept of combining a frequency-reconfigurable radiating structure with a frequency-independent feeding structure. In this letter, a resonator made of distilled water and an Archimedean spiral slot are employed as the radiating and feeding structures, respectively. The operating frequency of the antenna can be continuously tuned over a very wide range while maintaining good impendence matching and circular polarization by changing the dimensions of the water resonator. A prototype antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that the designed antenna exhibits a wide tuning frequency range from 155 MHz to 400 MHz with an average radiation efficiency of about 90% and good circular polarization.

  3. Frequency-reconfigurable water antenna of circular polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meng; Shen, Zhongxiang; Pan, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized frequency-reconfigurable water antenna with high radiation efficiency is proposed based on the design concept of combining a frequency-reconfigurable radiating structure with a frequency-independent feeding structure. In this letter, a resonator made of distilled water and an Archimedean spiral slot are employed as the radiating and feeding structures, respectively. The operating frequency of the antenna can be continuously tuned over a very wide range while maintaining good impendence matching and circular polarization by changing the dimensions of the water resonator. A prototype antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that the designed antenna exhibits a wide tuning frequency range from 155 MHz to 400 MHz with an average radiation efficiency of about 90% and good circular polarization.

  4. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalily

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA with good radiation characteristics offers an impedance bandwidth of 58% between 3.45 and 6.26 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2. The proposed DRA is fabricated and tested. Very good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.

  5. Inkjet printed circularly polarized antennas for GPS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Two novel, inkjet printed circularly polarized antenna designs are presented for GPS applications. First antenna design comprises a planar monopole which has been made circularly polarized by the introduction of an L-shaped slit. The antenna shows a gain of 0.2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.8%. The second antenna design comprises a modified monopole in the form of an inverted L and has been termed as circularly polarized inverted L antenna (CILA). The antenna shows a gain of -2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 4.1%. Both the antenna designs are attractive for mobile applications.

  6. Characterization and remote sensing of biological particles using circular polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Nagdimunov, Lev; Mackowski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Biological molecules are characterized by an intrinsic asymmetry known as homochirality. The result is optical activity of biological materials and circular polarization in the light scattered by microorganisms, cells of living organisms, as well as molecules (e.g. amino acids) of biological origin. Lab measurements (Sparks et al. 2009a, b) have found that light scattered by certain biological systems, in particular photosynthetic organisms, is not only circular polarized but contains a characteristic spectral trend, showing a fast change and reversal of sign for circular polarization within absorption bands. Similar behavior can be expected for other biological and prebiological organics, especially amino acids. We begin our study by reproducing the laboratory measurements for photosynthetic organisms through modeling the biological material as aggregated structures and using the Multiple Sphere T-matrix (MSTM) code for light scattering calculations. We further study how the spectral effect described above d...

  7. Convective motions and net circular polarization in sunspot penumbrae

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have employed a penumbral model, that includes the Evershed flow and convective motions inside penumbral filaments, to reproduce the azimuthal variation of the net circular polarization (NCP) in sunspot penumbrae at different heliocentric angles for two different spectral lines. The theoretical net circular polarization fits the observations as satisfactorily as penumbral models based on flux-tubes. The reason for this is that the effect of convective motions on the NCP is very small compared to the effect of the Evershed flow. In addition, the NCP generated by convective upflows cancels out the NCP generated by the downflows. We have also found that, in order to fit the observed NCP, the strength of the magnetic field inside penumbral filaments must be very close to 1000 G. In particular, field-free or weak-field filaments fail to reproduce both the correct sign of the net circular polarization, as well as its dependence on the azimuthal and heliocentric angles.

  8. Recent Progress in Chirality Research Using Circularly Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Fukue, Tsubasa

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We review recent studies of chirality using circularly polarized light, along with the birth and evolution of life and planetary systems. Terrestrial life consists almost exclusively of one enantiomer, left-handed amino acids. This characteristic feature is called homochirality, whose origin is still unknown. The route to homogeneity of chirality would be connected with the origin and development of life on early Earth along with evolution of the solar system. Detections of enantiomeric excess in several meteorites support the possibility that the seed of life was injected from space, considering the possible destruction and racemization in the perilous environment on early Earth. Circularly polarized light could bring the enantiomeric excess of prebiotic molecules in space. Recent experimental works on photochemistry under ultraviolet circularly polarized light are remarkable. Recent astronomical observations by imaging polarimetry of star-forming regions are now revealing the distribution of circ...

  9. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  10. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

  11. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Biao Li; Yang Ding; Ying-Zeng Yin

    2016-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated...

  12. Study of the ultrafast polarization dynamics in lithium borohydride by means of femtosecond X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the ultrafast electronic polarisation in the crystalline material lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is examined. The material is excited by a femtosecond long optical pulse and scanned by a likewise short X-ray pulse. Using X-ray scattering the optically induced spatial rearrangement of electronic charge can be directly mapped with atomic spatial resolution. Copper K-alpha X-rays for the experiment are produced in a laboratory table-top laserplasma source with 1 kHz repetition rate. This radiation is then focused on a powdered sample. Debye-Scherrer rings produced from powder diffraction are collected on a large area detector and processed to yield intensity profiles. Using pump-probe technique the change in diffracted intensity, triggered by excitation with a femtosecond optical pulse is examined. The temporal resolution is given by the delay between pump and probe pulse. This way insight is gained into the dynamic electronic evolution of the system. Intensity changes can be correlated to changes in charge density in the relevant material to elucidate structural dynamics on the femtosecond time scale. Lithium borohydride was chosen since it displays necessary characteristics for the exploration of ultrafast electronic polarisation. Up to date there has been no spatially resolved research in the femtosecond regime elucidating this electronic phenomenon. This work presents the ultrafast resonse in Lithiumborhydrid (LiBH4) to strong electronic fields with optical frequencies, which leads to charge relocation accompanied by electronic polarisation.

  13. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  14. Polarization dependent hard X-ray photoemission experiments for solids: Efficiency and limits for unraveling the orbital character of the valence band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinen, J., E-mail: Jonas.Weinen@cpfs.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Koethe, T.C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Chang, C.F.; Agrestini, S.; Kasinathan, D. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Liao, Y.F. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science-Park, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China); Fujiwara, H.; Schüßler-Langeheine, C.; Strigari, F.; Haupricht, T. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Panaccione, G. [TASC Laboratory, IOM-CNR, Area Science Park, S.S.14, Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Offi, F. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Monaco, G.; Huotari, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Tsuei, K.-D. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science-Park, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China); Tjeng, L.H. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Efficiency and limits of polarization dependent HAXPES for solid state systems. • The polarization dependence is less than expected from atomic cross-sections. • Still high contrast (∼20–25) for s orbitals. • Quantitative determination of contributions to the valence band. - Abstract: We have investigated the efficiency and limits of polarization dependent hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) in order to establish how well this method can be used to unravel quantitatively the contributions of the orbitals forming the valence band of solids. By rotating the energy analyzer rather than the polarization vector of the light using a phase retarder, we obtained the advantage that the full polarization of the light is available for the investigation. Using NiO, ZnO, and Cu{sub 2}O as examples for solid state materials, we established that the polarization dependence is much larger than in photoemission experiments utilizing ultra-violet or soft X-ray light. Yet we also have discovered that the polarization dependence is less than complete on the basis of atomic calculations, strongly suggesting that the trajectories of the outgoing electrons are affected by appreciable side-scattering processes even at these high kinetic energies. We have found in our experiment that these can be effectively described as a directional spread of ±18° of the photoelectrons. This knowledge allows us to identify, for example, reliably the Ni 3d spectral weight of the NiO valence band and at the same time to demonstrate the importance of the Ni 4s for the chemical stability of the compound.

  15. Soft x-ray polarimeter laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kendrah D.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Jenks, Kevin; Sommer, Sophie J. B.; Marshall, Eric A.

    2010-07-01

    Multilayer-coated optics can strongly polarize X-rays and are central to a new design of a broad-band, soft X-ray polarimeter. We have begun laboratory work to verify the performance of components that could be used in future soft X-ray polarimetric instrumentation. We have reconfigured a 17 meter beamline facility, originally developed for testing transmission gratings for Chandra, to include a polarized X-ray source, an X-ray-dispersing transmission grating, and a multilayer-coated optic that illuminates a CCD detector. The X-rays produced from a Manson Model 5, multi-anode source are polarized by a multilayer-coated flat mirror. The current configuration allows for a 180 degree rotation of the source in order to rotate the direction of polarization. We will present progress in source characterization and system modulation measurements as well as null and robustness tests.

  16. Dual-frequency Dual-sense Circularly-polarized Slot Antenna Fed by Microstrip Line

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2008-01-01

    A new design of a dual-frequency dual circularly-polarized slot antenna is presented. The dual-frequency is achieved using a single-layer microstrip-fed configuration coupled to a modified annular-slot antenna. The dual sense circular-polarization is obtained by four unequal linear slots which augment the annular slot. Experimental results show the proposed antenna has good circular polarization characteristics for both right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) and left-hand circular polarizati...

  17. Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Yan, E-mail: yzhang@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Metamaterials and Devices, and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang, Xinke [Beijing Key Laboratory for Metamaterials and Devices, and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Kan, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Qu, Shiliang [Optoelectronics Department, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2015-12-14

    A practical circular polarization analyzer (CPA) that can selectively focus surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at two separate locations, according to the helicity of the circularly polarized light, is designed and experimentally verified in the terahertz frequency range. The CPA consists of fishbone-slit units and is designed using the simulated annealing algorithm. By differentially detecting the intensities of the two SPPs focuses, the helicity of the incident circularly polarized light can be obtained and the CPA is less vulnerable to the noise of incident light. The proposed device may also have wide potential applications in chiral SPPs photonics and the analysis of chiral molecules in biology.

  18. Anomalous elastic scattering of linearly polarized X-ray radiation by multicharged atomic ions in the range of the ionization threshold of the 1s-shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopersky, A.N. E-mail: phys@rgups.ru; Novikov, S.A.; Chuvenkov, V.V

    2002-04-01

    The absolute values and shape of differential cross-section of the process of the anomalous elastic scattering for non-zero angle are investigated within non-relativistic approximation for linearly polarized X-ray radiation scattered by multicharged atomic ions Ne{sup 6+} in the range of the ionization threshold of 1s-shell. The many-particle effects of radial rearrangement of electron shells in the field of an inner 1s-vacancy and the effect of vacancy stabilization are taken into account. The results of the work are predictions.

  19. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K; Covino, S; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Götz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; di Serego Alighieri, S; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Fariña, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovsky, V; Willingale, R

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets. PMID:24776800

  20. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; Varela, K.; Min, M.; Greiner, J.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Campana, S.; Curran, P. A.; Fan, Y.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Gomboc, A.; Götz, D.; Hjorth, J.; Jin, Z. P.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mundell, C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Pian, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Russell, D. M.; Salvaterra, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.; Elliott, J.; Fariña, C.; Hartoog, O. E.; Karjalainen, R.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Levan, A. J.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Willingale, R.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets.

  1. High-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS at Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T; U. Flechsig; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A; Q. Chen; J. Raabe; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; A. Piazzalunga; X Wang; Grioni, M.; Patthey, L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES). The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0-180 deg rotatable linear polarizations) but als...

  2. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T; U. Flechsig; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A; Q. Chen; J. Raabe; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; X Wang; Grioni, M.; A. Piazzalunga; Patthey, L.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also...

  3. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  4. Dual-band circularly polarized microstrip antenna for GPS application

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Ayukawa, Daisuke; Iwanaga, Kouhei; Taguchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the small dual-band circularly polarized square MSAs for GPS application is proposed and the operational principles and the characteristics of the antenna are clarified by the simulator. The antenna consists of a square patch with slits and four T-shaped elements. The T-shaped element is loaded at each slit of the square patch.

  5. Circularly Polarized Antenna with Wide Projection and Range: A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanAtta, L. C.; Mailloux, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    The slotted antenna structure discussed in this tech brief radiates a circularly polarized beam pattern over a wide angle. The basic structure, composed of waveguide slots, can be flush mounted in an airplane or spacecraft, and could be used in the communication link between an airplane and an air traffic satellite.

  6. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  7. Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Yan; Wang, Li; Tian, Jingxuan; Dai, Shiwei; Wen, Weijia

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a bi-layer ultrathin anisotropic metasurface which could near-completely convert the circular-polarized electromagnetic wave to its cross polarization. The bi-layer metasurface is composed of periodic 180°-twisted double-cut split ring resonators on both sides of an F4B substrate. At resonance, cross-polarized transmission larger than 94% is observed both in simulations and experiments. The resonant frequency of the metasurface could be effectively tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters of the metasurface, while relatively high conversion efficiency is preserved. The high efficiency and ease of fabrication suggest that the ultrathin metasurface could have potential applications in telecommunications.

  8. Analysis of Circular Polarization of Cylindrically Bent Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When circularly polarized (CP microstrip antennas are bent, the polarization becomes elliptical. We present a simple model that describes the phenomenon. The two linear modes present in a CP patch are modeled separately and added together to produce CP. Bending distorts the almost-spherical equiphase surface of a linearly polarized patch, which leads to phase imbalance in the far-field of a CP patch. The model predicts both the frequency shifting of the axial ratio band as well as the narrowing of the axial ratio beam. Uncontrolled bending is a problem associated especially with flexible textile antennas, and wearable antennas should therefore be designed somewhat conformal.

  9. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  10. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  11. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi, E-mail: yokojima@toyaku.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukaminato, Tuyoshi [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ohtani, Hiroyuki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: snakamura@riken.jp [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  12. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-01

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  13. Design and simulation of a novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Wei Guo; Ge Yue He; Lv Shan Ce

    2016-01-01

    A novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics was designed using co-simulation of Ansoft HFSS and Designer software. It consists of a dual-polarized antenna and phase switching network which act as the feed network for the dual-polarized antenna. The phase switching network was designed based on a Wilkinson power divider, where the output port was connected with SPDT to form a switching network. By controlling the SPDT state-off / on, the phase differen...

  14. Compact-Size Low-Profile Wideband Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Patch Antenna With Reconfigurable Polarizations

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yuan-Ming; Gao, Steven; Yin, Yingzeng; Li, Wenting; Luo, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A compact-size low-profile wideband circularly polarized (CP) omnidirectional antenna with reconfigurable polarizations is presented in this communication. This design is based on a low-profile omnidirectional CP antenna which consists of a vertically polarized microstrip patch antenna working in TM01/TM02 modes and sequentially bended slots etched on the ground plane for radiating horizontally polarized electric field. The combined radiation from both the microstrip patch and the slots leads...

  15. The Magnetic Properties of an L Dwarf Derived from Simultaneous Radio, X-ray, and H-alpha Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, E.; Rutledge, R. E.; Reid, I N; Bildsten, L.; Gizis, J. E.; Liebert, J.; martin, E.; Basri, G.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brandeker, A.; Fleming, T.A.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Giampapa, M. S.; Hawley, S. L.; Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first simultaneous, multi-wavelength observations of an L dwarf, the L3.5 candidate brown dwarf 2MASS J00361617+1821104, conducted with the Very Large Array, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope. We detect strongly variable and periodic radio emission (P=3 hr) with a fraction of about 60% circular polarization. No X-ray emission is detected to a limit of L_X/L_{bol}

  16. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    In this thesis, developments of rectangular microstrip patch antenna to have circular polarization agility with wideband performance, for wireless applications are presented. First, a new technique to achieve circularly polarized (CP) probe feed single-layer microstrip patch antenna with wideband characteristics is proposed. The antenna is a modified form of the popular E-shaped patch, used to broaden the impedance bandwidth of a basic rectangular patch antenna. This is established by letting the two parallel slots of the E-patch unequal. Thus, by introducing asymmetry two orthogonal currents on the patch are excited and circularly polarized fields are realized. The proposed technique exhibits the advantage of the simplicity inherent in the E-shaped patch design. It requires only slot lengths, widths, and position parameters to be determined. Also, it is suitable for later adding the reconfigurable capability. With the aid of full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS, investigations on the effect of various dimensions of the antenna have been carried out via parametric analysis. Based on these investigations, a design procedure for a CP E-shaped patch is summarized. Various design examples with different substrate thicknesses and material types are presented and compared, with CP U-slot patch antennas, recently proposed in the literature. A prototype has been constructed following the suggested design procedure to cover the IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN band. The performance of the fabricated antenna was measured and compared with the simulation results for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measured results demonstrating a high gain and wideband performance. Second, a polarization reconfigurable single feed E-shaped patch antenna with wideband performance is proposed. The antenna is capable of switching from right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) to left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and

  17. Split and merge of left-right circular polarized light through coupled magnetic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jijun; Cao, Jing; Zhu, Min; Zhu, Zhipan [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). Faculty of Science; Fang, Yun-tuan [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). School of Computer Science and Telecommunication Engineering

    2012-08-15

    In order to obtain the means to control light polarization, we designed a structure of coupled magnetic resonators and studied its transmission properties by the 4 x 4 transfer matrix method. The incidence of linearly polarized light results in two transmission resonant peaks of left-handed circular polarization at shorter wavelengths and two transmission resonant peaks of right-handed circular polarization at longer wavelengths, respectively. Through adjusting the magnetizations, the inner left-handed circular polarization and right-handed circular polarization can be merged into one linear polarization, while the two outside resonant peaks keep their circular polarization. The polarized direction of the output linearly polarized light can be controlled by the polarized direction of incidence light. The incidence light with one polarization can output light with three kinds of polarizations through the designed structure. (orig.)

  18. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  19. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  20. The whispering gallery as an optical component in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whispering gallery phenomenon in acoustics has been known and studied for more than a century, and the same effect has been observed to take place with waves other than sound waves. In this paper we review the theoretical basis and attractive features of the whispering gallery as a soft x-ray optical component and indicate some of its potential applications. We then describe what may be its most unique capability which, in favorable cases, is to provide a way. to manipulate the phase difference between the s and p polarization components and thus to generate circularly or elliptically polarized soft x-rays

  1. Manipulating photoinduced voltage in metasurface with circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiang

    2015-02-23

    Recently, the concept of metasurface has provided one an unprecedented opportunity and ability to control the light in the deep subwavelength scale. However, so far most efforts are devoted to exploiting the novel scattering properties and applications of metasurface in optics. Here, I theoretically and numerically demonstrate that longitudinal and transverse photoinduced voltages can be simultaneously realized in the proposed metasurface utilizing the magnetic resonance under the normal incidence of circularly polarized light, which may extend the concept and functionality of metasurface into the electronics and may provide a potential scheme to realize a nanoscale tunable voltage source through a nanophotonic roadmap. The signs of longitudinal and transverse photoin-duced voltages can be manipulated by tuning the resonant frequency and the handedness of circularly polarized light, respectively. Analytical formulae of photoinduced voltage are presented based on the theory of symmetry of field. This work may bridge nanophotonics and electronics, expands the capability of metasurface and has many potential applications. PMID:25836566

  2. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62–3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85–3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz. PMID:27563897

  3. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  4. Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Belkin, M A; Alù, A

    2012-05-29

    Optical metamaterials are usually based on planarized, complex-shaped, resonant nano-inclusions. Three-dimensional geometries may provide a wider set of functionalities, including broadband chirality to manipulate circular polarization at the nanoscale, but their fabrication becomes challenging as their dimensions get smaller. Here we introduce a new paradigm for the realization of optical metamaterials, showing that three-dimensional effects may be obtained without complicated inclusions, but instead by tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice. We apply this concept to realize planarized, broadband bianisotropic metamaterials as stacked nanorod arrays with a tailored rotational twist. Because of the coupling among closely spaced twisted plasmonic metasurfaces, metamaterials realized with conventional lithography may effectively operate as three-dimensional helical structures with broadband bianisotropic optical response. The proposed concept is also shown to relax alignment requirements common in three-dimensional metamaterial designs. The realized sample constitutes an ultrathin, broadband circular polarizer that may be directly integrated within nanophotonic systems.

  5. A COMPACT QUADRATURE FEEDING CIRCUIT FOR CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yuliang; Tian Buning; Tang Song

    2002-01-01

    A novel compact quadrature feeding circuit for a circularly polarized antenna is described. The equivalent circuit method in microwave network theory is used and the conventional directional coupler is converted to a new quadrature feeding circuit. This feeding circuit has the same characteristics as the conventional directional coupler but its size is only about one fourth of that of the latter. The formulas for designing the feeding circuit are given. The optimized results obtained by using the software ENSEMBLE are also reported.

  6. Circularly Polarized Solar Antenna for Airborne Communication Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    O’Conchubhair, Oisiin; Narbudowicz, Adam; McEvoy, Patrick; Ammann, Max

    2015-01-01

    A circularly polarized solar cell antenna consisting of four sequentially rotated printed inverted-F antennas is proposed. Four multicrystalline silicon solar cells act as the ground plane and the antenna is suitable for low power airborne communication nodes and wireless sensor networks. The antenna design was developed to allow 100% insolation of the cells when directly facing a light source. The low-profile antenna minimises shadowing of the solar cell for oblique angle insolation.

  7. Circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna excited by a conformal wire

    OpenAIRE

    Khamas, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    A conformal spiral wire has been used to feed a dielectric resonator antenna to obtain a circular polarization. The parameters of the spiral have been optimized numerically so that minimum axial ratio (AR) and return losses are achieved. The method of moments (MoM) has been used in the analysis and the results have been validated against those from a commercial software package with a good agreement.

  8. Design and experimental studies of a novel circularly polarized antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Wei Guo; Ge Yue He

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized antenna with patches on the top is studied in this paper. The antenna is composed of two printed dipoles and four radiation patches which are loaded on top of the dipoles. The antenna is fed by microstrip balum in the middle of dielectric slab. And the balum is connected to a Wilkinson power divider which owns 90 degree phase shift. Numerical simulations of proposed antenna are performed using the 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS. The experimental studies of ...

  9. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Behera; D. R. Poddar; Mishra, R K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array...

  10. Generation of circular polarization of gamma ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batebi, S.; Mohammadi, R.; Ruffini, R.; Tizchang, S.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-09-01

    The generation of the circular polarization of gamma ray burst (GRB) photons is discussed in this paper via their interactions with astroparticles in the presence or absence of background fields such as magnetic fields and noncommutative space-time geometry. Solving the quantum Boltzmann equation for GRB photons as a photon ensemble, we discuss the generation of circular polarization (as Faraday conversion phase shift Δ ϕFC) of GRBs in the following cases: (i) intermediate interactions, i.e., the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field and in the presence of noncommutative space-time geometry, as well as the scattering of GRBs in the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) and cosmic microwave background (CMB); (ii) interactions with particles and fields in shockwaves, i.e., the Compton scattering of GRBs with accelerated charged particles in the presence of magnetic fields. We found that (i) after shockwave crossing, the greatest contribution of Δ ϕFC for energetic GRBs (of the order of GeV and larger) comes from GRB-CMB interactions, but for low-energy GRBs the contributions of the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field dominate; (ii) in shockwave crossing, the magnetic field has significant effects on converting a GRB's linear polarization to a circular one, and this effect can be used to better understand the magnetic profile in shockwaves. The main aim of this work is to study and measure the circular polarization of GRBs for a better understanding of the physics and mechanism of the generation of GRBs and their interactions before reaching us.

  11. Filtering of matter symmetry properties by circularly polarized nonlinear optics

    OpenAIRE

    Duboisset, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Brasselet, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    International audience We propose a direct readout of symmetry information in matter using nonlinear optics. From combinations of circularly and longitudinally polarized optical fields, we construct irreducible spherical field tensors for second- and third-order nonlinear processes. The coupling of these field tensors to the matter susceptibility tensors allows filtering out of the susceptibility symmetries independently of the sample orientation in the laboratory frame. Experimental demon...

  12. Flat-top silver nanocrystals on the two polar faces of ZnO: An all angle x-ray scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of silver at room temperature on the two polar faces of ZnO (0001) Zn terminated and (0001) O terminated, has been investigated in situ by using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). On both surfaces, silver forms nanoclusters with (111) top facets in hexagon-on-hexagon epitaxy with [101]Ag parallel [100]ZnO. Despite the high lattice mismatch in the latter direction (-11%), the Ag islands adopt their bulk parameter even at the very beginning of the growth, a key feature assigned to a quasi-perfect coincidence of a 9x9 Ag cell on a 8x8 ZnO cell. The GISAXS patterns give evidence of triangular and hexagonal cluster shapes on the Zn and O surfaces, respectively, which reflect the topographies of the two surfaces. Quantitative analysis is performed to deduce the morphological parameters as a function of coverage. To represent highly covered surfaces involving large clusters with complex shapes, a specific GISAXS treatment in terms of holes in a continuous metal layer is proposed. In the O case, flat-top islands develop mostly laterally until an incompletely filled thick layer is formed. In the Zn case, the islands grow both in height and in diameter until the film can be represented by a layer with holes. The derived growth parameters attest that silver spreads significantly better on the O-terminated face than on the Zn termination

  13. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  15. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  16. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  17. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  18. Polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single-crystal Mn(V) complexes relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yano, Junko; Robblee, John; Pushkar, Yulia;

    2007-01-01

    High-valent Mn-oxo species have been suggested to have a catalytically important role in the water splitting reaction which occurs in the Photosystem II membrane protein. In this study, five- and six-coordinate mononuclear Mn(V) compounds were investigated by polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy...... is coordinated in a tetragonally distorted octahedral environment, showed a single dominant pre-edge peak along the MnN axis that can be assigned to a strong 3d(z(2))-4p(z) mixing mechanism. In the square pyramidal Mn(V)-oxo system, on the other hand, an additional peak was observed at 1 eV below the main pre...

  19. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi 41-1, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uehara, Hiromitsu; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 21-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Nimura, Tomoyuki [AVC Co., Ltd., Inada 1450-6, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0061 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.

  20. Analysis of trace element compositions in adhesive cloth tapes using high-energy x-ray fluorescence spectrometer with three-dimensional polarization optics for forensic discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forensic discrimination of adhesive cloth tapes often used in crimes was developed using a high-energy energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with 3-dimensional polarization optics. The best measurement condition for discrimination of the tape was as follows: secondary targets, Rh and Al2O3; measurement time, 300 s for Rh and 600 s for Al2O3; 14 elements (Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba and Pb) were used for discrimination. It is found that the combined information of yarn density and the XRF peak intensity of the 14 elements successfully discriminated 29 out of 31 samples, of which 2 probably had the same origin. This technique is useful for forensic analysis, because it is nondestructive, rapid and easy. Therefore, it can be applied to actual forensic identification. (author)

  1. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  3. X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  4. Structural studies of polymers and polymer liquid crystals by X-ray scattering, thermal analysis and ellipsometric studies through polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov

    We have studied the phase transformation behavior and structure of binary polymer blends and polymer liquid crystalline materials, to understand the formation of long and short-range ordered structures. We investigated their crystallization, melting and liquid crystalline behavior using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS), Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC), Polarized Light Microcopy (PLM), and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). Materials selected for the study were: (1) a miscible blend of semicrystalline poly(etheretherketone), PEEK, and noncrystallizable poly(etherimide), PEI; (2) an immiscible blend of poly(ethyleneterephtalate), PET, and liquid crystalline polymer, Vectra RTM; (3) a thermotropic liquid crystalline random copolyester HIQ-40; and (4) new biological collagen model peptides. We explore the phenomenon of multiple melting endotherms seen through MDSC after thermal pre-treatment of PEEK/PEI blend at different crystallization temperatures. Multiple melting endotherms have several possible origins, including melting of several populations of crystals with different lamellar thicknesses, melting of different crystallographic forms, or melting and recrystallization of the same population of crystals. The location of the amorphous phase, whether it is interlamellar, interfibrillar or interspherulite is addressed, by comparing the total crystallinity of the sample obtained by DSC and the linear stack crystallinity obtained by SAXS. Also by the temperature dependence of the smaller thickness determined from the SAXS correlation function, we were able to assign it to the crystalline thickness of the lamellae. We studied the effect of Vectra on the crystallization behavior of PET, and found that it slows the nucleation time for crystallization, and decreases the sample viscosity. By X-ray scattering and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and optical measurements we showed that the liquid crystalline component

  5. Circular Polarizer Realized by a Single Layer of Planar Chiral Metallic Nanostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Weimin; Guo, Chucai; Zhang, Jianfa; Yang, Biao; Liu, Ken; Zhu, Zhihong; Zeng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a basic optical element, circular polarizer plays significant roles in signal transmission, measurements and life science microscopy. Three-dimensional (3D) chiral structures have been thought to be necessary to realize circular polarizers. Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally for the first time that a high-efficiency circular polarizer could be realized by a single layer of planar 2D chiral structure. Our proposed circular polarizer is based on unidirectional polarization conversion instead of circular polarization stop bands. Since two-dimensional planar structures present obvious advantage for fabrication and integration on chip, the proposed circular polarizer is of great interest in integrated optics and microscopy. It provides a novel scheme to manipulate polarizations of light wave, as well as Terahertz wave and microwave.

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Co{sub 2}Mn{sub β}Si/MgO interfaces studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. R.; Verma, V. K.; Ishigami, K.; Shibata, G.; Fujimori, A., E-mail: fujimori@wyvern.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koide, T. [Photon Factory, IMSS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Miura, Y.; Shirai, M. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishikawa, T.; Li, G.-F.; Yamamoto, M. [Division of Electronics for Informatics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2015-05-28

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic states of Co and Mn atoms at the interface of the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub β}Si (CMS)/MgO (β = 0.69, 0.99, 1.15, and 1.29) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In particular, the Mn composition (β) dependences of the Mn and Co magnetic moments were investigated. The experimental spin magnetic moments of Mn, m{sub spin}(Mn), derived from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition β in going from Mn-deficient to Mn-rich CMS films. This behavior was explained by first-principles calculations based on the antisite-based site-specific formula unit (SSFU) composition model, which assumes the formation of only antisite defect, not vacancies, to accommodate off-stoichiometry. Furthermore, the experimental spin magnetic moments of Co, m{sub spin}(Co), also weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition. This behavior was consistently explained by the antisite-based SSFU model, in particular, by the decrease in the concentration of Co{sub Mn} antisites detrimental to the half-metallicity of CMS with increasing β. This finding is consistent with the higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratios which have been observed for CMS/MgO/CMS MTJs with Mn-rich CMS electrodes.

  7. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Behera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array is linearly polarized. Here four elements were considered and 2arranged at the four corners of a square domain. This arrangement shows that each antenna sees its adjacent ones to be radiating from an edge orthogonal to its edge of radiation. Circular polarization is achieved due to this sequential feeding. This array is designed with operating frequency 2.4 GHz. A good axial ratio of 2.4 is obtained at 2.37 GHz frequency. The noise figure is considerably reduced and which is around -19dB.

  8. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  9. A compact circularly polarized patch antenna with ring reflector

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, F.; Han, W.; Li, Y.; Sun, S.

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna with circular polarization and directional pattern is presented in this paper. The conventional ground plane is replaced by a rectangular ring reflector to form the directional pattern. Since the side length of the ring reflector is around quarter-waveleng, the total size of the proposed antenna is reduced dramatically, which is about λg/2 × λg/2 in the horizontal plane. In addition, the performance of the proposed antenna is still comparable with the convetional micros...

  10. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP) operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstr...

  11. Modified Dual-Band Stacked Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Liu; Liang Xu; Yi Wang

    2013-01-01

    A novel high-performance circularly polarized (CP) antenna is proposed in this paper. Two separate antennas featuring the global positioning system (GPS) dual-band operation (1.575 GHz and 1.227 GHz for L1 band and L2 band, resp.) are integrated with good isolation. To enhance the gain at low angle, a new structure of patch and two parasitic metal elements are introduced. With the optimized design, good axial ratio and near-hemispherical radiation pattern are obtained.

  12. Miniaturized Circularly Polarized Microstrip RFID Antenna Using Fractal Metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Liu; Liang Xu; Zhensen Wu

    2013-01-01

    A novel miniaturized circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna that can handle UHF band (920–925 MHz, corresponding to the assigned band for RFID in China) has been designed, fabricated, and measured in this paper. The miniaturization of antenna is achieved by a special cross-shaped fractal metamaterial structure that is inserted between the patch and ground plane. The measured results show that the antenna possesses an impedance bandwidth of 8.7% with VSWR 1.5 : 1 and 3-dB axial bandwid...

  13. Modified Dual-Band Stacked Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel high-performance circularly polarized (CP antenna is proposed in this paper. Two separate antennas featuring the global positioning system (GPS dual-band operation (1.575 GHz and 1.227 GHz for L1 band and L2 band, resp. are integrated with good isolation. To enhance the gain at low angle, a new structure of patch and two parasitic metal elements are introduced. With the optimized design, good axial ratio and near-hemispherical radiation pattern are obtained.

  14. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha; Meenakshi saini

    2014-01-01

    A single-fed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02) substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42%...

  15. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA ON SOI FOR THE 60 GHZ BAND

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Moussa; Delaveaud, Christophe; Ndagijimana, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    International audience The performance of a dual-arm millimeter wave Archimedean spiral antenna integrated on SOI is described. The impact of the feeding structure on the return loss and the axial ratio is displayed. A good return loss with 35 GHz -10 dB bandwidth and good circular polarization over 120° elevation angle independent on the azimuth angle (less than -5 dB axial ratio) are obtained. The simulated efficiency is 80 % with a gain of 4.3 dBi.

  16. A 20 GHz circularly polarized, fan beam slot array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikle, D. C.

    1982-03-01

    An EHF waveguide slot array was developed for possible use as a receive-only paging antenna for ground mobile terminals. The design, fabrication, and measured performance of this antenna are presented. The antenna generates a circularly polarized fan beam that is narrow in azimuth and broad in elevation. When mechanically rotated in azimuth, it can receive a 20 GHz satellite transmission independent of mobile terminal direction. Azimuth plane sidelobe levels, which are typically <-40 dB from the main lobe, provide for discrimination against ground and airborne jammers.

  17. Design of Stacked Microstrip Dual-band Circular Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zakaria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new design of dual-band circular polarized (CP microstrip antenna for ISM band applications (2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The proposed dual-band CP microstrip antenna with compact design has achieved design intention of having return loss of < −10 dB and axial ratio of < 3 dB for both frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The antenna has been successfully designed, fabricated, simulated, and measured and it shows the advantages of good dual-band and CP performances. Thus, the obtained results confirm satisfactory performance and good agreement.

  18. Broadband circular polarizers constructed using helix-like chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruonan; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, one kind of helix-like chiral metamaterial which can be realized by multiple conventional lithography or electron beam lithographic techniques is proposed to have a broadband bianisotropic optical response analogous to helical metamaterials. On the basis of twisted metamaterials, via tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice, the anisotropy of arcs is converted into magneto-electric coupling of closely spaced arc pairs, which leads to a broad bianisotropic optical response. By connecting the adjacent upper and lower arcs, the coupling of metasurface pairs is transformed into the coupling of the three-dimensional inclusions, and provides a much broader and higher bianisotropic optical response. For only a four-layer helix-like metamaterial, the maximum extinction ratio can reach 19.7. The operation band is in the wavelength range of 4.69 μm to 8.98 μm with an average extinction ratio of 6.9. And the transmittance for selective polarization is above 0.8 in the entire operation band. Such a structure is a promising candidate for integratable and scalable broadband circular polarizers, especially it has great potential to act as a broadband circular micropolarizer in the field of the full-Stokes division of focal plane polarimeters.In this paper, one kind of helix-like chiral metamaterial which can be realized by multiple conventional lithography or electron beam lithographic techniques is proposed to have a broadband bianisotropic optical response analogous to helical metamaterials. On the basis of twisted metamaterials, via tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice, the anisotropy of arcs is converted into magneto-electric coupling of closely spaced arc pairs, which leads to a broad bianisotropic optical response. By connecting the adjacent upper and lower arcs, the coupling of metasurface pairs is transformed into the coupling of the three-dimensional inclusions, and provides a much broader and higher bianisotropic optical

  19. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  20. Ionization of hydrogen atoms by circularly polarized microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebarowski, R.; Zakrzewski, J. (Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland) Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, T12, E1, 4 place Jussieu, 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France))

    1995-02-01

    Ionization of hydrogen Rydberg atoms by [ital circularly] polarized microwaves is studied numerically within the framework of classical mechanics. Both the simplified two-dimensional model (in which the plane of polarization coincides with the orbit plane) and a fully three-dimensional system are considered. It is shown that the ionization proceeds in the diffusive manner for all microwave frequencies except the low-frequency limit. The threshold for diffusive excitation as well as the diffusion speed is strongly dependent on the initial state of the system for smooth pulse excitation. In a high-frequency limit the ionization threshold rises sharply---the atom is much more resistant to the excitation. Two distinct regimes of stabilization windows (regions where the ionization decreases with increasing field amplitude), one in the strong short-laser-pulse domain and the other in the weak microwave domain, are identified and discussed.

  1. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  2. Left-handed and right-handed rotation double function circular polarizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Heng-jing; WU Fu-quan; DENG Hong-yan; ZHAO Shuang

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain circularly polarized light of left-handed and right-handed rotation by using a fixed device, a left-handed and right-handed rotation double function circular polarizer is designed with two λ/4 retarders and one polarizer, and its operating principle is analysed by matrix optical means. The result indicates that when the monochromatic light enters this circular polarizer in the positive direction and the negative direction,the emergent light should be circularly polarized light,of left-handed and right-handed rotation respectively. The testing system has been established to verify the above results.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of MotY, a stator component of the Vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellar motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of MotY, a stator protein of the V. alginolyticus polar flagellar motor, have been produced and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus is rotated by the sodium motor. The stator unit of the sodium motor consists of four different proteins: PomA, PomB, MotX and MotY. MotX and MotY, which are unique components of the sodium motor, form the T-ring structure attached to the LP ring in the periplasmic space. MotY has a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif in its C-terminal region and MotX is suggested to interact with PomB. Thus, MotX and MotY are thought to be required for incorporation and stabilization of the PomA/B complex. In this study, mature MotY composed of 272 amino-acid residues and its SeMet derivative were expressed with a C-terminal hexahistidine-tag sequence, purified and crystallized. Native crystals were grown in the hexagonal space group P6122/P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.1, c = 132.6 Å. SeMet-derivative crystals belonged to the same space group with the same unit-cell parameters as the native crystals. Anomalous difference Patterson maps of the SeMet derivative showed significant peaks in their Harker sections, indicating that the derivatives are suitable for structure determination

  4. X-Ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band soft X-ray polarimeters based on Bragg reflection. Developments in scintillator and solid-state hard X-ray detectors facilitate construction of both modular, large area Compton scattering polarimeters and compact devices suitable for use with focusing X-ray telescopes.

  5. Broadband circular polarizers constructed using helix-like chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruonan; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, one kind of helix-like chiral metamaterial which can be realized by multiple conventional lithography or electron beam lithographic techniques is proposed to have a broadband bianisotropic optical response analogous to helical metamaterials. On the basis of twisted metamaterials, via tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice, the anisotropy of arcs is converted into magneto-electric coupling of closely spaced arc pairs, which leads to a broad bianisotropic optical response. By connecting the adjacent upper and lower arcs, the coupling of metasurface pairs is transformed into the coupling of the three-dimensional inclusions, and provides a much broader and higher bianisotropic optical response. For only a four-layer helix-like metamaterial, the maximum extinction ratio can reach 19.7. The operation band is in the wavelength range of 4.69 μm to 8.98 μm with an average extinction ratio of 6.9. And the transmittance for selective polarization is above 0.8 in the entire operation band. Such a structure is a promising candidate for integratable and scalable broadband circular polarizers, especially it has great potential to act as a broadband circular micropolarizer in the field of the full-Stokes division of focal plane polarimeters.

  6. Minimum Q circularly polarized electrically small spherical antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2011-01-01

    The radiation problem for the TM10- and TE10-mode electric current densities on the surface of a spherical magnetic-coated PEC core is solved analytically. The combination of the electric and magnetic dipole modes reduces the radiation Q of the antenna. Moreover, with an appropriately designed ma...... spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated PEC core radiating both TM10 and TE10 spherical modes exhibits a perfect circular polarization in almost all directions. The antenna is self-resonant with the radiation Q being 0.67QChu, or 1.27Qdual.......The radiation problem for the TM10- and TE10-mode electric current densities on the surface of a spherical magnetic-coated PEC core is solved analytically. The combination of the electric and magnetic dipole modes reduces the radiation Q of the antenna. Moreover, with an appropriately designed...... magnetic-coated PEC core the stored energies of these modes balance each other making the antenna self-resonant and at the same time ensuring a perfect circularly polarized radiation. Numerical results for a practical dual-mode electrically small antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. A 4-arm...

  7. Generation of circular polarization of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Batebi, S; Ruffini, R; Tizchang, S; Xue, S S

    2016-01-01

    The generation of the circular polarization of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) photons is discussed in this paper via their interactions with astroparticles in the presence or absence of background fields such as magnetic fields and non-commutative space time geometry. Solving quantum Boltzmann equation for GRB-photons as a photon ensemble, we discuss the generation of circular polarization (as Faraday conversion phase shift $\\Delta \\phi_{FC}$) of GRBs in the following cases: (i) intermediate interactions, i.e. the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field and in the presence of non-commutative space time geometry, as well as the scattering of GRBs in cosmic neutrino background (CNB), and in cosmic microwave background (CMB); (ii) interactions with particles and fields in shock wave, i.e. the Compton scattering of GRBs with accelerated charged particles in the presence of magnetic fields. We found that (i) after shock wave crossing, the most contribution of $\\Delta \\phi_{FC}$ for energetic GRBs (i...

  8. X-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  9. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  10. Complete description of polarization effects in the nonlinear Compton scattering. I. Circularly polarized laser photons

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, D Y; Serbo, V G

    2003-01-01

    We consider emission of a photon by an electron in the field of a strong laser wave. Polarization effects in this process are important for a number of physical problems. We discuss a probability of this process for circularly polarized laser photons and for arbitrary polarization of all other particles. We obtain the complete set of functions which describe such a probability in a compact covariant form. Besides, we discuss an application of the obtained formulas to the problem of electron -> photon conversion at photon-photon and photon-electron colliders.

  11. Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Ludmila; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, Mario Tonev;

    1996-01-01

    We investigate thin phase polarization holographic gratings recorded with two waves with orthogonal linear polarizations in materials in which illumination with linearly/circularly polarized light gives rise to linear/circular birefringence. The theoretical analysis shows that the presence of cir...

  12. RECONFIGURABLE DUAL-BAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belhachat Messaouda; Bakir Mohammed; Zhu Shouzheng; Liu Jingao

    2004-01-01

    A new design of reconfigurable single-feed circular patch microstrip antenna for dual-band circular polarization application is proposed. The dual-band functionality is realized through incorporating cross-slots of equal slot length in the circular patch and utilizing two PIN diodes to switch the slots on or off. A pairs of tuning stubs are used to tune the circular polarization performance. The design process is presented and good results were obtained.

  13. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have characterized the polarization state of radiation from bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source as a function of vertical opening angle at photon energies of 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different portions of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on the close agreement of the theoretical and experimental results for linear polarization. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory resulting from uncertainty in the effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037-mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a maximum figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times the degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have studied the polarization state of radiation from bend magnet beamline 9.3.2 at Advanced Light Source as function of vertical oping angle at photon energies 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different parts of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on close agreement of theory and experiment for linear polarization. Results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory owing to uncertainty in effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037 mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a max figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux

  15. Triband Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Top-Loaded Alford Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Chunxia Cheng; Fushun Zhang; Yali Yao; Fan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A triband omnidirectional circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with a top-loaded modified Alford loop for GSM, WLAN, and WiMAX applications is proposed. Fed by an axial probe, the DRA (dielectric resonator antenna) radiates like a vertically polarized electric monopole. The top-loaded modified Alford loop provides an equivalent horizontally polarized magnetic dipole mode at triband. Omnidirectional CP (circular polarized) fields can be obtained when the two orthogonally polarized...

  16. Generation of OAM Radio Waves with Three Polarizations Using Circular Horn Antenna Array

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an effective solution of generating OAM-carrying radio beams with all three polarizations: the linear, the left-hand circular, and the right-hand circular polarizations. Through reasonable configuration of phased antenna array using elements with three polarizations, the OAM radio waves with three polarizations for different states can be generated. The vectors of electric fields with different OAM states for all three polarizations are presented and analyzed in detail. Th...

  17. A linearly and circularly polarized active integrated antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshniat, Ali

    This thesis work presents a new harmonic suppression technique for microstrip patch antennas. Harmonic suppression in active integrated antennas is known as an effective method to improve the efficiency of amplifiers in transmitter side. In the proposed design, the antenna works as the radiating element and, at the same time, as the tuning load for the amplifier circuit that is directly matched to the antenna. The proposed active antenna architecture is easy to fabricate and is symmetric, so it can be conveniently mass-produced and designed to have circular polarization, which is preferred in many applications such as satellite communications. The antenna simulations were performed using Ansoft High Frequency System Simulator (HFSS) and all amplifier design steps were simulated by Advanced Design System (ADS). The final prototypes of the linearly polarized active integrated antenna and the circularly polarized active integrated antenna were fabricated using a circuit board milling machine. The antenna radiation pattern was measured inside Utah State University's anechoic chamber and the results were satisfactory. Power measurements for the amplifiers' performance were carried out inside the chamber and calculated by using the Friis transmission equation. It is seen that a significant improvement in the efficiency is achieved compared to the reference antenna without harmonic suppression. Based on the success in the single element active antenna design, the thesis also presents a feasibility of applying the active integrated antenna in array configuration, in particular, in scanning array design to yield a low-profile, low-cost alternative to the parabolic antenna transmitter of satellite communication systems.

  18. Polarization evidence for the isotropy of electrons responsible for the production of 5-20 keV X-rays in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramiel, L. J.; Novick, R.; Chanan, G. A.

    1984-05-01

    We have flown a solar flare X-ray polarimeter on the third flight (STS 3) of the Space Shuttle Columbia as part of the OSS-1 pallet of instruments. We observed eight solar flares in the 5-20 keV band on 1982 March 28. The signal-to-background ratio in all cases exceeded 25. A preflight contamination problem invalidated the earlier laboratory calibration, and the instrument had to be calibrated in-flight against two flares near the center of the solar disk, which are expected to be unpolarized on geometric grounds in a variety of models. No statistically significant polarization was then detected in any of the other six flares. Upper limits (99% confidence level) range from 2.5% to 12.7%. For two of the observed flares these results disagree with the predictions of a simple radially beamed, linear bremsstrahlung model at greater than 99% confidence. One of these flares had a hard impulsive burst; the measured upper limit on this burst (10%) also disagrees with the predictions of the beamed hypothesis. If the calibration flares were polarized, then the above upper limits can be interpreted as limits on the changes in polarization from flare to flare. Because the observed flares spanned a large longitude range and because the predictions of the beamed models depend fairly sensitively on viewing angle, the small relative polarizations are still difficult to reconcile with simple beamed models. The results are also compared with recent, more sophisticated models of Leach and Petrosian, which generally predict lower polarizations. We find that the observations are marginally inconsistent with a model in which the electrons are initially strongly beamed, but subsequently become largely isotropic as a result of the effects of a converging magnetic field; they are consistent with a model in which the electrons are injected isotropically, but in which the preference for motion along the magnetic field lines is explicitly taken into account. The results are also consistent

  19. Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhou; Junping Geng; Zhe Li; Wenzhi Wang; Xianling Liang; Ronghong Jin

    2015-01-01

    A dual circularly polarized (CP) omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 ...

  20. X-rays and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  1. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  2. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  3. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  4. Electronic-structure origin of the anisotropic thermopower of nanolaminated Ti3SiC2 determined by polarized x-ray spectroscopy and Seebeck measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnuson, Martin; Mattesini, Maurizio; Van Nong, Ngo;

    2012-01-01

    to be taken into account. Positive contribution to the Seebeck coefficient of the element-specific electronic occupations in the basal plane is compensated by 73% enhanced Si 3d electronic states across the laminate plane that give rise to a negative Seebeck coefficient in that direction. Strong phonon...... to anisotropies in element-specific electronic states. In bulk polycrystalline form, Ti3SiC2 has a virtually zero Seebeck coefficient over a wide temperature range. In contrast, we find that the in-plane (basal ab) Seebeck coefficient of Ti3SiC2, measured on single-crystal films, has a substantial and positive...... value of 4–6 μV/K. Employing a combination of polarized angle-dependent x-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory we directly show electronic structure anisotropy in inherently nanolaminated Ti3SiC2 single-crystal thin films as a model system. The density of Ti 3d and C 2p states at the Fermi...

  5. Formation of a partially-screened inner acceleration region in radio pulsars: drifting subpulses and thermal X-ray emission from polar cap surface

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J; Zhang, B; Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George; Zhang, Bing

    2006-01-01

    Formation of a partially-screened inner acceleration region in 102 pulsars with drifting subpulses is considered. This is motivated by that spark discharges leading to drifting subpulses cannot be produced in a steady polar cap flow and thus the inner accelerator should be intermittent in nature, that the traditional pure vacuum gap model predicts too fast a sub-pulse drifting rate, and that recent X-ray observations as well as the radio drifting data are both consistent with the inner gap being partially screened. By means of the condition $T_{\\rm c}/T_{\\rm s}>1$ (where $T_{\\rm c}$ is the critical temperature above which the surface delivers a thermal flow to adequately supply the corotation charge density, and $T_{\\rm s}$ is the actual surface temperature), it is found that a partially-screened acceleration region can be formed given that the near surface magnetic fields are very strong and curved. We consider both curvature radiation (CR) and resonant inverse Compton scattering (ICS) to produce seed photon...

  6. Miniaturized Circularly Polarized Microstrip RFID Antenna Using Fractal Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniaturized circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna that can handle UHF band (920–925 MHz, corresponding to the assigned band for RFID in China has been designed, fabricated, and measured in this paper. The miniaturization of antenna is achieved by a special cross-shaped fractal metamaterial structure that is inserted between the patch and ground plane. The measured results show that the antenna possesses an impedance bandwidth of 8.7% with VSWR 1.5 : 1 and 3-dB axial bandwidth of 3.8%. Furthermore, the proposed antenna has 10.2% size reduction compared with traditional patch antenna. The tested results are in good agreement with that of the simulations.

  7. Wide Angular Aperture Circularly Polarized Low-Profile EBG Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustapha Salah Toubet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a compact and wide angular circularly polarized low-profile EBG antenna. Except at 3.7 GHz and for θ lower than −25° in the plane Φ equals to 0°, the modelized structure provides an axial ratio lower than 3 dB, over a wide angular aperture of 60° and over a bandwidth of 5.3% ([3.7 GHz–3.9 GHz]. It has a very low height of 11.9 mm (/7 at 3.8 GHz. A prototype has been manufactured, and the measured performances, considering the tolerance of the measurement base (±0.5 dB, are quite similar to the simulated ones.

  8. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-fed circularly polarized (CP patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02 substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42% and Axial Ratio Bandwidth by 4% by this design. The other Parameters of antenna like return loss and radiation pattern are also analyzed using HFSS software.

  9. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstrip array antenna achieves a wide 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of more than 10%. Simulated data are also provided to confirm the measured results.

  10. Design and experimental studies of a novel circularly polarized antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A circularly polarized antenna with patches on the top is studied in this paper. The antenna is composed of two printed dipoles and four radiation patches which are loaded on top of the dipoles. The antenna is fed by microstrip balum in the middle of dielectric slab. And the balum is connected to a Wilkinson power divider which owns 90 degree phase shift. Numerical simulations of proposed antenna are performed using the 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS. The experimental studies of the antenna are also carried out. Measured results show that the parameter S11 is less than -10 dB from 1.1GHz to 1.8GHz while the 3dB axial ratio bandwidth is from 1.27 GHz to 1.62 GHz. The highest gain of 5dBi can be achieved during the operating frequencies.

  11. Wide Angular Aperture Circularly Polarized Low-Profile EBG Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Moustapha Salah Toubet; Ahmad Elsayed Ahmad; Regis Chantalat; Mohamad Hajj; Eric Arnaud; Bernard Jecko; Thierry Monediere; Christelle Boustie; Baptiste Palacin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a compact and wide angular circularly polarized low-profile EBG antenna. Except at 3.7 GHz and for θ lower than −25° in the plane Φ equals to 0°, the modelized structure provides an axial ratio lower than 3 dB, over a wide angular aperture of 60° and over a bandwidth of 5.3% ([3.7 GHz–3.9 GHz]). It has a very low height of 11.9 mm ( /7 at 3.8 GHz). A prototype has been manufactured, and the measured performances, considering the tolerance of the measuremen...

  12. Uniplanar circularly polarized slot-ring antenna architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Matthias K.; Vahldieck, Rüdiger

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents a novel printed uniplanar antenna architecture for circular polarization. The structure consists of a single-fed slot-ring antenna with asymmetrically placed perturbations. The influence of different kinds of perturbations and substrates on the size of the antenna, its impedance bandwidth, and its axial ratio bandwidth is investigated. Various feed circuits based on coplanar waveguides (CPWs), coaxial line, and microstrip are investigated as well. Low-cost applications such as tagging antennas at 2.45 GHz are tested in combination with a coaxial line and CPW feed circuit. It was found that antennas achieving an impedance bandwidth over 60% and an axial ratio bandwidth up to 15% can be realized without the need of airbridges and rf-substrates.

  13. Refinement of circular-polarization based on multilayer film structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; LEE Kuei-jen; CHOU His-tseng; HUANG Shan-guo; GU Wan-yi

    2009-01-01

    Circular-polarization discrimination appears in many antennas' applications. A compensation approach based on multilayer film structure is proposed to improve the axial ratio of the magnitude of the two perpendicular modes of the lump ports. The goal is to widen the beamwidth of radiation that has an axial ratio less than 3 dB and thus reducing the complexity at the receiver. A transfer matrix method was developed to represent the multilayer film and characterize its performance. Simulation using high frequency structure simulator shows that a crossed dipole, as an example, can achieve a beamwidth of more than at the frequency of 12.45 GHz after compensation. Finally, conclusions and future work about this compensation method are presented.

  14. Diffusion weighted imaging with circularly polarized oscillating gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Dyrby, Tim B

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The short diffusion time regime provides an interesting probe for tissue microstructure and can be investigated with oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) experiments. Several studies report new contrasts in preclinical settings and the first in vivo human experiments have recently been...... in diffusion weighting with encoding in a plane rather than in one direction. CP-OGSE can be used for rotationally invariant acquisitions on anisotropic tissues. METHODS: Experiments with a 4.7 T preclinical scanner on a postmortem monkey brain as well as simulations were performed using conventional OGSE...... presented. One major hurdle in practical implementation is the low effective diffusion weighting provided at high frequency with limited gradient strength. THEORY: As a solution to the low diffusion weighting of OGSE, circularly polarized OGSE (CP-OGSE) is introduced. CP-OGSE gives a twofold increase...

  15. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, MingHu; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious delay phase shift is observed, showing the tunneling time is in order of tens of attoseconds. Further study shows the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation of a single-active-electron in a three dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  16. Non-Zeeman circular polarization of molecular maser spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the anisotropic resonant scattering model developed to explain the presence of non-Zeeman circular polarization signals recently detected in the 12CO (J = 2 → 1) and (J = 1 → 0) transitions in molecular clouds to Stokes V spectra of SiO v = 1 and v = 2, (J = 1 → 0) masers commonly observed in evolved stars. It is found that the observed antisymmetric 'S'- and symmetric '∪'- or '∩'-shaped spectral profiles naturally arise when the maser radiation scatters off populations of foreground molecules located outside the velocity range covered by the background maser radiation. Using typical values for the relevant physical parameters, it is estimated that magnetic field strengths on the order of a few times 15 mG are sufficient to explain the observational results found in the literature.

  17. Circularly Polarized Luminescence: A Review of Experimental and Theoretical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Giovanna; Castiglioni, Ettore; Koshoubu, Jun; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Abbate, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    We review the present status of experiments and calculations for circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of simple organic molecules and of stimuli-responsive organic molecules. Together with the historical report of the main instrumental approaches, a few crucial points about experiments are tackled, with the aim of defining measurement protocols, in view of the wide availability of commercial apparatuses in the near future. The calculations aimed at interpreting the CPL spectra, mostly based on time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations, which started around 2010, are reviewed, limiting the discussion to small to mid-sized molecules. Some applications of CPL spectra of organic molecules-based systems are presented, with a focus especially on two fields: material science and biology. Chirality 28:696-707, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27670249

  18. Combined structural refinement and spontaneous polarization study of Bi3.5Ce0.5Ti3O12 by using x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined structural refinement of Bi3.5Ce0.5Ti3O12 was carried out by using both neutron and x-ray diffraction results based on the monoclinic space group of B1a1. Weighted R-factors were 6.29% and 8.17% for the neutron and x-ray diffraction data, respectively. The goodness-of-fit indicator (S) was 1.9 for all patterns. Lattice parameters were a = 5.4229(6) A, b = 5.4038(6) A and c = 32.8838(5) A. The β angle was 90.10(1) deg. Spontaneous polarization (Ps) calculated from the refinement results was 26.7 μC cm-2. The contribution of each atom on the spontaneous polarization was plotted and it was clearly shown that the distortion of TiO6 octahedrons was the key factor that determines spontaneous polarization

  19. Plasmonic circular polarization analyzer formed by unidirectionally controlling surface plasmon propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiaming; Wang, Jiajian [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang, Peng; Liu, Wei; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanqi; Lin, Feng [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Zheyu [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Xing, E-mail: zhuxing@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-04-20

    Analyzing the polarization of a circularly polarized light is a critical issue. We have fabricated a spiral nano-structure on the Au film by using focused ion beam etching technique. The fabricated structure can be used as a plasmonic circular polarization analyzer. By designing the relative orientation of two nano-apertures in the spiral structural unit, the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polaritons excited by circularly polarized light of opposite handedness can be controlled. Therefore, the spiral structure could be used to accurately determine the helicity of the excited circularly polarized light. Based on the results of scanning near-field optical microscopy, the obtained circular polarization extinction ratio of this structure was above 500. This structure can be used for a flexible detecting size and a very wide spectrum.

  20. Plasmonic circular polarization analyzer formed by unidirectionally controlling surface plasmon propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing the polarization of a circularly polarized light is a critical issue. We have fabricated a spiral nano-structure on the Au film by using focused ion beam etching technique. The fabricated structure can be used as a plasmonic circular polarization analyzer. By designing the relative orientation of two nano-apertures in the spiral structural unit, the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polaritons excited by circularly polarized light of opposite handedness can be controlled. Therefore, the spiral structure could be used to accurately determine the helicity of the excited circularly polarized light. Based on the results of scanning near-field optical microscopy, the obtained circular polarization extinction ratio of this structure was above 500. This structure can be used for a flexible detecting size and a very wide spectrum

  1. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Vadawale, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive polarization measurements in X-ray may address a wealth of astrophysical phenomena, which so far remain beyond our understanding through available X-ray spectroscopic, imaging, and timing studies. Though scientific potential of X-ray polarimetry was realized long ago, there has not been any significant advancement in this field for the last four decades since the birth of X-ray astronomy. The only successful polarization measurement in X-rays dates ...

  2. Ligand induced circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence in CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K; Porter, Ashlin G; Bartko, Samuel G; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2013-12-23

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by postsynthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The origin of the induced chirality is consistent with the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand.

  3. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  4. Magnetic fields in X-ray emitting A-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2007-01-01

    A common explanation for the observed X-ray emission of A-type stars is the presence of a hidden late-type companion. While this hypothesis can be shown to be correct in some cases, there is also evidence suggesting that low-mass companions cannot be the proper cause for the observed X-ray activity in all cases. Babel & Montmerle (1997) presented a theoretical framework to explain the X-ray emission for magnetic Ap/Bp stars, focusing on the A0p star IQ Aur. We test if this theoretical model is capable to explain the observed X-ray emissions. We present observations of 13 A-type stars that have been associated with X-ray emission detected by ROSAT. To determine the mean longitudinal magnetic field strength we measured the circular polarization in the wings of the Balmer lines using FORS 1. Although the emission of those objects with magnetic fields fits the prediction of the Babel & Montmerle model, not all X-ray detections are related to the presence of a magnetic field. Additionally, the strengths of...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  7. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  9. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  10. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  11. Circular polarization of the CMB: Foregrounds and detection prospects

    CERN Document Server

    King, Soma

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the finest probes of cosmology. Its all-sky temperature and linear polarization (LP) fluctuations have been measured precisely at a level of deltaT/TCMB ~10^{-6}. In comparison, circular polarization (CP) of the CMB, however, has not been precisely explored. Current upper limit on the CP of the CMB is at a level of deltaV/TCMB ~10^{-4} and is limited on large scales. Some of the cosmologically important sources which can induce a CP in the CMB include early universe symmetry breaking, primordial magnetic field, galaxy clusters and Pop III stars (also known as the First stars). Among these sources, Pop III stars are expected to induce the strongest signal with levels strongly dependent on the frequency of observation and on the number, Np, of the Pop III stars per halo. Optimistically, a CP signal in the CMB due to the Pop III stars could be at a level of deltaV/TCMB ~ 2x10^{-7} in scales of 1 degree at 10 GHz, which is much smaller than the currently existing up...

  12. Circular polarization of the CMB: Foregrounds and detection prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Soma; Lubin, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the finest probes of cosmology. Its all-sky temperature and linear polarization fluctuations have been measured precisely at a level of δ T /TCMB˜10-6 . In contrast, circular polarization (C P ) of the CMB has not been precisely explored. The current upper limit on the C P of the CMB is at a level of δ V /TCMB˜10-4 and is limited on large scales. Some of the cosmologically important sources which can induce a C P in the CMB include early Universe symmetry breaking, a primordial magnetic field, galaxy clusters, and Pop III stars (also known as the first stars). Among these sources, Pop III stars are expected to induce the strongest signal with levels strongly dependent on the frequency of observation and on the number, Np, of the Pop III stars per halo. Optimistically, a C P signal in the CMB resulting from the Pop III stars could be at a level of δ V /TCMB˜2 ×10-7 in scales of 1° at 10 GHz, which is much smaller than the currently existing upper limits on the C P measurements. Primary foregrounds in the cosmological C P detection will come from the galactic synchrotron emission, which is naturally (intrinsically) circularly polarized. We use data-driven models of the galactic magnetic field, thermal electron density, and relativistic electron density to simulate all-sky maps of the galactic C P . This work also points out that the galactic C P levels are important below 50 GHz and is an important factor for telescopes aiming to detect primordial B modes using C P as a systematic rejection channel. In this paper, we focus on a SNR evaluation for the detectability of the Pop III induced C P signal in the CMB. We find that a SNR higher than unity is achievable, for example, with a 10 m telescope and an observation time of 20 months at 10 GHz, if Np≥100 . We also find that, if frequency of observation and resolution of the beam is appropriately chosen, a SNR higher than unity is possible with Np≥10 and

  13. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  14. Heating of magnetic fluid systems driven by circularly polarized magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsen, Osman O.; Yilmaz, Ugur; Deniz Aksoy, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, EE403 Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ertas, Gulay [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Atalar, Ergin, E-mail: ergin@ee.bilkent.edu.t [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, EE403 Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    A theory is presented to calculate the heat dissipation of a magnetic suspension, a ferrofluid, driven by circularly polarized magnetic field. Theory is tested by in vitro experiments and it is shown that, regardless of the character of the relaxation process, linearly and circularly polarized magnetic field excitations, having the same root-mean-square magnitude, are equivalent in terms of heating efficiency.

  15. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  16. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) publishes Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation , ... eSubmitter Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Assembler's Guide to Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  19. Dual-frequency Circularly-polarized Patch Antenna with Compact Size and Small Frequency Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2007-01-01

    A novel probe-fed single-layer annular-ring patch antenna for dual-frequency circular polarization is evaluated numerically and experimentally verified. The proposed antenna consists of a small circular patch surrounded by two concentric annular-rings, which is loaded by an unequal lateral cross-slot ground plane. The circularly-polarized frequency ratio of the two resonant modes is tunable to a small value, suitable for wireless communications systems. The patch size of the proposed antenna ...

  20. A computational protocol for the study of circularly polarized phosphorescence and circular dichroism in spin-forbidden absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Maciej; Cukras, Janusz; Pecul, Magdalena;

    2015-01-01

    on the response function formalism and is implemented at the level of time-dependent density functional theory. It has been employed to calculate the spin-forbidden circular dichroism and circularly polarized phosphorescence signals of valence n - p* and n ’ p* transitions, respectively, in several chiral enones......We present a computational methodology to calculate the intensity of circular dichroism (CD) in spinforbidden absorption and of circularly polarized phosphorescence (CPP) signals, a manifestation of the optical activity of the triplet–singlet transitions in chiral compounds. The protocol is based...... structure. In many cases the sign of the spin-forbidden CD and CPP signals are opposite. For the b,g-enones under investigation, where there are two minima on the lowest triplet excited state potential energy surface, each minimum exhibits a CPP signal of a different sign....

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  2. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  3. X-Rays from Saturn and its Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ron F.; Waite, J. Hunter; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Tom E.; Ford, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004 Saturn was observed by Chandra ACIS-S in two exposures, 00:06 to 11:00 UT on 20 January and 14:32 UT on 26 January to 01:13 UT on 27 January. Each continuous observation lasted for about one full Saturn rotation. These observations detected an X-ray flare from the Saturn's disk and indicate that the entire Saturnian X-ray emission is highly variable -- a factor of $\\sim$4 variability in brightness in a week time. The Saturn X-ray flare has a time and magnitude matching feature with the solar X-ray flare, which suggests that the disk X-ray emission of Saturn is governed by processes happening on the Sun. These observations also unambiguously detected X-rays from Saturn's rings. The X-ray emissions from rings are present mainly in the 0.45-0.6 keV band centered on the atomic OK$\\alpha$ fluorescence line at 525 eV: indicating the production of X-rays due to oxygen atoms in the water icy rings. The characteristics of X-rays from Saturn's polar region appear to be statistically consistent with those from its disk X-rays, suggesting that X-ray emission from the polar cap region might be an extension of the Saturn disk X-ray emission.

  4. Multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom exposed to circularly or linearly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom exposed to the linearly or circularly polarized laser pulses by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It finds that the ratio of the ionization probabilities by linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses varies with the numbers of absorbing photons. With the same laser intensity, the circularly polarized laser pulse favors to ionize the atom with more ease than the linearly polarized laser pulse if only two or three photons are necessary to be absorbed. For the higher order multiphoton ionization, the linearly polarized laser pulse has the advantage over circularly polarized laser pulse to ionize the atom. (atomic and molecular physics)

  5. A template of atmospheric O2 circularly polarized emission for CMB experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Spinelli, Sebastiano; Tartari, Andrea; Zannoni, Mario; Gervasi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We compute the circularly polarized signal from atmospheric molecular oxygen. Polarization of O2 rotational lines is caused by Zeeman effect in the Earth magnetic field. We evaluate the circularly polarized emission for various sites suitable for CMB measurements: South Pole and Dome C (Antarctica), Atacama (Chile) and Testa Grigia (Italy). An analysis of the polarized signal is presented and discussed in the framework of future CMB polarization experiments. We find a typical circularly polarized signal (V Stokes parameter) of ~ 50 - 300 {\\mu}K at 90 GHz looking at the zenith. Among the other sites Atacama shows the lower polarized signal at the zenith. We present maps of this signal for the various sites and show typical elevation and azimuth scans. We find that Dome C presents the lowest gradient in polarized temperature: ~ 0.3 {\\mu}K/\\circ at 90 GHz. We also study the frequency bands of observation: around {\

  6. Design of a CPW-feed circularly polarized slot antenna with triangle embedded in half circular disc for UWB applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ram; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    A compact (40 mm x 35 mm) coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed slot antenna for circular polarization is presented in this paper. The antenna is designed and fabricated for applications in the ultra-wideband domain of wireless communications where circular polarization is also required. The axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 35.46% (5.8 GHz- 8.3 GHz), while the experimental impedance bandwidth is from 2.8 GHz - 8.6 GHz. The experimental results are very close to the simulated results. The antenna displays a stable radiation pattern and a moderately high gain of around 5 - 6 dB in the useful band.

  7. Resonant inelastic scattering at intermediate X-ray energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, C F; Journel, L; Gallet, J J; Rogalev, A; Krill, G; Kappler, J P

    2000-01-01

    We describe resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in X-ray fluorescence performed in the 3-5 keV range. The examples chosen are X-ray fluorescence MCD of FeRh and RIXS experiments performed at the L/sub 3/ edge of Ce. Fe Rh is antiferromagnetic at room temperature but has a transition to the ferromagnetic state above 400 K. The Rh MCD signal is compared with an augmented spherical wave calculation. The experiment confirms the predicted spin polarization of the Rh 4d valence states. The RIXS measurements on Ce compounds and intermetallics address the problem of mixed valency especially in systems where degeneracy with the Fermi level remains small. Examples are taken from the 2p to (4f5d) /sup +1/ followed by 3d to 2p RIXS for a highly ionic compound CeF /sub 3/ and for almost gamma -like CeCuSi. (38 refs).

  8. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  9. Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antennas arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bofeng; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Wu, Beilei; Wan, Chenglong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-09-21

    In this paper we propose a circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antenna arrays deposited on graphene. Via the dipole antenna resonances, plasmons are excited on graphene surface and the wavefront can be tailed by arranging metal antennas into linetype, circular or spiral arrays. Especially, for spiral antenna arrays, the geometric phase effect can be cancelled by or superposed on the chirality carried within circular polarization incidence, producing spatially separated solid dot or donut shape fields at the center. Such a phenomenon enables the graphene based spiral metal triangle antennas arrays to achieve functionality as a circular polarization analyzer. Extinction ratio over 550 can be achieved and the working wavelength can be tuned by adjusting graphene Fermi level dynamically. The proposed analyzer may find applications in analyzing chiral molecules using different circularly polarized waves.

  10. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  11. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering ellipsometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult to characterize the polarization of a synchrotron radiation source in the soft and/or intermediate x-ray energy region particularly from 1 to 2 keV. Conventional multilayer mirror or single-crystal polarimeters do not work over this energy region because their throughput (the reflectivities combined with the phase shift) becomes insignificant. In this paper, we present a new ellipsometer scheme that is able to fully characterize the polarization of synchrotron radiation sources in this energy region. It is based on the dichroic x-ray resonant ferromagnetic scattering that yields information on both the polarization of the x-ray and the material (element specific) dielectric-constant tensor [C.-C. Kao et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 9599 (1994)] due to the interband ferromagnetic Kerr effect [B.R. Cooper, Phys. Rev. A 139, 1504 (1965)]. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  13. X-ray natural birefringence in reflection from graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansing, C.; Mertins, H.-Ch.; Gilbert, M.; Wahab, H.; Timmers, H.; Choi, S.-H.; Gaupp, A.; Krivenkov, M.; Varykhalov, A.; Rader, O.; Legut, D.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The existence of natural birefringence in x-ray reflection on graphene is demonstrated at energies spanning the carbon 1 s absorption edge. This new x-ray effect has been discovered with precision measurements of the polarization-plane rotation and the polarization-ellipticity changes that occur upon reflection of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation on monolayer graphene. Extraordinarily large polarization-plane rotations of up to 30∘, accompanied by a change from linearly to circularly polarized radiation have been measured for graphene on copper. Graphene on single crystalline cobalt, grown on tungsten, exhibits rotation values of up to 17∘. Both graphene systems show resonantly enhanced effects at the π* and σ* energies. The results are referenced against those obtained for polycrystalline carbon and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), respectively. As expected, polycrystalline carbon shows negligible rotation, whereas a huge maximum rotation of 140∘ has been observed for HOPG that may be considered a graphene multilayer system. HOPG is found to exhibit such large rotation values over a broad energy range, even well beyond the π* resonance energy due to the contributions of numerous graphene layers. To explain the origin of the observed natural birefringence of graphene, the Stokes parameters as well as the x-ray natural linear dichroism in reflection have been determined. It is shown that the birefringence directly results from the optical anisotropy related to the orthogonal alignment of π* and σ* bonds in the graphene layer. Our polarization analysis reveals a strong bonding of graphene on Co with a reduced σ* excitation energy and a strong tilt of 50 % of the pz orbitals towards diagonal orientation. In contrast, graphene on Cu is weakly bound with an orthogonal orientation of the pz orbitals. Exhibiting such a large natural birefringence that can be controlled through substrate choice, and because of excellent heat conductivity

  14. Dependence on temperature of circular polarization and relaxation time in InAlAs/AlGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the variation of photoluminescence circular polarization as a function of temperature in self-organized InAlAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. We have found that the circular polarization depends on temperature. The relaxation time τs is deduced from the circular polarization degree. It decreases from 2 ns at 40 K to 100 ps at 85 K

  15. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  16. Direct X-Ray Imaging of Transient Spin Accumulation near a Ferromagnet/Nonmagnet Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Kukreja, Roopali; Bonetti, Stefano; Backes, Dirk; Kent, Andrew; Katine, Jordan; Durr, Hermann; Ohldag, Hendrik; Stohr, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The physics of spin transport across a ferromagnet/nonmagnet interface is not well understood, even though such interfaces are common in spintronic devices. We use time-resolved x-ray spectro-microscopy to directly image transient spin accumulation in a Cu film caused by an injected spin current from an adjacent Co film. The measurement uses element-specific, circularly polarized x-rays detected via a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) in conjunction with 1.28MHz temporal modulation for remarkably increased x-ray sensitivity to spin signals. The transient moments per atom within the spin diffusion length from the interface were measured to be 8 x 10-5μB per Cu atom and 1.5 x 10-4μB per Co atom. The transient spin signal in Cu is found to be confined to states at the Fermi level, as expected, but we also observe a second peak of the same spin polarization in the spin accumulation signal that is 0.7eV higher than Fermi. The transient moments in the 28nm thick Cu layer exhibit the same spin sign as both the hybridization-induced static spins in Cu at the Cu/Co interface and the spins in the Co film. In contrast, the transient moments in the Co layer have the opposite sign, consistent with magnetization depleting from the Co polarizing layer.

  17. Soft X-ray Polarimetry Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herman; Schulz, Norbert S.; Heine, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    We present continued development of a telescope for measuring linear X-ray polarization over the 0.2-0.8 keV band. We employ multilayer-coated mirrors as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve polarization modulation factors over 95%. We have constructed a source of polarized X-rays that operates at a wide range of energies with a selectable polarization angle. We will present results from measurements of new laterally graded multilayer mirrors and new gratings essential to the design. Finally, we will present a design for a small telescope for suborbital or orbital missions. A suborbital mission could measure the polarization of a blazar such as Mk 421 to 5-10 percent while an orbital version could measure the polarizations of neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, and blazars.

  18. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  19. Characterization of the Cu(Π) and Zn(Π) binding to the Amyloid-β short peptides by both the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and the Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyin; Sun, Shuaishuai; Xu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Bingbing; Tao, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative pathology, clinically characterized by dementia, cognitive impairment, personality disorders and memory loss. It is generally accepted that, misfolding of Aβ peptides is the key element in pathogenesis and the secondary structure of Aβ can be changed to major β-strand with reasons unknown yet. Many studies have shown that the misfolding may be linked with some biometals, mainly copper and zinc ions. To characterize interactions of Aβ and metal ions, we utilized both the extended X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy (SRCD). Aβ (13-22), Aβ (13-21), Aβ (E22G) and Aβ(HH-AA) were selected to study the mechanism of copper and zinc binding to Aβ. We found that Cu interaction with H13 and H14 residues led to the disappearance of the PPΠ, while the Cu binding E22 residue caused a remarkable conformation change to β-sheet enrichment. The Zn ion, in contrast, made little effect on the conformation and it coordinated to only one histidine (H residue) or not.

  20. Electronic states of magnetic refrigerator materials Mn0.9Fe1.1P0.55As0.45 using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y.; Okane, T.; Ohkochi, T.; Fujimori, S.-i.; Saitoh, Y.; Yamagami, H.; Yabuta, H.; Takabatake, T.

    2010-01-01

    The system of MnFeP1-xAsx is a candidate of a magnetic refrigerator material. We have investigated the temperature (T)- and magnetic field (H)-dependence of the magnetic properties of the Mn and Fe ions for Mn0.9Fe1.1P0.55As0.45 using a soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in the regions of the Mn and Fe L2,3 absorption edges. In the ferromagnetic states, the magnetic moments of the Mn and Fe ions turn to the same direction. It is considered that the Mn ions are close to divalent (Mn2+) states and that the Fe ions are a mixture of trivalent (Fe3+) and divalent (Fe2+) states. However, we deduce that the ferromagnetic properties of the Fe ions are mainly derived from the Fe2+ states. Using the XMCD sum rules, we have found that the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the Mn ions is larger than that of the Fe ions. The paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transitions are clearly observed by the T- and H- dependent XMCD measurements. Scince the shapes of the spectra don't change in all experiment conditions, the electronic configurations of the Mn and Fe ions are not changed by the PM-FM transition.

  1. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study of a methoxide-bridged DyIII-CrIII cluster obtained by fluoride abstraction from cis-[CrIIIF2(phen)2]+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Birk, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    An isostructural series of dinuclear chromium(III)-lanthanide(III) clusters is formed by fluoride abstraction of cis-[CrF(2)(phen)(2)](+) by Ln(3+) resulting in LnF(3) and methoxide-bridged Cr-Ln clusters (Ln = Nd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3)) of formula [Cr(III)(phen)(2)(µ-MeO)(2)Ln(NO(3))(4)]·xMeOH (x = 2......-2.73). In contrast to fluoride, methoxide bridges in a nonlinear fashion, which facilitates chelation. For 3, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) provides element-specific magnetization curves that are compared to cluster magnetization and susceptibility data acquired by SQUID magnetometry. The combination...... of XMCD and SQUID is able to resolve very small magnetic coupling values and reveals a weak Cr(III)-Dy(III) coupling of j = -0.04(3) cm(-1). The Dy(III) ion has a ground-state Kramers doublet of m(J) = ±13/2, and the first excited doublet is found to be m(J) = ±11/2 at an energy of d = 57(21) cm(-1...

  2. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at IrL2,3 edges in Fe100-Ir and Co100-Ir alloys: Magnetism of 5d electronic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Krishnamurthy; M Suzuki; N Kawamura; T Ishikawa

    2002-05-01

    The formation of induced 5 magnetic moment on Ir in Fe100-Ir (=3, 10 and 17) and Co100-Ir (=5, 17, 25 and 32) alloys has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at Ir L2,3 absorption edges. Sum rule analysis of the XMCD data show that the orbital moment of Ir is in the range of -0.071(2)B to -0.030(1)B in Fe–Ir alloys and -0.067(2)B to 0.024(1)B in Co–Ir alloys. We find that the total moment of Ir in Fe–Ir alloys is approximately 1/5 of the total 3 moment on Fe at all the three compositions. In contrast, the total moment on Ir in Co–Ir alloys varies between 1/6 to 1/16 of the 3 moment on cobalt. The observed trends of Ir moments and the role of interatomic exchange interactions in 5 moment formation are discussed.

  3. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... time! Spotlight Recently posted: Pediatric MRI Intravascular Ultrasound Video: Chest CT Video:Thyroid Ultrasound Video: Head CT ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  7. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  8. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes. PMID:27350073

  9. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de La Moya, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes.

  10. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses pyroelectric detectors which are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low energy x-rays. The authors report tests of LiTaO3, Sr.5Ba.5Nb2O6 and LiNbO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1 ns low energy x-rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100 ns x-rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  11. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyroelectric detectors are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low-energy x rays. We report our tests of LiTaO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1-ns low-energy x rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100-ns x rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  12. Sensitivity to a Frequency-Dependent Circular Polarization in an Isotropic Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Tristan L

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the sensitivity to a circular polarization of an isotropic stochastic gravitational wave background (ISGWB) as a function of frequency for ground- and space-based interferometers and observations of the cosmic microwave background. The origin of a circularly polarized ISGWB may be due to exotic primordial physics (i.e., parity violation in the early universe) and may be strongly frequency dependent. We present calculations within a coherent framework which clarifies the basic requirements for sensitivity to circular polarization, in distinction from previous work which focused on each of these techniques separately. We find that the addition of an interferometer with the sensitivity of the Einstein Telescope in the southern hemisphere improves the sensitivity of the ground-based network to circular polarization by about a factor of two. The sensitivity curves presented in this paper make clear that the wide range in frequencies of current and planned observations ($10^{-18}\\ {\\rm Hz} \\lesssim f \\...

  13. A Soft X-ray Polarimeter Designed for Broad-band X-ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Herman L.

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for measuring linear X-ray polarization over a broad-band using conventional imaging optics and cameras is described. A new type of high efficiency grating, called the critical angle transmission grating is used to disperse soft X-rays radially from the telescope axis. A set of multilayer-coated paraboloids re-image the dispersed X-rays to rings in the focal plane. The intensity variation around these rings is measured to determine three Stokes parameters: I, Q, and U. By lat...

  14. Circularly polarized reconfigurable patch antenna using Y-branched feed circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Fukusako, Takeshi; KITAMURA Naoki; Mita, Nagahisa; フクサコ, タケシ; キタムラ, ナオキ; ミタ, ナガヒサ; 福迫, 武; 北村, 直樹; 三田, 長久

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a circularly polarized patch antenna with the Y-branch feeding structure for switching circular polarization (CP) between left-hand CP (LHCP) and right-hand CP (RHCP). In this structure, the feed circuit is installed behind the ground plane because the electromagnetic distribution on the feeding line has no effect on the radiation pattern. In addition, the slot coupled structure is adopted to avoid a complicated manufacturing process like via-hole structures resulting...

  15. Optical Rotation Quasi-Phase-Matching for Circularly Polarized High Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lewis Z.; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Hooker, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    The first scheme for quasi-phase-matching high harmonic generation of circularly polarized radiation is proposed: optical rotation quasi-phase-matching (ORQPM). In ORQPM propagation of the driving radiation in a system exhibiting circular birefringence causes its plane of polarization to rotate; by appropriately matching the period of rotation to the coherence length it is possible to avoid destructive interference of the generated radiation. It is shown that ORQPM is approximately 5 times mo...

  16. Connected Spiral Antennas for Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array, Experimental Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Serhir, Mohammed; Guinvarc'H, Régis

    2013-01-01

    International audience A cavity backed array of 5 connected spiral antennas is presented. The circular polarization is generated using mono polarized spirals in an alternating configuration RHCP and LHCP. Due to the connection between spirals, the currents in the arms of one spiral flow into the arms of the adjacent spirals. The currents transmitted to the opposite polarized neighboring spiral radiate the same polarization. The proposed antenna array allows more than 500MHz bandwidth while...

  17. What makes single-helical metamaterials generate "pure" circularly polarized light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Lu, ZeQing; Yu, Yang; Li, ShengXi; Yuan, XiuHua

    2012-01-16

    Circular polarizers with left-handed helical metamaterials can transmit right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) light with few losses. But a certain amount of left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) light will occur in the transmitted light, which is the noise of the circular polarizer. Therefore, we defined the ratio of the RCP light intensity to the LCP light intensity as the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. In our previous work, it's found that circular polarizers with multi-helical metamaterials have two orders higher S/N ratios than that of single-helical metamaterials. However, it has been a great challenge to fabricate such multi-helical structures with micron or sub-micron feature sizes. Is it possible for the single-helical metamaterials to obtain equally high S/N ratios as the multi-helical ones? To answer this question, we systematically investigated the influences of structure parameters of single-helical metamaterials on the S/N ratios using the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. It was found that the single-helical metamaterials can also reach about 30dB S/N ratios, which are equal to the multi-helical ones. Furthermore, we explained the phenomenon by the antenna theory and optimized the performances of the single-helical circular polarizers.

  18. Pure circular polarization electroluminescence at room temperature with spin-polarized light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, N; Munekata, H

    2016-01-01

    We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: firstly, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensifying the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and secondly, the crystalline AlOx spin tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation. The purity of CP is depressively low in the low current density (J) region, whereas it increases steeply and reaches close to the pure CP when J = 100 A/cm2. There, either right- or left-handed CP component is significantly suppressed depending on the direction of magnetization of the spin injector. Spin-polarized-current induced birefringence and optical spin-axis conversion are suggested to account for the observed experimental results.

  19. A Transmissive X-ray Polarimeter Design For Hard X-ray Focusing Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hong; Ji, Jianfeng; Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Zeng, Ming; Li, Tenglin; Liu, Yinong; Heng, Peiyin; Wu, Qiong; Han, Dong; Dong, Yongwei; Lu, Fangjun; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray Timing and Polarization (XTP) is a mission concept for a future space borne X-ray observatory and is currently selected for early phase study. We present a new design of X-ray polarimeter based on the time projection gas chamber. The polarimeter, placed above the focal plane, has an additional rear window that allows hard X-rays to penetrate (a transmission of nearly 80% at 6 keV) through it and reach the detector on the focal plane. Such a design is to compensate the low detection efficiency of gas detectors, at a low cost of sensitivity, and can maximize the science return of multilayer hard X-ray telescopes without the risk of moving focal plane instruments. The sensitivity in terms of minimum detectable polarization, based on current instrument configuration, is expected to be 3% for a 1mCrab source given an observing time of 10^5 s. We present preliminary test results, including photoelectron tracks and modulation curves, using a test chamber and polarized X-ray sources in the lab.

  20. Studies on solar hard X-Rays and gamma-rays: Compton backscatter, anisotropy, polarization and evidence for two phases of acceleration. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, T.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of solar X-rays and gamma-rays from large flares show that the hard X-ray spectrum extends into the gamma ray region, where a flattening in the spectrum of the continuum emission is observed above about 1 MeV. This emission is believed to be due to bremsstrahlung. In addition to electron-proton collisions, at energies greater than approximately 500 keV, bremsstrahlung due to electron-electron collisions becomes significant. Bremsstrahlung production was calculated for a variety of electron spectra extending from the nonrelativistic region to relativistic energies and electron-electron bremsstrahlung is taken into account. By comparing these calculations with data, it is shown that the flattening in the spectrum of the continuum emission can be best explained by an electron spectrum consisting of two distinctive components. This evidence, together with information on the X-ray and gamma ray time profiles, implied the existence of two phases of acceleration. The first phase accelerates electrons mainly up to about several hundred keV; the second phase accelerates a small fraction of the electrons accelerated in the first phase to relativistic energies and accelerates protons to tens and hundreds of MeV.

  1. Forced Response of Polar Orthotropic Tapered Circular Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forced axisymmetric response of polar orthotropic circular plates of linearly varying thickness resting on Winkler type of elastic foundation has been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. An approximate solution of problem has been obtained by Rayleigh Ritz method, which employs functions based upon the static deflection of polar orthotropic circular plates. The effect of transverse loadings has been studied for orthotropic circular plate resting on elastic foundation. The transverse deflections and bending moments are presented for various values of taper parameter, rigidity ratio, foundation parameter, and flexibility parameter under different types of loadings. A comparison of results with those available in literature shows an excellent agreement.

  2. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  3. L-shaped metasurface for both the linear and circular polarization conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Li, Rongzhen; Zhang, Jingran; Zhang, Anjun; Li, Yan; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-06-01

    A new type of optical polarization converter based on the L-shaped gold nanoantenna array supercell has been presented, which is suitable for both circular and X/Y linear polarization conversion simultaneously. Both the amplitude and phase of transmitted cross-polarization light can be modulated precisely by changing the lengths and widths of the L-shaped nanoantenna units. For circular or X/Y linear polarization incident lights, the corresponding cross-polarized lights can be obtained in the transmitted lights, and the corresponding bending angles of the cross-polarized lights can be modulated by the structures and the incident angles according to the generalized Snell’s law. The multi-spectral characteristics have also been investigated, in which the operating bandwidth of the designed optical polarization converter is 450 nm (in the range of 750 ∼ 1200 nm).

  4. A Rotating-Frame Perspective on High-Harmonic Generation of Circularly Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and static magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond cur...

  5. Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-layer Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The arbitrary control of the polarization states of light has attracted the interest of the scientific community because of the wide range of modern optical applications that such control can afford. However, conventional polarization control setups are bulky and very often operate only within a narrow wavelength range, thereby resisting optical system miniaturization and integration. Here, we present the basic theory, simulated demonstration, and in-depth analysis of a high-performance broadband and invertible linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization converter composed of a single-layer gold nanorod array with a total thickness of ~λ/70 for the near-infrared regime. This setup can transform a circularly polarized wave into a linearly polarized one or a linearly polarized wave with a wavelength-dependent electric field polarization angle into a circularly polarized one in the transmission mode. The broadband and invertible LTC polarization conversion can be attributed to the tailoring of the light interference at the subwavelength scale via the induction of the anisotropic optical resonance mode. This ultrathin single-layer metasurface relaxes the high-precision requirements of the structure parameters in general metasurfaces while retaining the polarization conversion performance. Our findings open up intriguing possibilities towards the realization of novel integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation, modulation, and phase retardation.

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ...

  10. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si02. The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  13. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ...

  14. Combined structural refinement and spontaneous polarization study of Bi{sub 3.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} by using x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Min Ku; Jung, Chang Hwa; Woo, Seong Ihl [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Graduate Program) and Center for Ultramicrochemical Process Systems (CUPS), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology - KAIST, 373-1 Yuseong, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Il; Nahm, Seung-Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, PO Box 102, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: siwoo@kaist.ac.kr

    2008-04-21

    Combined structural refinement of Bi{sub 3.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} was carried out by using both neutron and x-ray diffraction results based on the monoclinic space group of B1a1. Weighted R-factors were 6.29% and 8.17% for the neutron and x-ray diffraction data, respectively. The goodness-of-fit indicator (S) was 1.9 for all patterns. Lattice parameters were a = 5.4229(6) A, b = 5.4038(6) A and c = 32.8838(5) A. The {beta} angle was 90.10(1) deg. Spontaneous polarization (P{sub s}) calculated from the refinement results was 26.7 {mu}C cm{sup -2}. The contribution of each atom on the spontaneous polarization was plotted and it was clearly shown that the distortion of TiO{sub 6} octahedrons was the key factor that determines spontaneous polarization.

  15. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Lewis, W. S.; Crary, F. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The soft x-ray energy band (less than 4 keV) is an important spectral regime for planetary remote sensing, as a wide variety of solar system objects are now known to shine at these wavelengths. These include Earth, Jupiter, comets, moons, Venus, and the Sun. Earth and Jupiter, as magnetic planets, are observed to emanate strong x-ray emissions from their auroral (polar) regions, thus providing vital information on the nature of precipitating particles and their energization processes in planetary magnetospheres. X rays from low latitudes have also been observed on these planets, resulting largely from atmospheric scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays. Cometary x-rays are now a well established phenomena, more than a dozen comets have been observed at soft x-ray energies, with the accepted production mechanism being charge-exchange between heavy solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. Also, Lunar x-rays have been observed and are thought to be produced by scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays from the Moon's surface. With the advent of sophisticated x-ray observatories, e.g., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary x-ray astronomy is advancing at a much faster pace. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has recently captured soft x-rays from Venus. Venusian x-rays are most likely produced through fluorescence of solar x-rays by C and O atoms in the upper atmosphere. Very recently, using CXO we have discovered soft x-rays from the moons of Jupiter-Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede. The plausible source of the x-rays from the Galilean satellites is bombardment of their surfaces by energetic (greater than 10 KeV) ions from the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Io plasma Torus (IPT) is also discovered by CXO to be a source of soft x-rays by CXO have revealed a mysterious pulsating (period approx. 45 minutes) x-ray hot spot is fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and is magnetically connected to a region in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter. These

  16. A switchable circular polarizer based on zenithal bistable liquid crystal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Isić, Goran; Kriezis, Emmanouil E.; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2016-05-01

    A switchable circular polarizer for infrared telecom wavelengths based on zenithal bistable liquid crystal gratings is designed and investigated by employing the finite-element method for the study of full-wave light propagation and a tensorial formulation for the liquid crystal orientation. The handedness of the output circular polarization can be selected by switching between the two stable states of the liquid-crystal grating. Analysis of the spectral dependence and the tolerance of the polarizer’s performance with respect to deviations from the optimized geometry reveals the robustness of its polarizing properties, which stems from the non-resonant nature of its operation.

  17. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.

  18. Longitudinal field characterization of converging terahertz vortices with linear and circular polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Shi, Jing; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Linearly and circularly polarized terahertz (THz) vortex beams are generated by adopting a THz quarter wave plate and spiral phase plates with topological charges 1 and 2. Taking advantage of a THz digital holographic imaging system, longitudinal components of THz vortices with different polarizations and topological charges are coherently measured and systemically analyzed in a focusing condition. The application potential of circularly polarized THz vortex beams in microscopy is experimentally demonstrated and the transformation between the spin angular momentums and orbital angular momentums of THz waves is also checked. Modified Richards-Wolf vector diffraction integration equations are applied to successfully simulate experimental phenomena. PMID:27137010

  19. Broadband radio circular polarization spectrum of the relativistic jet in PKS B2126-158

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, S P; Feain, I J; Gaensler, B M; Sault, R J

    2013-01-01

    We present full-Stokes radio polarization observations of the quasar PKS B2126-158 (z=3.268) from 1 to 10 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The source has large fractional circular polarization, m_c \\equiv |V|/I, detected at high significance across the entire band (from 15 to 90\\sigma per 128 MHz sub-band). This allows us to construct the most robust circular polarization (CP) spectrum of an AGN jet to date. We find m_c \\propto \

  20. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  3. Tunable X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  4. X-ray selected BALQSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Ceballos, M; Corral, A; Ebrero, J; Esquej, P; Krumpe, M; Mateos, S; Rosen, S; Schwope, A; Streblyanska, A; Symeonidis, M; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2016-01-01

    We study a sample of six X-ray selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey. All six objects are classified as BALQSOs using the classic balnicity index, and together they form the largest sample of X-ray selected BALQSOs. We find evidence for absorption in the X-ray spectra of all six objects. An ionized absorption model applied to an X-ray spectral shape that would be typical for non-BAL QSOs (a power law with energy index alpha=0.98) provides acceptable fits to the X-ray spectra of all six objects. The optical to X-ray spectral indices, alpha_OX, of the X-ray selected BALQSOs, have a mean value of 1.69 +- 0.05, which is similar to that found for X-ray selected and optically selected non-BAL QSOs of similar ultraviolet luminosity. In contrast, optically-selected BALQSOs typically have much larger alpha_OX and so are characterised as being X-ray weak. The results imply that X-ray selection yields intrinsically X-ray bright BALQSOs, but their X-ray sp...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  13. Multiple station beamline at an undulator x-ray source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Freund, A.K.; Grübel, G.;

    1994-01-01

    The undulator X-ray source is an ideal source for many applications: the beam is brilliant, highly collimated in all directions, quasi-monochromatic, pulsed and linearly polarized. Such a precious source can feed several independently operated instruments by utilizing a downstream series of X-ray...

  14. A Novel Circularly Polarized Broadband Antenna with Separated L-probes

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Ronald; Takeshi, Fukusako; フクサコ, タケシ; 福迫, 武

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a broadband circularly polarized square slot antenna is presented. The geometry of the antenna is influenced by the structure. Compared to the structure, the present design could significantly reduce the cross polarization, which makes the antenna attractive. The novelty in the structure is that, it has separated the horizontal and vertical components of the L-probe and placed them on the front and backside of the antenna. Also the disadvantage of cross polarization in structur...

  15. Polarization conversion of metasurface for the application of wide band low-profile circular polarization slot antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjun; Yang, Li; Li, Jian; Wang, Yao; Wen, Guangjun

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, based on a corner-cut square metasurface, a planar polarization conversion structure is presented and the application for wide band low-profile circular polarization (CP) slot antenna is proposed. The mechanisms for achieving the CP state from a linearly polarized incident wave and for broadening the working bandwidth of conventional slot antenna are analyzed theoretically. The wide band low-profile CP slot antenna is achieved with numerical optimizations and parameter studies. Both simulations and measurements are performed to demonstrate the proposed antenna, and good agreements are obtained. Such results will open the path for polarization conversion metasurfaces used in the CP antenna area.

  16. Magnetic hysteresis of an artificial square ice studied by in-plane Bragg x-ray resonant magnetic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Morgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report X-ray resonant magnetic scattering studies of a Permalloy artificial square ice nanomagnet array, focussing on the field-driven evolution of the sum Σ and difference Δ signals of left and right handed circularly polarized synchrotron X-rays at different lateral positions in reciprocal space Qx. We used X-rays tuned to the Fe L3 resonance energy, with the scattering plane aligned along a principal symmetry axis of the array. Details of the specular Δ hysteresis curve are discussed, following the system magnetization from an initial demagnetized state. The periodic structure gives rise to distinct peaks at in-plane reciprocal Bragg positions, as shown by fitting Σ(Qx to a model based on a simple unit cell structure. Diffraction order-dependent hysteresis in Δ is observed, indicative of the reordering of magnetization on the system's two interpenetrating sublattices, which markedly deviates from an ideal Ising picture under strong applied fields.

  17. X-ray today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, U. [Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The interest attracted by the new imaging modalities tends to overshadow the continuing importance of projection radiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, projection techniques still represent by far the greatest proportion of diagnostic imaging examinations, and play an essential role in the growing number of advanced interventional procedures. This article describes some of the latest developments in X-ray imaging technology, using two products from the Philips range as examples: the Integris Allura cardiovascular system with 3D image reconstruction, and the BV Pulsera: a high-end, multi-functional mobile C-arm system with cardiac capabilities. (orig.)

  18. Local ISM 3D distribution and soft X-ray background: Inferences on nearby hot gas and the North Polar Spur

    CERN Document Server

    Puspitarini, L; Vergely, J L; Snowden, S L

    2014-01-01

    3D maps of the ISM can be used to locate not only IS clouds, but also IS bubbles between the clouds that are blown by stellar winds and supernovae. We compare our 3D maps of the IS dust to the ROSAT diffuse X-ray background maps. In the Plane, there is a good correspondence between the locations and extents of the mapped nearby cavities and the 0.25 keV background emission distribution, showing that most of these nearby cavities contribute to this soft X-ray emission. Assuming a constant dust to gas ratio and homogeneous 1MK hot gas filling the cavities, we modeled in a simple way the 0.25 keV surface brightness along the Galactic plane as seen from the Sun, taking into account the absorption by the mapped clouds. The data-model comparison favors the existence of hot gas in the Local Bubble (LB). The average mean pressure in the local cavities is found to be on the order of about 10,000 cm-3K, in agreement with previous studies. The model overestimates the emission from the huge cavities in the 3rd quadrant. ...

  19. Dependence on temperature of circular polarization and relaxation time in InAlAs/AlGaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahli, A.; Melliti, A.; Sellami, N. [Unite de recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques, La Marsa 2070 (Tunisia); Maaref, M.A. [Unite de recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques, La Marsa 2070 (Tunisia)], E-mail: mhamedmaaref@yahoo.fr; Testelin, C. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Campus Boucicaut, Universites Paris 6 et 7, CNRS, UMR7588, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS, UPR20 (France)

    2008-07-01

    We have studied the variation of photoluminescence circular polarization as a function of temperature in self-organized InAlAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. We have found that the circular polarization depends on temperature. The relaxation time {tau}{sub s} is deduced from the circular polarization degree. It decreases from 2 ns at 40 K to 100 ps at 85 K.

  20. Polarization-dependent X-ray-absorption spectroscopy of $RNi_{2} B_{2}$ C (R=Er $\\to$ Lu) Reduced Ni-3d occupancy in $YbNi_{2} B_{2} C$

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, C; Von Lips, H; Golden, M S; Fink, J; Canfield, P C; Kaindl, G

    2001-01-01

    We present here the results of polarization-dependent X-ray- absorption near-edge structure (XANES) studies at the B-K, C-K, and Ni-L/sub 3/ thresholds of single-crystalline borocarbide compounds RNi/sub 2/B/sub 2/C (with R=Er to Lu) using bulk-sensitive fluorescence yield technique. The Ni-L/sub 3/ XANES spectrum for YbNi /sub 2/B/sub 2/C with photon polarization parallel to the ab plane is significantly more intense than in analogous spectra of other members of this series. This indicates a reduced Ni-3d occupancy in the Ni /sub 2/B/sub 2/ layer in YbNi/sub 2/B/sub 2/C, a fact that might be responsible for the absence of superconductivity in this material. (26 refs).

  1. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Fed Cavity Backed Slot Antenna for Circularly Polarized Application

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Hong Zhang; Guo Qing Luo; Lin Xi Dong

    2013-01-01

    A novel planar low-profile cavity-backed slot antenna for circularly polarized applications is presented in this paper. The low-profile substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity is constructed on a single PCB substrate with two metal layers on the top and the bottom surfaces and metallized via array through the substrate. The SIW cavity is fed by a SIW transmission line. The two orthogonal degenerate cavities resonance TM110 mode are successfully stimulated and separated. The circularly pol...

  2. Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Scholten, O; Bonardi, A; Buitink, S; Correa, P; Corstanje, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Mitra, P; Mulrey, K; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Schellart, P; Thoudam, S; ter Veen, S; de Vries, K D; Winchen, T

    2016-01-01

    We report here on a novel analysis of the complete set of four Stokes parameters that uniquely determine the linear and/or circular polarization of the radio signal for an extensive air shower. The observed dependency of the circular polarization on azimuth angle and distance to the shower axis is a clear signature of the interfering contributions from two different radiation mechanisms, a main contribution due to a geomagnetically-induced transverse current and a secondary component due to the build-up of excess charge at the shower front. The data, as measured at LOFAR, agree very well with a calculation from first principles. This opens the possibility to use circular polarization as an investigative tool in the analysis of air shower structure, such as for the determination of atmospheric electric fields.

  3. Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance of fast ions with circularly polarized shear Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between fast ions and shear Alfven waves (SAWs) has been experimentally investigated with a test-particle fast-ion (Li+) beam launched in the helium plasma of the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. Left- or right-hand circularly polarized SAWs are launched by an antenna with four current channels. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer characterizes the resonance by measuring the nonclassical spreading of the averaged beam signal. Left-hand circularly polarized SAWs resonate with the fast ions but right-hand circularly polarized SAWs do not. The measured fast-ion profiles are compared with simulations by a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that uses the measured wave field data.

  4. Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual circularly polarized (CP omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 to 5.95 GHz with an isolation higher than 15 dB between the two CP ports, and the return loss (RL is higher than 10 dB within the bandwidth in both of the two ports. From the measured results, the average axial ratio (AR of the proposed antenna in omnidirectional plane is lower than 1.5 dB.

  5. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Thiemann, Wolfram H P; Barbier, Bernard; Brack, André; Alcaraz, Christian; Nahon, Laurent; Wolstencroft, Ray

    2002-04-01

    Different mechanisms for the generation of circular polarization by the surface of planets and satellites are described. The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed accordance with theory. However, for planet Mercury asymmetric parameters in the circular polarization were measured that do not fit with calculations. For BepiColombo, the ESA cornerstone mission 5 to Mercury, we propose to investigate this phenomenon using a concept which includes two instruments. The first instrument is a high-resolution optical polarimeter, capable to determine and map the circular polarization by remote scanning of Mercury's surface from the Mercury Planetary Orbiter MPO. The second instrument is an in situ sensor for the detection of the enantiomorphism of surface crystals and minerals, proposed to be included in the Mercury Lander MSE. PMID:12185675

  6. Polarization effects in femtosecond laser induced amorphization of monocrystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Li, Hong-Jin; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Wen-Zhong; Pan, Huai-Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Qian, Jing; Li, Yang-Bo; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    We have used femtosecond laser pulses to ablate monocrystalline silicon wafer. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of ablation surface indicates horizontally polarized laser beam shows an enhancement in amorphization efficiency by a factor of 1.6-1.7 over the circularly polarized laser ablation. This demonstrates that one can tune the amorphization efficiency through the polarization of irradiation laser.

  7. Circularly Polarized Persistent Room-Temperature Phosphorescence from Metal-Free Chiral Aromatics in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Vacha, Martin

    2016-04-21

    Circularly polarized room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) with persistent emission characteristics was observed from metal-free chiral binaphthyl structures. Enantiomers of the binaphthyl compounds doped into an amorphous hydroxylated steroid matrix produced blue fluorescence and yellow persistent RTP in air. The lifetime and quantum yield of the yellow persistent RTP were 0.67 s and 2.3%, respectively. The dissymmetry factors of circular dichroism (CD) in the first absorption band, circularly polarized fluorescence (CPF), and circularly polarized persistent RTP were |1.1 × 10(-3)|, |4.5 × 10(-4)|, and |2.3 × 10(-3)|, respectively. A comparison between the experimental data and calculations by time-dependent density functional theory for transient CD spectra confirmed that the binaphthyl conformations in the lowest singlet excited state (S1) and the lowest triplet state (T1) were different. The large difference in the dissymmetry factors for the CPF and the circularly polarized persistent RTP was likely caused by this conformational change between S1 and T1. PMID:27058743

  8. Circularly Polarized Persistent Room-Temperature Phosphorescence from Metal-Free Chiral Aromatics in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Vacha, Martin

    2016-04-21

    Circularly polarized room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) with persistent emission characteristics was observed from metal-free chiral binaphthyl structures. Enantiomers of the binaphthyl compounds doped into an amorphous hydroxylated steroid matrix produced blue fluorescence and yellow persistent RTP in air. The lifetime and quantum yield of the yellow persistent RTP were 0.67 s and 2.3%, respectively. The dissymmetry factors of circular dichroism (CD) in the first absorption band, circularly polarized fluorescence (CPF), and circularly polarized persistent RTP were |1.1 × 10(-3)|, |4.5 × 10(-4)|, and |2.3 × 10(-3)|, respectively. A comparison between the experimental data and calculations by time-dependent density functional theory for transient CD spectra confirmed that the binaphthyl conformations in the lowest singlet excited state (S1) and the lowest triplet state (T1) were different. The large difference in the dissymmetry factors for the CPF and the circularly polarized persistent RTP was likely caused by this conformational change between S1 and T1.

  9. Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation has been measured using a continuously tunable multilayer linear polarizer in the beam reflected from samples in applied magnetic fields. Like magnetic circular dichroism, Kerr rotation in the soft x-ray region can be element specific and much larger than in the visible spectral range when the photon energy is tuned near atomic core resonances. Thus sensitive element-specific hysteresis measurements are possible with this technique. Examples showing large Kerr rotation from an Fe film and element-specific hysteresis loops of the Fe and Cr in an Fe/Cr multilayer demonstrate these new capabilities. Some consequences of the strong anomalous dispersion near the Fe L2,3 edges to the Kerr rotation measurement are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Circularly Polarized Triband Printed Quasi-Yagi Antenna for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheakh, Dalia M.; Magdy F. Iskander

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a triband with circularly polarized quasi-Yagi antenna for ka-band and short range wireless communications applications. The proposed antenna consists of an integrated balun-fed printed dipole, parasitic folded dipole and a short strip, and a modified ground plane. The antenna structure, together with the parasitic elements, is designed to achieve circular polarization and triband operating at resonant frequencies of 13.5 GHz, 30 GHz, and 60 ...

  11. Dual Circularly-Polarized Patch Antenna Using Even and Odd Feed-Line Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Narbudowicz, Adam; Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new patch antenna with dual circularly polarized capability at 2.575 GHz. The design exploits the even and odd modes in a coplanar waveguide transmission line and enables simultaneous right- and left-handed circular polarization, with two individual excitation ports. A patch antenna is fed by multimode transmission line and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A prototyped antenna realized up to 20 dB isolation between ports with S21 < -10dB bandwidth of 87 MH...

  12. Circularly polarized lasing in chiral modulated semiconductor microcavity with GaAs quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Demenev, A A; Schneider, C; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Höfling, S; Lobanov, S V; Weiss, T; Gippius, N A; Tikhodeev, S G

    2016-01-01

    We report the elliptically, close to circularly polarized lasing at $\\hbar\\omega = 1.473$ and 1.522 eV from an AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg microcavity with 12 GaAs quantum wells in the active region and chiral-etched upper distributed Bragg refractor under optical pump at room temperature. The advantage of using the chiral photonic crystal with a large contrast of dielectric permittivities is its giant optical activity, allowing to fabricate a very thin half-wave plate, with a thickness of the order of the emitted light wavelength, and to realize the monolithic control of circular polarization.

  13. Converter of laser beams with circular polarization to cylindrical vector beams based on anisotropic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranin, Vyacheslav D.; Karpeev, Sergey V.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.; Krasnov, Andrey P.

    2016-03-01

    The optical system for converting laser beams with circular polarization to cylindrical vector beams on the basis of anisotropic crystals has been developed. The experimental research of beam formation quality has been carried out on the both polarization and structural characteristics. The research showed differences in the formation of the azimuthal and radial polarizations for Gaussian modes and Bessel beams. The boundaries of changes of the optical system parameters to form different types of polarizations with different amplitude and phase distributions have been identified.

  14. Circular polarization survey of intermediate polars I. Northern targets in the range 17h

    CERN Document Server

    Butters, O W; Norton, A J; Lehto, H J; Piirola, V

    2009-01-01

    Context. The origin, evolution, and ultimate fate of magnetic cataclysmic variables are poorly understood. It is largely the nature of the magnetic fields in these systems that leads to this poor understanding. Fundamental properties, such as the field strength and the axis alignment, are unknown in a majority of these systems. Aims. We undertake to put all the previous circular polarization measurements into context and systematically survey intermediate polars for signs of circular polarization, hence to get an indication of their true magnetic field strengths and try to understand the evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. Methods. We used the TurPol instrument at the Nordic Optical Telescope to obtain simultaneous UBVRI photo-polarimetric observations of a set of intermediate polars, during the epoch 2006 July 31 - August 2. Results. Of this set of eight systems two (1RXS J213344.1+510725 and 1RXS J173021.5-055933) were found to show significant levels of circular polarization, varying with spin pha...

  15. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.;

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of th...

  16. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  17. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  18. Surface spin-polarized currents generated in topological insulators by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation and their photoelectron spectroscopy indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikin, A. M.; Klimovskikh, I. I.; Filyanina, M. V.; Rybkina, A. A.; Pudikov, D. A.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.

    2016-08-01

    A new method for generating spin-polarized currents in topological insulators has been proposed and investigated. The method is associated with the spin-dependent asymmetry of the generation of holes at the Fermi level for branches of topological surface states with the opposite spin orientation under the circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. The result of the generation of holes is the formation of compensating spin-polarized currents, the value of which is determined by the concentration of the generated holes and depends on the specific features of the electronic and spin structures of the system. The indicator of the formed spin-polarized current can be a shift of the Fermi edge in the photoelectron spectra upon photoexcitation by synchrotron radiation with the opposite circular polarization. The topological insulators with different stoichiometric compositions (Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.8Se1.2 and PbBi2Se2Te2) have been investigated. It has been found that there is a correlation in the shifts and generated spin-polarized currents with the specific features of the electronic spin structure. Investigations of the graphene/Pt(111) system have demonstrated the possibility of using this method for other systems with a spin-polarized electronic structure.

  19. X-ray lithography sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron from dipole magnets in electron storage rings has emerged as a useful source of x-rays for lithography. To meet the need for these sources numerous groups around the world have embarked on projects to design and construct storage rings for x-ray lithography. Both conventional electromagnets as well as superconducting (SC) dipoles have been incorporated into the various designs. An overview of the worldwide effort to produce commercial x-ray sources will be presented. To better illustrate the elements involved in these sources a closer examination of the Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source Project (SXLS) at BNL will be presented. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Soft X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, Eberhard A

    1993-01-01

    This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction.

  1. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  2. X-ray magnetic absorption in Fe-Tb amorphous thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan Wook; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the magnetic structure of Fe-Tb amorphous thin films, we have performed magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements by using the circularly polarized X-ray at the Fe K- and the Tb L2,3-edges in Fe sub 8 sub 8 Tb sub 1 sub 2 , Fe sub 8 sub 0 Tb sub 2 sub 0 , and Fe sub 6 sub 2 Tb sub 3 sub 8. In all samples, the spin-dependent absorption effects, DELTA mu t, were observed. Also, elementary information was obtained on the spin polarizations of the p- and the d-projected electrons lying in the unoccupied states near the Fermi levels in the samples.

  3. Use of Crystals for High Energy Photon Beam Linear Polarization Conversion into Circular

    CERN Document Server

    Akopov, N Z; Darbinian, S M

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to convert the photon beam linear polarization into circularone at photon energies of hundreds GeV with the use of crystals is considered.The energy and orientation dependencies of refractive indexes are investigatedin case of diamond, silicon and germanium crystal targets. To maximize thevalues for figure of merit, the corresponding crystal optimal orientationangles and thickness are found. The degree of circular polarization andintensity of photon beam are estimated and possibility of experimentalrealization is discussed.

  4. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Aixin Chen; Chuo Yang; Zhizhang (David) Chen; Yanjun Zhang; Yingyi He

    2012-01-01

    Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array e...

  5. Analytical theory for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect under circularly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Otobe, T

    2016-01-01

    We report here the analytical formula for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect (Tr-DFKE) under circularly polarized light. We assume the Houston function as the time-dependent wave function of the parabolic two-band system. Our formula shows that the sub-cycle change of the optical properties disappears, which is a significant feature of the Tr-DFKE under linear polarized light and is different from the static Franz-Keldysh effect.

  6. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High {Tc} Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements.

  7. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High Tc Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements

  8. Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antennas – a Small Antenna Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Narbudowicz, Adam; Ammann, Max

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses recent developments and challenges in the design of small omnidirectionalcircularly-polarized (CP) antennas. Although omnidirectional CP coverage is easily achievable usingantenna arrays, it is just recently that small and low-cost antennas delivered this functionality.The paper addresses practical design problems for these antennas, not reported in previous publications.This includes selection of the omnidirectional plane relative to the ground plane and measurement chall...

  9. The 20 GHz circularly polarized, high temperature superconducting microstrip antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jarrett D.; Williams, Jeffery T.; Long, Stuart A.; Wolfe, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal was to design and characterize a four-element, 20 GHz, circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(x) superconductor. The purpose is to support a high temperature superconductivity flight communications experiment between the space shuttle orbiter and the ACTS satellite. This study is intended to provide information into the design, construction, and feasibility of a circularly polarized superconducting 20 GHz downlink or cross-link antenna. We have demonstrated that significant gain improvements can be realized by using superconducting materials for large corporate fed array antennas. In addition, we have shown that when constructed from superconducting materials, the efficiency, and therefore the gain, of microstrip patches increases if the substrate is not so thick that the dominant loss mechanism for the patch is radiation into the surface waves of the conductor-backed substrate. We have considered two design configurations for a superconducting 20 GHz four-element circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. The first is the Huang array that uses properly oriented and phased linearly polarized microstrip patch elements to realize a circularly polarized pattern. The second is a gap-coupled array of circularly polarized elements. In this study we determined that although the Huang array operates well on low dielectric constant substrates, its performance becomes extremely sensitive to mismatches, interelement coupling, and design imperfections for substrates with high dielectric constants. For the gap-coupled microstrip array, we were able to fabricate and test circularly polarized elements and four-element arrays on LaAlO3 using sputtered copper films. These antennas were found to perform well, with relatively good circular polarization. In addition, we realized a four-element YBa2Cu3O(x) array of the same design and measured its pattern and gain relative to a room temperature copper array. The patterns were

  10. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Complete chiral symmetry breaking of an amino acid derivative directed by circularly polarized light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, Wim L.; Bode, Arno A.C.; Meijden, Maarten van der; Meekes, Hugo; Etteger, Albert F. van; Enckevort, Willem J.P. van; Christianen, Peter C.M.; Kaptein, Bernard; Kellogg, Richard M.; Rasing, Theo; Vlieg, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) emitted from star-forming regions is an attractive candidate as a cause of single chirality in nature. It has remained difficult, however, to translate the relatively small chemical effects observed on irradiation of molecular systems with CPL into high enantiomeric

  12. Hybrid perturbation scheme for wide beamwidth circularly polarized stacked patch microstrip antenna for satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shakawat

    Circularly polarized microstrip antennas are popular for satellite communications due to their circularly polarized orientation. They are used frequently in modern day satellite communication. In order to achieve wide angular coverage in satellite communication, a wide beamwidth is required from the antenna. Traditional single layer microstrip antenna inherently demonstrates low angular beamwidth of approximately 600 to 800and thereby lacks wide angular coverage when used for satellite communication. The objective of this thesis is to design a single-fed stacked microstrip antenna using different perturbation techniques in order to achieve a wide angular beamwidth. This thesis presents a new design for a circularly polarized antenna based on the hybrid perturbation scheme. First, a method of stacked patch-ring with negative perturbation was used to generate a significantly larger beamwidth of 1060. The axial ratio (AR) bandwidth obtained is also significantly larger compared to the case when square rings are used as parasitic and driven rings with a single feed. A simulated impedance bandwidth (S11circular polarization radiation. An enhanced beamwidth of 1260 was obtained. The simulation results are confirmed by the measured results.

  13. Steerable antenna with circular-polarization. 2. Selection of optimal scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abranin, E.P.; Bazelyan, L.L.; Brazhenko, A.I.

    1987-11-01

    In order to study the sporadic radio emission from the sun a polarimeter operating at 25 MGz was developed and constructed. It employs the steerable antenna array of the URAN-1 radio telescope. The results of numerical calculations of compensation schemes, intended for emission (reception) of circularly polarized waves in an arbitrary direction with the help of crossed dipoles, are presented.

  14. Characteristics of block-periodic phased-array antennas with circular polarization of the radiated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoded, Iu. V.; Mironnikov, A. S.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents results of a numerical investigation of the directivity characteristics of a block-periodic waveguide phased-array antenna with circular polarization of the radiated field. The advantages of this array from the viewpoint of maximining the ellipticity coefficent of the radiated field in the scanning sector are pointed out.

  15. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    B.T.P.Madhav; HABIBULLA KHAN; SARAT K. KOTAMRAJU

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR

  16. Photo-Ionization of Hydrogen Atom in a Circularly Polarized Standing Electromagnetic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-Tao; ZHANG Qi-Ren; WANG Wan-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Applying time-independent non-perturbative formalism to the photo-ionization of hydrogen atom immersed in a strong circularly polarized standing electromagnetic wave, we calculate the shift of energy levels and the distortion of wave functions for the hydrogen atom, the ionization cross section induced by the standing wave, and the angular distribution of photoelectrons and obtain some interesting results.

  17. Dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by circularly polarized ac electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busl, Maria; Platero, Gloria; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We examine the low-energy physics of graphene in the presence of a circularly polarized electric field in the terahertz regime. Specifically, we derive a general expression for the dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by an ac electric field. Several approximations are developed that a...

  18. Ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms by a circularly polarized microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Delande, D.; Gay, J. (Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Hertzienne de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 12, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris CEDEX 05 (France)); Rzazewski, K. (Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02668 Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-04-01

    Some quantum-mechanical results describing the ionization of initially highly excited hydrogen atoms by a strong, circularly polarized microwave field are presented. A simplified two-dimensional model of the atom is used. Discrepancies between various classical estimates for the low-frequency ionization threshold are resolved.

  19. Generation of intense circularly polarized attosecond light bursts from relativistic laser plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Guangjin; Yu, M Y; Shen, Baifei; Veisz, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization of attosecond light bursts generated by nanobunches of electrons from relativistic few-cycle laser pulse interaction with the surface of overdense plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the polarization state of the generated attosecond burst depends on the incident-pulse polarization, duration, carrier envelope phase, as well as the plasma scale length. Through laser and plasma parameter control, without compromise of generation efficiency, a linearly polarized laser pulse with azimuth $\\theta^i=10^\\circ$ can generate an elliptically polarized attosecond burst with azimuth $|\\theta^r_{\\rm atto}|\\approx61^\\circ$ and ellipticity $\\sigma^r_{\\rm atto}\\approx0.27$; while an elliptically polarized laser pulse with $\\sigma^i\\approx0.36$ can generate an almost circularly polarized attosecond burst with $\\sigma^r_{\\rm atto}\\approx0.95$. The results propose a new way to a table-top circularly polarized XUV source as a probe with attosecond scale time resolution for many a...

  20. Circular polarization switching and bistability in an optically injected 1300 nm spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Hurtado, A. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, 106 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-01-12

    We report the experimental observation of circular polarization switching (PS) and polarization bistability (PB) in a 1300 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). We demonstrate that the circularly polarized optical signal at 1300 nm can gradually or abruptly switch the polarization ellipticity of the spin-VCSEL from right-to-left circular polarization and vice versa. Moreover, different forms of PS and PB between right- and left-circular polarizations are observed by controlling the injection strength and the initial wavelength detuning. These results obtained at the telecom wavelength of 1300 nm open the door for novel uses of spin-VCSELs in polarization sensitive applications in future optical systems.