WorldWideScience

Sample records for circularly polarized x-rays

  1. Magnetism in the light of circular polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern synchrotron X-ray sources providing highly intense X-rays of well-defined polarization led to the development of powerful techniques to get new insights into magnetic aspects of the electronic, crystallographic and geometric structure of solids. These methods are based on the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) resulting from the dependence of the X-ray absorption on the magnetization relative to the photon helicity. These effects which can be larger than 50 % occur at inner-shell absorption edges and reflect the spin and orbital polarization of the empty density of state allowing a quantitative determination of local magnetic spin and orbital moments with a high sensitivity up to 0.001 Bohr magnetons. The experimental aspects are outlined, a simple model for the origin of XMCD is presented and typical results are discussed. The unique possibility of using x-ray microscopy in combination with XMCD, which can combine lateral resolution of 15 nm and time resolution of 10 psec, is described and its potential to study magnetization dynamics in nanostructures demonstrated. (author)

  2. Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thin-crystal Si (400) Bragg transmission x-ray phase plate has been constructed for the production of 5 to 12 keV circularly polarized x-rays. Using multiple beam diffraction from a GaAs crystal, a direct measurement of the degree of circular polarization as a function of off-Bragg position was made. These measurements indicated nearly complete circular polarization (|Pc| ≥ 0.95) and full helicity reversal on opposite sides of the rocking curve

  3. Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the relative phase changes of σ and π electric field components on Bragg reflection from and transmission through multilayers are presented. Large relative phase changes can be calculated in certain cases, which may lead to utility of multilayers as quarter-wave plates for generation and analysis of circularly polarized soft x-radiation. Similar behavior may be expected for perfect crystals in the hard x-ray range. 24 refs., 4 figs

  4. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of producing highly circularly polarized X-ray radiation, especially in the soft X-ray region, is an important asset at XFELs. However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only. The lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, to exploit the microbunching from the baseline FEL. 5m-long APPLE II undulators are standard devices at synchrotrons. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. Slits can be inserted behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section f...

  5. Optical converters for circularly polarized VUV and soft-x-ray radiation (invited)(abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchst, Hartmut

    1995-02-01

    During the last few years considerable effort was spent at various laboratories to evaluate the possibilities of optical devices to generate circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. These instruments convert linearly polarized radiation by utilizing the phase-shifting properties of multiple reflectors or multilayer transmission optics. In the VUV and soft-x-ray range, the figure of merit TP2, where P is the degree of circular polarization and T the optical transmission, of specially tailored reflection coatings or multilayer structures can be considerably higher than what can be achieved with conventional insertion devices such as the crossed field undulator. In addition to being considerably less expensive, the various optical designs have the great advantage of not being an integral part of the storage ring and, as such, completely transparent to the operation and other users of the storage ring. Various phase-shifter designs will be discussed in terms of their performance, e.g., optical throughput, degree of polarization, and capabilities to modulate between left and right circular light. Recent MCD experiments utilizing optical phase shifters not only demonstrate the proof of principle, but also provide strong evidence of the potential capabilities of ``optical insertion'' devices as an alternative tool to generate variably polarized synchrotron radiation.

  6. Circular polarization control for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The LCLS baseline includes a planar undulator system, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nm. In the soft X-ray wavelength region polarization control from linear to circular is highly desirable for studying ultrafast magnetic phenomena and material science issues. Several schemes using helical undulators have been discussed in the context of the LCLS. One consists in replacing three of the last planar undulator segments by helical (APPLE III) ones. A second proposal, the 2nd harmonic helical afterburner, is based on the use of short, crossed undulators tuned to the second harmonic. This last scheme is expected to be the better one. Its advantages are a high (over 90%) and stable degree of circular polarization and a low cost. Its disadvantage is a small output power (1% of the power at the fundamental harmonic) and a narrow wavelength range. We propose a novel method to generate 10 GW level power at the fundamental harmonic with 99% degree of circular polarization from the LCLS baseline. Its merits are low cost, simplicity and easy implementation. In the option presented here, the microbunching of the planar undulator is used too. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is sent through a 40 m long straight section, and subsequently passes through a short helical (APPLE II) radiator. In this case the microbunch structure is easily preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. The background radiation from the baseline undulator can be easily suppressed by letting radiation and electron beamthrough horizontal and vertical slits upstream the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron bunch transverse size. Using thin Beryllium foils for the slits the divergence of the electron beam halo will increase by Coulomb scattering, but the beam will propagate through the setup without electron losses. The applicability of our method is not

  7. Soft x-ray circular dichroism and scattering using a modulated elliptically polarizing wiggler and double synchronous detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Polewski, K.; Monteleone, D.C. [and others

    1998-01-23

    We have constructed an experimental station (beamline) at the National Synchrotron Light Source to measure circular dichroism (CD) using soft x-rays (250 {le} hv {le} 900 eV) from a time modulated elliptically polarizing wiggler. The polarization of the soft x-ray beam switches periodically between two opposite polarizations, hence permitting the use of phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection. While the wiggler can be modulated at frequencies up to 100 Hz, switching transients limit the actual practical frequency to {approx}25 Hz. With analog detection, switching transients are blocked by a chopper synchronized to the frequency and phase of the wiggler. The CD is obtained from the ratio of the signal recovered at the frequency of polarization modulation, f, to the average beam intensity, which is recovered by synchronous detection at frequency 2f.

  8. Theory of magnetic photon scattering: total and Compton cross-sections for circularly polarized hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-sections for total and Compton scattering of circularly polarized photons by magnetic materials are presented. The expressions include scattering from both the spin and orbital magnetization densities, together with inelasticity corrections. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on application of circularly polarized X-rays in the region of 1 - 8 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Photon Factory of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, the inserted light source that generates powerful circularly polarized synchrotron radiation has been in the development and manufacture stage, and recently No. 2 machine was completed and installed in BL-28 of the 2.5 GeV ring. This equipment emits the circularly polarized synchrotron radiation in vacuum ultraviolet region when it is operated by undulator mode and that in the region from soft X-ray to X-ray when it is operated by wiggler mode. The recent world trend in the development of inserted light sources aims at creating the light of special polarization condition, not only obtaining the light of high luminance, and the research and development in the Photon Factory leads this trend. This workshop aims at exploring the best way for obtaining the results of research utilizing this superiority of the Photon Factory. This workshop was held on December 21 and 22, 1990 at the Laboratory in Tsukuba. The gists of 13 papers are collected in this publication. (K.I.)

  10. Polarization effects in radiation from compact X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory of polarization of X rays emitted by magnetized neutron stars, white dwarfs and black hole accretion disks is presented and predictions are compared with polarimetric data. Polarization occurs in accreting neutron stars and white dwarfs in binary systems as plasma travels along magnetic field lines formed between the companions. Movement parallel to the field produces circular polarization, transverse propagation yields linear polarization and elliptical polarization arises from other angles. The actual mechanism is alterations in the absorption coefficients of magnetized plasma, changes introduced by available bremsstrahlung and electron scattering processes. Thomson scattering is an origin of X ray polarization in black hole and neutron star accretion disks, with the type of polarization being dependent on the radiation density near the boundary, the presence of Faraday rotation and the geometry of the disk magnetic field. Polarimetric data on 10 stellar objects are presented as supportive evidence for the theory. 14 references

  11. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements using an X-ray phase retarder on the BM25 A-SpLine beamline at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental set-up at SpLine (BM25A, ESRF) to measure XMCD by using a diamond X-ray phase retarder to obtain circularly polarized X-rays is described. Circularly polarized X-rays produced by a diamond X-ray phase retarder of thickness 0.5 mm in the Laue transmission configuration have been used for recording X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) on the bending-magnet beamline BM25A (SpLine) at the ESRF. Field reversal and helicity reversal techniques have been used to carry out the measurements. The performance of the experimental set-up has been demonstrated by recording XMCD in the energy range from 7 to 11 keV

  12. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Daniel J; Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L; Jal, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Edwin; Liu, Tianmin; Lutman, Alberto A; MacArthur, James P; Arenholz, Elke; Chen, Zhao; Coslovich, Giacomo; Denes, Peter; Granitzka, Patrick W; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Joseph, John; Le Guyader, Loïc; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Shafer, Padraic; Stöhr, Joachim; Tsukamoto, Arata; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H; Dürr, Hermann A; Schlotter, William F

    2016-03-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L(3,2)-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature. PMID:27036761

  13. The effect of vacuum birefringence on the polarization of X-ray binaries and pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, R.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Angel, J. R. P.; Sutherland, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    In a strong magnetic field the vacuum becomes birefringent. This effect is especially important for pulsars at X-ray wavelengths. Any polarized X-ray emission from the surface of a magnetic neutron star becomes depolarized as it propagates through the magnetic field. The soft X-ray emission from AM Her, believed to be a magnetic white dwarf, may show about one radian of phase retardation. In this case, circular polarization of the X-ray flux would be a characteristic signature of vacuum birefringence.

  14. Angle-resolved x-ray circular and magnetic circular dichroisms: Definitions and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, DSY; X Guo; Tobin, JG; Waddill, GD

    1996-01-01

    We introduce definitions of angle-resolved x-ray circular dichroism (ARXCD) and magnetic x-ray circular dichroism (ARMXCD). As defined, the much larger effect of circular dichroism (ARXCD) is separated from the smaller magnetic (ARMXCD) effect. In all materials, ARXCD is zero along mirror planes while nonzero elsewhere. ARMXCD is nonzero only in magnetic materials. The measurement and analysis of ARMXCD allow element specific surface magnetism and surface structure as well as their inter-rela...

  15. Energy-dispersive phase plate for magnetic circular dichroism experiments in the X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 220 diamond phase plate was combined with an energy-dispersive absorption spectrometer to convert linearly polarized X-rays into circularly polarized photons and to detect circular magnetic X-ray dichroism (CMXD) from ferromagnetic samples. In these experiments, carried out at LURE, the energy-dispersive spectrometer was equipped with a bent Si (311) polychromator and vertically collimating slits accepting essentially a linearly polarized incident beam. The quarter-wave plate was operated in the Bragg geometry but well outside the range of quasi total reflection, with the consequence that the forward-diffracted beam was circularly polarized with a polarization rate approaching 80% over the whole energy bandpass of the polychromator. CMXD spectra of GdFe2 and GdCo2 intermetallic compounds were recorded at ca 7.2 keV near the Gd LIII absorption edge: they are essentially identical to the spectra commonly recorded with elliptically polarized X-ray photons collected out of the orbit plane of the storage ring. It is suggested that the energy-dispersive phase plate will be very useful to detect CMXD spectra with energy-dispersive spectrometers exploiting the well collimated linearly polarized emission of standard undulators installed on the storage rings of the third generation. (orig.)

  16. Disentangling multipole resonances through a full x-ray polarization analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoli, C.; Wilkins, S. B.; Di Matteo, S.; Detlefs, B.; Detlefs, C.; Scagnoli, V.; Paolasini, L.; P. Ghigna

    2006-01-01

    Complete polarization analysis applied to resonant x-ray scattering at the Cr K-edge in K2CrO4 shows that incident linearly polarized x-rays can be converted into circularly polarized x-rays by diffraction at the Cr pre-edge (E = 5994 eV). The physical mechanism behind this phenomenon is a subtle interference effect between purely dipole (E1-E1) and purely quadrupole (E2-E2) transitions, leading to a phase shift between the respective scattering amplitudes. This effect may be exploited to dis...

  17. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter are investigated in a study of solar hard X-rays. Effect of backscatter are found particularly important for anisotropic sources which emit hard X-rays predominantly toward the photosphere; for such anisotropic primary X-ray sources, the observed X-ray flux near 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of the flare. In addition, the degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies in the 15 to 30 keV range may be as high as 30%. Determination of the height and anisotropy of the primary X-ray sources from study of the albedo patch is also discussed.

  18. Polarized X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Accreting neutron stars span a wide range in X-ray luminosity and magnetic field strength. Accretion may be wind-fed or disk-fed, and the dominant X-ray flux may originate in the disk or a magnetically confined accretion column. In all such systems X-ray polarization may arise due to Compton or Magneto-Compton scattering, and on some occasions polarization of non-thermal emission from jet-like ejection may also be detectable. Spectral and temporal behaviour of the polarized X-rays would carry information regarding the radiation process, as well as of the matter dynamics - and can assist the detection of effects such as the Lense-Thirring precession. This talk will review our current knowledge of the expected X-ray polarization from accreting neutron stars and explore the prospects of detection with upcoming polarimetry missions.

  19. A bromine-based dichroic X-ray polarization analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, S P; Brown, S D; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    We have demonstrated the advantages offered by dichroic X-ray polarization filters for linear polarization analysis, and describe such a device, based on a dibromoalkane/urea inclusion compound. The polarizer has been successfully tested by analysing the polarization of magnetic diffraction from holmium.

  20. X-ray Orbital Modulations in Intermediate Polars

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, T L; Mukai, K

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of 30 archival ASCA and RXTE X-ray observations of 16 intermediate polars to investigate the nature of their orbital modulation. We show that X-ray orbital modulation is widespread amongst these systems, but not ubiquitous as indicated by previous studies that included fewer objects. Only seven of the sixteen systems show a clearly statistically significant modulation depth whose amplitude decreases with increasing X-ray energy. Interpreting this as due to photoelectric absorption in material at the edge of an accretion disc would imply that such modulations are visible for all system inclination angles in excess of 60 degrees. However, it is also apparent that the presence of an X-ray orbital modulation can appear and disappear on a timescale of ~years or months in an individual system. This may be evidence for the presence of a precessing, tilted accretion disc, as inferred in some low mass X-ray binaries.

  1. X-ray linear dichroism dependence on ferroelectric polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy are techniques commonly used to determine the magnetic properties of thin films, crystals, and heterostructures. Recently, these methods have been used in the study of magnetoelectrics and multiferroics. The analysis of such materials has been compromised by the presence of multiple order parameters and the lack of information on how to separate these coupled properties. In this work, we shed light on the manifestation of dichroism from ferroelectric polarization and atomic structure using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Linear dichroism arising from the ferroelectric order in the PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin films was studied as a function of incident x-ray polarization and geometry to unambiguously determine the angular dependence of the ferroelectric contribution to the dichroism. These measurements allow us to examine the contribution of surface charges and ferroelectric polarization as potential mechanisms for linear dichroism. The x-ray linear dichroism from ferroelectric order revealed an angular dependence based on the angle between the ferroelectric polarization direction and the x-ray polarization axis, allowing a formula for linear dichroism in ferroelectric samples to be defined. (paper)

  2. Energy and polarization-tunable X-ray quarter-wave plates for energy dispersive absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond crystals inserted in an energy dispersive setup are shown to be efficient quarter-wave plates at transforming a linearly polarized X-ray beam into a circularly polarized one. Circular magnetic X-ray dichroism (CMXD) spectra have been recorded at different absorption edges demonstrating the energy tunability of the device. CMXD spectra have also been obtained by switching the helicity of the circular polarization, i.e., flipping the quarter-wave plate between two opposite angular offsets from the Bragg peak. This development opens new classes of experiments. ((orig.))

  3. Asymmetry of parametric X rays from polarized electrons (quantum approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry ratio of parametric X rays from polarized electrons is considered using the quantum approach. The asymmetry ratio was investigated for photons emitted both along Bragg direction and for angles around γ-1 relative to the Bragg direction. Calculation of asymmetry for longitudinal and transverse electron polarization has been carried out

  4. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin; Kersell, Heath; Chang, Hao; Rosenmann, Daniel; Miller, Dean; Freeland, John W; Hla, Saw Wai; Rose, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe L2,3-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain. PMID:26917146

  5. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    CERN Document Server

    Worpel, H; Granzer, T; Reinsch, K; Schwarz, R; Traulsen, I

    2016-01-01

    We aim to study the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar CVs from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and to search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. We analysed four XMM X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered in SDSS, one in RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometry and spectroscopy and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. SDSSJ0328 was X-ray bright in two XMM and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states over a few months. It has no strong soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main pole to be 39 MG, the inclination to be 45X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which spends almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76...

  6. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Kallman, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles. We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using Monte Carlo simulations and chi-squared fitting methods. We compare our results to those derived using the traditional probability density used to characterize polarization measurements and quan...

  7. Polarized NIR and X-ray flares from Sagittarius A*

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckart, A.; Baganoff, F. K.; Zamaninasab, M.; Morris, M.; Schödel, R.; Meyer, L.; Muzic, K.; Bautz, M.W.; Brandt, W.N.; Garmire, G.P.; Ricker, G.; Kunneriath, D.; Straubmeier, C.; Duschl, W.J.; Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Markoff, S. B.; Najarro, F.; Mauerhan, J.; Moultaka, J.; Zensus, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 479, č. 3 (2008), s. 625-639. ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion disks * Galactic nucleus * NIR * X-rays * polarization Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  8. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism facility at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Xui, Wei; Chen, Dong-liang; Cui, Ming-Qi; Zhao, YI-Dong

    2014-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has become an important and powerful tool because it allows the study of material properties in combination with elemental specificity, chemical state specificity, and magnetic specificity. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus has been developed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The apparatus combines three experimental conditions: ultra-high-vacuum environment, moderate magnetic fields and in-situ sample preparation to measure the absorption signal. We designed a C type dipole electromagnet that provides magnetic fields up to 0.5T in parallel (or anti-parallel) direction relative to the incoming X-ray beam. The performances of the electromagnet are measured and the results show good agreement with the simulation ones. Following film grown in situ by evaporation methods, XMCD measurements are performed. Combined polarization corrections, the magnetic moments of the Fe and Co films determined by sum rules are consistent with other t...

  9. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worpel, H.; Schwope, A. D.; Granzer, T.; Reinsch, K.; Schwarz, R.; Traulsen, I.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar cataclysmic variables from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. Methods: We obtained and analysed four XMM-Newton X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered with the SDSS and one in the RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometric and spectroscopic observations and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. Results: SDSSJ032855.00+052254.2 was X-ray bright in two XMM-Newton and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states on a timescale of a few months. The source shows no significant soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole to be 39 MG and the inclination to be 45° ≤ i ≤ 77°, and we refined the long-term ephemeris. SDSSJ133309.20+143706.9 was X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which seems to spend almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76°. 1RXSJ173006.4+033813 was X-ray bright in the XMM-Newton observation. Its spectrum contained a modest soft blackbody component, not luminous enough to be considered a significant soft excess. We inferred a magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole of 20 to 25 MG, and that the inclination is less than 77° and probably less than 63°. V808 Aur, also known as CSS081231:J071126+440405, was X-ray faint in the Swift observation, but there is nonetheless strong evidence for bright and faint phases in X-rays and perhaps in UV. Residual X-ray flux from the faint phase is difficult to explain by thermal emission from the white dwarf surface, or by accretion onto the second pole. We present a revised distance estimate of 250 pc. Conclusions: The three systems we were able to study in detail

  10. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, Tod E

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles. We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using Monte Carlo simulations and chi-squared fitting methods. We compare our results to those derived using the traditional probability density used to characterize polarization measurements and quantify how they deviate as the intrinsic modulation amplitude grows. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by beta, the "number of sigma's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well known minimum detectable polarization (MDP) it is, on a...

  11. Measurement of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering from induced Cu polarizations in exchange-coupled Co/Cu multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An avalanche photodiode detector has been commissioned to measure weak resonant x-ray magnetic scattering (RXMS) from induced magnetic polarizations in Cu layers in exchange-coupled Co/Cu multilayers using circularly polarized x-rays from synchrotron sources. The detector can count x-rays at rates of 107 photons s-1, giving good estimates of the RXMS at superlattice Bragg peaks in a reasonably short time when count losses due to the time structure of the synchrotron x-rays are corrected for. RXMS superlattice Bragg peaks as small as 1 x 10-4 in flipping ratio have been measured from a Co/Cu multilayer at the K absorption edge of Cu. The data are fitted by an oscillatory model magnetization profile in the Cu layers derived from a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida theory of exchange coupling adapted to a planar geometry

  12. Recollision with circular polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Francois; Kamor, Adam; Bandrauk, Andre; Chandre, Cristel; Uzer, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    Since its identification in the 90s, the recollision scenario has revealed to be very helpful in explaining many phenomena in atomic and molecular systems subjected to strong and short laser pulses, and it is now at the core of the strong field physics and attosecond science. For linearly polarized laser fields, the recollision scenario has been able to explain nonsequential double ionization (NSDI), high harmonic generation (HHG) and laser induced diffraction (LIED), just to cite them. The same scenario also predicts the absence of recollision when the field is circularly polarized, therefore leading to the absence of NSDI, HHG or LIED. Recently, the influence of the ellipticity of the laser has drawn an increasing level of interest in the strong field community as it is seen as a way to control the electronic dynamics and, for instance, HHG. Using classical models, the common belief of the absence of recollision with circularly polarized laser fields has been proven wrong. In my talk I will present classical and quantum evidence of the presence of recollision with circular polarization. I will discuss the conditions under which such recollisions happen and what they imply.

  13. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  14. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities

  15. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, MacCallum J. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Agostino, Christopher J. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); N' Diaye, Alpha T. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Gong [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Im, Mi-Young [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Fischer, Peter, E-mail: PJFischer@lbl.gov [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities.

  16. Quantitative x-ray magnetic circular dichroism mapping with high spatial resolution full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray spectro-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, MacCallum J.; Agostino, Christopher J.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Chen, Gong; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which serves as strong and element-specific magnetic contrast in full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy, is shown to provide information on the local distribution of spin (S) and orbital (L) magnetic moments down to a spatial resolution of 25 nm limited by the x-ray optics used in the x-ray microscope. The spatially resolved L/S ratio observed in a multilayered (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm) × 30 thin film exhibiting a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decreases significantly in the vicinity of domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration in the vertical profile of a domain wall across the thin film. Quantitative XMCD mapping with x-ray spectro-microscopy will become an important characterization tool for systems with topological or engineered magnetization inhomogeneities.

  17. ON THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF X-RAY POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form A + Bcos 2(φ – φ0) (0 2 fitting methods. We compare our results to those derived using the traditional probability density used to characterize polarization measurements and quantify how they deviate as the intrinsic modulation amplitude grows. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by β the ''number of σ's'' of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude a by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle φ (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case, when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well-known minimum detectable polarization, (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3σ level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed than what was required to achieve the MDP level. This additional factor is amplitude-dependent, but is ≈2.2 for intrinsic amplitudes less than about 20%. It decreases slowly with amplitude and is ≈1.8 when the amplitude is 50%. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1σ confidence is well described by the relation σφ = 28.°5/β

  18. Magnetic circular X-ray dichroism in amorphous Fe-RE alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic circular X-ray dichroism and X-ray absorption near-edge structures were measured at the rare-earth (RE) L3,2 edges in amorphous Fe-RE alloys (RE=Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy). The Gd 5d spin and orbital moments in the amorphous 80 at% Fe-Gd alloy are evaluated to be about 0.39μB and -0.02μB per atom at room temperature using the sum rules. ((orig.))

  19. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  20. Phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy and spectral energy distribution of the X-ray soft polar RS Caeli

    CERN Document Server

    Traulsen, I; Schwope, A D; Schwarz, R; Walter, F M; Burwitz, V

    2014-01-01

    RS Cae is the third target in our series of XMM-Newton observations of soft X-ray-dominated polars. Our observational campaign aims to better understand and describe the multiwavelength data, the physical properties of the system components, and the short- and long-term behavior of the component fluxes in RS Cae. We employ stellar atmosphere, stratified accretion-column, and widely used X-ray spectral models. We fit the XMM-Newton spectra, model the multiband light curves, and opt for a mostly consistent description of the spectral energy distribution. Results. Our XMM-Newton data of RS Cae are clearly dominated by soft X-ray emission. The X-ray light curves are shaped by emission from the main accretion region, which is visible over the whole orbital cycle, interrupted only by a stream eclipse. The optical light curves are formed by cyclotron and stream emission. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectra comprise a black-body-like and a plasma component at mean temperatures of 36eV and 7keV. The spectral fits give eviden...

  1. Radiation exposure in a modern, circularly scanned-beam laminographic X-ray inspection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, R S

    1998-01-01

    Circularly scanned-beam laminography is currently the predominant technique used for the nondestructive examination of printed circuit solder assemblies via cross-sectional X-ray imaging. Given industry trends towards double-sided assemblies and limited access components, cross-sectional X-ray inspection is furthermore becoming increasingly important. Use of X-rays for inspection of solder joints on loaded printed circuit boards nonetheless often leads to concern surrounding possible undesirable radiation effects on the circuitry mounted on the board. In this paper we develop a simple analytical model useful for predicting the radiation exposure rates in a scanned-beam laminography system. We demonstrate the validity of the model through a series of dosimetry experiments. PMID:22388470

  2. Polarization from Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sourses: The PRAXyS Small Explorer Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; The PRAXyS Team

    2016-04-01

    Polarization is a sensitive probe of geometry near compact objects, but remains largely unexplored in the X-ray band. Polarization is expected from cosmic X-ray sources, yielding insight into the geometry of black hole emission, and the origin and nature of X-ray emission in neutron stars and magnetars. Recent progress with detectors capable of imaging the track of a photoelectron generated by a detection of a cosmic X-ray have made sensitive X-ray polarization observatories possible within the constraints of a NASA Small Explorer mission. We report on the observational capabilities and the scientific goals of the "Polarization from Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources" (PRAXyS) Observatory. PRAXyS is a small explorer which has been selected by NASA for a phase A study.

  3. Polarization dependent soft x-ray spectro-microscopy of local spin structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Maccallum; Agostino, Christopher; Im, Mi-Young; Montoya, Sergio; Fullerton, Eric; Fischer, Peter

    Quantitative information about element-specific contributions to local magnetic spin and orbital moments is readily available by XMCD spectroscopy and images of magnetic domain patterns with a few tens of nanometer spatial resolution. We show that the x-ray spectroscopic analysis of x-ray microscopy images provides quantitative information about local spin structures. We have investigated two prototypical multilayered PMA film systems prepared by sputtering, specifically (Co 0.3 nm/Pt 0.5 nm)x30 and (Fe 0.7nm/Gd 0.4nm)x100 systems. A spectroscopic sequence of full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy (MTXM) images covering about 8mm field-of-views with a spatial resolution of about 20nm were recorded across the Co and Fe L edges, resp. To modulate the magnetic contrast, two sets of images were obtained with left and right circular polarization. Standard XMCD spectroscopy analysis procedures were applied to retrieve the local spectroscopic behavior. We observe a decrease of the L3/L2 ratio when approaching the domain walls, indicating a non-uniform spin configuration along the vertical profile of a domain, which we will discuss in view of both systems' magnetic anisotropies. U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231.

  4. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  5. Magnetic moments in a gadolinium iron garnet studied by soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.; Tjeng, L.H.; Meigs, G.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic moments of Gd and Fe in gadolinium iron garnet (Gd3Fe5O12) were probed at 77 and 300 K by soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD) measurements at the GdMa4,5 and at the FeL2,3 absorption edges. The SXMCD signal at each edge allows one to independently determine the magnetic order

  6. Sub-MeV tunably polarized X-ray production with laser Thomson backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, K.; Kando, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Daito, I.; Kondo, S.; Homma, T.; Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Chen, L.-M.; Fukuda, Y.; Faenov, A.; Shizuma, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.

    2008-05-01

    Reported in this article is the generation of unique polarized x-rays in the sub-MeV region by means of the Thomson backscattering of the Nd:YAG laser photon with a wavelength of 1064nm on the 150MeV electron from the microtron accelerator. The maximum energy of the x-ray photons is estimated to be about 400keV. The total energy of the backscattered x-ray pulse is measured with an imaging plate and a LYSO scintillator. The angular divergence of the x-rays is also measured by using the imaging plate. We confirm that the x-ray beam is polarized according to the laser polarization direction with the Compton scattering method. In addition, we demonstrate the imaging of the object shielded by lead with the generated x-rays.

  7. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the U M4,5 absorption edges of UFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an x-ray magnetic circular dichroism study performed at the U M4,5 edges on UFe2, a ferromagnet with almost itinerant 5f electrons. The analysis of the branching ratio of the U M4,5 edges confirms the fact that the occupation number of the 5f states in UFe2 is lower than in other compounds where the f electrons are more localized. Magnetic circular dichroism effects are observed consistently with the presence of an orbital 5f magnetic moment which aligns parallel to the total magnetic moment. In agreement with a polarized neutron study, we find a nearly perfect cancellation of the U-5f spin and orbital magnetic moments, which results in a vanishing small total U-5f magnetic moment. Results are discussed in comparison with atomic multiplet calculations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: Experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the L2,3 edges of Mn in (Ge,Mn) compounds have been measured and are compared to the results of first principles calculation. Early ab initio studies show that the Density Functional Theory (DFT) can very well describe the valence band electronic properties but fails to reproduce a characteristic change of sign in the L3 XMCD spectrum of Mn in Ge3Mn5, which is observed in experiments. In this work we demonstrate that this disagreement is partially related to an underestimation of the exchange splitting of Mn 2p core states within the local density approximation. It is shown that the change in sign experimentally observed is reproduced if the exchange splitting is accurately calculated within the Hartree–Fock approximation, while the final states can be still described by the DFT. This approach is further used to calculate the XMCD in different (Ge,Mn) compounds. It demonstrates that the agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be improved by combining state of the art calculations for the core and valence states respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra are measured and compared to first principles calculations in (Ge,Mn) compounds. • Standard density functional theory fails in properly describing peculiar features observed in the experiment. • A new approach to calculate theoretical X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra is proposed. • Improved modeling of the core levels splitting using the Hartree–Fock approximation allows for a better matching with the experiment. • This new method could be generalized to any 3d metallic-like system

  9. Measuring x-ray polarization in the presence of systematic effects: Known background

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, Ronald F; Weisskopf, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    The prospects for accomplishing x-ray polarization measurements of astronomical sources have grown in recent years, after a hiatus of more than 37 years. Unfortunately, accompanying this long hiatus has been some confusion over the statistical uncertainties associated with x-ray polarization measurements of these sources. We have initiated a program to perform the detailed calculations that will offer insights into the uncertainties associated with x-ray polarization measurements. Here we describe a mathematical formalism for determining the 1- and 2-parameter errors in the magnitude and position angle of x-ray (linear) polarization in the presence of a (polarized or unpolarized) background. We further review relevant statistics-including clearly distinguishing between the Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) and the accuracy of a polarization measurement.

  10. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy in FePd alloys studied using transverse X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe0.5Pd0.5 alloys have been correlated using X-ray diffraction (XD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and transverse X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) at the Pd L2,3 edges. XD indicates that codeposition of Fe and Pd, at elevated temperatures (350 deg. C), results in a well-ordered L10 phase which exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). On the other hand, codeposition at room temperature results in a disordered phase with in-plane easy-axis of magnetization. By codepositing at intermediate temperatures, a series of alloys has been produced with varying degree of compositional order. The TXMCD results show that increased compositional ordering leads to an increased orbital moment anisotropy favouring PMA. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy resulting from the orbital anisotropy is compared to VSM results

  11. Nitrogen K-edge soft X-ray natural circular dichroism of histidine thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report preliminary natural circular dichroism (NCD) spectra of amino acids, Land D-histidine, thin films in the nitrogen K-edge energy region. NCD peaks were observed at 399.9 eV and were assigned to the 1s → π* transition of the nitrogen atoms in imidazole ring. Imidazole ring is positioned at the side chain distant from the asymmetric carbon. This result suggests that NCD spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region can selectively pick up the information on local structure around specific atoms, regardless of the position of atoms in molecules. It is interesting in view of application of NCD spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region to investigation of protein structures.

  12. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (@16 eV to 500 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestre, M.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bustamante, C. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Snyder, P. (Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Rowe, E.; Hansen, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI (United States). Synchrotron Radiation Center)

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takahisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Konishi, Shigeki; Tsuji, Takuya; Takenaka, Hisataka; Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A circular multilayer zone plate (MZP) was fabricated and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV x-rays. MoSi(2) and Si layers were alternately deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a wire core; all the interfaces satisfied the Fresnel zone condition. The measured line spread function was converted to a point spread function by tomographic reconstruction. The results suggest that the MZP has the potential to realize the diffraction-limited resolving power, which is calculated to be 35 nm using the diffraction integral. Furthermore, scanning transmission microscopy using the MZP could resolve a 50-nm line-and-space pattern. PMID:22299960

  14. Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Takahisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Konishi, Shigeki; Tsuji, Takuya; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Takenaka, Hisataka; Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0124 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    A circular multilayer zone plate (MZP) was fabricated and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV x-rays. MoSi{sub 2} and Si layers were alternately deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a wire core; all the interfaces satisfied the Fresnel zone condition. The measured line spread function was converted to a point spread function by tomographic reconstruction. The results suggest that the MZP has the potential to realize the diffraction-limited resolving power, which is calculated to be 35 nm using the diffraction integral. Furthermore, scanning transmission microscopy using the MZP could resolve a 50-nm line-and-space pattern.

  15. Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takahisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Konishi, Shigeki; Tsuji, Takuya; Takenaka, Hisataka; Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A circular multilayer zone plate (MZP) was fabricated and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV x-rays. MoSi2 and Si layers were alternately deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a wire core; all the interfaces satisfied the Fresnel zone condition. The measured line spread function was converted to a point spread function by tomographic reconstruction. The results suggest that the MZP has the potential to realize the diffraction-limited resolving power, which is calculated to be 35 nm using the diffraction integral. Furthermore, scanning transmission microscopy using the MZP could resolve a 50-nm line-and-space pattern.

  16. Polarized NIR and X-ray flares from Sagittarius A*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eckart; F.K. Baganoff; M. Zamaninasab; M.R. Morris; R. Schödel; L. Meyer; K. Muzic; M.W. Bautz; W.N. Brandt; G.P. Garmire; G.R. Ricker; D. Kunneriath; C. Straubmeier; W. Duschl; M. Dovciak; V. Karas; S. Markoff; F. Najarro; J. Mauerhan; J. Moultaka; A. Zensus

    2008-01-01

    Context. Stellar dynamics indicate the presence of a supermassive 3 - 4 x 10(6) M-circle dot black hole at the Galactic Center. It is associated with the variable radio, near-infrared, and X-ray source Sagittarius A*(SgrA*). Aims. The goal is the investigation and understanding of the physical proce

  17. Circular Polarization of Radio Emission from Relativistic Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Beckert, T; Beckert, Thomas; Falcke, Heino

    2002-01-01

    In inhomogeneous optically thick synchrotron sources a substantial part of the electron population at low energies can be hidden by self-absorption and overpowered by high energy electrons in optically thin emission. These invisible electrons produce Faraday rotation and conversion, leaving their footprints in the linear and circular polarized radiation of the source. An important factor is also the magnetic field structure, which can be characterized in most cases by a global magnetic field and a turbulent component. We present the basic radiative transfer coefficients for polarized synchrotron radiation and apply them to the standard jet model for relativistic radio jets. The model can successfully explain the unusual circular and linear polarization of the Galactic Centre radio source Sgr A* and its sibling M81*. It also can account for the circular polarization found in jets of more luminous quasars and X-ray binaries. The high ratio of circular to linear polarization requires the presence of a significan...

  18. Measuring X-Ray Polarization in the Presence of Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; ODell, S. L.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the 1 and 2 parameter errors in the magnitude and position angle of X ]ray polarization. The formalism includes a treatment of systematic effects, such as background and instrumental bias.

  19. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  20. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, M. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Hague, C.F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  1. FemtoSpeX: a versatile optical pump-soft X-ray probe facility with 100 fs X-ray pulses of variable polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holldack, Karsten; Bahrdt, Johannes; Balzer, Andreas; Bovensiepen, Uwe; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Erko, Alexei; Eschenlohr, Andrea; Follath, Rolf; Firsov, Alexander; Frentrup, Winfried; Le Guyader, Loïc; Kachel, Torsten; Kuske, Peter; Mitzner, Rolf; Müller, Roland; Pontius, Niko; Quast, Torsten; Radu, Ilie; Schmidt, Jan Simon; Schüssler-Langeheine, Christian; Sperling, Mike; Stamm, Christian; Trabant, Christoph; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Here the major upgrades of the femtoslicing facility at BESSY II (Khan et al., 2006) are reviewed, giving a tutorial on how elliptical-polarized ultrashort soft X-ray pulses from electron storage rings are generated at high repetition rates. Employing a 6 kHz femtosecond-laser system consisting of two amplifiers that are seeded by one Ti:Sa oscillator, the total average flux of photons of 100 fs duration (FWHM) has been increased by a factor of 120 to up to 10(6) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1) on the sample in the range from 250 to 1400 eV. Thanks to a new beamline design, a factor of 20 enhanced flux and improvements of the stability together with the top-up mode of the accelerator have been achieved. The previously unavoidable problem of increased picosecond-background at higher repetition rates, caused by `halo' photons, has also been solved by hopping between different `camshaft' bunches in a dedicated fill pattern (`3+1 camshaft fill') of the storage ring. In addition to an increased X-ray performance at variable (linear and elliptical) polarization, the sample excitation in pump-probe experiments has been considerably extended using an optical parametric amplifier that supports the range from the near-UV to the far-IR regime. Dedicated endstations covering ultrafast magnetism experiments based on time-resolved X-ray circular dichroism have been either upgraded or, in the case of time-resolved resonant soft X-ray diffraction and reflection, newly constructed and adapted to femtoslicing requirements. Experiments at low temperatures down to 6 K and magnetic fields up to 0.5 T are supported. The FemtoSpeX facility is now operated as a 24 h user facility enabling a new class of experiments in ultrafast magnetism and in the field of transient phenomena and phase transitions in solids. PMID:25177998

  2. Response of the Compton polarimeter POLAR to polarized hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POLAR is a novel compact space-borne Compton polarimeter conceived for a precise measurement of hard X-ray polarization and optimized for the detection of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) photons in the energy range 50-500 keV. In December 2009 we have performed a systematic calibration of one modular unit of POLAR at four energy levels (200, 288, 356 and 511 keV) with a 100% polarized synchrotron radiation source at the beam line ID15A at ESRF. The detector was displaced several times on the beam line in order to achieve a uniform illumination, which mimics the flux from a GRB placed on the zenith of the experiment. Several rotations of the detector on the beam axis allowed us to test the response of POLAR to several polarization angles. Two different analysis methods to reconstruct the polarization angle of the beam and the modulation factor μ100 are presented; the first relies on the existence of a unpolarized sample, produced by merging two data sets with orthogonal polarization directions, and is less dependent on systematic effects due to asymmetries in the detector; the second is independent from unpolarized measurements, and will likely be used to analyze the polarization of GRB during the flight. Both methods reconstruct the input polarization angle within 2o and produce modulation factors μ100 between 30% and 50% depending on the beam energy. Monte Carlo simulations performed with GEANT4 confirm the experimental results.

  3. Multilayer polarization elements and their applications to polarimetric studies in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WATANABE Makoto; WANG Zhangshan; CUI Mingqi; YAMAMOTO Masaki; YANAGIHARA Mihiro; HATANO Tadashi; SAITO Katsuhiko; HU Weibing; EJIMA Takeo; TSURU Toshihide; TAKAHASHI Masahiko; KIMURA Hiroaki; HIRONO Toko

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer polarization elements and their applications to polarimetric studies in 20~400 eV region are mainly reviewed.General principle of selecting material combinations to get high linear polarizance multilayers of reflection type is given with practical examples,with periodic or non-periodic layer structures depending on the usage.Transmission type is introduced as linear polarizer and phase shifter.Their applications include polarization diagnosis of laboratory optical systems and synchrotron radiation beamlines of linear and circular polarization,magnetic rotation experiments such as Faraday rotation and magnetic Kerr rotation on magnetic films and multilayers,and ellipsometry to measure optical constants of thin films precisely.Polarization analysis of soft X-ray fluorescence using multilayer-coated grating is also mentioned.Finally this review is summarized with outlook of further developments.

  4. The X-ray Polarization Signature of Quiescent Magnetars: Effect of Magnetospheric Scattering and Vacuum Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at ~100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  5. THE X-RAY POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF QUIESCENT MAGNETARS: EFFECT OF MAGNETOSPHERIC SCATTERING AND VACUUM POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at ∼100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  6. Probing the Accretion Geometry of Black Holes with X-Ray Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    In the coming years, new space missions will be able to measure X-ray polarization at levels of 1% or better in the approx.1-10 keV energy band. In particular, X-ray polarization is an ideal tool for determining the nature of black hole (BH) accretion disks surrounded by hot coronae. Using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code in full general relativity, we calculate the spectra and polarization features of these BH systems. At low energies, the signal is dominated by the thermal flux coming directly from the optically thick disk. At higher energies, the thermal seed photons have been inverse-Compton scattered by the corona, often reflecting back off the disk before reaching the observer, giving a distinctive polarization signature. By measuring the degree and angle of this X-ray polarization, we can infer the BH inclination, the emission geometry of the accretion flow, and also determine the spin of the black hole.

  7. Detection of X-ray polarization of Ar Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jun, E-mail: shijun@cqu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Xiao Shali; Qian Jiayu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang Xianbin; Cai Hongchun [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2010-12-01

    An X-ray polarization spectrometer has been developed for diagnostic applications of X-ray line polarization spectroscopy in Ar Z-pinch plasmas. The diagnosis was based on theoretical modeling of X-ray line polarization-dependent spectra that have been measured simultaneously by a pair of convex crystal analyzers. Surfaces of the crystals were orthogonal with each other in order to diffract the X-ray spectra. The spectrometer was equipped with two pieces of X-ray films that work as the spectral detector. The experimental results have confirmed that there are considerable differences in relative intensities for the Ar XVII resonance line w (1s2p {sup 1}P{sub 1}-1s{sup 21}S{sub 0}), the Ar XVII intercombination line y (1s2p {sup 3}P{sub 1}-1s{sup 21}S{sub 0}) and the Li-like satellites with directions perpendicular and parallel to the Z-pinch axis. Linear polarization of the resonance line and the intercombination line has been calculated according to intensity of the spectra. A value of +0.25 was obtained for the polarization of w and a value of +0.14 for the polarization of y.

  8. Influence of the electron beam emittance on the polarization of a laser--electron X-ray generator

    CERN Document Server

    Artyukov, I A; Feshchenko, R M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the polarization of the X-ray radiation coming from laser--electron X-ray generator (LEXG). We obtain general relations connecting the polarization state of outgoing X-ray radiation to the polarization state of laser beam as well as to the parameters of electron beam. We demonstrate that finite electron beam emittance causes a partial depolarization of initially fully polarized X-ray radiation even when the laser beam is fully polarized. We demonstrate with a number of numerical experiments that finite electron beam emittance can in some cases fundamentally alter the polarization state of X-ray radiation as compared to the polarization state of X-ray radiation scattered by electron beam with a zero emittance. Possible applications of polarized LEXG's radiation are discussed.

  9. Polarization dependent interface properties of ferroelectric Schottky barriers studied by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Denlinger, M. Meier J.; Guo, J.; Wanli, Y.; A. Scholl; Freelon, B.; Schneller, T.; Waser, R.; Yu, P; Ramesh, R.; Learmonth, T.; Glans, P.-A.; Smith, K. E.

    2008-01-01

    We applied soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the Ti L-edge in ferroelectric capacitors using a modified total electron yield method. The inner photo currents and the X-ray absorption spectra were polarization state dependent. The results are explained on the basis of photo electric effects and the inner potential in the ferroelectric capacitors as a result of back-to-back Schottky barriers superimposed by the potential due to the depolarization field. In general, the presented metho...

  10. Simulation of one-dimensionally polarized X-ray semiconductor detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, K.J.; C. Herrmann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A pixelated X-ray semiconductor detector (=“direct converter”) is studied which contains an inhomogeneous electric field parallel to the depth axis caused by different concentrations of p- or n-doping. The X-ray energy deposition and charge movement within the detector is modeled in Monte-Carlo simulations which give access to astatistical analysis of electron drift times and current pulse widths for various degrees of static polarization. Integral charges induced on the pixel elect...

  11. 5f-hybridization in URhAl studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments performed at the U-M4,5 edges of an URhAl single crystal. Thanks to the sum-rules, we derive an orbital moment on the uranium atoms equal to (1.63±0.14)μB. The comparison of the shape of the M5 dichroic signal with pure J multiplet calculations shows effects due to 5f-hybridization. However, we found that the contribution of the magnetic dipole term left angle TZ right angle to the effective spin moment left angle SZeff right angle =(SZ right angle +3 left angle TZ right angle) is non negligible. These results indicate an higher localization of the 5f-orbitals with respect to other itinerant ferromagnetic actinides compounds such as UFe2 or UNi2. (orig.)

  12. Resonant photoemission and magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in the M shell of ultrathin films of Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using magnetic ultra thin films (2--4 ml) of Fe on Cu(001) and bulk-like Fe, the Fe3p and Fe3s core states have been investigated with resonant photoemission and core-level photoemission, including, magnetic x-ray circular dichroism (MXCD) experiments. The resonant photoemission experiment has been done in fine steps over a wide photon energy range (hν = 695 eV - 715 eV), to probe the parentage of various spectral structures. The onset of secondary channels at the L3(hν = 707 eV) and L2(hν = 72O eV) edges will be analyzed in light of results from bulk Ni. The MXCD photoelectron spectroscopy of the Fe3p exhibits a 0.2 eV shift with circular polarization variation. The previously observed split peak structure in the Fe3s will be discussed with regard to the new resonant photoemission results. The resonant photoemission results will also be put into the context of our MXCD absorption results for monolayer and multilayers of Fe

  13. Pulsar Polar Cap Heating and Surface Thermal X-ray Emission. 1; Curvature Radiation Pair Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pulsar polar cap (PC) heating produced by positrons returning from the upper pair formation front. Our calculations are based on a self-consistent treatment of the pair dynamics and the effect of electric field screening by the returning positrons. We calculate the resultant X-ray luminosities and discuss the dependence of the PC heating efficiencies on pulsar parameters, such as characteristic spin-down age, spin period, and surface magnetic field strength. In this study we concentrate on the regime where the pairs are produced in a magnetic field by curvature photons emitted by accelerating electrons. Our theoretical results are not in conflict with the available observational x-ray data and suggest that the effect of PC heating should significantly contribute to the thermal x-ray fluxes from middle-aged and old pulsars. The implications for current and future x-ray observations of pulsars are briefly outlined.

  14. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  15. Polarized triplet production by circularly polarized photons

    CERN Document Server

    Bytev, V V; Galynsky, M V; Potylitsin, A P

    2002-01-01

    A process of the pair production by a circularly polarized photon in the field of unpolarized atomic electron has been considered in the Weizaecker-Williams approximation. The degree of longitudinal polarization of positron and electron has been calculated. An exclusive cross-section as well as a spectral distribution are obtained. We estimate the accuracy of our calculations at the level of a few percent. We show the identity of the positron polarization for considered process and for process of pair production in the screened Coulomb field of nucleus.

  16. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism strongly influenced by non-magnetic cover layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, K.; Audehm, P.; Schütz, G. [Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems (Former Metals Research), Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Goering, E., E-mail: goering@is.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems (Former Metals Research), Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Pathak, M.; Chetry, K.B.; LeClair, P.R.; Gupta, A. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Energy filtering gives much larger sampling depth and escape length as expected. •XMCD sum rules could be dramatically altered by this effect. •Strong enhanced effective escape length for buried layers. •A “universal curve” model gives semi quantitative understanding. •Buried layers are more sensitive to self-absorption phenomena. -- Abstract: Total electron yield (TEY) is the dominating measurement mode in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), where the sampling depth is generally assumed to be quite small and constant, and the related self-absorption or saturation phenomena are about to be negligible at normal incidence conditions. From the OK edge to CrL{sub 2,3} edge XAS ratio we determined a strong change in the effective electron escape length between an uncovered and a RuO{sub 2} covered CrO{sub 2} sample. This effect has been explained by a simple electron energy filtering model, providing a semi quantitative description. In addition, this simple model can quantitatively describe the unexpected reduced and positive CrL{sub 2,3} X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) signal of a RuO{sub 2}/CrO{sub 2} bilayer, while previous results have identified a clear negative Cr magnetization at the RuO{sub 2}/CrO{sub 2} interface. In our case this escape length enhancement has strong impact on the XMCD sum rule results and in general it provides much deeper sampling depth, but also larger self-absorption or saturation effects.

  17. Polarized high-brilliance and high-resolution soft x-ray source at ELETTRA: The performance of beamline BACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACH, a soft x-ray beamline for polarization-dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, was recently completed and characterized. Its performance, in terms of energy resolution, flux and polarization, is presented. Based on two APPLE II undulators, BACH covers the energy range between 35 and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator is equipped with four gratings and allows one to work either in a high resolution or in a high flux mode. After the monochromator, the beamline is split into two branches with different refocusing properties. One is optimized to exploit the performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) available at the beamline. Resolving powers between 12000 at 90 eV photon energy and 6600 near 867 eV were achieved using the high-resolution gratings and the smallest available slit width (10 μm). For the high-brilliance grating, which works between 290 and 1600 eV, resolving powers between 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV were obtained. The flux in the experimental chamber, measured with the high-resolution gratings for linearly polarized light at the best achievable resolution, ranges between 4x1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2x1010 photons/s between 900 and 1250 eV. In circularly polarized mode the flux is two times larger for energies up to 380 eV. A gain of nearly one order of magnitude is obtained for the high-brilliance grating, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Flux beyond 1.3x1011 photons/s was measured up to 1300 eV, and thus over nearly the complete energy range covered by this high-brilliance grating, with a maximum of 1.6x1011 photons/s between 800 and 1100 eV. First results from polarization measurements confirm a polarization above 99.7% for both linearly and circularly polarized modes at low energies. Circular dichroism experiments indicate a circular polarization beyond 90% at the Fe L2/L3 edge near 720 eV

  18. Circularly polarized open-loop antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rong-Lin; Fusco, Vincent F.; Nakano, Hisamatsu

    2003-01-01

    A printed circular open-loop antenna is introduced as a simple structure for producing circular polarization; the antenna is fed with a coaxial probe. By introducing a gap within the circular loop a traveling-wave current is excited and thus circularly polarized radiation can be achieved. An optimized circularly polarized antenna is designed through numerical analysis using a so-called parametric method of moment technique. Experimental verification of the new antenna is presented. The antenn...

  19. Electronic structure, magnetic ordering and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in La1-xPrxCo2P2 phosphides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Bekenov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure and magnetic ordering in La1-xPrxCo2P2 (x=0, 0.25, and 1 phosphides have been studied theoretically using the fully relativistic spin-polarized Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO band-structure method. The X-ray absorption and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra at the Co L2,3 and Pr M4,5 edges have been investigated theoretically within the framework of the LSDA+U method. The core-hole effect in the final state as well as the effects of the electric quadrupole E2 and magnetic dipole M1 transitions have been investigated. Good agreement with experimental measurements has been found.

  20. Magnetic properties of Fe nanoclusters on Cu(111) studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, Kai [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); MPI for Metals Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ballentine, Greg E. [MPI for Metals Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Praetorius, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleibert, Armin; Wilken, Norman; Voitkans, Andris; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The magnetisation and magnetic response of Fe nanoclusters are studied by temperature and density dependent in situ X-ray magnetic circular dichroism after deposition onto Cu(111). The nanoclusters possess enhanced spin magnetic moments at low temperature, whereas no enhancement is found for the orbital moments. The analysis of magnetisation curves and the temperature dependent remnant magnetisation reveals that the individual magnetic anisotropy energies are distributed over a wide range of values, ranging from below to far above the value of bulk {alpha}-Fe. As a result, ferromagnetic response is obtained at ambient temperature, even though the nanocluster densities range well below percolation threshold. At higher cluster densities agglomeration and substrate mediated interaction increase the mean blocking temperature in the particle ensemble. The observed macroscopic magnetic in-plane anisotropy derives from the average dipolar interactions between the nanoclusters. Single particle properties, substrate mediated coupling and dipolar interactions thus independently contribute to magnetic characteristics on equal footing. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work.

  2. Local electronic states of Fe{sub 4}N films revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Keita, E-mail: keita.ito.729@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kimura, Akio [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-05-21

    We performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at Fe L{sub 2,3} and N K-edges for Fe{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In order to clarify the element specific local electronic structure of Fe{sub 4}N, we compared experimentally obtained XAS and XMCD spectra with those simulated by a combination of a first-principles calculation and Fermi's golden rule. We revealed that the shoulders observed at Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges in the XAS and XMCD spectra were due to the electric dipole transition from the Fe 2p core-level to the hybridization state generated by σ* anti-bonding between the orbitals of N 2p at the body-centered site and Fe 3d on the face-centered (II) sites. Thus, the observed shoulders were attributed to the local electronic structure of Fe atoms at II sites. As to the N K-edge, the line shape of the obtained spectra was explained by the dipole transition from the N 1s core-level to the hybridization state formed by π* and σ* anti-bondings between the Fe 3d and N 2p orbitals. This hybridization plays an important role in featuring the electronic structures and physical properties of Fe{sub 4}N.

  3. X-ray pulsar radiation from polar cap heated by back-flow bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J; Zhang, B

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of the thermal X-ray radiation from the hot polar cap of radio pulsars showing evidence of \\EB subpulse drift in radio band. In our resent Paper I, within the partially screened gap (PSG) model of inner acceleration region we derived a simple relationship between the drift rate of subpulses observed in a radio-band and the thermal X-ray luminosity from polar caps heated by the back-flow particle bombardment. This relationship can be tested for pulsars in which the so-called carousel rotation time $P_4$, reflecting the \\EB plasma drift, and the thermal X-ray luminosity $L_x$ from the hot polar cap are known. To test the model we used two only available pulsars: PSRs B0943+10 and B1133+16. They both satisfied the model prediction, although due to low photon statistics the thermal component could not be firmly identified from the X-ray data. Nevertheless, these pulsars were at least consistent with PSG pulsar model. In the present paper we consider two more pulsars: PSRs B0656+14 and B062...

  4. Circular Polarization in Pulsar Integrated Profiles: Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We update the systematic studies of circular polarization in integrated pulse profiles by Han et al. Data of circular polarization profiles are compiled. Sense reversals can occur in core or cone components, or near the intersection between components. The correlation between the sense of circular polarization and the sense of position angle variation for conal-double pulsars is confirmed with a much large database. Circular polarization of some pulsars has clear changes with frequency.Circular polarization of millisecond pulsars is marginally different from that of normal pulsars.

  5. On understanding the figures of merit for detection and measurement of x-ray polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; O'Dell, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for accomplishing X-ray polarization measurements appear to have grown in recent years after a more than 35-year hiatus. Unfortunately, this long hiatus has brought with it some confusion over the statistical uncertainties associated with polarization measurements of astronomical sources. The heart of this confusion stems from a misunderstanding (or potential misunderstanding) of a standard figure of merit-the minimum detectable polarization (MDP)-that one of us introduced many years ago. We review the relevant statistics, and quantify the differences between the MDP and the uncertainty of an actual polarization measurement. We discuss the implications for future missions.

  6. SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

  7. X-ray pulsar radiation from polar caps heated by back-flow bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, J.; Melikidze, G.; Zhang, B.

    2007-03-01

    We consider the problem of the thermal X-ray radiation from the hot polar caps of radio pulsars that show evidence of E × B subpulse drift in radio band. In our recent Paper I, using the partially screened gap (PSG) model of inner acceleration region we derived a simple relationship between the drift rate of subpulses observed in a radio-band and the thermal X-ray luminosity from polar caps heated by the back-flow particle bombardment. This relationship can be tested for pulsars in which the so-called carousel rotation time P4, reflecting the E × B plasma drift, and the thermal X-ray luminosity Lx from the hot polar cap are known. To test the model we used only two available pulsars: PSRs B0943+10 and B1133+16. They both satisfied the model prediction, although due to low photon statistics the thermal component could not be firmly identified from the X-ray data. Nevertheless, these pulsars were at least consistent with PSG pulsar model. In this Letter we consider two more pulsars: PSRs B0656+14 and B0628-28, the data for which have recently become available. In PSR B0656+14 the thermal radiation from the hot polar cap was clearly detected, and PSR B0628-28 also seems to have such a component. In all cases for which both P4 and Lx are presently known, the PSG pulsar model seems to be fully confirmed. Other available models of inner acceleration region fail to explain the observed relationship between radio and X-ray data. The pure vacuum gap model predicts too high Lx and too low P4, while the space charge limited model predicts too low Lx and the origin of the subpulse drift has no natural explanation.

  8. X-ray thermal radiation from hot polar cap in pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George I.

    We discuss the partially screened gap (PSG) model of the pulsar inner accelerator, which implies that the temperature of the polar cap surface is almost equal to the so called critical temperature defined by the strength of the magnetic field at the polar cap surface. Observations of thermal X-ray emission reveal an important correlation between the hot spot area and its surface temperature, both derived from the blackbody fit. The hot spot surface area is generally much smaller than that of the conventional polar cap, implying that geometry and strength of the actual surface magnetic field differ essentially from the pure dipolar field. We believe that major characteristics of the pulsar radiation, including correlation between observed features of X-ray and radio emissions can be naturally explained within the framework of the PSG model.

  9. Attosecond x-ray source generation from two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liqiang [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Minghu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Chu, Tianshu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The plasmonic field enhancement from the vicinity of metallic nanostructures as well as the polarization gating technique has been utilized to the generation of the high order harmonic and the single attosecond x-ray source. Through numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, for moderate the inhomogeneity and the polarized angle of the two fields, we find that not only the harmonic plateau has been extended and enhanced but also the single short quantum path has been selected to contribute to the harmonic. As a result, a series of 50 as pulses around the extreme ultraviolet and the x-ray regions have been obtained. Furthermore, by investigating the other parameters effects on the harmonic emission, we find that this two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement scheme can also be achieved by the multi-cycle pulses, which is much better for experimental realization.

  10. Thermal X-ray Emission from Hot Polar Cap in Radio Pulsars with Drifting Subpulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George; Zhang, Bing

    2008-02-01

    We consider the problem of thermal X-ray radiation from the hot polar cap heated by the spark-associated back-flow electron bombardment, in radio pulsars showing the subpulse drift. Using the partially screened gap (PSG) model of the inner acceleration region we examine a simple relationship between the drift rate of subpulses observed in a radio-band (measured as the polar cap carousel circulation time P4, that is the time interval after which sparks complete one full revolution around the polar cap) and the heating rate (measured as thermal X-ray luminosity Lx from hot polar cap). This relationship reflects the fact that both the drift rate and the heating rate are determined by about the same value of the non-corotational component of gap electric field. The theoretical formula can be tested for pulsars in which the carousel rotation time P4, and the thermal X-ray bolometric luminosity Lx from the hot polar cap are known. There are currently four pulsars in which both these quantities and are measured or at least estimated: PSRs B0943+10, B1133+16, B0656+14 and B0628-28. They all seem to confirm the predictions of the PSG model. This model requires a very strong surface magnetic field in pulsars, exceeding 1014 G irrespective of the dipolar component determined from the spin-down data.

  11. Molecular alignment using circularly polarized laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Smeenk, C T L

    2013-01-01

    We show that circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produce field-free alignment in linear and planar molecules. We study the rotational wavepacket evolution of O$_2$ and benzene created by circularly polarized light. For benzene, we align the molecular plane to the plane of polarization. For O$_2$, we demonstrate that circular polarization yields a net alignment along the laser propagation axis at certain phases of the evolution. Circular polarization gives us the ability to control alignment of linear molecules outside the plane of polarization, providing new capabilities for molecular imaging.

  12. On the circular polarization of pulsar radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubarskii, Y. E.; Petrova, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the polarization behaviour of radio waves propagating through an ultrarelativistic highly magnetized electron-positron plasma in a pulsar magnetosphere. The rotation of magnetosphere gives rise to the wave mode coupling in the polarization-limiting region. The process is shown to cause considerable circular polarization in the linearly polarized normal waves. Thus, the circular polarization observed for a number of pulsars, despite the linear polarization of the emitted normal wav...

  13. Feedback control system for soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experimental station based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feedback control system was developed for soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experimental station based on LabVIEW. By implementing the system, the stability of current through the sample was improved to provide a good criterion for absorption spectrum analysis. The friendly user interface, flexible interface instruction and strong data storage function are also important for National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory which is open to users from all over the country. (authors)

  14. In vacuum figure-8 undulator for hard X-rays with both horizontal and vertical polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A figure-8 undulator of the in-vacuum type has been adopted as an insertion device for BL24XU, the Hyogo Beamline at SPring-8, to provide hard X-rays with both horizontal and vertical polarization instead of a tandem undulator consisting of horizontal and vertical undulators. The undulator will be operated with the gap almost fixed at 11.6 mm to provide the fundamental radiation with horizontal polarization at 9.5 keV and the 1.5th harmonic with vertical polarization at 14 keV

  15. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung are calculated from electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the...

  16. X-ray polarization fluctuations induced by cloud eclipses in active galactic nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marin, Frederic; Dovčiak, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 573, January (2015), A60/1-A60/8. ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12010 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies: Seyfert * polarization * radiative transfer * relativistic processes * scattering * X-rays: general Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  17. Thermal disc emission from a rotating black hole: X-ray polarization signatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dovčiak, Michal; Muleri, F.; Goosmann, René; Karas, Vladimír; Matt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 391, č. 1 (2008), s. 32-38. ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0052; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Grant ostatní: ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : polarization * relativity * instrumentation: polarimeters * X-rays: binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.185, year: 2008

  18. X-Ray Polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Daniel; Ingram, Adam R; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Madsen, Kristin K; Aaron, Kim M; Aminia, Rashied; Baring, Matthew G; Bodaghee, Arash; Booth, Jeffrey; Borden, Chester; Boettcher, Markus; Christensen, Finn E; Coppi, Paolo S; Davis, Shane; Dexter, Jason; Done, Chris; Dominguez, Luis A; Ellison, Don; English, Robin J; Fabian, Andrew C; Falcone, Abe; Favretto, Jeffrey A; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W; Kara, Erin; Lee, Chung H; Lyutikov, Maxim; Maccarone, Thomas; McKinney, Jonathan; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miller, Jon M; Narayan, Ramesh; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Oezel, Feryal; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Pravdo, Steven; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Okajima, Takashi; Toma, Kenji; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. The PolSTAR design is based on the technology developed for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission launched in June 2012. In particular, it uses the same X-ray optics, extendable telescope boom, optical bench, and CdZnTe detectors as NuSTAR. The mission has the sensitivity to measure ~1% linear polarization fractions for X-ray sources with fluxes down to ~5 mCrab. This paper describes the PolSTAR design as well as the science drivers and the potential science return.

  19. Polarization of x-ray lines emitted from plasma-focus discharges; Problems of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high current pulse discharges of the Plasma Focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of X-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpretate the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense X-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed X-ray lines. (author)

  20. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    OpenAIRE

    V. Jebaraj; K.R.S. Ravi Kumar; D. Mohanageetha

    2014-01-01

    Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation techni...

  1. Inelastic magnetic X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzman, P. M.; Tzoar, N.

    1985-04-01

    The theory of magnetic X-ray scattering is used to discuss the possibilities for employing inelastic scattering to probe the magnetic properties of condensed matter systems. In particular, it is shown how the interference between the nonmagnetic (Compton) and magnetic scattering arising from the use of circularly polarized X-rays is absolutely essential in such experiments. The very beautiful preliminary experiments by Sakai and Ono (1976) on Fe which use circularly polarized Moessbauer gamma-rays will be discussed. They already show the sensitivity of the technique to the 'magnetic form factor'. In addition, the physics of a unique quarter wave plate employed in obtaining circularly polarized X-rays is considered, and the implications of this advance for doing such experiments on existing synchrotron X-ray sources are discussed.

  2. Energy-dependent polarization study of the x-ray magnetic scattering in terbium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.C. [Physics Department, School of Physical Science and Engineering, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Costa, M.M.R. [Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Stirling, W.G.; Longfield, M.J.; Mannix, D. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Brueckel, T. [HASYLAB, DESY, Notketstrasse 85, 22063 Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-03-09

    A detailed study of the x-ray magnetic scattering from Tb has been performed, including polarization analysis of the scattered intensity as a function of energy close to the L{sub n} and L{sub m} absorption edges. Large enhancements of the magnetic signal are observed at these energies. It is found that the enhancement at the L{sub m} edge is consistent with a simple dipole transition model, whereas the enhancement at the L{sub n} edge shows an anomalous {approx}5 eV splitting. The angular and polarization dependences of this resonance are investigated, and various explanations are discussed. (author)

  3. X-Ray Polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczynski, Henric S.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kislat, Fabian F.; Zajczyk, Anna; Beilicke, Matthias; Hoormann, Janie; Guo, Qingzhen; Endsley, Ryan; Ingram, Adam R.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter,radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. The PolSTAR design is based on the techn...

  4. X-ray polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczynski, Henric S.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.;

    2016-01-01

    ,radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. The PolSTAR design is based on the technology developed for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission launched in June 2012.......In particular, it uses the same X-ray optics, extendable telescope boom,optical bench, and CdZnTe detectors as NuSTAR. The mission has the sensitivity to measure ~1% linear polarization fractions for X-ray sources with fluxes down to ~5 mCrab. This paper describes the PolSTAR design as well as the...

  5. X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism studies of Co2FeAl in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebke, D.; Kugler, Z.; Thomas, P.; Schebaum, O.; Schafers, M.; Nissen, D.; Schmalhorst, J.; Hutten, A.; Arenholz, E.; Thomas, A.

    2010-01-11

    The bulk magnetic moment and the element specific magnetic moment of Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films were examined as a function of annealing temperature by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)/X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), respectively. A high magnetic moment can be achieved for all annealing temperatures and the predicted bulk and interface magnetic moment of about 5 {tilde A}{sub B} are reached via heating. We will also present tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) values of up to 153% at room temperature and 260% at 13 K for MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Co{sub 2}FeAl and Co-Fe electrodes.

  6. Dosimetric Characteristics of Circular 6-MeV X-Ray Beams for Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, A.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Bulski, W.; Fijuth, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics of 6 MeV circular X-ray beams of diameters ranging from 7.5 to 35.0 mm are reported. The 6-MeV X-ray beam from Clinac 2300CD was formed using additional cylindrical BrainLAB's collimators. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. Specific quantities measured include tissue maximum ratios (TMR), beam profiles (off-axis ratios OAR) and relative output factors. Measurements of these parameters were performed in a water phantom using small cylindrical ionization chambers and a diamond detector. Comparison of TMR values measured with the ionization chamber and the diamond detector showed no significant differences. It was shown that the latter yields more accurate results for beam profiles than ionization chambers. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of this radiotherapy unit are found to be suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy.

  7. Development of a graphite polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Burns, Clement; Casa, Diego; Upton, Mary; Gog, Thomas; Kim, Jungho; Li, Chengyang

    2011-11-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a powerful technique for studying electronic excitations in correlated electron systems. Current RIXS spectrometers measure the changes in energy and momentum of the photons scattered by the sample. A powerful extension of the RIXS technique is the measurement of the polarization state of the scattered photons which contains information about the symmetry of the excitations. This long-desired addition has been elusive because of significant technical challenges. This paper reports the development of a new diffraction-based polarization analyzer which discriminates between linear polarization components of the scattered photons. The double concave surface of the polarization analyzer was designed as a good compromise between energy resolution and throughput. Such a device was fabricated using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite for measurements at the Cu K-edge incident energy. Preliminary measurements on a CuGeO(3) sample are presented. PMID:22128967

  8. X-RAY VARIABILITY STUDY OF POLAR SCATTERED SEYFERT1 GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Beuchert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We study 12 Seyfert 1 galaxies with a high level of optical polarization. Optical light emerging from the innermost regions is predominantly scattered in a polar region above the central engine directly in our line of sight. These sources show characteristics of Seyfert 2 galaxies, e.g. polarized broad lines. The polarization signatures suggest a viewing angle of 45°, classifying them as intermediate Seyfert 1/2 types. The unified model predicts this line of sight to pass through the outer layer of the torus resulting in significant soft X-ray variability due to a strongly varying column density. The aim is to find evidence for this geometrical assumption in the spectral variability of all available historical observations of these sources by XMM-Newton and Swift.

  9. Polarization modulation from Lense-Thirring precession in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam; Poutanen, Juri; Krawczynski, Henric

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognised that quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray light curves of accreting black hole and neutron star binaries have the potential to be powerful diagnostics of strong field gravity. However, this potential cannot be fulfilled without a working theoretical model, which has remained elusive. Perhaps the most promising model associates the QPO with Lense-Thirring precession of the inner accretion flow, with the changes in viewing angle and Doppler boosting modulating the flux over the course of a precession cycle. Here, we consider the polarization signature of a precessing inner accretion flow. We use simple assumptions about the Comptonization process generating the emitted spectrum and take all relativistic effects into account, parallel transporting polarization vectors towards the observer along null geodesics in the Kerr metric. We find that both the degree of linear polarization and the polarization angle should be modulated on the QPO frequency. We calculate the predicted...

  10. A compact tunable polarized X-ray source based on laser-plasma helical undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Vieira, Jorge; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Silva, Luis O; Jaroszynski, Dino A; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators have great potential as the basis for next generation compact radiation sources because their accelerating gradients are three orders of magnitude larger than traditional accelerators. However, X-ray radiation from such devices still lacks of tunability, especially the intensity and polarization distribution. Here we propose a tunable polarized radiation source from a helical plasma undulator based on plasma channel guided wakefield accelerator. When a laser pulse is initially incident with a skew angle relative to the channel axis, the laser and accelerated electrons experience collective spiral motions, which leads to elliptically polarized synchrotron-like radiation with flexible tunability on radiation intensity, spectra and polarization. We demonstrate that a radiation source with millimeter size and peak brilliance of $2\\times10^{19} photons/s/mm^{2}/mrad^{2}/0.1%$ bandwidth can be made with moderate laser and electron beam parameters. This brilliance is comparable with the ...

  11. Magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms at Co2MnGe/MgO interfaces seen via soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, D.; Koide, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Shioya, T.; Amemiya, K.; Singh, V. R.; Kataoka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Taira, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic states of Mn and Co atoms in Co-rich Co2MnGe Heusler alloy thin films facing an MgO barrier were studied by means of soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In particular, the Co2MnGe film-thickness dependence of the Mn and Co magnetic moments was investigated. With a decrease in the Co2MnGe film thickness to 1-2 monolayers (MLs), the spin magnetic moment of Mn decreased and the MnL2,3 -edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) showed a Mn2+ -like multiplet structure in MnO, in contrast to samples thicker than 4 ML, indicating that the Mn atoms of the 1 and 2 ML samples were oxidized. The Co spin magnetic moment increased slightly with decreasing thickness. A Co2+ -like multiplet structure in CoO was not observed in all the CoL2,3 -edge XAS and XMCD, indicating that, even in the ultrathin samples, the Co atoms were not oxidized, and were more strongly spin polarized than those in the thicker samples. Co spin magnetic moments of 1.40-1.77μB larger than the theoretical value for ideal stoichiometric Co2MnGe (˜1μB) and the Co-rich film composition imply the presence of Co antisites that would lower the spin polarization.

  12. Reconfigurable Monopole Antennas With Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents research on printed circularly-polarized monopole antennas and their application in reconfigurable monopole antennas. The proposed circularly-polarised monopole antennas benefit from advantages such as small size, low-cost, low-profile and simple designs. The first part of this thesis introduces three printed circularly-polarized monopole antennas for global navigation satellite systems and Wi-Fi applications. The primary focus is on the ground plane which is used as a ra...

  13. Magnetic exchange coupling in 3d-4f molecular nanomagnets investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Single-molecule magnets are exchange-coupled spin clusters showing slow relaxation of magnetization. In recent years, efforts have been intensified to increase the magnetization reversal barrier and thus enhance relaxation times by combining rare earth ions with transition-metal ions. Rare-earth ions exhibit very large magnetic anisotropies due to their strong spin-orbit coupling and their mostly unquenched orbital momentum. In this contribution we use X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to observe element-specific magnetization curves. In conjunction with SQUID magnetization and susceptibility measurements, we are able to obtain information about the magnetic coupling between 3d and 4f ions. (author)

  14. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Re 5d magnetism in Sr2CrReO6

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, P.; Gepraegs, S.; Sanganas, O.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Wilhelm, F; Rogalev, A.; Alff, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured Re 5d spin and orbital magnetic moments in the ferrimagnetic double perovskite Sr2CrReO6 by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the L_{2,3} edges. In fair agreement with recent band-structure calculations [Vaitheeswaran et. al., Ref 1], at the Re site a large 5d spin magnetic moment of -0.68 mu_B and a considerable orbital moment of +0.25 mu_B have been detected. We found that the Curie temperature of the double perovskites A2BB'O6 scales with the spin magnetic moment of the...

  15. Electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,MnTe diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Antonov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure of the (Ge,MnTe diluted magnetic semiconductors was investigated theoretically from first principles, using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO band structure method. The electronic structure is obtained with the local spin-density approximation (LSDA as well as the LSDA+U method. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD spectra of (Ge,MnTe DMSs at the Mn L2,3 edges are investigated theoretically from first principles. The origin of the XMCD spectra in the compound is examined. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data.

  16. Circular polarization memory in polydisperse scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Callum M; Meglinski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survival of circularly polarized light in random scattering media. The surprising persistence of this form of polarization has a known dependence on the size and refractive index of scattering particles, however a general description regarding polydisperse media is lacking. Through analysis of Mie theory, we present a means of calculating the magnitude of circular polarization memory in complex media, with total generality in the distribution of particle sizes and refractive indices. Quantification of this memory effect enables an alternate pathway towards recovering particle size distribution, based on measurements of diffusing circularly polarized light.

  17. POLAR: A Space-borne X-Ray Polarimeter for Transient Sources

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    POLAR is a novel compact Compton X-ray polarimeter designed to measure the linear polarization of the prompt emission of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) and other strong transient sources such as soft gamma repeaters and solar flares in the energy range 50-500 keV. A detailed measurement of the polarization from astrophysical sources will lead to a better understanding of the source geometry and emission mechanisms. POLAR is expected to observe every year several GRBs with a minimum detectable polarization smaller than 10%, thanks to its large modulation factor, effective area, and field of view. POLAR consists of 1600 low-Z plastic scintillator bars, divided in 25 independent modular units, each read out by one flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier. The design of POLAR is reviewed, and results of tests of one modular unit of the engineering and qualification model (EQM) of POLAR with synchrotron radiation are presented. After construction and testing of the full EQM, we will start building the flight model in 2011, ...

  18. Hard X-Ray Polarization from Non-vertical Solar Flare Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. Gordon; Bradsher, Henry L.; McConnell, Mark L.

    2008-02-01

    McConnell et al. have reported preliminary results of hard X-ray polarization measured by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in an intense solar flare on 2002 July 23. The magnitude of the reported polarization is broadly consistent with the predictions of existing solar flare models which invoke the precipitation of a nonthermal electron beam into a dense chromospheric target. However, the orientation of the polarization vector lies at a substantial angle to the local solar radial direction. This is inconsistent with model predictions of a polarization vector along the local radial direction, a prediction that is a direct consequence of the assumption of a vertical guiding magnetic field. Smith et al., in a study of the same 2002 July 23 event, have suggested that the magnetic structure in which the flare occurs is tilted relative to the local vertical. Motivated by this observation, and by the preliminary nonradial polarization vector reported by McConnell et al., we explore the effect of tilt of the flaring loop on the magnitude and orientation of the predicted polarization vector. We find that allowing loops tilted from the local solar vertical does indeed permit a much wider range of polarization vector orientations than allowed by purely vertical loop geometries. In particular, adding tilt of the magnitude inferred by Smith et al. for the 2002 July 23 event can in principle account for both the magnitude and direction of the polarization vector reported by McConnell et al. for that event.

  19. Timing analysis of hard X-ray emission and 22 GHz flux and polarization in a solar burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solar flare occurring on 26 February 1981 at 1932 UT was observed simultaneously, in hard X-rays and microwaves with a time resolution of a fraction of a second. The X-ray observations were made with the Hard X-ray Monitor on Hinotori, and the microwave observations were made at 22 GHz with the 13.7 m Itapetinga mm-wave antenna. Timing accuracy was restricted to 62.5 ms, the best time resolution obtained in hard X-rays for this burst. It is found that: (a) all 22 GHz flux structures were delayed by 0.2 - 0.9 second relative to similar structures in hard X-rays throughout the burst duration; (b) different burst structures showed different delays, suggesting that they are independent of each other; (c) the time structures of the degree of polarization at 22 GHz precede the total microwave flux time structures by 0.1-0.5 sec; (d) The time evolutions of time delays of microwaves with respect to hard X-rays and also the degree of microwave polarization show fluctuations with are not clearly related to any other time structures. If it is taken mean values for the 32 sec burst duration, it is found that hard X-ray emission precedes the degree of microwave polarization by 450 ms, which in turn precedes the total microwave flux by 110 ms. (Author)

  20. Neutron star population in the Galactic center region as a potential source of polarized X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Eckart, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We analyse the emission properties of neutron stars that are predicted to exist in large numbers of the order of 10000 in the innermost parts of the Galactic center. A part of the population of isolated neutron stars propagates supersonically through denser ionized streams of the Minispiral (Sgr A West), forming bow shocks where particles are accelerated and are expected to produce polarized X-ray synchrotron signal. Another source of the synchrotron emission is an elongated magnetosphere and tail. We investigate whether the polarized X-ray emission from Galactic center neutron stars will be potentially detectable in the framework of future X-ray polarimeters. A special case is a detected young neutron star - magnetar SGRJ1745-2900 - that has undergone a series of outbursts with a peak X-ray luminosity of the order of 10^{35} erg s^{-1} (1-10 keV). Apart from an intrinsic X-ray emission, the X-ray emission from neutron star outbursts may be scattered by molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone by Thomson scattering, which is another potential source of polarized X-ray emission.

  1. Discovery of the optical polarization flare following the X-ray giant outburst of V0332+53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowikowska, Agnieszka; Reig, Pablo; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Zejmo, M. Michal

    2016-07-01

    V0332+53 is a transient Be X-ray binary that went through a giant outburst between June 2015 and October 2015 registered by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GMB) on board of the Fermi satellite. We present the discovery of a flare of linearly polarized optical light in V0332+53 that followed the X-ray outburst. We monitored the source with the multi-wavelength optical polarimeter RINGO3 on the 2-m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma. RINGO3 measures polarization simultaneously in three spectral wavelength bands: blue (350-640 nm), green (650-760 nm) and red (770-1000 nm). The polarized optical flare went off around 90 days after the X-ray burst and lasted another 90 days in all three wavelength bands of RINGO3. Polarization degree reached up to 6% in blue and up to 4% in red, while the PA changed by more than 100 degrees during the flare. This is the first detection of optical polarization flare of high mass X-ray binary correlated with a preceding X-ray outburst. Our observations shed new light on the activities of X-ray binaries.

  2. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. Methods: HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung emission are calculated from various electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere to study the observed (primary and albedo) sources. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. Results: We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the extent of the HXR source at a given disk location. In the radial direction, the polarization magnitude and direction at specific positions along the HXR source will either increase or decrease with increased photon distribution directivity towards the photosphere. We also show how high electron cutoff energies influence the direction of polarization at above ~100 keV. Conclusions: Spatially resolved HXR polarization measurements can provide important information about the directivity and energetics of the electron distribution. Our results indicate the preferred angular resolution of polarization measurements required to distinguish between the scattered and primary components. We also show how spatially resolved polarization measurements could be used to probe the emission pattern of an HXR source, using both the magnitude and the direction of the polarization.

  3. Magnetism of unconventional nanoscaled materials. An X-ray circular dichroism and muon spin rotation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of nanoparticles deviate strongly from its bulk counterparts. In particular, the magnetic properties change strongly due to an elevated number of surface compared to bulk atoms. As a consequence the orbital magnetic moment in nanoparticles as well as the magnetic anisotropy is enhanced. Therefore, such nanoparticles have great potential in e.g. next generation high density data storage devices. A promising way to realize such devices is to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. Depending on the preparation conditions the templated growth of nanocluster arrays with different particle size and shape is possible. Since graphene possesses outstanding properties as well it is congruous to combine the advantages of both systems and to investigate its principle properties in more detail. Thus, one part of this work is dedicated to the size and shape dependence of electronic and magnetic properties of Ni nanoclusters on graphene. The magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). From the corresponding absorption spectra, the electronic structure and the nanoparticle substrate interaction could be determined. Two sets of nanoparticles were investigated, with triangular and spherical shape. For each set the size was varied. Nonmagnetic absorption spectra indicate a strong interaction between the Ni nanoclusters and the graphene substrate. The integrated absorption signal which is a measure of the number of unoccupied states in the Ni d shell decreases strongly with decreasing cluster size. This means an enhanced occupancy of the Ni d states, most likely caused by charge transfer at the Ni nanocluster/graphene interface. As a consequence the magnetic moment was much smaller than expected for nanoclusters for all samples investigated. The smallest value obtained was only 50% of the respective bulk magnetic moment. The magnetic moment increases disproportionally and converges towards bulk properties above 2 ML. No

  4. Magnetism of unconventional nanoscaled materials. An X-ray circular dichroism and muon spin rotation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Thomas Hermann

    2014-12-15

    The physical properties of nanoparticles deviate strongly from its bulk counterparts. In particular, the magnetic properties change strongly due to an elevated number of surface compared to bulk atoms. As a consequence the orbital magnetic moment in nanoparticles as well as the magnetic anisotropy is enhanced. Therefore, such nanoparticles have great potential in e.g. next generation high density data storage devices. A promising way to realize such devices is to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. Depending on the preparation conditions the templated growth of nanocluster arrays with different particle size and shape is possible. Since graphene possesses outstanding properties as well it is congruous to combine the advantages of both systems and to investigate its principle properties in more detail. Thus, one part of this work is dedicated to the size and shape dependence of electronic and magnetic properties of Ni nanoclusters on graphene. The magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). From the corresponding absorption spectra, the electronic structure and the nanoparticle substrate interaction could be determined. Two sets of nanoparticles were investigated, with triangular and spherical shape. For each set the size was varied. Nonmagnetic absorption spectra indicate a strong interaction between the Ni nanoclusters and the graphene substrate. The integrated absorption signal which is a measure of the number of unoccupied states in the Ni d shell decreases strongly with decreasing cluster size. This means an enhanced occupancy of the Ni d states, most likely caused by charge transfer at the Ni nanocluster/graphene interface. As a consequence the magnetic moment was much smaller than expected for nanoclusters for all samples investigated. The smallest value obtained was only 50% of the respective bulk magnetic moment. The magnetic moment increases disproportionally and converges towards bulk properties above 2 ML. No

  5. Modifications to 8x8 dynamical theory: Polarizations redefined according to x-ray diffraction convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical x-ray diffraction theory can be cast in matrix form. In recent years, an 8x8 matrix theory was developed that treated asymmetric reflections from strained crystals. The polarization of the incident, specularly reflected, reflected diffracted, transmitted diffracted, and transmitted electromagnetic wave fields were all defined as s or p. That is, polarizations were defined with respect to the plane containing the incident beam direction and the surface normal. The authors present modifications of the theory to treat σ and π polarizations for Bragg diffraction from asymmetric planes, that is, for polarizations defined with respect to the plane containing the incident beam direction and the reciprocal lattice vector for Bragg diffraction. They present results of this theory for unstrained crystals in the inclined geometry. In this geometry the incident beam wavevector, the reciprocal lattice vector, and the surface normal are not coplanar. The inclined crystal geometry appears promising for use in a high-heat-load monochromator for undulator radiation at the Advanced Photon Source. As expected, they find a weak π-polarization component in the diffracted beam when the polarization of the incident beam is pure σ

  6. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. 4: Polarization, directivity and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1976-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method is described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. the accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. Using the characteristics of the incident X-rays of the model for solar X-ray flares, the spectrum, directivity and polarization of the reflected and the total X-ray fluxes are evaluated. The results are compared with observations.

  7. Further comments on the effects of vacuum birefringence on the polarization of X-rays emitted from magnetic neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan, G. A.; Novick, R.; Silver, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The birefringence of the vacuum in the presence of strong (of the order of 1 teragauss) magnetic fields will in general affect the polarization of X-rays propagating through these fields. Two of the four Stokes parameters will vary so rapidly with wavelength as to be 'washed out' and unobservable, but the remaining two parameters will be unaffected. These results show that one conclusion of an earlier work is incorrect: Polarized X-ray emission from the surface of a magnetic neutron star will not in general be completely depolarized by the effects of vacuum birefringence. In particular, this birefringence has no effect on the linear polarization of cyclotron emission from the poles of magnetic neutron stars, and a similar result holds for synchrotron emission. More general cases of the propagation of polarized X-rays in magnetic fields are also discussed.

  8. High orbital angular momentum quantum numbers in the electronic ground states of Fe$_2^+$ and Co$_2^+$ as determined by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, V; Langenberg, A; Lawicki, A; Terasaki, A; Issendorff, B v; Lau, J T

    2015-01-01

    The $^6\\Delta$ electronic ground state of the Co$_2^+$ diatomic molecular cation has been assigned experimentally by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap. Three candidates, $^6\\Phi$, $^6\\Gamma$, and $^8\\Gamma$, for the electronic ground state of Fe$_2^+$ have been identified. These states carry sizable ground-state orbital angular momenta that disagree with theoretical predictions from multireference configuration interaction and density functional theory. Our results show that the ground states of neutral and cationic diatomic molecules of $3d$ elements cannot be assumed to be connected by a one-electron process.

  9. Swift J2218.4+1925: a new hard X-ray selected Polar observed with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Federico; Mukai, Koji; Falanga, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Swift J2218.4+1925, a hard X-ray source detected by Swift BAT, has been proposed as a candidate magnetic cataclysmic variable of the polar type from optical spectroscopy. Using XMM-Newton we perform detailed timing and spectral analysis with simultaneous X-ray ($0.3-10$ keV) and optical B band data. We complement the spectral study with archival hard X-ray (14-70 keV) spectra collected by Swift BAT as well as with optical, near and mid-infrared photometry from $SDSS$, $2MASS$ and $WISE$ archive, respectively. A strong periodic X-ray signal at 2.16 h, consistent with the recently determined spectroscopic orbital period, adds Swift J2218.4+1925 to the small group of hard X-ray polars and locates it at the low edge of the orbital period gap. The X-ray pulse profile shows the typical bright and faint phases seen in polars ($\\sim 70%$ and $\\sim 30%$ of the orbit, respectively). A pronounced dip centred on the bright phase is also detected. It is stronger at lower energies and is mainly produced by photoelectric ab...

  10. Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    1986-01-01

    Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.

  11. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  12. Dual-band Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Narbudowicz, Adam; Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2013-01-01

    A dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna is proposed. The antenna comprises back-to-back microstrip patches fed by a coplanar waveguide. A very low frequency ratio of 1.182 has been achieved, which can be easily tuned by adjusting four lumped capacitors incorporated into the antenna. An analysis of the omnidirectional circular polarization mechanism as well the dual band operation is provided and confirmed by numerical and experimental data. Key parameters to tune the resonant...

  13. Influence of Polarization of the Incident Beam on Integrated Intensities in X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Buras, B.; Jensen, T.;

    1978-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the primary X-ray beam produced by thick copper and tungsten anodes are reported and formulas derived for integrated intensities of Bragg reflections in energy-dispersive diffractometry with the polarization of the primary beam taken into account. It was found that for...... photon energies and at scattering angles close to 90...

  14. Evidence for intermediate polars as the origin of the Galactic Center hard X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Hailey, Charles J; Perez, Kerstin; Canipe, Alicia M; Hong, Jaesub; Tomsick, John A; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fornasini, Francesca; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Harrison, Fiona A; Nynka, Melania; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W

    2016-01-01

    Recently, unresolved hard (20-40 keV) X-ray emission has been discovered within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, possibly indicating a large population of intermediate polars (IPs). Chandra and XMM-Newton measurements in the surrounding ~50 pc imply a much lighter population of IPs with $\\langle M_{\\rm WD} \\rangle \\approx 0.5 M_\\odot$. Here we use broad-band NuSTAR observations of two IPs: TV Columbae, which has a fairly typical but widely varying reported mass of $M_{\\rm WD} \\approx 0.5-1.0 M_\\odot$, and IGR J17303-0601, with a heavy reported mass of $M_{\\rm WD} \\approx 1.0-1.2 M_\\odot$. We investigate how varying spectral models and observed energy ranges influence estimated white dwarf mass. Observations of the inner 10 pc can be accounted for by IPs with $\\langle M_{\\rm WD} \\rangle \\approx 0.9 M_\\odot$, consistent with that of the CV population in general, and the X-ray observed field IPs in particular. The lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton appears to be an artifact of narrow energy band fittin...

  15. X-ray polarization fluctuations induced by cloud eclipses in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, F

    2014-01-01

    Context: A fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show dramatic X-ray spectral changes on the day-to-week time scales associated with variation in the line of sight of the cold absorber. Aims: We intend to model the polarization fluctuations arising from an obscuration event, thereby offering a method of determining whether flux variations are due to occultation or extreme intrinsic emission variability. Methods: Undertaking 1 - 100 keV polarimetric simulations with the Monte Carlo code STOKES, we simulated the journey of a variety of cold gas clouds in front of an extended primary source. We varied the hydrogen column density nH and size of the absorber, as well as the initial polarization state of the emitting source, to cover a wide range of scenarios. Results: For unpolarized primary fluxes, large (about 50deg) variations of the polarization position angle psi are expected before and after an occultation event, which is associated with very low residual polarization degrees (P lower than 1 per cent). In...

  16. X-ray Polarization Signatures of Compton Scattering in Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, Aimee; Wu, Kinwah

    2008-01-01

    Compton scattering within the accretion column of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) can induce a net polarization in the X-ray emission. We investigate this process using Monte Carlo simulations and find that significant polarization can arise as a result of the stratified flow structure in the shock-ionized column. We find that the degree of linear polarization can reach levels up to ~8% for systems with high accretion rates and low white-dwarf masses, when viewed at large inclination angles with respect to the accretion column axis. These levels are substantially higher than previously predicted estimates using an accretion column model with uniform density and temperature. We also find that for systems with a relatively low-mass white dwarf accreting at a high accretion rate, the polarization properties may be insensitive to the magnetic field, since most of the scattering occurs at the base of the accretion column where the density structure is determined mainly by bremsstrahlung cooling instead of cy...

  17. Time-Resolved X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism - A Selective Probe of Magnetization Dynamics on Nanosecond Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Stefania; Vogel, Jan; Bonfim, Marlio; Fontaine, Alain

    Many synchrotron radiation techniques have been developed in the last 15 years for studying the magnetic properties of thin-film materials. The most attractive properties of synchrotron radiation are its energy tunability and its time structure. The first property allows measurements in resonant conditions at an absorption edge of each of the magnetic elements constituting the probed sample, and the latter allows time-resolved measurements on subnanosecond timescales. In this review, we introduce some of the synchrotron-based techniques used for magnetic investigations. We then describe in detail X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and how time-resolved XMCD studies can be carried out in the pump-probe mode. Finally, we illustrate some applications to magnetization reversal dynamics in spin valves and tunnel junctions, using fast magnetic field pulses applied along the easy magnetization axis of the samples. Thanks to the element-selectivity of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the magnetization dynamics of the soft (Permalloy) and the hard (cobalt) layers can be studied independently. In the case of spin valves, this allowed us to show that two magnetic layers that are strongly coupled in a static regime can become uncoupled on nanosecond timescales.Present address: Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico CP 19011, Curitiba - PR CEP 81531-990, Brazil

  18. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and reflection anisotropy spectroscopy Kerr effect studies of capped magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunniffe, J. P.; McNally, D.E.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; McGuinness, C.; McGilp, J. F.

    2010-03-02

    Aligned Co wires grown on Pt(997) under ultra-high vacuum conditions have been capped successfully by the epitaxial growth of Au monolayers (ML) at room temperature. The samples were kept under vacuum except when transferring between apparatus or when making some of the measurements. No degradation of the Co wires was detected during the measurements. The magneto-optic response of the system was measured using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Co L{sub 2,3} edge and reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) at near normal incidence, which is sensitive to the normal component of the out-of-plane magnetization via the Kerr effect (MOKE). Capping the wires significantly impacts their magnetic properties. Comparison of the magneto-optic response of the system at X-ray and optical energies reveals small differences that are attributed to the induced moment in the Pt substrate and Au capping layer not picked up by the element specific XMCD measurements. The sensitivity of RAS-MOKE is sufficient to allow the determination of the easy axis direction of the capped wires to within a few degrees. The results for a 6-atom-wide Co wire sample, capped with 6 ML of Au, are consistent with the capped wires possessing perpendicular magnetization.

  19. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with Bragg polarized Mo radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of introducing energy dispersive analysis into X-ray fluorescence analysis is to suppress background from the Bremsstrahlung spectrum and the characteristic radiation without an undue reduction of the signal. The variant under consideration uses linearly polarization radiation obtained after a Bragg reflection,under delta = 900. In an introductory part, Bragg reflection, fluorescence and strong radiation are considered quantitatively with respect to counting statistics and detection limits. In the experimental part two combinations are describe, of a Ta crystal with a Cr tube and of a Mo crystal with a Mo tube. Details of adjustment, sample preparation and calibration and detection limits are given. The pros and cons of the Ta/Cr and the Mo/Mo are contrasted and proposals for further improvements are given. (G.Q.)

  20. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering study of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; Pinel, E. F.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ. Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado UCM; Univ. Pisa; Univ. di Padova

    2009-11-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  1. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering studies of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; te Velthuis, S. G. E; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian Fernandez, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado; Univ. of Pisa; Lab. di Magnetismo Molecolare

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  2. Development of a depth-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism: application to Fe/Cu(100) ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depth-resolved technique is applied in the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) method by controlling the probing depth of the electron yield XMCD spectra. The usefulness of this technique is demonstrated for the study of magnetic structures of 4 and 8 ML Fe films grown on Cu(100), which are known to exhibit peculiar magnetic depth profiles. It was directly shown that the 4 ML film is uniformly magnetized, while the magnetic moment is localized at the surface in the case of the 8 ML film. The XMCD spectrum for each layer of the 4 ML film was separately extracted. All the extracted spectra were almost identical to each other, confirming the ferromagnetic coupling over the whole film. As for the 8 ML film, it was suggested that the surface two layers are ferromagnetically coupled, while the inner layers are in a spin density wave state with a wavenumber q=2π/2.4d

  3. Gigantic transverse x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in ultrathin Co in Au/Co/Au(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse-geometry x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) measurements on Au/Co-staircase/Au(001) reveal the orbital origin of intrinsic in-plane magnetic anisotropy A gigantic TXMCD was successfully observed at the Co L3,2 edges for Co thickness (tC0) in the 2-monolayer regime. A TXMCD-sum-rule analysis shows a remarkable enhancement of an orbital-moment anisotropy (Δmorb) and of an in-plane magnetic dipole moment (m||T). Both Δmorb and m||T exhibit close similarity in tCo dependence, reflecting the in-plane magnetic anisotropy These observations evidence that extremely strong, intrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy originates from the anisotropic orbital part of the wave function, dominating the dipole-dipole-interaction-derived, extrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  4. Circular polarization opportunities at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    XFELs provide X-ray pulses with unprecedented peak brightness and ultrashort duration. They are usually driven by planar undulators, meaning that the output radiation is linearly polarized. For many experimental applications, however, polarization control is critical: besides the ability to produce linearly polarized radiation, one often needs the possibility of generating circularly polarized radiation with a high, stable degree of polarization. This may be achieved by using a first part of the XFEL undulator to produce bunching and then, by propagating the the bunched beam through an "afterburner" - a short undulator with tunable polarization, where only limited gain takes place. One of the issues that one needs to consider in this case is the separation of the circularly polarized radiation obtained in the radiator from the linearly polarized background produced in the first part of the FEL. In this article we review several methods to do so, including the inverse tapering technique. In particular, we use ...

  5. Oblique stability of circularly polarized MHD waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of finite-amplitude weakly dispersive circularly polarized MHD wave trains with respect to oblique modulations is investigated. The mathematical model is a multi-dimensional extension of the DNLS equation. It is found that the right-hand-polarized wave, which is stable with respect to parallel modulations, is unstable with respect to certain oblique modulations for most primary wavenumbers. (author)

  6. Polarized synchrotron emission in quiescent black hole X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David M; Lewis, Fraser; Gallo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared polarimetric observations of the black hole X-ray binaries Swift J1357.2-0933 and A0620-00. In both sources, recent studies have demonstrated the presence of variable infrared synchrotron emission in quiescence, most likely from weak compact jets. For Swift J1357.2-0933 we find that the synchrotron emission is polarized at a level of 8.0 +- 2.5 per cent (a 3.2 sigma detection of intrinsic polarization). The mean magnitude and rms variability of the flux (fractional rms of 19-24 per cent in K_s-band) agree with previous observations. These properties imply a continuously launched (stable on long timescales), highly variable (on short timescales) jet in the Swift J1357.2-0933 system in quiescence, which has a moderately tangled magnetic field close to the base of the jet. We find that for A0620-00, there are likely to be three components to the optical-infrared polarization; interstellar dust along the line of sight, scattering within the system, and an additional source that changes th...

  7. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  8. X-ray spectra and polarization from accreting black holes: polarization from an orbiting spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovčiak, M.; Karas, V.; Matt, G.

    2006-12-01

    The polarization from a spot orbiting around Schwarzschild and extreme Kerr black holes is studied. We assume different models of local polarization. Firstly, as a toy model we set the local polarization vector either normal to the disc plane, or perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field. Then we examine the more realistic situation with a spot arising due to the emission from the primary source above the disc. We employ either Rayleigh single scattering or Compton multiple scattering approximations. The time dependence of the degree and angle of polarization during the spot revolution is examined as a function of the observer's inclination angle and black hole angular momentum. The gravitational and Doppler shifts, lensing effect as well as time delays are taken into account.

  9. Study on Brazil law type twinning in amethyst from Bahia (Brazil) by the X-ray topography and polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil law type twinning is very common in quartz. Generally is not observed in normal petrographic thin section but it is possible to study this kind of twinning under polarized light in thicker sections. X-ray topography will be another powerfull method to study and it was applied for the amethytst of the Mina Cabeluda of the state of Bahia. (author)

  10. Circularly polarized U-Slot antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, K. F.; Wong, T P

    2007-01-01

    Circularly polarized single-layer U-slot microstrip patch antenna has been proposed. The suggested asymmetrical U-slot can generate the two orthogonal modes for circular polarization without chamfering any corner of the probe-fed square patch microstrip antenna. A parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effects caused by different arm lengths of the U-slot. The thickness of the foam substrate is about 8.5% of the wavelength at the operating frequency. The 3 dB axial ratio ban...

  11. Broadband Suspended Microstrip Antenna For Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Kasabegoudar, VG; Vinoy, KJ

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna on a suspended substrate with a coplanar capacitive feed and a slot within the rectangular patch. The antenna has an axial ratio bandwidth (< 3 dB) of 7.1%. The proposed antenna exhibits a much higher impedance bandwidth of about 49% (S11 < -10 dB) and also yields return loss better than -15 dB in the useful range of circular polarization. Measured characteristics of the antenna are in good agreement with the simulated re...

  12. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Simple Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; Muller, Gilles; Ortiz, María J; de la Moya, Santiago

    2015-09-21

    This article aims to show the identity of "circularly polarized luminescent active simple organic molecules" as a new concept in organic chemistry due to the potential interest of these molecules, as availed by the exponentially growing number of research articles related to them. In particular, it describes and highlights the interest and difficulty in developing chiral simple (small and non-aggregated) organic molecules able to emit left- or right-circularly polarized light efficiently, the efforts realized up to now to reach this challenging objective, and the most significant milestones achieved to date. General guidelines for the preparation of these interesting molecules are also presented. PMID:26136234

  13. Circular polarization sensitive absorbers based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kunpeng; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the polarization of a linearly polarized (LP) light would rotate after passing through a single layer graphene under the bias of a perpendicular magnetostatic field. Here we show that a corresponding phase shift could be expected for circularly polarized (CP) light, which can be engineered to design the circular polarization sensitive devices. We theoretically validate that an ultrathin graphene-based absorber with the thickness about λ/76 can be obtained, which shows efficient absorption >90% within incident angles of ±80°. The angle-independent phase shift produced by the graphene is responsible for the nearly omnidirectional absorber. Furthermore, a broadband absorber in frequencies ranging from 2.343 to 5.885 THz with absorption over 90% is designed by engineering the dispersion of graphene. PMID:27034257

  14. On the spin modulated circular polarization from the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGRJ1509-6649

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Stephen B; Kotze, Marissa; Zietsman, Ewald; Butters, O W; Pekeur, Nikki; Buckley, David A H

    2011-01-01

    We report on high time resolution, high signal/noise, photo-polarimetry of the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGRJ1509-6649. Our observations confirm the detection and colour dependence of circular polarization from NY Lup and additionally show a clear white dwarf, spin modulated signal. From our new high signal/noise photometry we have unambiguously detected wavelength dependent spin and beat periods and harmonics thereof. IGRJ1509-6649 is discovered to also have a particularly strong spin modulated circularly polarized signal. It appears double peaked through the I filter and single peaked through the B filter, consistent with cyclotron emission from a white dwarf with a relatively strong magnetic field. We discuss the implied accretion geometries in these two systems and any bearing this may have on the possible relationship with the connection between polars and soft X-ray-emitting IPs. The relatively strong magnetic fields is also suggestive of them being polar progenitors.

  15. Polarization of x-ray Li- and Be-like Fe satellite lines excited by an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the polarization properties of dielectronic satellite lines in Li- and Be-like Fe ions excited through resonance electron capture by a monoenergetic electron beam. Following the density matrix formalism, we have computed the degree of polarization and the spectral intensity distribution of dielectronic satellites associated with a given polarization state. Theoretical results were compared with experiments performed at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap where satellite line emission from Fe ions was simultaneously recorded with two crystal spectrometers. These results are relevant to diagnostic applications of x-ray line polarization spectroscopy in plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of epitaxial magnetite ultrathin film on MgO(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. Q.; Xu, Y. B., E-mail: yongbing.xu@york.ac.uk, E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn [York-Nanjing International Center for Spintronics (YNICS), School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Song, M. Y.; Lin, J. G. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Maltby, N. J.; Li, S. P. [Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Bencok, P.; Steadman, Paul; Dobrynin, Alexey [Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Zhang, R., E-mail: yongbing.xu@york.ac.uk, E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn [York-Nanjing International Center for Spintronics (YNICS), School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-07

    The spin and orbital magnetic moments of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial ultrathin film synthesized by plasma assisted simultaneous oxidization on MgO(100) have been studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The ultrathin film retains a rather large total magnetic moment, i.e., (2.73 ± 0.15) μ{sub B}/f.u., which is ∼70% of that for the bulk-like Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. A significant unquenched orbital moment up to 0.54 ± 0.05 μ{sub B}/f.u. was observed, which could come from the symmetry breaking at the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO interface. Such sizable orbital moment will add capacities to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based spintronics devices in the magnetization reversal by the electric field.

  17. Studying the magnetic anisotropy in CuFeO2 by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The compound CuFeO2 has a delafossite structure where triangular layers of magnetic Fe3+ are separated by non-magnetic Cu1+ and O2- layers. CuFeO2 orders in a collinear four sublattice structure below TN2=11K. Moreover, associated with TN2 is a first order structural transition from hexagonal to orthorhombic. The explanation for the collinear magnetic structure remains unclear for CuFeO2, since it requires a 2D Ising model type, which is difficult to conciliate with the spherical Fe3+ ion. However, structural distortions around the Fe3+ ion and/or charge transfer could lead to a non-zero orbital magnetic moment. This might explain the puzzling strong magnetic anisotropy in CuFeO2. We present x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) data extracting separately the orbital and spin moments of the Fe3+ ions. These results are discussed in the context to the observed magnetic anisotropy. (author)

  18. Polarized thermal emission from X-ray dim isolated neutron stars: the case of RX J1856.5-3754

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Caniulef, D.; Zane, S.; Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.; Wu, K.

    2016-07-01

    The observed polarization properties of thermal radiation from isolated, cooling neutron stars depend on both the emission processes at the surface and the effects of the magnetized vacuum which surrounds the star. Here, we investigate the polarized thermal emission from X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, taking RX J1856.5-3754 as a representative case. The physical conditions of the star outermost layers in these sources is still debated, and so we consider emission from a magnetized atmosphere and a condensed surface, accounting for the effects of vacuum polarization as the radiation propagates in the star magnetosphere. We have found that, for a significant range of viewing geometries, measurement of the phase-averaged polarization fraction and phase-averaged polarization angle at both optical and X-ray wavelengths allow us to determine whether this neutron star has an atmosphere or a condensed surface. Our results may therefore be relevant in view of future developments of soft X-ray polarimeters.

  19. Polarized thermal emission from X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars: the case of RX J1856.5-3754

    CERN Document Server

    Caniulef, Denis Gonzalez; Taverna, Roberto; Turolla, Roberto; Wu, Kinwah

    2016-01-01

    The observed polarization properties of thermal radiation from isolated, cooling neutron stars depend on both the emission processes at the surface and the effects of the magnetized vacuum which surrounds the star. Here we investigate the polarized thermal emission from X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars, taking RX J1856.5-3754 as a representative case. The physical conditions of the star outermost layers in these sources is still debated, and so we consider emission from a magnetized atmosphere and a condensed surface, accounting for the effects of vacuum polarization as the radiation propagates in the star magnetosphere. We have found that, for a significant range of viewing geometries, measurement of the phase-averaged polarization fraction and phase-averaged polarization angle at both optical and X-ray wavelengths allow us to determine whether this neutron star has an atmosphere or a condensed surface. Our results may therefore be relevant in view of future developments of soft X-ray polarimeters.

  20. Continuous-wave circular polarization terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jillian P.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) radiation are appealing because THz radiation is nonionizing and has the demonstrated ability to detect intrinsic contrasts between cancerous and normal tissue. A linear polarization-sensitive detection technique for tumor margin delineation has already been demonstrated; however, utilization of a circular polarization-sensitive detection technique has yet to be explored at THz frequencies. A reflective, continuous-wave THz imaging system capable of illuminating a target sample at 584 GHz with either linearly or circularly polarized radiation, and capable of collecting both cross- and copolarized signals remitted from the target, is implemented. To demonstrate the system's utility, a fresh ex vivo human skin tissue specimen containing nonmelanoma skin cancer was imaged. Both polarization-sensitive detection techniques showed contrast between tumor and normal skin tissue, although some differences in images were observed between the two techniques. Our results indicate that further investigation is required to explain the contrast mechanism, as well as to quantify the specificity and sensitivity of the circular polarization-sensitive detection technique.

  1. X-ray spectroscopy and photometry of the long-period polar AI Tri with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Traulsen, I; Schwarz, R; Dreizler, S; Beuermann, K; Schwope, A D; Burwitz, V

    2010-01-01

    Context. The energy balance of cataclysmic variables with strong magnetic fields is a central subject in understanding accretion processes on magnetic white dwarfs. With XMM-Newton, we perform a spectroscopic and photometric study of soft X-ray selected polars during their high states of accretion. Aims. On the basis of X-ray and optical observations of the magnetic cataclysmic variable AI Tri, we derive the properties of the spectral components, their flux contributions, and the physical structure of the accretion region in soft polars. Methods. We use multi-temperature approaches in our xspec modeling of the spectra to describe the physical conditions and the structures of the post-shock accretion flow and the accretion spot on the white-dwarf surface. In addition, we investigate the accretion geometry of the system by a timing analysis of the photometric data. Results. Flaring soft X-ray emission from the heated surface of the white dwarf dominates the X-ray flux during roughly 70% of the binary cycle. Thi...

  2. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  3. Chirality and Circular Polarization in Models of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Sims, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a chiral asymmetry during inflation can manifest as net circular polarization in photons. Using an example known to produce a helicity imbalance in fermions, we show that superhorizon photon modes produced during inflation acquire net circular polarization. Modes that reenter the horizon around last scattering can thermalize into the Cosmic Microwave Background while retaining a portion of their net circular polarization. We also consider the possibility of direct detection of the circular polarization in the CMB.

  4. Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a Circular X-ray tube: Its image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and the image characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. O.; Hong, D. K.; Cho, H. S.; Je, U. K.; Oh, J. E.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, W. S.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce an effective imaging system for digital tomosynthesis (DTS) with a circular X-ray tube, the so-called circular-DTS (CDTS) system, and its image reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization method for low-dose, high-accuracy X-ray imaging. Here, the X-ray tube is equipped with a series of cathodes distributed around a rotating anode, and the detector remains stationary throughout the image acquisition. We considered a TV-based reconstruction algorithm that exploited the sparsity of the image with substantially high image accuracy. We implemented the algorithm for the CDTS geometry and successfully reconstructed images of high accuracy. The image characteristics were investigated quantitatively by using some figures of merit, including the universal-quality index (UQI) and the depth resolution. For selected tomographic angles of 20, 40, and 60°, the corresponding UQI values in the tomographic view were estimated to be about 0.94, 0.97, and 0.98, and the depth resolutions were about 4.6, 3.1, and 1.2 voxels in full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a next-generation dental or breast X-ray imaging system.

  5. Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.

  6. Broadband circularly polarized antennas for UHF SATCOM

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, İbrahim; Tekin, Ibrahim; Manzhura, Oksana; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    Novel circularly polarized (CP) antenna configurations derived from Moxon type antenna (bent dipole element over a ground plane) for broadband VHF SATCOM applications. A sequence of topologies starting from a single vertical element to two vertical elements of the Moxon arms, then widened strip arm elements were studied. Further, arms were widened to bow tie structures with bents at 900.for achieving broadband operation. Bow tie elements were further split and optimized at a certain angle to...

  7. Simple Broadband Circular Polarizer in Oversized Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a possibility is shown to realize a simple waveguide polarizer producing nearly the same circular polarization over a broad frequency range up to an octave. It is based upon the combination of two smoothly squeezed oversized waveguides with different diameters. The principle is similar to an achromatic lens in optics, where two counteracting lenses with differently sloped wavelength dependencies of the refractive index are combined to compensate the dispersion in the desired wavelength range. Consequently, two different wavelengths of light are brought into focus at the same plane. A waveguide for the transmission of microwaves has a similar frequency dependence of the refractive index resulting in a frequency-dependent phase shift between two propagating waves polarized along the symmetry axes of a waveguide with an elliptical cross section. For this reason, an incident wave with a linear polarization between the axes of symmetry can be only converted into a circularly polarized wave over a limited frequency range. However, the diameter and the shape along two counteracting squeezed waveguides can be adjusted in such a way that the frequency dependence of the resultant phase shift is finally canceled out.

  8. Multi-frame acquisition scheme for efficient energy-dispersive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in pulsed high magnetic fields at the Fe K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-frame acquisition scheme for efficient energy-dispersive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe K-edge is presented. Using a fast silicon strip detector, a multi-frame acquisition scheme was implemented to perform energy-dispersive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the iron K-edge in pulsed high magnetic fields. The acquisition scheme makes use of the entire field pulse. The quality of the signal obtained from samples of ferrimagnetic erbium iron garnet allows for quantitative evaluation of the signal amplitude. Below the compensation point, two successive field-induced phase transitions and the reversal of the net magnetization of the iron sublattices in the intermediate phase were observed

  9. Observation of polarized hard X-ray emission from the Crab by the PoGOLite Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Iyudin, A.; Arimoto, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Mizuno, T.; Ryde, F.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, T.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured the linear polarization of hard X-ray emission from the Crab in a previously unexplored energy interval, 20-120 keV. The introduction of two new observational parameters, the polarization fraction and angle stands to disentangle geometrical and physical effects, thereby providing information on the pulsar wind geometry and magnetic field environment. Measurements are conducted using the PoGOLite Pathfinder - a balloon-borne polarimeter. Polarization is determined by measuring the azimuthal Compton scattering angle of incident X-rays in an array of plastic scintillators housed in an anticoincidence well. The polarimetric response has been characterized prior to flight using both polarized and unpolarized calibration sources. We address possible systematic effects through observations of a background field. The measured polarization fraction for the integrated Crab light curve is 18.4^{+9.8}_{-10.6} per cent, corresponding to an upper limit (99 per cent credibility) of 42.4 per cent, for a polarization angle of (149.2 ± 16.0)°.

  10. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. III - Polarization, directivity, and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the spectrum, directivity, and state of polarization of the bremsstrahlung radiation expected from a beam of high-energy electrons spiraling along radial magnetic field lines toward the photosphere. A Monte Carlo method is then described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. The accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. The calculated characteristics of the incident X-rays are used to evaluate the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of the reflected and total X-ray fluxes. The results are compared with observations.

  11. RX J1016.9-4103 A new soft X-ray polar in the period gap

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J; Greiner, Jochen; Schwarz, Robert

    1998-01-01

    We have discovered a new AM Her system as the optical counterpart of the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey source RX J1016.9-4103 (= 1RXS J101659.4-410332). The X-ray spectrum is very soft and the X-ray intensity is strongly modulated with the orbital period. Optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations reveal a synchronously rotating binary with an orbital period of 134 min, placing RX J1016.9-4103 in the period gap. The strength of the TiO bands suggests a secondary spectral type later than M3 V and a distance of 615+/-150 pc. Based on two clearly visible broad humps in the optical spectrum (interpreted as cyclotron features) a magnetic field strength of 52 MG is deduced thus proving the polar classification.

  12. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Science from Circular Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Lazear, J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne CMB polarimeter designed to constrain the B-mode signature of cosmological inflation. Sequential one-day flights from Northern- and Southern- Hemisphere sites will yield maps of Stokes I, Q, U and V at 200, 270, 350 and 600 GHz over 85% of the sky. The full optical path is cooled to 1.5 K by liquid helium in the ARCADE bucket dewar, and a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) at the front of the optics modulates the polarization response. Independent Q and U cameras each have two 32x40 Transition Edge Sensor array receivers. In addition to its primary inflationary science goal, PIPER will also measure the circular (Stokes V) polarization to a depth similar to that of the primary linear polarization. The circular polarization has received relatively little attention in large-area surveys, with constraints from the 1980’s and recent results by the Milan Polarimeter. Astrophysical circular polarization is generally tied to the presence of magnetic fields, either in relativistic plasmas or Zeeman splitting of resonances. These effects are thought to be undetectable at PIPER's frequencies and resolution, despite the depth. The expectation of a null result makes the deep Stokes V map a good cross-check for experimental systematics. More fundamentally, the fact that the sky is expected to be dark in Stokes V makes it a sector sensitive to processes such as Lorentz-violating terms in the standard model or magnetic fields in the CMB era.

  13. Years of Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Gerrit

    A historical overview of magnetic x-ray dichroism is presented. I describe the first theoretical and experimental results that have led to the development of this powerful technique for element-specific magnetometry. The theoretical progress of the sum rules is also described, starting with the spinorbit sum rule for the isotropic spectrum which led on to the spin and orbital moment sum rules for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The latter has been particularly useful to understand the magnetic anisotropy in thin films and multilayers. Further developments of circular dichroism in (resonant) photoemission and Auger, as well as x-ray detected optical activity, also are summarized. Currently, magnetic x-ray dichroism finds a wide application in x-ray spectroscopy and imaging for the study of magnetic materials and it is considered to be one of the most important discoveries in the field of magnetism in the last few decennia. It is hard to imagine modern research into magnetism without the aid of polarized x-rays.

  14. Analysis of the Data from Compton X-ray Polarimeters which Measure the Azimuthal and Polar Scattering Angles

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry has the potential to make key-contributions to our understanding of galactic compact objects like binary black hole systems and neutron stars, and extragalactic objects like active galactic nuclei, blazars, and neutron stars. Furthermore, several particle astrophysics topics can be addressed including uniquely sensitive tests of Lorentz invariance. In the energy range from 10-20 keV to several MeV, Compton polarimeters achieve the best performance. In this paper we evaluate the benefit that comes from using the azimuthal and polar angles of the Compton scattered photons in the analysis, rather than using the azimuthal scattering angles alone. We study the case of an ideal Compton polarimeter and show that a Maximum Likelihood analysis which uses the two scattering angles lowers the Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) by ~20% compared to a standard analysis based on the azimuthal scattering angles alone. The accuracies with which the polarization fraction and the polarization direction can ...

  15. Novel X band Compact Waveguide Dual Circular Polarizer

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Juwen

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of dual circular polarizer is developed to convert the TE10 mode into two different polarization TE11 modes in a circular waveguide. This design consists two major parts: a TE10 to TE10/TE20 converter and an overmoded TE10/TE20 to circular TE11 modes converter.

  16. VUV and X-ray coherent light with tunable polarization from single-pass free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzani, C; Diviacco, B; Ferrari, E; Geloni, G; Karantzoulis, E; Mahieu, B; Vento, M; De Ninno, G

    2011-01-01

    Tunable polarization over a wide spectral range is a required feature of light sources employed to investigate the properties of local symmetry in both condensed and low-density matter. Among new-generation sources, free-electron lasers possess a unique combination of very attractive features, as they allow to generate powerful and coherent ultra-short optical pulses in the VUV and X-ray spectral range. However, the question remains open about the possibility to freely vary the light polarization of a free-electron laser, when the latter is operated in the so-called nonlinear harmonic-generation regime. In such configuration, one collects the harmonics of the free-electron laser fundamental emission, gaining access to the shortest possible wavelengths the device can generate. In this letter we provide the first experimental characterization of the polarization of the harmonic light produced by a free-electron laser and we demonstrate a method to obtain tunable polarization in the VUV and X-ray spectral range....

  17. Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Rod Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Min Guo; Ji-Jun Yan; Shun-Shi Zhong; Zhu Sun

    2012-01-01

    A new dielectric rod antenna (DRA) is introduced to produce circular polarization (CP) over a wide frequency band without a complex feed network. Along with the simulated results, measured results of the antenna prototype are presented, showing a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) CP bandwidth of 17.7%. The radiation characteristics of the fabricated antenna are also demonstrated showing the measured gain of better than 6.2 dBi. Moreover, the measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤2) reaches 20.1%, from 8.75...

  18. Build a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisliuk, M.; Axelrod, A.

    1987-06-01

    The development and design of a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna are described. Consideration is given to the resonance frequency, radiation efficiencies, excitement, and resonant conductance of the transverse and longitudinal slots. The transverse and longitudinal slots in a rectangular guide are analyzed. The voltage distribution across the slot is calculated from the solution of a standard transmission line equation; and using the Poynting theorem the fields scattered by the slot in an arbitrary frequency range are determined. The proposed antenna is examined using an equivalent circuit; a diagram of the circuit is given. The radiation, slot, and antenna efficiencies are measured.

  19. Spectroscopic evaluation researches on soft x-ray optical elements. Basic studies for development of soft-x-ray polarization elements using mica crystals in an energy region of 1-3 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed basic study about crystal-type soft-X-ray polarizers and phase retarders functioning in an energy region of 1-3 keV. For this purpose, we have developed a simulation code to predict the performance of these devices based on conventional dynamical theory, and investigated polarization properties of mica crystals. As the results of simulations, we have concluded that reflection- and transmission-type polarizers, and transmission-type phase retarders made of mica crystals have possibilities to work in an energy of 1-3 keV. Also, as a preliminary experiment, a reflection measurement was carried out for a symmetric Bragg 002 reflection of a mica crystal around the incidence of angle of 45deg using synchrotron radiation. Then we obtained the reflectivity of about 1.2% around 1 keV. Based on these results, we constructed a new design principle of soft-X-ray polarizers in this energy region. (author)

  20. X-ray variability and period determinations in the eclipsing polar DP Leonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Craig R.; Cordova, France A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of our ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations on the eclipsing magnetic cataclysmic variable DP Leo. The soft X-ray spectrum is modeled by a blackbody of kT = 24.8(sup +2.6 sub -8.1) eV. Severe limits are placed upon the flux from any hard bremsstrahlung component. A strong soft X-ray excess, with respect to hard X-ray emission, is found. The soft X-ray blackbody luminosity is larger than both the cyclotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. An upper limit of 500 pc is obtained for the system's distance based upon the X-ray absorption (N(sub H) less than 5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm) and an estimate of 260(sup +150 sub -100) pc is determined from a published measurement of the secondary's flux. For the derived blackbody fit, the bolometric luminosity is found to be L(sub bb, bol) = 1.4(sup +7.1 sub -0.3) x 10(exp 31)(d/260 pc)(exp 2) ergs/s. Absorption by the accretion stream produces an intensity dip prior to each eclipse. Extreme variability in the shape of the light curve from eclipse to eclipse demonstrates that changes in the rate of accretion onto the white dwarf, the sizes of accretion filaments, or variations in the location or amount of absorbing matter in the system occur on timescales shorter than the orbital period (89.8 minutes). No evidence exists for accretion onto the stronger (59 MG) magnetic pole in the ROSAT data. A new ephemeris is presented for the eclipse of the white dwarf emission region by the secondary star and another is produced for the orbital conjunction of the two components. The rotation of the white dwarf is shown to be faster than the orbital period by (5.3 +/- 1.1) x 10(exp -3) s. The origin of the asynchronous rotation may be activity cycle included orbital period variations or oscillations of the white dwarf's main pole about an equilibirium position. The accretion stream is modeled assuming that disruption of the stream along magnetic field lines occurs close to the white dwarf. The ROSAT

  1. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamudio-Bayer, V. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; Kossick, M. [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ławicki, A.; Lau, J. T., E-mail: tobias.lau@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Methoden und Instrumentierung der Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Terasaki, A. [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute, 717-86 Futamata, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Issendorff, B. von [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-06-21

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and Mn{sub 3}{sup +} are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 μ{sub B} are created by 3d{sup 5}({sup 6}S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and 16 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 3}{sup +}, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  2. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn2+ and Mn3+ are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 μB are created by 3d5(6S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 μB for Mn2+ and 16 μB for Mn3+, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum

  3. Investigating orbital magnetic moments in spinel-type MnV2O4 using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Element-specific magnetic structures, particularly orbital magnetic moments, of spinel-type MnV2O4 were investigated using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). X-ray absorption and XMCD spectra clearly reveal that the Mn2+ (d5) and V3+ (d2) states are coupled antiferromagnetically. Analyses of XMCD spectra using magneto optical sum rules revealed that small but finite orbital magnetic moments remain in both V and Mn 3d states, which accounts for the antiferro-type orbital ordering in the V sites of MnV2O4 with coexisting complex and real orbital states. Additionally, the Cr doping effect in MnV2O4 was examined. The XMCD spectra of Cr3+ (d3) L-edges exhibited the substitution of Cr ions to the V sites ferromagnetically, with low conductivity through the suppression of the orbital ordering. (author)

  4. Direct Observation of High-Spin States in Manganese Dimer and Trimer Cations by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy in an Ion Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, Vicente; Langenberg, Andreas; Kossick, Martin; Ławicki, Arkadiusz; Terasaki, Akira; von Issendorff, Bernd; Lau, J Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn$_2^+$ and Mn$_3^+$ are characterized by $2p$ x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results show directly that localized magnetic moments of 5 $\\mu_B$ are created by $3d^5 (^6\\mathrm{S})$ states at each ionic core, which are coupled in parallel to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly-occupied $4s$ derived orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 $\\mu_B$ for Mn$_2^+$ and 16 $\\mu_B$ for Mn$_3^+$, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  5. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  6. Influence of X-ray and polar cap absorptions on vertical and oblique sounding ionograms on different latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalov, N. Y.; Moskaleva, E. V.; Rogov, D. D.; Zernov, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    High frequency (HF) radio band is important for the long-range communications and over-the-horizon surveillance, particularly in the polar cap region where the ground infrastructure may be limited. However, the space weather events drastically affect the high frequency radio wave propagation so that the ability to provide now-casting and forecasting of HF radio wave absorption is important for users relying on the HF communications. During the space weather events such as solar proton events and X-ray flares the high-latitude ionosphere becomes a particularly efficient absorber of HF radio waves. There is therefore a need to develop accurate HF propagation prediction services. Absorption of the HF field caused by the X-ray flux, Solar Ultra-Violet flux and proton precipitations is investigated in this paper for the event of the solar flare observed on 11 April 2013. The effects of the X-ray flux and proton precipitations on the structure of the vertical and oblique ionograms for different latitudes are estimated. The simulation of the vertical and oblique ionograms was performed on the basis of the computational model of the ionosphere oriented to applications into the high frequency wave propagation problems. The absorption effects induced by the proton precipitations and X-ray flux are calculated according to the algorithm elaborated by Sauer and Wilkinson and D-region Absorption Model (D-RAP) available from the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. The simulated vertical and oblique ionograms with the absorption effects taken into account and the measured ionograms exhibit a fairly good similarity.

  7. Structures of chiral smectic-C mesophases revealed by polarization-analyzed resonant x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report polarization-analyzed, resonant x-ray diffraction at the sulfur K edge performed upon free-standing liquid-crystal films. Our studies of the thiobenzoate liquid-crystal enantiomer 10OTBBB1M7 yield the polarization states of resonant satellite peaks arising from characteristic superlattices in the chiral smectic-C (SmC*) variant phases, including the antiferroelectric SmCA*, ferrielectric SmCFI1* and SmCFI2*, as well as SmCα*. The observed polarizations agree with the clock model of chiral smectic-C variants, and rule out other proposals made to date for these structures. Data from the 10OTBBB1M7 racemate also support the clock model. Our resonant diffraction results from a thiophene liquid-crystal compound reveal the same superlattice periodicities seen in corresponding antiferroelectric and ferrielectric phases of 10OTBBB1M7. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. X-ray polarization measurement for fast electrons in intense-laser-produced plasma under oblique incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y; Inubushi, Y; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Kai, T; Nakamura, T; Johzaki, T; Nagatomo, H; Mima, K [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kawamura, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Batani, D; Morace, A; Redaelli, R [University of Milan - Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fourment, C; Santos, J [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS/CEA, Talence (France); Malka, G [CENBG, Universite de Bordeaux 1/CNRS - IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Boscheron, A [CEA/CESTA Le BARP (France); Casner, A [CEA-DAM He de France, Bruyres-le-Chtel (France); Koenig, M [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex (France)], E-mail: okano-yas@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    Study on x-ray polarization spectroscopy was performed for intense-laser-produced plasma under laser-oblique incidence. The laser pulse was focused onto a polyvinylchloride target at angles of 67 degrees and 7 degrees to the target normal at average intensities of 10{sup 17-18} W/cm{sup 2}. There were differences in the spectra for shifted K{alpha} lines of C1 atoms between the oblique and nearly normal incidence, indicating the low laser-energy absorption in the oblique incidence. A difference in polarization degrees of C1 He{alpha} lines was also observed, and this means the polarization of incident laser pulse affect velocity distribution functions of fast electrons in intense-laser-produced plasma.

  9. Probing the spin polarization of current by soft X-ray imaging of current-induced magnetic vortex dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, Shinya; Fischer, Peter; Im, Mi-Young; YAMADA, Keisuke; Nakatani, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ono, Teruo

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved soft X-ray transmission microscopy is applied to image the current-induced resonant dynamics of the magnetic vortex core realized in a micronsized Permalloy disk. The high spatial resolution better than 25 nm enables us to observe the resonant motion of the vortex core. The result also provides the spin polarization of the current to be 0.67 +/-0.16 for Permalloy by fitting the experimental results with an analytical model in the framework of the spin-transfer torque.

  10. A W:B4C multilayer phase retarder for broadband polarization analysis of soft x-ray radiation

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Michael A.; Schaefers, Franz; Pohl, R.; Poole, Ian B.; Gaupp, Andreas; Quinn, Frances M.

    2008-01-01

    A W:B4C multilayer phase retarder has been designed and characterized which shows a nearly constant phase retardance between 640 and 850 eV photon energies when operated near the Bragg condition. This freestanding transmission multilayer was used successfully to determine, for the first time, the full polarization vector at soft x-ray energies above 600 eV, which was not possible before due to the lack of suitable optical elements. Thus, quantitative polarimetry is now possible at the 2p edge...

  11. Polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single-crystal Mn(V) complexes relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yano, Junko; Robblee, John; Pushkar, Yulia; Marcus, Matthew A; Bendix, Jesper; Workman, José M; Collins, Terrence J; Solomon, Edward I; George, Serena Debeer; Yachandra, Vittal K

    2007-01-01

    High-valent Mn-oxo species have been suggested to have a catalytically important role in the water splitting reaction which occurs in the Photosystem II membrane protein. In this study, five- and six-coordinate mononuclear Mn(V) compounds were investigated by polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy...... in order to understand the electronic structure and spectroscopic characteristics of high-valent Mn species. Single crystals of the Mn(V)-nitrido and Mn(V)-oxo compounds were aligned along selected molecular vectors with respect to the X-ray polarization vector using X-ray diffraction. The local...... electronic structure of the metal site was then studied by measuring the polarization dependence of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) pre-edge spectra (1s to 3d transition) and comparing with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Mn(V)-nitrido compound, in which the...

  12. Microstrip-fed Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; McEvoy, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A wideband circularly-polarized printed antenna is proposed, which employs an asymmetrical dipole and a slit in the ground plane which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feedline using a via. The proposed antenna geometry is arranged so that the orthogonal surface currents, which are generated in the dipole, feedline and ground plane, have the appropriate phase to provide circular polarization. A parametric study of the key parameters is made and the mechanism for circular polarization is desc...

  13. High Performance Circularly Polarized Antenna Based on Fractal EBG Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; Ruvio, Giuseppe; John, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Circularly polarized patch antennas have been widely applied in wireless communication system, global positioning system, etc., because of their low-profile, lightweight, ease of fabrication and low lost [1,2]. To achieve high performance for circularly polarized patch antennas, some new structures were reported in the literature, such as antennas array, stack layer antennas, using periodic structures [3-7], etc. In this paper, a high performance circularly polarized low frequency patch anten...

  14. X-ray holographic imaging of magnetic order in meander domain structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouen Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed x-ray holography experiments using synchrotron radiation. By analyzing the scattering of coherent circularly polarized x-rays tuned at the Co-2p resonance, we imaged perpendicular magnetic domains in a Co/Pd multilayer. We compare results obtained for continuous and laterally confined films.

  15. Conversion from linear to circular polarization in FPGA

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Koyel; Keller, R; Tuccari, G

    2011-01-01

    Context: Radio astronomical receivers are now expanding their frequency range to cover large (octave) fractional bandwidths for sensitivity and spectral flexibility, which makes the design of good analogue circular polarizers challenging. Better polarization purity requires a flatter phase response over increasingly wide bandwidth, which is most easily achieved with digital techniques. They offer the ability to form circular polarization with perfect polarization purity over arbitrarily wide fractional bandwidths, due to the ease of introducing a perfect quadrature phase shift. Further, the rapid improvements in field programmable gate arrays provide the high processing power, low cost, portability and reconfigurability needed to make practical the implementation of the formation of circular polarization digitally. Aims: Here we explore the performance of a circular polarizer implemented with digital techniques. Methods: We designed a digital circular polarizer in which the intermediate frequency signals from...

  16. Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bandrauk, Andre D

    2014-01-01

    Various schemes are presented for the generation of circularly polarized molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) from molecules. In particular it is shown that combinations of counter-rotating circularly polarized pulses produce the lowest frequency Coriolis forces with the highest frequency recollisions, thus generating new harmonics which are the source of circular polarized attosecond pulses (CPAPs). These can be used to generate circularly polarized electronic currents in molecular media on attosecond time scale. Molecular attosecond currents allow then for the generation of ultrashort magnetic field pulses on the attosecond time scale, new tools for molecular atto-magnetism (MOLAM).

  17. Linear polarization of x-ray photons in HFQ transitions of polarized He-like ions with application to the search for parity nonconservation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical concepts in the production and controlling of polarized highly charged ion beams in storage rings are investigated. A scheme for the control of the degree of ion beam polarization, based on the observation of the linear polarization of emitted x-ray photons in hyperfine quenched (HFQ) decay of excited levels of polarized He-like ions, is presented. One of the important motivations for the production of polarized ion beams is the possibility of observing the parity nonconservation (PNC) effects in HFQ transitions in He-like highly charged ions, where these effects can reach an unprecedented high value for atomic physics. The measurement of these effects requires online diagnostics of the degree of ion beam polarization. The possible schemes for such experiments as well as estimates of the magnitude of the observable PNC effects are presented.

  18. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3dz2 and O 2pz states.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, J. [Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koo, J. W.; Mitani, S. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sukegawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takagi, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Institute of Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3d{sub z}{sup 2} and O 2p{sub z} states.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the spin and orbital magnetic moments in Ta/Co0.4Fe0.4B0.2/MgO by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements as well as first-principles calculations, in order to clarify the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Both experimental and theoretical results show that orbital magnetic moment of Fe is more anisotropic than that of Co with respect to the magnetization direction. The anisotropy is larger for thinner CoFeB, indicating that Fe atoms at the interface with MgO contribute more than Co to the observed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

  1. Magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and first-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Shun [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tsujikawa, Masahito; Shirai, Masafumi [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Miura, Yoshio [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Electronics and Information Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Matsukura, Fumihiro, E-mail: f-matsu@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ohno, Hideo [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We study the spin and orbital magnetic moments in Ta/Co{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}B{sub 0.2}/MgO by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements as well as first-principles calculations, in order to clarify the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Both experimental and theoretical results show that orbital magnetic moment of Fe is more anisotropic than that of Co with respect to the magnetization direction. The anisotropy is larger for thinner CoFeB, indicating that Fe atoms at the interface with MgO contribute more than Co to the observed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  2. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  3. Application of relativistic scattering theory of x rays to diffraction anomalous fine structure in Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Arola, E.; Strange, Paul

    1998-01-01

    We apply our recent first-principles formalism of magnetic scattering of circularly polarized x rays to a single Cu crystal. We demonstrate the ability of our formalism to interpret the crystalline environment related near-edge fine structure features in the resonant x-ray scattering spectra at the Cu K absorption edge. We find good agreement between the computed and measured diffraction anomalous fine structure features of the x-ray scattering spectra.

  4. Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Rod Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dielectric rod antenna (DRA is introduced to produce circular polarization (CP over a wide frequency band without a complex feed network. Along with the simulated results, measured results of the antenna prototype are presented, showing a 3 dB axial ratio (AR CP bandwidth of 17.7%. The radiation characteristics of the fabricated antenna are also demonstrated showing the measured gain of better than 6.2 dBi. Moreover, the measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤2 reaches 20.1%, from 8.75 GHz to 10.7 GHz, while the CP beamwidth (AR ≤3 dB at the central frequency is measured over 120°.

  5. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a Polarized Hard X-Ray Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; McConnell, M L; Macri, J R; Bancroft, C M; Connor, T P; Ryan, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50 - 500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete "engineering model" of the GRAPE...

  6. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence reveals polarized distribution of atomic elements during differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C Cardoso

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying pluripotency and differentiation in embryonic and reprogrammed stem cells are unclear. In this work, we characterized the pluripotent state towards neural differentiated state through analysis of trace elements distribution using the Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Naive and neural-stimulated embryoid bodies (EB derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem (ES and iPS cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 µm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. Results show that these embryo-like aggregates exhibit self-organization at the atomic level. Metallic elements content rises and consistent elemental polarization pattern of P and S in both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells were observed, indicating that neural differentiation and elemental polarization are strongly correlated.

  7. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  8. Expected performance of a hard X-ray polarimeter (POLAR) by Monte Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Shaolin; Wu, Bobing

    2009-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the prompt emission in Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) can provide diagnostic information for understanding the nature of the central engine. POLAR is a compact polarimeter dedicated to the polarization measurement of GRBs between 50-300 keV and is scheduled to be launched aboard the Chinese Space Laboratory about year 2012. A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation has been accomplished to attain the expected performance of POLAR, while a prototype of POLAR is being constructed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The modulation factor, efficiency and effective area, background rates and Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) were calculated for different detector configurations and trigger strategies. With the optimized detector configuration and trigger strategy and the constraint of total weight less than 30 kg, the primary science goal to determine whether most GRBs are strongly polarized can be achieved, and about 9 GRBs/yr can be detected with MDP < 10...

  9. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  10. Circularly Polarized Light and Growth of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayev, Pavel; Pergolizzi, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The influence of linearly polarized light on the direction of plants growth has been recently demonstrated. The state of circularly polarized (CP) light can also change when it is reflected from the surface of leaves and stems. However, the role of light handedness in the development of plants and CP light interaction with the complexes of chlorophyll molecules have still not been studied enough. In this work, the role of left CP light in the accelerated growth of lentil and pea plants is revealed and studied. The mechanism of such an enhancement is discussed in terms of the model considering transmission, absorption, and scattering of CP light on micro and macro levels of leaf organization. Theoretical modeling of light interaction with the interior of the leaf was conducted for a number of recently proposed models of organization of chlorophyll molecules and chloroplasts. All the calculations were performed by employing a 4x4 matrix method in solving Maxwell equations. It is shown that left-handed chiral organization of chlorophyll molecules can greatly enhance the absorption of light and therefore lead to the enhanced growth of the whole plant under CP light.

  11. Pulsar Polar Cap Heating and Surface Thermal X-ray Emission. 2; Inverse Compton Radiation Pair Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the production of electron-positron pairs by inverse Compton scattered (ICS) photons above a pulsar polar cap (PC) and calculate surface heating by returning positrons. This paper is a continuation of our self-consistent treatment of acceleration, pair dynamics, and electric field screening above pulsar PCs. We calculate the altitude of the inverse Compton pair-formation fronts, the flux of returning positrons, and present the heating efficiencies and X-ray luminosities. We revise pulsar death lines implying cessation of pair formation, and present them in surface magnetic field-period space. We find that virtually all known radio pulsars are capable of producing pairs by resonant and nonresonant ICS photons radiated by particles accelerated above the PC in a pure star-centered dipole field, so that our ICS pair death line coincides with empirical radio pulsar death. Our calculations show that ICS pairs are able to screen the accelerating electric field only for high PC surface temperatures and magnetic fields. We argue that such screening at ICS pair fronts occurs locally, slowing but not turning off acceleration of particles until screening can occur at a curvature radiation (CR) pair front at higher altitude. In the case where no screening occurs above the PC surface, we anticipate that the pulsar gamma-ray luminosity will be a substantial fraction of its spin-down luminosity. The X-ray luminosity resulting from PC heating by ICS pair fronts is significantly lower than the PC heating luminosity from CR pair fronts, which dominates for most pulsars. PC heating from ICS pair fronts is highest in millisecond pulsars, which cannot produce CR pairs, and may account for observed thermal X-ray components in the spectra of these old pulsars.

  12. Electronic and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Co2MnβSi/MgO interfaces studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic states of Co and Mn atoms at the interface of the Co2MnβSi (CMS)/MgO (β = 0.69, 0.99, 1.15, and 1.29) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In particular, the Mn composition (β) dependences of the Mn and Co magnetic moments were investigated. The experimental spin magnetic moments of Mn, mspin(Mn), derived from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition β in going from Mn-deficient to Mn-rich CMS films. This behavior was explained by first-principles calculations based on the antisite-based site-specific formula unit (SSFU) composition model, which assumes the formation of only antisite defect, not vacancies, to accommodate off-stoichiometry. Furthermore, the experimental spin magnetic moments of Co, mspin(Co), also weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition. This behavior was consistently explained by the antisite-based SSFU model, in particular, by the decrease in the concentration of CoMn antisites detrimental to the half-metallicity of CMS with increasing β. This finding is consistent with the higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratios which have been observed for CMS/MgO/CMS MTJs with Mn-rich CMS electrodes

  13. Polarizing optics for the soft x-ray regime: Whispering-gallery mirrors and multilayer beamsplitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Two short-wavelength optical components are described. The first, the whispering-gallery mirror, uses many glancing-incidence reflections to deflect a beam through a large net angle. Because the Fresnel coefficient for each reflection depends upon the state of polarization, the whispering-gallery mirror can act both as a polarizer and as a birefringent element. The second, the multilayer polarizing beamsplitter, is a Brewster-angle reflector thin enough to allow partial partial transmission of the incident beam. Its behavior can be surprising; in some cases the same polarization mode is preferred on both reflection and transmission.

  14. Polarizing optics for the soft x-ray regime: Whispering-gallery mirrors and multilayer beamsplitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.

    1991-12-31

    Two short-wavelength optical components are described. The first, the whispering-gallery mirror, uses many glancing-incidence reflections to deflect a beam through a large net angle. Because the Fresnel coefficient for each reflection depends upon the state of polarization, the whispering-gallery mirror can act both as a polarizer and as a birefringent element. The second, the multilayer polarizing beamsplitter, is a Brewster-angle reflector thin enough to allow partial partial transmission of the incident beam. Its behavior can be surprising; in some cases the same polarization mode is preferred on both reflection and transmission.

  15. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  16. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Deutsch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed.

  17. Time-resolved measurements of polarized X-ray spectral lines emitted from discharges of the Plasma-Focus type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of experimental studies of changes in the polarization of the X-ray spectral lines, which were performed by time-resolved measurements of the selected highly-ionized Ar-lines during high-current plasma discharges of the PF type within the experimental MAJA-PF facility. In all PF-type experiments, due to the variation in characteristics of the VR and X-ray emission, the only reliable method to investigate changes in the polarization of the emitted radiation is the simultaneous measurement by means of two crystal spectrometers with their dispersion planes mutually perpendicular. Such a measuring system delivers reliable results under conditions as follows: 1 - the radiation emission is isotropic, 2 - crystals used in the spectrometers are identical, 3 - the investigated radiation is reflected at angles close to the Bragg angle (450) and 4 - the both crystals analyze the radiation from the same plasma region. The conditions 1 - 3 can be easily verified and fulfilled, but the condition 4 can hardly be fulfilled even for the point-like source. Since the dispersion planes of the two spectrometers must be mutually perpendicular, it is of primary importance to ensure that viewing fields for the different observation directions are identical, i.e. the same plasma region is observed. In numerous PF experiments within the MAJA-PF facility it was observed that during almost each discharge there appear from several to several dozens of micro-regions of intense X-ray emission (so-called hot spots). Such micro-regions are formed subsequently along the discharge axis, as the collapsing current sheath approaches this axis in different instants, and their living time is of the order of 5-10 ns. The appearance of several hot spots in the viewing field of the spectrometer makes impossible the synonymous determination of polarization parameters. Detailed time-resolved measurements of the selected highly-ionized Ar-lines make it possible to determine the

  18. Generation of Circular Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of ...

  19. Employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Determining Layer Homogeneity in Mixed Polar Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing embedded dipolar groups offer the particular advantage of changing the electronic properties of a surface without affecting the SAM–ambient interface. Here we show that such systems can also be used for continuously tuning metal work functions by growing mixed monolayers consisting of molecules with different orientations of the embedded dipolar groups. To avoid injection hot-spots when using the SAM-modified electrodes in devices, a homogeneous mixing of the two components is crucial. We show that a combination of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with state-of-the-art simulations is an ideal tool for probing the electrostatic homogeneity of the layers and thus for determining phase separation processes in polar adsorbate assemblies down to inhomogeneities at the molecular level. PMID:27429041

  20. Employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Determining Layer Homogeneity in Mixed Polar Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, Iris; Schuster, Swen; Wächter, Tobias; Abu-Husein, Tarek; Terfort, Andreas; Zharnikov, Michael; Zojer, Egbert

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing embedded dipolar groups offer the particular advantage of changing the electronic properties of a surface without affecting the SAM-ambient interface. Here we show that such systems can also be used for continuously tuning metal work functions by growing mixed monolayers consisting of molecules with different orientations of the embedded dipolar groups. To avoid injection hot-spots when using the SAM-modified electrodes in devices, a homogeneous mixing of the two components is crucial. We show that a combination of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with state-of-the-art simulations is an ideal tool for probing the electrostatic homogeneity of the layers and thus for determining phase separation processes in polar adsorbate assemblies down to inhomogeneities at the molecular level. PMID:27429041

  1. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft X-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mosendz, O.; Mihailovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A

    2009-01-01

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L$_3$ absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu. Although electrical transport measurements in a non-local geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x-...

  2. X-ray Birefringence in highly Anisotropic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birefringence is the dependence of a material's refractive index on the direction of linear polarization. It induces a phase shift between two perpendicular polarization directions and thus couples linear and circular polarization states. Birefringence in x-ray absorption is as common as linear dichroism but is rarely discussed in the literature. We outline a mathematical framework for describing experiments on birefringence and illustrate the importance of the phenomenon with three examples.

  3. Circularly Polarized Broadband RFID Microstrip Tag Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of radio frequency identification (RFID operating in the ultra-high frequency (UHF band (860-960MHz are expanding exponentially, due to the advantages such as long reading distance, high data transfer rate, and small tag size. So the design of a CP tag antenna with broadband characteristic is presently one of the most challenging topics. This project presents a square patch passive RFID tag antenna designed for UHF band. To achieve compact size broadband and circular polarization (CP radiation, the square patch is embedded with a cross slot, while an L-shaped open-end microstrip line coupled to the patch. By selecting an appropriate length for the microstrip line and its coupling distance with the radiating element, easy control on the input impedance of the designed tag antenna which leads to excellent impedance matching is achieved. The measured 10-dB return-loss bandwidth of the tag antenna is 27MHz (from 901–928 MHz.

  4. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F Duccio; Martin, William; 10.1073/pnas.0810215106

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Due to the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches.

  5. Controlling electron-ion rescattering in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Hasović, Elvedin; Knut, Ronny; Grychtol, Patrik; Gentry, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Zusin, Dmitriy; Dollar, Franklin J.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Wilhelm; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2016-05-01

    High-harmonic generation driven by two-color counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields was recently demonstrated experimentally as a breakthrough source of bright, coherent, circularly polarized beams in the extreme ultraviolet and soft-x-ray regions. However, the conditions for optimizing the single-atom yield are significantly more complex than for linearly polarized driving lasers and are not fully understood. Here we present a comprehensive study of strong-field ionization—the complementary process to high-harmonic generation—driven by two-color circularly polarized fields. We uncover the conditions that lead to enhanced electron-ion rescattering, which should correspond to the highest single-atom harmonic flux. Using a velocity map imaging photoelectron spectrometer and tomographic reconstruction techniques, we record three-dimensional photoelectron distributions resulting from the strong-field ionization of argon atoms across a broad range of driving laser intensity ratios. In combination with analytical predictions and advanced numerical simulations, we show that "hard" electron-ion rescattering is optimized when the second-harmonic field has an intensity approximately four times higher than that of the fundamental driving field. We also investigate electron-ion rescattering with co-rotating fields, and find that rescattering is significantly suppressed when compared with counter-rotating fields.

  6. Dosimetric study of small circular X-rays fields used in radiosurgery with linear accelerator of 6 MV; Estudo dosimetrico de campos circulares pequenos de raios-X utilizados em radiocirurgia com um acelerador linear de 6 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Jose Carlos da [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Segreto, Helena R. Comodo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina. Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: josecarlos@einstein.br

    2003-07-01

    Three dosimetric systems were compared regarding dosimetry of small circular x ray fields used in radiosurgery. The dosimetric parameters for circular cones, with diameters ranging from 7 to 30 mm, were acquired using a 6 MV Clinac 600 C linear accelerator. For the measurement of tissue maximum ratios, total scatter factor and radiation field profile, Kodak X-Omat type V radiographic films, and ionization chamber of 0.1 cm{sup 3} and a plane parallel ionization chamber type Markus were used. The plane parallel ionization chamber showed satisfactory results for measurement of tissue maximum ratios and total scatter only for cone sizes larger than 11 mm in diameter. Beam profile showed better spatial resolution when films ere used. The main physical parameters of small circular fields used in radiosurgery can be obtained by combining the dosimetry results of radiation therapy equipment used in current clinical practice. (author)

  7. Incident energy and polarization-dependent resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Hancock, J. N.; Chabot-Couture, G.; Ishii, K.; Vajk, O. P.; Yu, G.; Mizuki, J.; Casa, D.; Gog, T.; Greven, M.

    2006-12-01

    We present a detailed Cu K -edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) study of the Mott insulator La2CuO4 in the 1-7eV energy loss range. As initially found for the high-temperature superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ , the spectra exhibit a multiplet of weakly dispersive electron-hole excitations, which are revealed by utilizing the subtle dependence of the cross section on the incident photon energy. The close similarity between the fine structures for in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations is indicative of the central role played by the 1s core hole in inducing charge excitations within the CuO2 planes. On the other hand, we observe a polarization dependence of the spectral weight, and careful analysis reveals two separate features near 2eV that may be related to different charge-transfer processes. The polarization dependence indicates that the 4p electrons contribute significantly to the RIXS cross section. Third-order perturbation arguments and a shake-up of valence excitations are then applied to account for the final-energy resonance in the spectra. As an alternative scenario, we discuss fluorescence-like emission processes due to 1s→4p transitions into a narrow continuum 4p band.

  8. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  9. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    M Khalily; Kamarudin, M. R.; Mokayef, M.; Sh. Danesh; Ghahferokhi, S. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP) C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR) bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA) with good r...

  10. Helically assembled π-conjugated polymers with circularly polarized luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent progress in the field of helically assembled π-conjugated polymers, focusing on aromatic conjugated polymers with interchain helical π-stacking that exhibit circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). In Part 1, we discuss optically active polymers with white-colored CPL and the amplification of the circular polarization through liquid crystallinity. In Part 2, we focus on the stimuli-responsive CPL that results from changes in the conformation and aggregation state of π-conjugated molecules and polymers. In Part 3, we discuss the self-assembly of achiral cationic π-conjugated polymers into circularly polarized luminescent supramolecular nanostructures with the aid of other chiral molecules. (review)

  11. Circularly polarized light emission from semiconductor planar chiral nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kuniaki; Nomura, Masahiro; Kumagai, Naoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate circularly polarized light emission from InAs quantum dots embedded in the waveguide region of a GaAs-based chiral nanostructure. The observed phenomenon originates due to a strong imbalance between left- and right-circularly polarized components of the vacuum field and results in a degree of polarization as high as 26% at room temperature. A strong circular anisotropy of the vacuum field modes inside the chiral nanostructure is visualized using numerical simulation. The results of the simulation agree well with experimental results. PMID:21405435

  12. Proximity effects and exchange bias in Co/MnF2(111) heterostructures studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suturin, S. M.; Fedorov, V. V.; Banshchikov, A. G.; Baranov, D. A.; Koshmak, K. V.; Torelli, P.; Fujii, J.; Panaccione, G.; Amemiya, K.; Sakamaki, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tabuchi, M.; Pasquali, L.; Sokolov, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt nano-structured ultrathin films were grown on orthorhombic MnF2 by molecular beam epitaxy on CaF2 epitaxial layers deposited on Si(111) substrates. The Co film was grown at room temperature. It was found to be polycrystalline, forming nano-islands with height≈diameter≤10 nm. X-ray absorption evidences the chemical stability of the Co/MnF2 interface. Remarkably, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) demonstrates that the Co induces a net magnetization on the Mn ions close to the interface. The magnetic moments of these Mn ions couple antiparallel to the Co and rotate upon field reversal following the magnetization of the Co both below and high above the Néel temperature of MnF2 (TN = 67 K). The density of coupled Mn moments is found to be temperature dependent, with an equivalent thickness of ˜1.5 MnF2 monolayers at 20 K, decreasing to about ˜0.5 ML as the temperature is raised to 300 K. Interestingly, the intensity of the Mn XMCD signal appears to be related to the coercivity of the Co layer. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the competition between thermal fluctuations, exchange coupling between Co and Mn at the interface and, at low temperature, the antiferromagnetic order in MnF2.

  13. Photo-induced magnetization dynamics of FeRh thin films investigated by time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Ilie [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Stamm, Christian; Kachel, Torsten; Pontius, Niko; Duerr, Hermann [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ramm, Paul; Back, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan [Hitachi GST, San Jose Research Center (United States)

    2008-07-01

    For close to equiatomic composition the FeRh alloy undergoes a first-order phase transition from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state upon heating above room temperature. We trigger the magnetic phase transition by femtosecond laser excitation and study the subsequent dynamics of the Fe and Rh magnetic moments in an element specific manner using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as a probing tool. For both elements we observe a gradual growth of ferromagnetic ordering that takes place on a 200 ps time scale after optical excitation. On the other hand, once in the FM state, FeRh can be demagnetized on a few picoseconds time interval, the observed dynamics being limited by the width of the X-ray probing pulse (here 10 ps). By comparison to the demagnetization dynamics measured on Ni under similar conditions, we retrieve the lower limit of the demagnetization process that evolves on a sub-picosecond time scale. Hence, the AFM-FM phase transition in conjunction with time-resolved XMCD allow us to study at a microscopic level the elementary processes involved in the magnetization growth, demagnetization and re-magnetization phenomena.

  14. Laser-induced generation and quenching of magnetization on FeRh investigated with time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Ilie [Regensburg University, Regensburg (Germany); BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Stamm, Christian; Pontius, Niko; Kachel, Torsten; Duerr, Hermann [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ramm, Paul; Back, Christian [Regensburg University, Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan-Ulrich [Hitachi Global Storage, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Upon heating, the equiatomic FeRh alloy exhibits a first-order magnetic phase transition from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) to the ferromagnetic (FM) state around room temperature. Here, we study the fs laser-induced AFM-FM phase transition as well as the transition from FM towards the paramagnetic state by employing the time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Both Fe and Rh elements show a gradual growth of the magnetic moment within 200 ps after laser excitation. Temperature-dependent data, measured at intermediate temperatures between AFM and FM state, provide evidence for the rapid nucleation and subsequent slow expansion of the FM regions within an AFM matrix. Once in the FM state, FeRh can be optically demagnetized on a few ps time scale (limited by the X-ray probing pulse). Further time-resolved magneto-optics measurements done in the visible spectral range reveal a demagnetization time constant of 200 fs. For the photo-induced demagnetization process we consider a mechanism that follows the transient electronic structure of the system.

  15. Breit-Pauli R-matrix method for electron-impact excitation to magnetic sublevels and x-ray-line polarization of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method was employed to calculate x-ray line polarization resulting from electron-impact excitation to excited-state magnetic sublevels (MS) of complex ions. In the development of this work, the calculation of MS electron-impact excitation cross sections in the present BPRM method is computationally efficient when the angular integration of the scattering polar angle is performed in an analytical manner. The BPRM method is then applied to calculate the line polarization of 3C (λ=15.01 A) and 3D (λ=15.26 A), two well-known x-ray lines of 17 (an ion with a medium nuclear charge and ion charge). We demonstrate in this work the resonance effects in MS cross sections, which contribute to the energy dependence in the polarization. The BPRM calculations of Fe XVII are further compared with the results calculated by the Dirac R-matrix (DRM) method. Generally, most of the results calculated from the BPRM method and the DRM method are in good agreement. This comparison confirms the earlier DRM calculations of resonance effects in MS electron-impact excitation cross sections of 3C and 3D, and thus demonstrates the applicability of the BPRM method to the calculation of x-ray line polarization of 3C and 3D, important for the analysis of x-ray spectra observed on an electron beam ion trap.

  16. A comparison of FBP and BPF reconstruction methods for circular X-ray tomography with off-center detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, D.; Grass, M.; Van de Haar, P.

    2011-01-01

    Circular scanning with an off-center planar detector is an acquisi-tion scheme that allows to save detector area while keeping a largefield of view (FOV). Several filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithmshave been proposed earlier. The purpose of this work is to present twonewly developed back-

  17. Large anisotropic Fe orbital moments in perpendicularly magnetized Co2FeAl Heusler alloy thin films revealed by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Jun; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Wen, Zhenchao; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Heusler alloy Co2FeAl thin films sharing an interface with a MgO layer is investigated by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Orbital and spin magnetic moments are deduced separately for Fe and Co 3d electrons. In addition, the PMA energies are estimated using the orbital magnetic moments parallel and perpendicular to the film surfaces. We found that PMA in Co2FeAl is determined mainly by the contribution of Fe atoms with large orbital magnetic moments, which are enhanced at the interface between Co2FeAl and MgO. Furthermore, element specific magnetization curves of Fe and Co are found to be similar, suggesting the existence of ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Co PMA directions.

  18. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy of focused ion beam-induced magnetic patterns on iron–rhodium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohki, Atsushi; Aikoh, Kazuma; Shinoda, Ryoichi [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ohkochi, Takuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kotsugi, Masato [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kinoshita, Toyohiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Iwase, Akihiro [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Matsui, Toshiyuki, E-mail: t-matsui@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Iron–rhodium (FeRh) thin films were irradiated with a 30 keV Ga ion beam using a focused ion beam system to produce micrometer scale ferromagnetic square dot arrays. Two-dimensional magnetic square dot arrays with dimensions of 30 × 30, 10 × 10, and 5 × 5 μm were successfully produced on the FeRh surface, which was confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. The results of photoemission electron microscopy combined with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism revealed that the magnetization of the magnetic square dots could be controlled by changing the amount of irradiation. The magnetic domain structure of the magnetic square dots with sides of 5–30 μm was found to be a single domain structure, which was possibly influenced by the interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interfaces.

  19. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy of focused ion beam-induced magnetic patterns on iron-rhodium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohki, Atsushi; Aikoh, Kazuma; Shinoda, Ryoichi; Ohkochi, Takuo; Kotsugi, Masato; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Iwase, Akihiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    Iron-rhodium (FeRh) thin films were irradiated with a 30 keV Ga ion beam using a focused ion beam system to produce micrometer scale ferromagnetic square dot arrays. Two-dimensional magnetic square dot arrays with dimensions of 30 × 30, 10 × 10, and 5 × 5 μm were successfully produced on the FeRh surface, which was confirmed by magnetic force microscopy. The results of photoemission electron microscopy combined with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism revealed that the magnetization of the magnetic square dots could be controlled by changing the amount of irradiation. The magnetic domain structure of the magnetic square dots with sides of 5-30 μm was found to be a single domain structure, which was possibly influenced by the interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interfaces.

  20. Study on ferromagnetic ordering of FeRh thin films induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation by means of X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikoh, Kazuma; Tohki, Atsushi; Okuda, Shuichi; Saitoh, Yuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Iwase, Akihiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state of FeRh thin films with 10 MeV I ion beam by the measurements of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as well as of soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). It was clearly shown in the magnetization loops by SQUID measurements that the ion irradiation induced the ferromagnetic state in the FeRh thin films even below room temperature. This was also confirmed by the Fe L2,3-edge XMCD measurements for the irradiated FeRh film samples. However, we found that the irradiation ion fluence dependence on the magnetization was totally different between two measurement techniques. We also revealed by XMCD sum rule analysis that the ferromagnetism in the ion irradiated FeRh thin films was mainly dominated by the spin moment.

  1. Study on ferromagnetic ordering of FeRh thin films induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation by means of X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikoh, Kazuma; Tohki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Radiation Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Saitoh, Yuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan); Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kinoshita, Toyohiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Iwase, Akihiro [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Matsui, Toshiyuki, E-mail: t-matsui@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Research Organization of the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state of FeRh thin films with 10 MeV I ion beam by the measurements of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as well as of soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). It was clearly shown in the magnetization loops by SQUID measurements that the ion irradiation induced the ferromagnetic state in the FeRh thin films even below room temperature. This was also confirmed by the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edge XMCD measurements for the irradiated FeRh film samples. However, we found that the irradiation ion fluence dependence on the magnetization was totally different between two measurement techniques. We also revealed by XMCD sum rule analysis that the ferromagnetism in the ion irradiated FeRh thin films was mainly dominated by the spin moment.

  2. Electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in YbAgCu4 and YbInCu4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, VN; Bekenov, LV; Antropov, VP

    2014-04-08

    X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra at the L-3 edge of Yb have been studied theoretically in the mixed-valent compounds YbAgCu4 and YbInCu4 using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital band structure method. The effect of the spin-orbit (SO) interaction and Coulomb repulsion U on the electronic structure of YbAgCu4 and YbInCu4 is examined in the frame of the local spin-density approximation (LSDA)+SO+U method. The core-hole effect in the final states as well as the effect of the electric quadrupole E-2 and magnetic dipole M-1 transitions have been investigated. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data.

  3. Electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in YbAgCu4 and YbInCu4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, V N; Bekenov, L V; Antropov, V P

    2014-04-01

    X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra at the L3 edge of Yb have been studied theoretically in the mixed-valent compounds YbAgCu4 and YbInCu4 using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital band structure method. The effect of the spin-orbit (SO) interaction and Coulomb repulsion U on the electronic structure of YbAgCu4 and YbInCu4 is examined in the frame of the local spin-density approximation (LSDA)+SO+U method. The core-hole effect in the final states as well as the effect of the electric quadrupole E2 and magnetic dipole M1 transitions have been investigated. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data.

  4. Demonstration of a circularly polarized plasma-based soft-x-ray laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Depresseux, A.; Oliva, E.; Gautier, J.; Tissandier, F.; Lambert, G.; Vodungbo, B.; Goddet, J-P.; Tafzi, A.; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Kozlová, Michaela; Maynard, G.; Kim, H. T.; Phuoc, K.T.; Rousse, A.; Zeitoun, P.; Sebban, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 8 (2015), "083901-1"-"083901-5". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; Laser Zdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic nanostructures * beam * spectroscopy * generation * dynamics * range Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  5. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin

    2015-12-01

    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge. PMID:26585281

  6. Cluster model calculation for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at rare-earth (R) L sub 2 sub , sub 3 absorption edges in R sub 2 Fe sub 1 sub 4 B

    CERN Document Server

    Asakura, K; Harada, I; Ogasawara, H; Fukui, K; Kotani, A

    2002-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at the L sub 2 sub , sub 3 absorption edges for the entire series of rare-earth (RE) elements in R sub 2 Fe sub 1 sub 4 B (R=RE) is studied based on a cluster model including 10 RE and 16 Fe atoms. The cluster model takes into account band effects of RE 5d states, to which the electric dipole transition occurs from the core 2p states, as well as spin polarization of the 5d states due to the interatomic hybridization with the spin polarized Fe 3d states. We also take into account spin and orbital polarization of the 5d states due to the 5d-4f intra-atomic exchange interaction, and the 2p to 4f quadrupole transition. The calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones, suggesting that the cluster model calculation provides a new method to calculate quantitatively MCD spectra of RE systems with complicated atomic arrangements. (author)

  7. Magneto x-ray study of a gadolinium-iron amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the measurement of the magnetic x-ray absorption of an amorphous Gd-Fe ferrimagnetic thin film. The Gd to Fe concentration in the sample was 1:4. The magnetic x-ray effect is the x-ray analog of magneto-optic absorption effects. Magneto x-ray effects arise when a solid has different indices of refraction for right and left circularly polarized x-rays. The difference in absorption of left and right circularly polarized x-rays is called the magneto x-ray absorption. This absorption is proportional to the net spin of the final state density of states. At the L3 edge, the main x-ray transition is from initial Gd(2p) core states to final Gd(5d) unoccupied states. Since the 5d states have a net spin polarization in ferromagnetic Gd, this experiment hoped to directly observe how that polarization changes for Gd in the alloy. The magneto x-ray absorption at the Gd L3 edge will be proportional to the sign and amount of the net spin polarization of the 5d electrons. The magnetic x-ray absorption coefficient was found to be at least 0.0005 smaller than the linear absorption coefficient at the Gd white line energy. This was measured for the amorphous alloy at room temperature. Lock-in techniques were used to obtain the small limit to the absorption. A simple model for the size of the magnetic x-ray absorption coefficient in Gd suggests that the Gd(5d) net spin polarization is less than 0.01 Bohr magnetons per atom

  8. Non-destructive assessment of the polarity of GaN nanowire ensembles using low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Fernández-Garrido, S.; Jiříček, Petr; Bartoš, Igor; Geelhaar, L.; Brandt, O.; Paskova, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2015), "021602-1"-"021602-4". ISSN 0003-6951 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) M100101201 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaN nanowires * X-ray photoelectron diffraction * LEED I-V * GaN polarity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  9. Broadband circularly polarized planar antenna using partially covered circular wide-slot and L-probe

    OpenAIRE

    Fukusako, Takeshi; Sakami, Ryo; Iwata, Kazuki; フクサコ, タケシ; サカミ, リョウ; イワタ, カズキ; 福迫, 武; 酒見, 遼; 岩田, 一樹

    2008-01-01

    The novel structure of a unique circularly polarized broadband antenna that combines an L-shaped probe with a partially covered circular slot has been presented. A principle that can be used to generate CP using the proposed structure has been presented using an L-shaped probe and a modified circular wide slot. Using the above, a 3 -dB AR bandwidth of 58% and matching bandwidth of 57% were obtained at 3.2 GHz.

  10. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    OpenAIRE

    Airey Robert; Brasil Maria; Henini Mohamed; Orlita Milan; Kunc Jan; Maude Duncan; dos Santos Lara; Gobato Yara; Teodoro Márcio; Lopez-Richard Victor; Marques Gilmar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular ...

  11. Aharonov-Bohm effect induced by circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrated theoretically that the strong electron interaction with circularly polarized photons in ring-like nanostructures changes the phase of electron wave. This optically-induced effect is caused by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry and is similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the conductance of mesoscopic rings irradiated by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave behaves as an oscillating function of the intensity and frequency of the wave.

  12. Contactless Measurement of Angular Velocity using Circularly Polarized Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Sipal, Vit; Narbudowicz, Adam; Ammann, Max

    2014-01-01

    An innovative method to measure the angular velocity using circularly polarized antennas is proposed. Due to the properties of circular polarization, the angular velocity is frequency modulated (FM) on a wireless carrier. This enables a low-cost precise continuous measurement of angular velocity using a standard FM demodulator. The hardware can be easily adapted for both high and low angular velocity values. The precise alignment angle between the antennas can be determined if the initial ant...

  13. The Propagation of Circularly Polarized Waves in Quantum Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Rehab Albrulosy; Bahaa F. Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The quantum effects on the propagation circularly polarized waves have been investigated in electron magnetized quantum plasmas. We obtain the dispersion equations of the propagation of circularly polarized laser beam through cold plasma. The results show that the laser can be propagated due to the quantum effects which enhance the propagation phase velocity. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations with magnetic field and Maxwell’s equations system is used to derive these ...

  14. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosendz, O.; Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L{sub 3} absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu. Although electrical transport measurements in a non-local geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x-rays at the Co and Cu L{sub 3} absorption edges.

  15. Dual frequency launcher for circularly polarized antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming H.

    1989-10-01

    A dual frequency antenna feed is formed from a central, circular waveguide connected to the flat boundry of circular, disk-shaped resonant cavity. A second circular waveguide is connected one end of a disk-shaped resonant cavity. Energy of one frequency enters and exits the cavity along the common axis of the waveguides. Energy of the second frequency is introduced to the same resonant cavity by way of a plurality of bandpass filters, also connected to the cavity. This energy enters by way of slots in the cylindrical walls of the cavity. The central circular waveguide is propagating at one frequency but cut off at the second frequency. These bandpass filters are at this pass band for the second frequency, but at the rejection band for the first frequency. Therefore, the isolation between these two input ports are obtained.

  16. Polarized neutron reflectivity and X-ray scattering measurements as tools to study properties of Pt/Co/Pt ultrathin layers irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Wojciech; Ott, Frédéric; Kisielewski, Jan; Sveklo, Iosif; Dynowska, Elżbieta; Minikayev, Roman; Kurant, Zbigniew; Kuna, Rafał; Jakubowski, Marcin; Wawro, Andrzej; Sobierajski, Ryszard; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    We have used polarized neutron reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and magneto-optical Kerr effect in polar configuration to study the properties of ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films. Structures consisting of a 5-nm thick Pt buffer, 3-nm thick Co layer and 5-nm thick Pt cover layer were deposited onto (0001)-oriented Al2O3 substrate by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method. Irreversible modifications of film properties, resulting from its illumination by single femtosecond laser pulses, of duration of 40 fs and wavelength of 800 nm, were observed and analyzed. As prepared films exhibited magnetization in-plane, but after laser irradiation, the direction of magnetization was rotated to out-of-plane state. Formation of Co-Pt alloy phase caused by quasi-uniform film irradiation was demonstrated by the results of X-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Moreover, polarized neutron and X-ray reflectivity data showed that after illumination Co was distributed mostly in the area of nominal Co layer and Pt cover layer and its diffusion into the Pt buffer was less significant.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2002-01-19

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.

  18. High quality multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, H.; Boeni, P.; Breitmeier, U.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mertins, H.C.; Schaefers, F. [BESSY, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In an effort to develop optical components for X-rays with wavelengths in the water window (2.3 -4.4 nm) multilayer structures have been designed for the following applications: in transmission as phase shifters to change linear into circular polarization, in reflection as mirrors close to normal incidence and as linear polarizers at an angle of incidence of 45{sup o}. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  19. Circular polarization measurements with a Ge(Li) detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1969-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in measurements of the degree of circular polarization of gamma transitions to bound states of 33S, 36Cl, 49Ti, 56Mn, 57Fe, 60Co and 64Cu following the capture of polarized thermal neutrons. Spin values have been determined on the basis of these results....

  20. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: new evidences from element- and site-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Juhin, Amélie; Wang, Yinzhao; Chen, Haitao; Bunau, Oana; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Pan, Yongxin

    2016-08-01

    The biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science due to the precise morphology of the particles, the chain-like assembly and their unique magnetic properties. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. Despite some successful outcomes, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remain largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe(2+) ions by Co(2+) ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Both XMCD at Fe and Co L2,3 edges, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt occurring either in different particles or inside individual particles. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study also demonstrates that the addition of trace cobalt in the growth medium can significantly improve both the cell growth and the magnetosome formation within M. magneticum AMB-1. Together with the cobalt occupancy within the spinel structure of magnetosomes, this study indicates that MTB may provide a promising biomimetic system for producing chains of metal-doped single-domain magnetite with an appropriate tuning of the magnetic properties for technological and biomedical applications. PMID:27512138

  1. Circular polarization of transmitted light by sapphirinidae copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Baar

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, generated from specific organs of the animal's body, especially on the dorsal cephalosome and prosome. Such CP transmittance may be generated by phase retardance either in the muscle fibers or in the multilayer membrane structure found underneath the cuticle. Although the role, if any, played by circularly polarized light in Sapphirinidae has yet to be clarified, in other animals it was suggested to take part in mate choice, species recognition, and other forms of communication.Planktonic Sapphirinidae copepods were found to circularly polarize the light passing through them. Circular polarization may be created by unique, multilayered features of the membrane structure found under their cuticle or by organized muscle fibers.

  2. Polarized X-ray absorption spectra and electronic structure of molybdenite (2H-MoS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dien; Bancroft, G. M.; Kasrai, M.; Fleet, M. E.; Feng, X. H.; Tan, K. H.

    1995-03-01

    Polarized S K- and L-edge, Mo L3- and L2-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of natural molybdenite (2H-MoS2) have been measured with synchrotron radiation. These results are qualitatively interpreted using the energy band model of molybdenite and provide important information on the unoccupied states of molybdenite. The valence band (VB) maximum of molybdenite is characterized by fully occupied Mo 4dz 2, and the conduction band (CB) minimum of molybdenite is characterized by unoccupied Mo 4d states. The unoccupied Mo 4d band is split into two sub-bands, designated as t{2g/-}/t{2g/+}and e{g/-}/e{g/+}sets. Although the relative energy of these two sets are difficult to be evaluated, probably the former has the lower energy than the latter, both two sets have the combination wave functions of the other unoccupied Mo 4d components, rather than the simple 4dx 2 — y2 and 4dxy states. The unoccupied Mo 4d sub-bands contain significant DOS of both S 3 p- and 3 s-like states, indicating strong hybridization with S 3s and 3 p states. In the lower energy sub-band, the DOS of the S pz- and px,y-like states are very similar. However, in the higher energy sub-band, the DOS of the S 3 px,y-like state is lower than that of the S 3pz state. Polarized S K-edge XANES also reveal the features of antibonding S pz- and px,y-like states in molybdenite. The feature assigned to the S 3 pz-like states is stronger and sharper, and shifts to lower energy by about 2 eV relative to that for the S 3 px,y-like states.

  3. Electrically small circularly polarized spherical antenna with air core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2013-01-01

    An electrically small circularly polarized self-resonant spherical antenna with air core is presented. The antenna is a modified multiarm spherical helix exciting TM10 and TE10 spherical modes with equal radiated power, and thus yielding perfect circular polarization over the entire far......-field sphere (except the polar regions, where the radiation is low). The self-resonance is achieved by exciting higher-order TM modes, which provide the necessary electric stored energy in the near-field, while contributing negligibly to the far-field radiation of the antenna. The antenna has electrical size...

  4. An invisible medium for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayama, Y; Nakanishi, T; Sugiyama, K; Kitano, M

    2008-12-01

    We study the no reflection condition for a planar boundary between vacuum and an isotropic chiral medium. In general chiral media, elliptically polarized waves incident at a particular angle satisfy the no reflection condition. When the wave impedance and wavenumber of the chiral medium are equal to the corresponding parameters of vacuum, one of the circularly polarized waves is transmitted to the medium without reflection or refraction for all angles of incidence. We propose a circular polarizing beam splitter as a simple application of the no reflection effect. PMID:19065225

  5. Circularly polarized unidirectional emission via a coupled plasmonic spiral antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Guanghao; Nelson, Robert L; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-12-01

    In this Letter, we study the emission properties of an electric dipole emitter coupled to a plasmonic spiral structure. The plasmonic spiral structure functions as an optical antenna, coupling the electric dipole emission into circularly polarized unidirectional emission in the far field. Increasing number of turns of the spiral leads to narrower angular width of the emission pattern in the far field. For a spiral antenna with six turns, antenna directivity of 23.5 dB with a directional emission into a narrow angular cone of 4.3° can be achieved. The emitted photons carry spin that is essentially determined by the handedness of the spiral antenna. By reversing the spiral, one can switch the polarization of the emission field between left-hand and right-hand circular polarizations. The spiral antenna may be used as a nanoscale circular polarization source in single molecule sensing, single-photo sources, and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:22139233

  6. Autler-Townes effects in attosecond circular polarization molecular photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present molecular photoionization simulations by intense (I ∼ 1016 W/cm2) few cycle circularly polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulses for aligned H2+ from numerical solutions of the corresponding time-dependent Schrodinger equation. With appropriate laser pulse parameters, circular attosecond coherent electron wave packets (CEWPs) are created in excited Rydberg states. Such CEWPs are spatially localized during ionization processes, thus resulting in sufficient population oscillations between the resonant excited Rydberg states and the initial ground state. Consequently Autler-Townes splitting in circular polarization energy spectra is predicted, which is shown to be critically sensitive to the pulse intensity, duration, and polarization. The resulting photoelectron angular distributions are rotated with respect to the molecular axis due to the nonspherical Coulomb potential of the molecule, resulting in different ionization rates at different laser polarization-molecular angles.

  7. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.

  8. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  9. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH(+) ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3 (+) has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10(13) W/cm(2) and 3.15 × 10(13) W/cm(2), respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3 (+). The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene. PMID:27586924

  10. K-edge x-ray dichroism investigation of Fe1−xCoxSi: Experimental evidence for spin polarization crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Fe and Co K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) have been employed as element-specific probes of the magnetic moments in the composition series of the disordered ferromagnet Fe1−xCoxSi (for x=0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5). A definitive single peaked XMCD profile occurs for all compositions at both Fe and Co K-edges. The Fe 4p orbital moment, deduced from the integral of the XMCD signal, has a steep dependence on x at low doping levels and evolves to a different (weaker) dependence at x≥0.3, similar to the behavior of the magnetization in the Co composition range studied here. It is systematically higher, by at least a factor of two, than the corresponding Co orbital moment for most of the composition series. Fine structure beyond the K-edge absorption (limited range EXAFS) suggests that the local order (atomic environment) is very similar across the series, from the perspective of both the Fe and Co absorbing atom. The variation in the XMCD integral across the Co composition range has two regimes, that which occurs below x=0.3 and then evolves to different behavior at higher doping levels. This is more conspicuously present in the Fe contribution. This is rationalized as the evolution from a half-metallic ferromagnet at low Co doping to that of a strong ferromagnet at x>0.3 and as such, spin polarization crossover occurs. The Fermi level is tuned from the majority spin band for x<0.3 where a strongly polarized majority spin electron gas prevails, to a regime where minority spin carriers dominate at higher doping. The evolution of the Fe-derived spin polarized (3d) bands, indirectly probed here via the 4p states, is the primary determinant of the doping dependence of the magnetism in this alloy series. - Highlights: • Element-specific probing of the electronic structure of the Fe1−xCoxSi series. • XMCD at the level of 10−4 at the K-edge in such low-moment systems. • Element-specific probing of magnetic contributions from both Fe and Co

  11. K-edge x-ray dichroism investigation of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si: Experimental evidence for spin polarization crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearne, G.R., E-mail: grhearne@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Diguet, G. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Baudelet, F.; Itié, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Manyala, N. [Department of Physics and Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2015-04-01

    Both Fe and Co K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) have been employed as element-specific probes of the magnetic moments in the composition series of the disordered ferromagnet Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si (for x=0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5). A definitive single peaked XMCD profile occurs for all compositions at both Fe and Co K-edges. The Fe 4p orbital moment, deduced from the integral of the XMCD signal, has a steep dependence on x at low doping levels and evolves to a different (weaker) dependence at x≥0.3, similar to the behavior of the magnetization in the Co composition range studied here. It is systematically higher, by at least a factor of two, than the corresponding Co orbital moment for most of the composition series. Fine structure beyond the K-edge absorption (limited range EXAFS) suggests that the local order (atomic environment) is very similar across the series, from the perspective of both the Fe and Co absorbing atom. The variation in the XMCD integral across the Co composition range has two regimes, that which occurs below x=0.3 and then evolves to different behavior at higher doping levels. This is more conspicuously present in the Fe contribution. This is rationalized as the evolution from a half-metallic ferromagnet at low Co doping to that of a strong ferromagnet at x>0.3 and as such, spin polarization crossover occurs. The Fermi level is tuned from the majority spin band for x<0.3 where a strongly polarized majority spin electron gas prevails, to a regime where minority spin carriers dominate at higher doping. The evolution of the Fe-derived spin polarized (3d) bands, indirectly probed here via the 4p states, is the primary determinant of the doping dependence of the magnetism in this alloy series. - Highlights: • Element-specific probing of the electronic structure of the Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Si series. • XMCD at the level of 10{sup −4} at the K-edge in such low-moment systems. • Element-specific probing of magnetic contributions

  12. Cascade effects on the polarization of He-like Fe 1s 2l - 1s2 X-ray line emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakel, P; Mancini, R; Harris, C; Neill, P; Beiersdorfer, P; Csanak, G; Zhang, H

    2006-12-21

    We calculate X-ray line polarization degrees for cases with axial symmetry using a collisional-radiative magnetic-sublevel atomic kinetics model and the properties of multipole radiation fields. This approach is well-suited for problems where the alignment is determined by the competition between many atomic processes. We benchmark this method against polarization measurements performed at the Livermore electron beam ion trap, and we study the 3-to-2 cascade effects on the polarization of 2-to-1 lines in He-like Fe.

  13. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    CERN Document Server

    Wiersema, K; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Gotz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Farina, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovski, V; Willingale, R

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet, when measured minutes after the burst, and the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after burst in GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and negligable circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blastwave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized optical light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.1...

  14. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airey Robert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T. The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects.

  15. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lara F; Gobato, Yara Galvão; Teodoro, Márcio D; Lopez-Richard, Victor; Marques, Gilmar E; Brasil, Maria Jsp; Orlita, Milan; Kunc, Jan; Maude, Duncan K; Henini, Mohamed; Airey, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects. PMID:21711613

  16. Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna with Post Manufacture Characteristic Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Narbudowicz, Adam; Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2013-01-01

    We propose an omnidirectional circularly polarised planar microstrip patch antenna, in which both impedance bandwidth and circular polarization properties can be adjusted after antenna manufacture. This is done by appropriately tuning four adjustable capacitors, incorporated into the patches. To demonstrate the properties, the proposed antenna is tuned to the GPS L1 band and then re-tuned for Beidou/Galileo E2 band by only changing capacitors values. Design guidelines for such retuning are pr...

  17. Simultaneous determination of trace elements in soils and sediments by polarizing energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of polarizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry were fully explored to materialize rapid trace element determinations of soil and sediment samples. The pressed powder pellet technique was adopted for sample preparation because of its simplicity. The trace elements examined were V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Sn, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pb, and Th. The instrument was calibrated by using 26 reference materials. Compton scatter radiation was used as an internal standard to compensate any matrix effects and operating characteristics of the instruments. The correlation coefficients of the calibration lines were greater than 0.98, with the exception of Co and Pr. The results obtained by the proposed EDXRF spectrometry were compared with those obtained by other methods for around 450 samples. Out of the 20 trace elements examined, the results for 10 elements (Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce and Nd) obtained by the proposed EDXRF spectrometry compared favorably with those determined through conventional wet chemical methods. In contrast, the results for 5 elements (Cr, Co, Zr, Sn, and Pr) exhibited poor agreements with those obtained by the chemical methods. Among these elements, poor agreements of Cr, Zr and Sn were attributable to incomplete dissolution and/or volatilization losses during chemical treatments based on an acid attack, and therefore we concluded that results obtained by EDXRF are superior over those by chemical methods. In the case of Co, however, overlapping of the Fe Kβ line is responsible for the lower correlation coefficient. Although the results of the other 4 analytes (V, Y, Pb and Th) were not as good as those of the first group, they still appeared to be of practical use, considering the time-consuming and potentially hazardous acid digestion pretreatments. (author)

  18. Design and simulation of a novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics was designed using co-simulation of Ansoft HFSS and Designer software. It consists of a dual-polarized antenna and phase switching network which act as the feed network for the dual-polarized antenna. The phase switching network was designed based on a Wilkinson power divider, where the output port was connected with SPDT to form a switching network. By controlling the SPDT state-off / on, the phase difference of the two ports could be alternated, which generated the orthogonal modes between the two ports of dual-polarized antenna. So that Left-hand circular polarization (LHCP and Right-hand circular polarization (RHCP could be achieved. The simulation shown that reflection coefficient was less than -12 dB and the axial ratio was below 3 dB between 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz with polarization reconfigurable characteristics.

  19. Inkjet printed circularly polarized antennas for GPS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Two novel, inkjet printed circularly polarized antenna designs are presented for GPS applications. First antenna design comprises a planar monopole which has been made circularly polarized by the introduction of an L-shaped slit. The antenna shows a gain of 0.2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.8%. The second antenna design comprises a modified monopole in the form of an inverted L and has been termed as circularly polarized inverted L antenna (CILA). The antenna shows a gain of -2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 4.1%. Both the antenna designs are attractive for mobile applications.

  20. Characterization and remote sensing of biological particles using circular polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Nagdimunov, Lev; Mackowski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Biological molecules are characterized by an intrinsic asymmetry known as homochirality. The result is optical activity of biological materials and circular polarization in the light scattered by microorganisms, cells of living organisms, as well as molecules (e.g. amino acids) of biological origin. Lab measurements (Sparks et al. 2009a, b) have found that light scattered by certain biological systems, in particular photosynthetic organisms, is not only circular polarized but contains a characteristic spectral trend, showing a fast change and reversal of sign for circular polarization within absorption bands. Similar behavior can be expected for other biological and prebiological organics, especially amino acids. We begin our study by reproducing the laboratory measurements for photosynthetic organisms through modeling the biological material as aggregated structures and using the Multiple Sphere T-matrix (MSTM) code for light scattering calculations. We further study how the spectral effect described above d...

  1. Frequency-reconfigurable water antenna of circular polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meng; Shen, Zhongxiang; Pan, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized frequency-reconfigurable water antenna with high radiation efficiency is proposed based on the design concept of combining a frequency-reconfigurable radiating structure with a frequency-independent feeding structure. In this letter, a resonator made of distilled water and an Archimedean spiral slot are employed as the radiating and feeding structures, respectively. The operating frequency of the antenna can be continuously tuned over a very wide range while maintaining good impendence matching and circular polarization by changing the dimensions of the water resonator. A prototype antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that the designed antenna exhibits a wide tuning frequency range from 155 MHz to 400 MHz with an average radiation efficiency of about 90% and good circular polarization.

  2. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalily

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA with good radiation characteristics offers an impedance bandwidth of 58% between 3.45 and 6.26 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2. The proposed DRA is fabricated and tested. Very good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.

  3. Recent Progress in Chirality Research Using Circularly Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Fukue, Tsubasa

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We review recent studies of chirality using circularly polarized light, along with the birth and evolution of life and planetary systems. Terrestrial life consists almost exclusively of one enantiomer, left-handed amino acids. This characteristic feature is called homochirality, whose origin is still unknown. The route to homogeneity of chirality would be connected with the origin and development of life on early Earth along with evolution of the solar system. Detections of enantiomeric excess in several meteorites support the possibility that the seed of life was injected from space, considering the possible destruction and racemization in the perilous environment on early Earth. Circularly polarized light could bring the enantiomeric excess of prebiotic molecules in space. Recent experimental works on photochemistry under ultraviolet circularly polarized light are remarkable. Recent astronomical observations by imaging polarimetry of star-forming regions are now revealing the distribution of circ...

  4. Frequency-reconfigurable water antenna of circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Meng; Pan, Jin [Department of Microwave Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China); Shen, Zhongxiang, E-mail: ezxshen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-04

    A circularly polarized frequency-reconfigurable water antenna with high radiation efficiency is proposed based on the design concept of combining a frequency-reconfigurable radiating structure with a frequency-independent feeding structure. In this letter, a resonator made of distilled water and an Archimedean spiral slot are employed as the radiating and feeding structures, respectively. The operating frequency of the antenna can be continuously tuned over a very wide range while maintaining good impendence matching and circular polarization by changing the dimensions of the water resonator. A prototype antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that the designed antenna exhibits a wide tuning frequency range from 155 MHz to 400 MHz with an average radiation efficiency of about 90% and good circular polarization.

  5. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  6. Effect of urea on bovine serum albumin in aqueous and reverse micelle environments investigated by small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence that urea has on the conformation of water-soluble globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), exposed directly to the aqueous solution as compared to the condition where the macromolecule is confined in the Aerosol-OT (AOT - sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate)/n-hexane/water reverse micelle (RM) is addressed. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence emission and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of aqueous BSA solution in the absence and in the presence of urea (3M and 5M) confirm the known denaturing effect of urea in proteins. The loss of the globular native structure is observed by the increase in the protein maximum dimension and gyration radius, through the Trp emission increase and maximum red-shift as well as the decrease in helix content. In RMs, the Trp fluorescence and CD spectra show that BSA is mainly located in its interfacial region independently of the micellar size. Addition of urea in this BSA/RM system also causes changes in the Trp fluorescence (emission decrease and maximum red-shift) and in the BSA CD spectra (decrease in helix content), which are compatible with the denaturation of the protein and Trp exposition to a more apolar environment in the RM. The fact that urea causes changes in the protein structure when it is located in the interfacial region (evidenced by CD) is interpreted as an indication that the direct interaction of urea with the protein is the major factor to explain its denaturing effect. (author)

  7. Mulliken population analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in uranium monochalcogenides. Examination of sum rules by fully relativistic full-potential LCAO method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the U M4,5 and N4,5 edges of uranium monochalcogenides, UX where X=S, Se, and Te, examining the applicability of the XMCD sum rules to UX by the fully relativistic full-potential linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals (LCAO) method based on the density functional theory. To extract the transitions relevant to the sum-rule analysis, we employ the Mulliken population analysis (MPA). Using the MPA, the orbital sum rule is found to be valid to 10-20% for the M4,5 edges and valid to 5-15% for the N4,5 edges. On the other hand, the spin sum rule is found to be valid to 10-20% for the M4,5 edges whereas valid to 30-35% for the N4,5 edges. Furthermore, it is found that the calculated XMCD spectra are consistent with a recent experimental observation that the intensity of the N4,5 XMCD signal is comparable to that of the M4,5 XMCD signal although contradicting a previous theoretical prediction that the XMCD intensity at the N4,5 edges is one order of magnitude smaller than that at the M4,5 edges. (author)

  8. Parental exposure to low-dose X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster induces early emergence offspring, which can be modulated by transplantation of polar cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been growing concern over the biological effects of low-dose X-rays, but few studies have addressed this issue. Our laboratory had observed files (Drosophila melanogaster) irradiated with low dose X-rays tend to emerge earlier than normal flies. This observation led us to quantitatively examine the effects of low dose X-irradiation on development in the fly Following exposure of prepupal (day 5) flies to 0.5 Gy X-rays, the time to emergence was slightly shorter than in the sham controls. This tendency was increased when the X-ray exposure came during the pupal stage (day 7). In these flies, the time to eclosion decreased significantly, by an average of thirty hours sooner than sham controls. Exposure of pre pupa to 0.5 Gy results in marked changes in the puffing patterns of salivary gland chromosomes. A 0.5 Gy exposure induces puffing at 75B specific loci; this pattern of induced puffs shows little developmental specificity. A further experiment examined whether such radiation effects could be observed in the unexposed F1 generation of exposed individuals Greater radiation effects on early Fi emergence were seen when the time between exposure and mating was 3 days, indicating an effect on early spermatid development. Early F1 emergence was also observed after exposure of female flies to X-rays during late previtellogeny. furthermore, rapid emergence could be induced in the F1 embryos of unexposed parents by transferring the polar cytoplasm (precursor cells of the germ cell line) from F1 embryos of exposed flies. furthermore pumilio mutant arrested the assembly of polar cytoplasm did not induce the early emergency even after 0.5 Gy exposure. These results show that radiation-induced effects can be transmitted to the next generation through the germ cell line. (Author)

  9. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Biao Li; Yang Ding; Ying-Zeng Yin

    2016-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated...

  10. Polarized total-reflection x-ray absorption fine structure for self-assembled monolayer of zinc porphyrin at air-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) method is applied to the air-solution interface. Under the total reflection condition, the XAFS method becomes surface sensitive, enabling the self-assembled monolayer of a metal complex at the solution surface to analyze in situ. Furthermore the introduction of two types of linearly polarized x rays allows us to determine the selective orientation of a planar metal complex at the surface. We obtain spectra for a square planar complex, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrinato zinc(II) (ZnTPPC) adsorbed on the aqueous solution surface forming a monolayer with two polarized x rays and compared them with spectra of the same compound in a bulk solution and in solid powder. The polarized XAFS spectra exhibit different features leading to the unambiguous conclusion that the plane of the ZnTPPC molecule is oriented parallel to the air-water interface and that there is no coordination to the axial sites of the zinc atom

  11. Polar Response of a Circular Piston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyan Iliev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews theoretically and examinesexperimentally the polar plotof a loudspeakerin the far and near field.An original equation for sound pressure calculation in the near and far field is proposed. An experiment is conducted to confirm the theoretical data and the accuracy of the proposed expression. Several conclusions are drawn from the analysis of the study.

  12. The X-ray Spectrum and Spectral Energy Distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL Quasar with a Probable Polar Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Berrington, Robert C; Gallagher, Sarah C; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D; Hall, Patrick B; Laurent-Muehleisen, S A

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e., an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Gamma = 1.7 or flatter at a >99% confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 10^23 cm^-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providi...

  13. Dual-frequency Dual-sense Circularly-polarized Slot Antenna Fed by Microstrip Line

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2008-01-01

    A new design of a dual-frequency dual circularly-polarized slot antenna is presented. The dual-frequency is achieved using a single-layer microstrip-fed configuration coupled to a modified annular-slot antenna. The dual sense circular-polarization is obtained by four unequal linear slots which augment the annular slot. Experimental results show the proposed antenna has good circular polarization characteristics for both right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) and left-hand circular polarizati...

  14. Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Yan, E-mail: yzhang@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Metamaterials and Devices, and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang, Xinke [Beijing Key Laboratory for Metamaterials and Devices, and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Kan, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Qu, Shiliang [Optoelectronics Department, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2015-12-14

    A practical circular polarization analyzer (CPA) that can selectively focus surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at two separate locations, according to the helicity of the circularly polarized light, is designed and experimentally verified in the terahertz frequency range. The CPA consists of fishbone-slit units and is designed using the simulated annealing algorithm. By differentially detecting the intensities of the two SPPs focuses, the helicity of the incident circularly polarized light can be obtained and the CPA is less vulnerable to the noise of incident light. The proposed device may also have wide potential applications in chiral SPPs photonics and the analysis of chiral molecules in biology.

  15. Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical circular polarization analyzer (CPA) that can selectively focus surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at two separate locations, according to the helicity of the circularly polarized light, is designed and experimentally verified in the terahertz frequency range. The CPA consists of fishbone-slit units and is designed using the simulated annealing algorithm. By differentially detecting the intensities of the two SPPs focuses, the helicity of the incident circularly polarized light can be obtained and the CPA is less vulnerable to the noise of incident light. The proposed device may also have wide potential applications in chiral SPPs photonics and the analysis of chiral molecules in biology

  16. X-ray line polarization of He-like Si satellite spectra in plasmas driven by high-intensity ultrashort pulsed lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakel, Peter; Mancini, Roberto C; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Mínguez, Emilio; Dubau, Jacques; Cornille, Marguerite

    2004-05-01

    We present a modeling study of x-ray line polarization in plasmas driven by high-intensity, ultrashort duration pulsed lasers. Electron kinetics simulations of these transient and nonequilibrium plasmas predict non-Maxwellian and anisotropic electron distribution functions. Under these conditions, the magnetic sublevels within fine structure levels can be unequally populated which leads to the emission of polarized lines. We have developed a time-dependent, collisional-radiative atomic kinetics model of magnetic sublevels to understand the underlying processes and mechanisms leading to the formation of polarized x-ray line emission in plasmas with anisotropic electron distribution functions. The electron distribution function consists of a thermal component extracted from hydrodynamic calculations and a beam component determined by PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. We focus on the polarization properties of the He-like Si satellites of the L y(alpha) line, discuss the time evolution of polarized satellite spectra, and identify suitable polarization markers that are sensitive to the anisotropy of the electron distribution function and can be used for diagnostic applications. PMID:15244949

  17. Simulation of erasure of photoinduced anisotropy by circularly polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, Á.; Barabás, M.; Lorincz, E; Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    The temporal evolution of photoinduced birefringence is investigated on the basis of a model proposed by Pedersen and co-workers, This model is extended for the case of elliptically polarized light, and used to describe the erasure of photoinduced birefringence by circularly polarized light. It i...... shown that the anisotropy is not erased, only the direction of the optical axis is changed, and this is measured as erasure. The computed results are compared with measurements and show good agreement for several intensities....

  18. Developing a Compton polarimeter to measure polarization of hard x-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legere, Jason; Bloser, Peter L.; Macri, John R.; McConnell, Mark L.; Narita, Tomohiko; Ryan, James M.

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead, to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern for the Compton scattering of the polarized radiation. Comparing with Monte Carlo simulations of a 100% polarized beam, the level of polarization of the measured beam can then be determined. The complete array is mounted on a flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) that can measure the deposited energies resulting from the photon interactions. The design of the detector allows for a large field-of-view, at the same time offering the ability to be close-packed with multiple modules in order to reduce deadspace. We plan to present in this paper the latest laboratory results obtained from GRAPE using partially polarized radiation sources.

  19. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K; Covino, S; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Götz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; di Serego Alighieri, S; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Fariña, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovsky, V; Willingale, R

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets. PMID:24776800

  20. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; Varela, K.; Min, M.; Greiner, J.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Campana, S.; Curran, P. A.; Fan, Y.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Gomboc, A.; Götz, D.; Hjorth, J.; Jin, Z. P.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mundell, C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Pian, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Russell, D. M.; Salvaterra, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.; Elliott, J.; Fariña, C.; Hartoog, O. E.; Karjalainen, R.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Levan, A. J.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Willingale, R.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets.

  1. Investigating crystalline-polarity-dependent electronic structures of GaN by hard x-ray photoemission and ab-initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Takeo; Ueda, Shigenori; Suzuki, Motohiro; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Williams, Jesse R.; Ohashi, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Crystalline-polarity-dependent electronic structures of gallium nitride (GaN) were studied by photoemission spectroscopy (PES) using soft and hard x-rays with different linear polarizations. A peak located near the valence band (VB) maximum was enhanced for a (0001) surface compared with that for a ( 000 1 ¯ ) surface regardless of photon energy. Comparison of the VB density of states obtained by ab-initio calculations with the observed VB-PES spectra indicates that the crystalline-polarity dependence is associated with the Ga 4p and N 2p states. The most plausible origin of the crystalline-polarity-dependent VB feature is based on the photoemission phenomena of electrons in the pz-orbitals due to spontaneous electric polarization along the c-axis of GaN.

  2. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  3. Dual-band circularly polarized microstrip antenna for GPS application

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Ayukawa, Daisuke; Iwanaga, Kouhei; Taguchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the small dual-band circularly polarized square MSAs for GPS application is proposed and the operational principles and the characteristics of the antenna are clarified by the simulator. The antenna consists of a square patch with slits and four T-shaped elements. The T-shaped element is loaded at each slit of the square patch.

  4. Circularly Polarized Antenna with Wide Projection and Range: A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanAtta, L. C.; Mailloux, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    The slotted antenna structure discussed in this tech brief radiates a circularly polarized beam pattern over a wide angle. The basic structure, composed of waveguide slots, can be flush mounted in an airplane or spacecraft, and could be used in the communication link between an airplane and an air traffic satellite.

  5. Developing a Compton Polarimeter to Measure Polarization of Hard X-Rays in the 50-300 keV Energy Range

    CERN Document Server

    Legere, J S; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead, to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern fo...

  6. IRMA-2 at SOLEIL: a set-up for magnetic and coherent scattering of polarized soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed, built and tested a new instrument for soft x-ray scattering experiments. IRMA-2 is a UHV set-up for elastic and coherent scattering experiments developed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron. Applications will be in the field of solid state physics, with emphasis on the investigation of the magnetic properties of artificially structured materials.

  7. Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Yan; Wang, Li; Tian, Jingxuan; Dai, Shiwei; Wen, Weijia

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a bi-layer ultrathin anisotropic metasurface which could near-completely convert the circular-polarized electromagnetic wave to its cross polarization. The bi-layer metasurface is composed of periodic 180°-twisted double-cut split ring resonators on both sides of an F4B substrate. At resonance, cross-polarized transmission larger than 94% is observed both in simulations and experiments. The resonant frequency of the metasurface could be effectively tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters of the metasurface, while relatively high conversion efficiency is preserved. The high efficiency and ease of fabrication suggest that the ultrathin metasurface could have potential applications in telecommunications.

  8. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow

  9. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-01

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  10. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi, E-mail: yokojima@toyaku.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukaminato, Tuyoshi [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ohtani, Hiroyuki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: snakamura@riken.jp [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  11. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  12. Design and simulation of a novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Wei Guo; Ge Yue He; Lv Shan Ce

    2016-01-01

    A novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics was designed using co-simulation of Ansoft HFSS and Designer software. It consists of a dual-polarized antenna and phase switching network which act as the feed network for the dual-polarized antenna. The phase switching network was designed based on a Wilkinson power divider, where the output port was connected with SPDT to form a switching network. By controlling the SPDT state-off / on, the phase differen...

  13. Compact-Size Low-Profile Wideband Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Patch Antenna With Reconfigurable Polarizations

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yuan-Ming; Gao, Steven; Yin, Yingzeng; Li, Wenting; Luo, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A compact-size low-profile wideband circularly polarized (CP) omnidirectional antenna with reconfigurable polarizations is presented in this communication. This design is based on a low-profile omnidirectional CP antenna which consists of a vertically polarized microstrip patch antenna working in TM01/TM02 modes and sequentially bended slots etched on the ground plane for radiating horizontally polarized electric field. The combined radiation from both the microstrip patch and the slots leads...

  14. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    In this thesis, developments of rectangular microstrip patch antenna to have circular polarization agility with wideband performance, for wireless applications are presented. First, a new technique to achieve circularly polarized (CP) probe feed single-layer microstrip patch antenna with wideband characteristics is proposed. The antenna is a modified form of the popular E-shaped patch, used to broaden the impedance bandwidth of a basic rectangular patch antenna. This is established by letting the two parallel slots of the E-patch unequal. Thus, by introducing asymmetry two orthogonal currents on the patch are excited and circularly polarized fields are realized. The proposed technique exhibits the advantage of the simplicity inherent in the E-shaped patch design. It requires only slot lengths, widths, and position parameters to be determined. Also, it is suitable for later adding the reconfigurable capability. With the aid of full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS, investigations on the effect of various dimensions of the antenna have been carried out via parametric analysis. Based on these investigations, a design procedure for a CP E-shaped patch is summarized. Various design examples with different substrate thicknesses and material types are presented and compared, with CP U-slot patch antennas, recently proposed in the literature. A prototype has been constructed following the suggested design procedure to cover the IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN band. The performance of the fabricated antenna was measured and compared with the simulation results for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measured results demonstrating a high gain and wideband performance. Second, a polarization reconfigurable single feed E-shaped patch antenna with wideband performance is proposed. The antenna is capable of switching from right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) to left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and

  15. Study of the ultrafast polarization dynamics in lithium borohydride by means of femtosecond X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the ultrafast electronic polarisation in the crystalline material lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is examined. The material is excited by a femtosecond long optical pulse and scanned by a likewise short X-ray pulse. Using X-ray scattering the optically induced spatial rearrangement of electronic charge can be directly mapped with atomic spatial resolution. Copper K-alpha X-rays for the experiment are produced in a laboratory table-top laserplasma source with 1 kHz repetition rate. This radiation is then focused on a powdered sample. Debye-Scherrer rings produced from powder diffraction are collected on a large area detector and processed to yield intensity profiles. Using pump-probe technique the change in diffracted intensity, triggered by excitation with a femtosecond optical pulse is examined. The temporal resolution is given by the delay between pump and probe pulse. This way insight is gained into the dynamic electronic evolution of the system. Intensity changes can be correlated to changes in charge density in the relevant material to elucidate structural dynamics on the femtosecond time scale. Lithium borohydride was chosen since it displays necessary characteristics for the exploration of ultrafast electronic polarisation. Up to date there has been no spatially resolved research in the femtosecond regime elucidating this electronic phenomenon. This work presents the ultrafast resonse in Lithiumborhydrid (LiBH4) to strong electronic fields with optical frequencies, which leads to charge relocation accompanied by electronic polarisation.

  16. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  17. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  18. Manipulating photoinduced voltage in metasurface with circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiang

    2015-02-23

    Recently, the concept of metasurface has provided one an unprecedented opportunity and ability to control the light in the deep subwavelength scale. However, so far most efforts are devoted to exploiting the novel scattering properties and applications of metasurface in optics. Here, I theoretically and numerically demonstrate that longitudinal and transverse photoinduced voltages can be simultaneously realized in the proposed metasurface utilizing the magnetic resonance under the normal incidence of circularly polarized light, which may extend the concept and functionality of metasurface into the electronics and may provide a potential scheme to realize a nanoscale tunable voltage source through a nanophotonic roadmap. The signs of longitudinal and transverse photoin-duced voltages can be manipulated by tuning the resonant frequency and the handedness of circularly polarized light, respectively. Analytical formulae of photoinduced voltage are presented based on the theory of symmetry of field. This work may bridge nanophotonics and electronics, expands the capability of metasurface and has many potential applications. PMID:25836566

  19. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  20. Minimum Q circularly polarized electrically small spherical antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2011-01-01

    magnetic-coated PEC core the stored energies of these modes balance each other making the antenna self-resonant and at the same time ensuring a perfect circularly polarized radiation. Numerical results for a practical dual-mode electrically small antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. A 4-arm......The radiation problem for the TM10- and TE10-mode electric current densities on the surface of a spherical magnetic-coated PEC core is solved analytically. The combination of the electric and magnetic dipole modes reduces the radiation Q of the antenna. Moreover, with an appropriately designed...... spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated PEC core radiating both TM10 and TE10 spherical modes exhibits a perfect circular polarization in almost all directions. The antenna is self-resonant with the radiation Q being 0.67QChu, or 1.27Qdual....

  1. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  2. High-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS at Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T; U. Flechsig; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A; Q. Chen; J. Raabe; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; A. Piazzalunga; X Wang; Grioni, M.; Patthey, L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES). The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0-180 deg rotatable linear polarizations) but als...

  3. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T; U. Flechsig; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A; Q. Chen; J. Raabe; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; X Wang; Grioni, M.; A. Piazzalunga; Patthey, L.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also...

  4. Anomalous elastic scattering of linearly polarized X-ray radiation by multicharged atomic ions in the range of the ionization threshold of the 1s-shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopersky, A.N. E-mail: phys@rgups.ru; Novikov, S.A.; Chuvenkov, V.V

    2002-04-01

    The absolute values and shape of differential cross-section of the process of the anomalous elastic scattering for non-zero angle are investigated within non-relativistic approximation for linearly polarized X-ray radiation scattered by multicharged atomic ions Ne{sup 6+} in the range of the ionization threshold of 1s-shell. The many-particle effects of radial rearrangement of electron shells in the field of an inner 1s-vacancy and the effect of vacancy stabilization are taken into account. The results of the work are predictions.

  5. Soft x-ray polarimeter laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kendrah D.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Jenks, Kevin; Sommer, Sophie J. B.; Marshall, Eric A.

    2010-07-01

    Multilayer-coated optics can strongly polarize X-rays and are central to a new design of a broad-band, soft X-ray polarimeter. We have begun laboratory work to verify the performance of components that could be used in future soft X-ray polarimetric instrumentation. We have reconfigured a 17 meter beamline facility, originally developed for testing transmission gratings for Chandra, to include a polarized X-ray source, an X-ray-dispersing transmission grating, and a multilayer-coated optic that illuminates a CCD detector. The X-rays produced from a Manson Model 5, multi-anode source are polarized by a multilayer-coated flat mirror. The current configuration allows for a 180 degree rotation of the source in order to rotate the direction of polarization. We will present progress in source characterization and system modulation measurements as well as null and robustness tests.

  6. Circularly Polarized Solar Antenna for Airborne Communication Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    O’Conchubhair, Oisiin; Narbudowicz, Adam; McEvoy, Patrick; Ammann, Max

    2015-01-01

    A circularly polarized solar cell antenna consisting of four sequentially rotated printed inverted-F antennas is proposed. Four multicrystalline silicon solar cells act as the ground plane and the antenna is suitable for low power airborne communication nodes and wireless sensor networks. The antenna design was developed to allow 100% insolation of the cells when directly facing a light source. The low-profile antenna minimises shadowing of the solar cell for oblique angle insolation.

  7. Circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna excited by a conformal wire

    OpenAIRE

    Khamas, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    A conformal spiral wire has been used to feed a dielectric resonator antenna to obtain a circular polarization. The parameters of the spiral have been optimized numerically so that minimum axial ratio (AR) and return losses are achieved. The method of moments (MoM) has been used in the analysis and the results have been validated against those from a commercial software package with a good agreement.

  8. Design and experimental studies of a novel circularly polarized antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Wei Guo; Ge Yue He

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized antenna with patches on the top is studied in this paper. The antenna is composed of two printed dipoles and four radiation patches which are loaded on top of the dipoles. The antenna is fed by microstrip balum in the middle of dielectric slab. And the balum is connected to a Wilkinson power divider which owns 90 degree phase shift. Numerical simulations of proposed antenna are performed using the 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS. The experimental studies of ...

  9. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Behera; D. R. Poddar; Mishra, R K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array...

  10. A COMPACT QUADRATURE FEEDING CIRCUIT FOR CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yuliang; Tian Buning; Tang Song

    2002-01-01

    A novel compact quadrature feeding circuit for a circularly polarized antenna is described. The equivalent circuit method in microwave network theory is used and the conventional directional coupler is converted to a new quadrature feeding circuit. This feeding circuit has the same characteristics as the conventional directional coupler but its size is only about one fourth of that of the latter. The formulas for designing the feeding circuit are given. The optimized results obtained by using the software ENSEMBLE are also reported.

  11. Filtering of matter symmetry properties by circularly polarized nonlinear optics

    OpenAIRE

    Duboisset, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Brasselet, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    International audience We propose a direct readout of symmetry information in matter using nonlinear optics. From combinations of circularly and longitudinally polarized optical fields, we construct irreducible spherical field tensors for second- and third-order nonlinear processes. The coupling of these field tensors to the matter susceptibility tensors allows filtering out of the susceptibility symmetries independently of the sample orientation in the laboratory frame. Experimental demon...

  12. Modulational instability of finite-amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The simple theory of the decay instability of Alfven waves is strictly applicable only to a small-amplitude parent wave in a low-beta plasma, but, if the parent wave is circularly polarized, it is possible to analyze the situation without either of these restrictions. Results show that a large-amplitude circularly polarized wave is unstable with respect to decay into three waves, one longitudinal and one transverse wave propagating parallel to the parent wave and one transverse wave propagating antiparallel. The transverse decay products appear at frequencies which are the sum and difference of the frequencies of the parent wave and the longitudinal wave. The decay products are not familiar MHD modes except in the limit of small beta and small amplitude of the parent wave, in which case the decay products are a forward-propagating sound wave and a backward-propagating circularly polarized wave. In this limit the other transverse wave disappears. The effect of finite beta is to reduce the linear growth rate of the instability from the value suggested by the simple theory. Possible applications of these results to the theory of the solar wind are briefly touched upon.

  13. Compact motorized circular wheel of polarization optics for ultra-broadband polarization state generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chun-Jen; Liu, Da-Ren; Hsu, Ken-Yuh; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an innovative optical mechanism with a miniature motorized circular wheel for polarization optics for an ultra-broadband polarization state generator. The proposed apparatus can be suitable for a polarimetric microspectrophotometer for measurements of micro optics and metamaterials with circular dichroism and linear dichroism. Different types of micro optics have their own wavelength dependence, meaning different curves in the broadband range of light. This study presents an ultra-broadband platform for measuring and identifying micro optics such as chiral metamaterials, plasmonics, micro polarizers, and patterned retarders. The key component of a polarimetric microspectrophotometer is a polarization state generator (PSG). A simple PSG consists of a polarizer and a waveplate. An arbitrary polarization state can be created by rotating either the polarizer or the waveplate. Sheet polarizers and achromatic waveplates have a limited bandwidth range. For the ultra-broadband measurement range of 400 nm to 1700 nm, the PSG needs at least three sheet polarizers and three achromatic waveplates: 400 nm-700 nm, 700 nm-1000 nm, and 1000 nm-1700 nm. This optical mechanism, which consists of only one control motor and two high precision unidirectional bearings, includes several polarizers and waveplates arranged in a matrix on a circular wheel. This apparatus can shift one of the polarizers and waveplates to a predetermined position and rotate all the polarizers to change the polarization status. An ultra-broadband polarimetric microspectrophotometer with a compact motorized wheel is an advanced polarization optical instrument for research on chiral metamaterials, plasmonics, micro polarization optics, green optics, and bio optics.

  14. Picosecond x-ray science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the exciting times for short pulse X-rays and the current users of the technology in the United States. Tracking nuclear motions with X-rays transcends scientific disciplines and includes Biology, Materials Science, Condensed Matter and Chemistry. 1 picosecond accesses many phenomena previously hidden at 100ps. Synchrotron advantage over laser plasma and LCLS is that it's easily tunable. There is a large and diverse user community of this technology that is growing rapidly. A working group is being formed to implement 'fast track' Phases 1 and 2 which includes tunable, polarized, monochromatic, focused X-rays; variable pulse length (1 to 100ps) and 1 kHz, 109 X-rays/s with 1% bandwidth. ERL would be a major advance for ultrafast time-resolved studies.

  15. Itinerant ferromagnetism in the As 4p conduction band of Ba_{0.6}K_{0.4}Mn_{2}As_{2} identified by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, B G; Pandey, Abhishek; Lee, Y; Sapkota, A; Choi, Y; Haskel, D; Rosenberg, R A; Lang, J C; Harmon, B N; Johnston, D C; Kreyssig, A; Goldman, A I

    2015-05-29

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements on single-crystal and powder samples of Ba_{0.6}K_{0.4}Mn_{2}As_{2} show that the ferromagnetism below T_{C}≈100  K arises in the As 4p conduction band. No XMCD signal is observed at the Mn x-ray absorption edges. Below T_{C}, however, a clear XMCD signal is found at the As K edge which increases with decreasing temperature. The XMCD signal is absent in data taken with the beam directed parallel to the crystallographic c axis indicating that the orbital magnetic moment lies in the basal plane of the tetragonal lattice. These results show that the previously reported itinerant ferromagnetism is associated with the As 4p conduction band and that distinct local-moment antiferromagnetism and itinerant ferromagnetism with perpendicular easy axes coexist in this compound at low temperature. PMID:26066451

  16. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-09-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform.

  17. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  18. The Magnetic Properties of an L Dwarf Derived from Simultaneous Radio, X-ray, and H-alpha Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, E.; Rutledge, R. E.; Reid, I N; Bildsten, L.; Gizis, J. E.; Liebert, J.; martin, E.; Basri, G.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brandeker, A.; Fleming, T.A.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Giampapa, M. S.; Hawley, S. L.; Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first simultaneous, multi-wavelength observations of an L dwarf, the L3.5 candidate brown dwarf 2MASS J00361617+1821104, conducted with the Very Large Array, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope. We detect strongly variable and periodic radio emission (P=3 hr) with a fraction of about 60% circular polarization. No X-ray emission is detected to a limit of L_X/L_{bol}

  19. Circular Polarizer Realized by a Single Layer of Planar Chiral Metallic Nanostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Weimin; Guo, Chucai; Zhang, Jianfa; Yang, Biao; Liu, Ken; Zhu, Zhihong; Zeng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a basic optical element, circular polarizer plays significant roles in signal transmission, measurements and life science microscopy. Three-dimensional (3D) chiral structures have been thought to be necessary to realize circular polarizers. Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally for the first time that a high-efficiency circular polarizer could be realized by a single layer of planar 2D chiral structure. Our proposed circular polarizer is based on unidirectional polarization conversion instead of circular polarization stop bands. Since two-dimensional planar structures present obvious advantage for fabrication and integration on chip, the proposed circular polarizer is of great interest in integrated optics and microscopy. It provides a novel scheme to manipulate polarizations of light wave, as well as Terahertz wave and microwave.

  20. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Behera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array is linearly polarized. Here four elements were considered and 2arranged at the four corners of a square domain. This arrangement shows that each antenna sees its adjacent ones to be radiating from an edge orthogonal to its edge of radiation. Circular polarization is achieved due to this sequential feeding. This array is designed with operating frequency 2.4 GHz. A good axial ratio of 2.4 is obtained at 2.37 GHz frequency. The noise figure is considerably reduced and which is around -19dB.

  1. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization w...

  2. Specific features of gamma-radiation interaction with a substance with account for polarization effects applied to X-ray radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expressions have been obtained, which make it possible to estimate the effect of primary radiation linear polarization on decrease of the threshold of detectability in the X-ray radiometric analysis that, in turn, permits an increase in the analysis sensitivity and calculation of analyzer transducers. For quantitative estimates special experiments have been carried out on tin excitation in seaplacer samples. Linearly polarized radiation has been obtained by scattering nonpolarized radiation of a 241Am source, using organic glass as a scatterer. Analysis for tin has been performed on samples containing 0.02% of the element being analyzed. The analysis took 5 min. The signal-to-background ratio during the analysis with the help of linearly polarized radiation increased 13 times as compared with nonpolarized radiation of the 241Am source. The experiments have proved that the main disadvantage of a linearly-polarized radiation source based on nonpolarized radiation scattering is a great loss of intensity reaching 4-5 orders of magnitude. That is why in order to obtain intensive sources of linearly polarized radiation the initial intensity of nonpolarized radiation should be 1012 γ-quantum/s and more

  3. Local circular polarizations in nanostructures induced by linear polarization via optical near-fields

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Inoue, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Hideki; Hori, Hirokazu; Naya, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported [Naruse, et al. Sci. Rep. 4, 6077, 2014] that the geometrical randomness of disk-shaped silver nanoparticles, which exhibit high reflection at near-infrared wavelengths, serves as the origin of a particle-dependent localization and hierarchical distribution of optical near-fields in the vicinity of the nanostructure. In this study, we show that the induced polarizations are circular, particularly at resonant wavelengths. We formulate optical near-field processes between nanostructures, accounting for their polarizations and geometries, and attribute circular polarization to the layout-dependent phase difference between the electrical susceptibilities associated with longitudinal and transverse-electric components. This study clarifies the fundamental optical properties of random nanostructured matter and offers generic theoretical concepts for implementing nanoscale polarizations of optical near-fields.

  4. The whispering gallery as an optical component in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whispering gallery phenomenon in acoustics has been known and studied for more than a century, and the same effect has been observed to take place with waves other than sound waves. In this paper we review the theoretical basis and attractive features of the whispering gallery as a soft x-ray optical component and indicate some of its potential applications. We then describe what may be its most unique capability which, in favorable cases, is to provide a way. to manipulate the phase difference between the s and p polarization components and thus to generate circularly or elliptically polarized soft x-rays

  5. Evaluation of reflection-type polarizers with natural and synthetic mica crystals in the soft x-ray region of 1 keV. Aiming to development of polarizing elements for analyzing magnetic properties of nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop soft x-ray polarizers functioning in 1 keV region of where there is no available polarizing element so far, the performances of natural and synthetic mica single-crystals have been investigated using horizontally linearly polarized synchrotron radiation (SR). As the results of the reflection measurements, at the incident energy of 878 eV, the reflectances for s- and p-polarisation components of natural mica were approximately 1.8% and 0.022%, respectively, and then the polarizance which stands for the polarizing ability has been estimated to be over 0.99 at least. This indicates that natural mica works as a practical reflection-type polarizer at 878 eV. In addition, as a preliminary experiment, the reflectance of syntetic mica dependence of the incident energy was measured near 45 deg incidence using SR. As the result, we found that synthetic mica sufficiently has a potential for functioning as a polarizer. (author)

  6. Design of Stacked Microstrip Dual-band Circular Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zakaria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new design of dual-band circular polarized (CP microstrip antenna for ISM band applications (2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The proposed dual-band CP microstrip antenna with compact design has achieved design intention of having return loss of < −10 dB and axial ratio of < 3 dB for both frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The antenna has been successfully designed, fabricated, simulated, and measured and it shows the advantages of good dual-band and CP performances. Thus, the obtained results confirm satisfactory performance and good agreement.

  7. QED cascades induced by circularly polarized laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Elkina, N V; Kostyukov, I Yu; Legkov, M V; Narozhny, N B; Nerush, E N; Ruhl, H

    2010-01-01

    The results of Monte-Carlo simulations of electron-positron-photon cascades initiated by slow electrons in circularly polarized fields of ultra-high strength are presented and discussed. Our results confirm previous qualitative estimations [A.M. Fedotov, et al., PRL 105, 080402 (2010)] of the formation of cascades. This sort of cascades has revealed the new property of the restoration of energy and dynamical quantum parameter due to the acceleration of electrons and positrons by the field and may become a dominating feature of laser-matter interactions at ultra-high intensities. Our approach incorporates radiation friction acting on individual electrons and positrons.

  8. A compact circularly polarized patch antenna with ring reflector

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, F.; Han, W.; Li, Y.; Sun, S.

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna with circular polarization and directional pattern is presented in this paper. The conventional ground plane is replaced by a rectangular ring reflector to form the directional pattern. Since the side length of the ring reflector is around quarter-waveleng, the total size of the proposed antenna is reduced dramatically, which is about λg/2 × λg/2 in the horizontal plane. In addition, the performance of the proposed antenna is still comparable with the convetional micros...

  9. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP) operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstr...

  10. Modified Dual-Band Stacked Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Liu; Liang Xu; Yi Wang

    2013-01-01

    A novel high-performance circularly polarized (CP) antenna is proposed in this paper. Two separate antennas featuring the global positioning system (GPS) dual-band operation (1.575 GHz and 1.227 GHz for L1 band and L2 band, resp.) are integrated with good isolation. To enhance the gain at low angle, a new structure of patch and two parasitic metal elements are introduced. With the optimized design, good axial ratio and near-hemispherical radiation pattern are obtained.

  11. Miniaturized Circularly Polarized Microstrip RFID Antenna Using Fractal Metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Liu; Liang Xu; Zhensen Wu

    2013-01-01

    A novel miniaturized circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna that can handle UHF band (920–925 MHz, corresponding to the assigned band for RFID in China) has been designed, fabricated, and measured in this paper. The miniaturization of antenna is achieved by a special cross-shaped fractal metamaterial structure that is inserted between the patch and ground plane. The measured results show that the antenna possesses an impedance bandwidth of 8.7% with VSWR 1.5 : 1 and 3-dB axial bandwid...

  12. Modified Dual-Band Stacked Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel high-performance circularly polarized (CP antenna is proposed in this paper. Two separate antennas featuring the global positioning system (GPS dual-band operation (1.575 GHz and 1.227 GHz for L1 band and L2 band, resp. are integrated with good isolation. To enhance the gain at low angle, a new structure of patch and two parasitic metal elements are introduced. With the optimized design, good axial ratio and near-hemispherical radiation pattern are obtained.

  13. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha; Meenakshi saini

    2014-01-01

    A single-fed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02) substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42%...

  14. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA ON SOI FOR THE 60 GHZ BAND

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Moussa; Delaveaud, Christophe; Ndagijimana, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    International audience The performance of a dual-arm millimeter wave Archimedean spiral antenna integrated on SOI is described. The impact of the feeding structure on the return loss and the axial ratio is displayed. A good return loss with 35 GHz -10 dB bandwidth and good circular polarization over 120° elevation angle independent on the azimuth angle (less than -5 dB axial ratio) are obtained. The simulated efficiency is 80 % with a gain of 4.3 dBi.

  15. A 20 GHz circularly polarized, fan beam slot array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikle, D. C.

    1982-03-01

    An EHF waveguide slot array was developed for possible use as a receive-only paging antenna for ground mobile terminals. The design, fabrication, and measured performance of this antenna are presented. The antenna generates a circularly polarized fan beam that is narrow in azimuth and broad in elevation. When mechanically rotated in azimuth, it can receive a 20 GHz satellite transmission independent of mobile terminal direction. Azimuth plane sidelobe levels, which are typically <-40 dB from the main lobe, provide for discrimination against ground and airborne jammers.

  16. Broadband circular polarizers constructed using helix-like chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruonan; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, one kind of helix-like chiral metamaterial which can be realized by multiple conventional lithography or electron beam lithographic techniques is proposed to have a broadband bianisotropic optical response analogous to helical metamaterials. On the basis of twisted metamaterials, via tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice, the anisotropy of arcs is converted into magneto-electric coupling of closely spaced arc pairs, which leads to a broad bianisotropic optical response. By connecting the adjacent upper and lower arcs, the coupling of metasurface pairs is transformed into the coupling of the three-dimensional inclusions, and provides a much broader and higher bianisotropic optical response. For only a four-layer helix-like metamaterial, the maximum extinction ratio can reach 19.7. The operation band is in the wavelength range of 4.69 μm to 8.98 μm with an average extinction ratio of 6.9. And the transmittance for selective polarization is above 0.8 in the entire operation band. Such a structure is a promising candidate for integratable and scalable broadband circular polarizers, especially it has great potential to act as a broadband circular micropolarizer in the field of the full-Stokes division of focal plane polarimeters.In this paper, one kind of helix-like chiral metamaterial which can be realized by multiple conventional lithography or electron beam lithographic techniques is proposed to have a broadband bianisotropic optical response analogous to helical metamaterials. On the basis of twisted metamaterials, via tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice, the anisotropy of arcs is converted into magneto-electric coupling of closely spaced arc pairs, which leads to a broad bianisotropic optical response. By connecting the adjacent upper and lower arcs, the coupling of metasurface pairs is transformed into the coupling of the three-dimensional inclusions, and provides a much broader and higher bianisotropic optical

  17. Flat-top silver nanocrystals on the two polar faces of ZnO: An all angle x-ray scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of silver at room temperature on the two polar faces of ZnO (0001) Zn terminated and (0001) O terminated, has been investigated in situ by using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). On both surfaces, silver forms nanoclusters with (111) top facets in hexagon-on-hexagon epitaxy with [101]Ag parallel [100]ZnO. Despite the high lattice mismatch in the latter direction (-11%), the Ag islands adopt their bulk parameter even at the very beginning of the growth, a key feature assigned to a quasi-perfect coincidence of a 9x9 Ag cell on a 8x8 ZnO cell. The GISAXS patterns give evidence of triangular and hexagonal cluster shapes on the Zn and O surfaces, respectively, which reflect the topographies of the two surfaces. Quantitative analysis is performed to deduce the morphological parameters as a function of coverage. To represent highly covered surfaces involving large clusters with complex shapes, a specific GISAXS treatment in terms of holes in a continuous metal layer is proposed. In the O case, flat-top islands develop mostly laterally until an incompletely filled thick layer is formed. In the Zn case, the islands grow both in height and in diameter until the film can be represented by a layer with holes. The derived growth parameters attest that silver spreads significantly better on the O-terminated face than on the Zn termination

  18. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  19. Ionization of hydrogen atoms by circularly polarized microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebarowski, R.; Zakrzewski, J. (Instytut Fizyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland) Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, T12, E1, 4 place Jussieu, 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France))

    1995-02-01

    Ionization of hydrogen Rydberg atoms by [ital circularly] polarized microwaves is studied numerically within the framework of classical mechanics. Both the simplified two-dimensional model (in which the plane of polarization coincides with the orbit plane) and a fully three-dimensional system are considered. It is shown that the ionization proceeds in the diffusive manner for all microwave frequencies except the low-frequency limit. The threshold for diffusive excitation as well as the diffusion speed is strongly dependent on the initial state of the system for smooth pulse excitation. In a high-frequency limit the ionization threshold rises sharply---the atom is much more resistant to the excitation. Two distinct regimes of stabilization windows (regions where the ionization decreases with increasing field amplitude), one in the strong short-laser-pulse domain and the other in the weak microwave domain, are identified and discussed.

  20. Left-handed and right-handed rotation double function circular polarizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Heng-jing; WU Fu-quan; DENG Hong-yan; ZHAO Shuang

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain circularly polarized light of left-handed and right-handed rotation by using a fixed device, a left-handed and right-handed rotation double function circular polarizer is designed with two λ/4 retarders and one polarizer, and its operating principle is analysed by matrix optical means. The result indicates that when the monochromatic light enters this circular polarizer in the positive direction and the negative direction,the emergent light should be circularly polarized light,of left-handed and right-handed rotation respectively. The testing system has been established to verify the above results.

  1. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  2. Experimental verification of the Keldysh approximation for circularly polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several nonperturbative approaches have been developed in past decades to describe ionization of an atomic system in a strong laser field. One of them, the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory, treats the problem analytically. The KFR theory however is based on the assumption of a short range binding potential. This is obviously not fulfilled in atoms due to the long range Coulomb interaction of the electron with the atomic core. In negative ions on the other hand this problem does not appear. It makes negative ions an ideal atomic system for verification of Keldysh-like theories. In our previous experiments on F- we have shown that the angle resolved spectrum of electrons detached in a linear polarized laser field is well reproduced by a Keldysh-like theory by Gribakin and Kuchiev. In particular we observed the predicted quantum interference effect. The question whether or not such an interference effect would also be present in the case of a circularly polarized light is addressed here experimentally. In our experiment negatively charged fluorine ions are exposed to a strong circularly polarized infrared laser pulse of approximately 120 fs duration and a peak intensity on the order of 1013 W/cm2. The photodetached electrons are projected onto a 2D position sensitive detector lying in a plane parallel to the laser propagation axis. The cylindrical symmetry in the electron angular distribution is then used to recover the full 3D distribution by a back projection algorithm, yielding the angle resolved energy distribution of the photodetached electrons. In contrast to our previous experiments using linear polarized light, the spectrum does not exhibit any structure that can be associated with the quantum interference effect. This is in agreement with our recent predictions. Comparison of our experimental data with predictions using the length and velocity gauges will be discussed. Refs. 3 (author)

  3. Magnetic structures of FeTiO3-Fe2O3 solid solution thin films studied by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and ab initio multiplet calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid solutions between ilmenite (FeTiO3) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) have recently attracted considerable attention as a spintronic material due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties. In this study, the electronic and magnetic structures of epitaxially grown 0.6FeTiO3·0.4Fe2O3 solid solution thin films were investigated by combining x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for two different crystallographic projections, and first-principles theoretical calculations. The Fe L-edge XANES and XMCD spectra reveal that Fe is in the mixed-valent Fe2+–Fe3+ states while Fe2+ ions are mainly responsible for the magnetization. Moreover, the experimental Fe L-edge XANES and XMCD spectra change depending on the incident x-ray directions, and the theoretical spectra explain such spectral features. We also find a large orbital magnetic moment, which can originate the magnetic anisotropy of this system. On the other hand, although the valence state of Ti was interpreted to be 4+ from the Ti L-edge XANES, XMCD signals indicate that some electrons are present in the Ti-3d orbital, which are coupled antiparallel to the magnetic moment of Fe2+ ions

  4. Inversion of the 3D exponential x-ray transform for a half equatorial band and other semi-circular geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noo, Frédéric; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Wagner, Jean-Marc

    2002-08-01

    This work presents new mathematical results on the inversion of the exponential x-ray transform. It is shown that a reconstruction formula can be obtained for any dataset whose projection directions consist of a union of half great circles on the unit sphere. A basic example of such a dataset is the semi-equatorial band. The discussion in the paper is mostly focused on this example. The reconstruction formula takes the form of a Neumann (geometric) series and is both exact and stable. The exponential x-ray transform has been mainly studied in SPECT imaging. In this context, our results demonstrate mathematically that fully 3D image reconstruction in SPECT with non-zero attenuation does not always require symmetric datasets (opposing views). PMID:12200935

  5. Inversion of the 3D exponential x-ray transform for a half equatorial band and other semi-circular geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents new mathematical results on the inversion of the exponential x-ray transform. It is shown that a reconstruction formula can be obtained for any dataset whose projection directions consist of a union of half great circles on the unit sphere. A basic example of such a dataset is the semi-equatorial band. The discussion in the paper is mostly focused on this example. The reconstruction formula takes the form of a Neumann (geometric) series and is both exact and stable. The exponential x-ray transform has been mainly studied in SPECT imaging. In this context, our results demonstrate mathematically that fully 3D image reconstruction in SPECT with non-zero attenuation does not always require symmetric datasets (opposing views). (author)

  6. Inversion of the 3D exponential x-ray transform for a half equatorial band and other semi-circular geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noo, Frederic [Department of Radiology, University of Utah, CAMT Building, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)]. E-mail: noo@doug.med.utah.edu; Clackdoyle, Rolf [Department of Radiology, University of Utah, CAMT Building, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wagner, Jean-Marc [Department of Telecommunications, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2002-08-07

    This work presents new mathematical results on the inversion of the exponential x-ray transform. It is shown that a reconstruction formula can be obtained for any dataset whose projection directions consist of a union of half great circles on the unit sphere. A basic example of such a dataset is the semi-equatorial band. The discussion in the paper is mostly focused on this example. The reconstruction formula takes the form of a Neumann (geometric) series and is both exact and stable. The exponential x-ray transform has been mainly studied in SPECT imaging. In this context, our results demonstrate mathematically that fully 3D image reconstruction in SPECT with non-zero attenuation does not always require symmetric datasets (opposing views). (author)

  7. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Triple-band linear and circular reflective polarizer based on E-shaped metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design, analysis, and measurement of a triple-band linear and circular reflective polarizer based on an E-shaped metamaterial. Measured results show that the proposed reflective polarizer can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave at the three resonant frequencies, which can also convert the linearly polarized wave to a circularly polarized wave at three other resonant frequencies. Furthermore, the reflective wave can maintain the same rational direction at the three resonant frequencies when the incident is a circularly polarized wave. The simulated and measured results are in agreement in the entire frequency range, and the polarization conversion ratio (PCR) is over 90% for both linear and circular polarizations. The mechanism of polarization conversion is interpreted by using surface current distributions. (paper)

  9. Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Ludmila; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, Mario Tonev;

    1996-01-01

    We investigate thin phase polarization holographic gratings recorded with two waves with orthogonal linear polarizations in materials in which illumination with linearly/circularly polarized light gives rise to linear/circular birefringence. The theoretical analysis shows that the presence of cir...

  10. RECONFIGURABLE DUAL-BAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belhachat Messaouda; Bakir Mohammed; Zhu Shouzheng; Liu Jingao

    2004-01-01

    A new design of reconfigurable single-feed circular patch microstrip antenna for dual-band circular polarization application is proposed. The dual-band functionality is realized through incorporating cross-slots of equal slot length in the circular patch and utilizing two PIN diodes to switch the slots on or off. A pairs of tuning stubs are used to tune the circular polarization performance. The design process is presented and good results were obtained.

  11. Characterization of a chiral phase in an achiral bent-core liquid crystal by polarization studies of resonant x-ray forbidden reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsinet, V.; Pindak, R.; Barois, P.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.; Huang, C.C.; Wang, S.T.; Baumeister, U. and Weissflog, W.

    2011-07-15

    The chiral antiferroelectric structure of an achiral bent-core liquid crystal is characterized by resonant x-ray scattering at chlorine K edge. The 'forbidden' reflections resulting from the glide or screw symmetry elements are restored by the anisotropy of the tensor structure factor, which we calculate for two possible structural models. A careful analysis of the polarization states of the restored 'forbidden' reflections enables an unambiguous identification of a chiral structure (i.e., the so-called anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub A}P{sub A}) coexisting with the achiral synclinic antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub S}P{sub A}. The method proves to be quite powerful as it identifies the chiral structure within coexisting phases despite an imperfect orientation of the sample. The volume fraction of the chiral phase and the distribution of alignment are extracted from the data.

  12. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi 41-1, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uehara, Hiromitsu; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 21-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Nimura, Tomoyuki [AVC Co., Ltd., Inada 1450-6, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0061 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.

  13. Analysis of trace element compositions in adhesive cloth tapes using high-energy x-ray fluorescence spectrometer with three-dimensional polarization optics for forensic discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forensic discrimination of adhesive cloth tapes often used in crimes was developed using a high-energy energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with 3-dimensional polarization optics. The best measurement condition for discrimination of the tape was as follows: secondary targets, Rh and Al2O3; measurement time, 300 s for Rh and 600 s for Al2O3; 14 elements (Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba and Pb) were used for discrimination. It is found that the combined information of yarn density and the XRF peak intensity of the 14 elements successfully discriminated 29 out of 31 samples, of which 2 probably had the same origin. This technique is useful for forensic analysis, because it is nondestructive, rapid and easy. Therefore, it can be applied to actual forensic identification. (author)

  14. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt4 clusters deposited on a TiO2(110) surface

  15. Triband Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Top-Loaded Alford Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Chunxia Cheng; Fushun Zhang; Yali Yao; Fan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A triband omnidirectional circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with a top-loaded modified Alford loop for GSM, WLAN, and WiMAX applications is proposed. Fed by an axial probe, the DRA (dielectric resonator antenna) radiates like a vertically polarized electric monopole. The top-loaded modified Alford loop provides an equivalent horizontally polarized magnetic dipole mode at triband. Omnidirectional CP (circular polarized) fields can be obtained when the two orthogonally polarized...

  16. Generation of OAM Radio Waves with Three Polarizations Using Circular Horn Antenna Array

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an effective solution of generating OAM-carrying radio beams with all three polarizations: the linear, the left-hand circular, and the right-hand circular polarizations. Through reasonable configuration of phased antenna array using elements with three polarizations, the OAM radio waves with three polarizations for different states can be generated. The vectors of electric fields with different OAM states for all three polarizations are presented and analyzed in detail. Th...

  17. Structural studies of polymers and polymer liquid crystals by X-ray scattering, thermal analysis and ellipsometric studies through polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov

    We have studied the phase transformation behavior and structure of binary polymer blends and polymer liquid crystalline materials, to understand the formation of long and short-range ordered structures. We investigated their crystallization, melting and liquid crystalline behavior using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS), Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC), Polarized Light Microcopy (PLM), and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). Materials selected for the study were: (1) a miscible blend of semicrystalline poly(etheretherketone), PEEK, and noncrystallizable poly(etherimide), PEI; (2) an immiscible blend of poly(ethyleneterephtalate), PET, and liquid crystalline polymer, Vectra RTM; (3) a thermotropic liquid crystalline random copolyester HIQ-40; and (4) new biological collagen model peptides. We explore the phenomenon of multiple melting endotherms seen through MDSC after thermal pre-treatment of PEEK/PEI blend at different crystallization temperatures. Multiple melting endotherms have several possible origins, including melting of several populations of crystals with different lamellar thicknesses, melting of different crystallographic forms, or melting and recrystallization of the same population of crystals. The location of the amorphous phase, whether it is interlamellar, interfibrillar or interspherulite is addressed, by comparing the total crystallinity of the sample obtained by DSC and the linear stack crystallinity obtained by SAXS. Also by the temperature dependence of the smaller thickness determined from the SAXS correlation function, we were able to assign it to the crystalline thickness of the lamellae. We studied the effect of Vectra on the crystallization behavior of PET, and found that it slows the nucleation time for crystallization, and decreases the sample viscosity. By X-ray scattering and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and optical measurements we showed that the liquid crystalline component

  18. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have characterized the polarization state of radiation from bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source as a function of vertical opening angle at photon energies of 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different portions of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on the close agreement of the theoretical and experimental results for linear polarization. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory resulting from uncertainty in the effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037-mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a maximum figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times the degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have studied the polarization state of radiation from bend magnet beamline 9.3.2 at Advanced Light Source as function of vertical oping angle at photon energies 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different parts of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on close agreement of theory and experiment for linear polarization. Results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory owing to uncertainty in effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037 mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a max figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to ... to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit ...

  1. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  2. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  3. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  4. Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhou; Junping Geng; Zhe Li; Wenzhi Wang; Xianling Liang; Ronghong Jin

    2015-01-01

    A dual circularly polarized (CP) omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 ...

  5. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  7. X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  8. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, MingHu; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious delay phase shift is observed, showing the tunneling time is in order of tens of attoseconds. Further study shows the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation of a single-active-electron in a three dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  9. Miniaturized Circularly Polarized Microstrip RFID Antenna Using Fractal Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniaturized circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna that can handle UHF band (920–925 MHz, corresponding to the assigned band for RFID in China has been designed, fabricated, and measured in this paper. The miniaturization of antenna is achieved by a special cross-shaped fractal metamaterial structure that is inserted between the patch and ground plane. The measured results show that the antenna possesses an impedance bandwidth of 8.7% with VSWR 1.5 : 1 and 3-dB axial bandwidth of 3.8%. Furthermore, the proposed antenna has 10.2% size reduction compared with traditional patch antenna. The tested results are in good agreement with that of the simulations.

  10. Wide Angular Aperture Circularly Polarized Low-Profile EBG Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustapha Salah Toubet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a compact and wide angular circularly polarized low-profile EBG antenna. Except at 3.7 GHz and for θ lower than −25° in the plane Φ equals to 0°, the modelized structure provides an axial ratio lower than 3 dB, over a wide angular aperture of 60° and over a bandwidth of 5.3% ([3.7 GHz–3.9 GHz]. It has a very low height of 11.9 mm (/7 at 3.8 GHz. A prototype has been manufactured, and the measured performances, considering the tolerance of the measurement base (±0.5 dB, are quite similar to the simulated ones.

  11. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-fed circularly polarized (CP patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02 substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42% and Axial Ratio Bandwidth by 4% by this design. The other Parameters of antenna like return loss and radiation pattern are also analyzed using HFSS software.

  12. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstrip array antenna achieves a wide 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of more than 10%. Simulated data are also provided to confirm the measured results.

  13. Design and experimental studies of a novel circularly polarized antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A circularly polarized antenna with patches on the top is studied in this paper. The antenna is composed of two printed dipoles and four radiation patches which are loaded on top of the dipoles. The antenna is fed by microstrip balum in the middle of dielectric slab. And the balum is connected to a Wilkinson power divider which owns 90 degree phase shift. Numerical simulations of proposed antenna are performed using the 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS. The experimental studies of the antenna are also carried out. Measured results show that the parameter S11 is less than -10 dB from 1.1GHz to 1.8GHz while the 3dB axial ratio bandwidth is from 1.27 GHz to 1.62 GHz. The highest gain of 5dBi can be achieved during the operating frequencies.

  14. Wide Angular Aperture Circularly Polarized Low-Profile EBG Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Moustapha Salah Toubet; Ahmad Elsayed Ahmad; Regis Chantalat; Mohamad Hajj; Eric Arnaud; Bernard Jecko; Thierry Monediere; Christelle Boustie; Baptiste Palacin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a compact and wide angular circularly polarized low-profile EBG antenna. Except at 3.7 GHz and for θ lower than −25° in the plane Φ equals to 0°, the modelized structure provides an axial ratio lower than 3 dB, over a wide angular aperture of 60° and over a bandwidth of 5.3% ([3.7 GHz–3.9 GHz]). It has a very low height of 11.9 mm ( /7 at 3.8 GHz). A prototype has been manufactured, and the measured performances, considering the tolerance of the measuremen...

  15. Uniplanar circularly polarized slot-ring antenna architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Matthias K.; Vahldieck, Rüdiger

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents a novel printed uniplanar antenna architecture for circular polarization. The structure consists of a single-fed slot-ring antenna with asymmetrically placed perturbations. The influence of different kinds of perturbations and substrates on the size of the antenna, its impedance bandwidth, and its axial ratio bandwidth is investigated. Various feed circuits based on coplanar waveguides (CPWs), coaxial line, and microstrip are investigated as well. Low-cost applications such as tagging antennas at 2.45 GHz are tested in combination with a coaxial line and CPW feed circuit. It was found that antennas achieving an impedance bandwidth over 60% and an axial ratio bandwidth up to 15% can be realized without the need of airbridges and rf-substrates.

  16. Non-Zeeman circular polarization of molecular maser spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the anisotropic resonant scattering model developed to explain the presence of non-Zeeman circular polarization signals recently detected in the 12CO (J = 2 → 1) and (J = 1 → 0) transitions in molecular clouds to Stokes V spectra of SiO v = 1 and v = 2, (J = 1 → 0) masers commonly observed in evolved stars. It is found that the observed antisymmetric 'S'- and symmetric '∪'- or '∩'-shaped spectral profiles naturally arise when the maser radiation scatters off populations of foreground molecules located outside the velocity range covered by the background maser radiation. Using typical values for the relevant physical parameters, it is estimated that magnetic field strengths on the order of a few times 15 mG are sufficient to explain the observational results found in the literature.

  17. Magnetic field generation by circularly polarized laser light and inertial plasma confinement in a miniature 'Magnetic Bottle' induced by circularly polarized laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*1021 cm-3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)

  18. Plasmonic circular polarization analyzer formed by unidirectionally controlling surface plasmon propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing the polarization of a circularly polarized light is a critical issue. We have fabricated a spiral nano-structure on the Au film by using focused ion beam etching technique. The fabricated structure can be used as a plasmonic circular polarization analyzer. By designing the relative orientation of two nano-apertures in the spiral structural unit, the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polaritons excited by circularly polarized light of opposite handedness can be controlled. Therefore, the spiral structure could be used to accurately determine the helicity of the excited circularly polarized light. Based on the results of scanning near-field optical microscopy, the obtained circular polarization extinction ratio of this structure was above 500. This structure can be used for a flexible detecting size and a very wide spectrum

  19. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  20. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  1. Formation of a Partially Screened Inner Acceleration Region in Radio Pulsars: Drifting Subpulses and Thermal X-Ray Emission from Polar Cap Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George; Zhang, Bing

    2006-10-01

    The subpulse drifting phenomenon in pulsar radio emission is considered within the partially screened inner gap model, in which the sub-Goldreich-Julian thermionic flow of iron ions or electrons coexists with the spark-associated electron-positron plasma flow. We derive a simple formula that relates the thermal X-ray luminosity LX from the spark-heated polar cap and the EXB subpulse periodicity P̂3 (polar cap carousel time). For PSRs B0943+10 and B1133+16, the only two pulsars for which both P̂3 and LX are known observationally, this formula holds well. For a few other pulsars, for which only one quantity is measured observationally, we predict the value of the other quantity and propose relevant observations that can confirm or discard the model. Then we further study the detailed physical conditions that allow such partially screened inner gap to form. By means of the condition Tc/Ts>1 (where Tc is the critical temperature above which the surface delivers a thermal flow to adequately supply the corotation charge density, and Ts is the actual surface temperature), it is found that a partially screened gap (PSG) can be formed given that the near surface magnetic fields are very strong and curved. We consider both curvature radiation (CR) and resonant inverse Compton scattering (ICS) to produce seed photons for pair production, and find that the former is the main agency to produce gamma rays to discharge the PSG.

  2. Temperature and polarization dependence of Fe L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption spectra of LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agui, A., E-mail: agui@spring8.or.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mizumaki, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kuroda, T.; Kawai, M.; Nagata, T.; Ikeda, N. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Uozumi, T. [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We have measured the Fe L{sub 2,3} XAS were measured at the temperature range of 7–573 K. • We found the polarization dependence of XAS revealed that the energy level of (d{sub xy}, d{sub x2–y2}) was lower than that of (d{sub yz}, d{sub zx}). • We observed the Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are kept even at higher temperatures. - Abstract: The charge ordering of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} induces ferroelectricity below 330 K. In this study, the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edge are investigated to study charge ordered- and disordered-states. The polarization dependence of XAS revealed that the energy level of (d{sub xy}, d{sub x2–y2}) is lower than that of (d{sub yz}, d{sub zx}). In the charge-ordered state, the Fe L{sub 3}-XAS shows a double-peak structure, which is a characteristic of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. In the high-temperature region, the double-peak structure becomes a broad single peak, because of overlap with the thermally excited state.

  3. Polarization-dependent soft X-ray absorption of over-doped superconducting Sr2CuO3+δ single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the factors affecting superconductivity of Sr2CuO3+δ, polarized X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) were measured at Cu L23 edge and O K edge of an over-doped single crystal specimen. This polarized XAS study reveals a distinctive anisotropic local electronic structure of Cu coordination: the unoccupied states are dominated by the in-plane components of Cu 3dx2−y2 and O 2px,y. However, the signal from the unoccupied out-of-plane O 2pz and Cu 3dz2 states also appear. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of Cu L3-edge XAS at 300 K and 17.3 K indicates that the conductive carrier partly shifts from out-of-plane to in-plane in the superconducting state. Theoretical calculation of Cu L23-edge core level spectra based on Charge Transfer Multiplet theory is fairly consistent with above experimental results

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of MotY, a stator component of the Vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellar motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of MotY, a stator protein of the V. alginolyticus polar flagellar motor, have been produced and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus is rotated by the sodium motor. The stator unit of the sodium motor consists of four different proteins: PomA, PomB, MotX and MotY. MotX and MotY, which are unique components of the sodium motor, form the T-ring structure attached to the LP ring in the periplasmic space. MotY has a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif in its C-terminal region and MotX is suggested to interact with PomB. Thus, MotX and MotY are thought to be required for incorporation and stabilization of the PomA/B complex. In this study, mature MotY composed of 272 amino-acid residues and its SeMet derivative were expressed with a C-terminal hexahistidine-tag sequence, purified and crystallized. Native crystals were grown in the hexagonal space group P6122/P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.1, c = 132.6 Å. SeMet-derivative crystals belonged to the same space group with the same unit-cell parameters as the native crystals. Anomalous difference Patterson maps of the SeMet derivative showed significant peaks in their Harker sections, indicating that the derivatives are suitable for structure determination

  5. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  6. Circular polarization of the CMB: Foregrounds and detection prospects

    CERN Document Server

    King, Soma

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the finest probes of cosmology. Its all-sky temperature and linear polarization (LP) fluctuations have been measured precisely at a level of deltaT/TCMB ~10^{-6}. In comparison, circular polarization (CP) of the CMB, however, has not been precisely explored. Current upper limit on the CP of the CMB is at a level of deltaV/TCMB ~10^{-4} and is limited on large scales. Some of the cosmologically important sources which can induce a CP in the CMB include early universe symmetry breaking, primordial magnetic field, galaxy clusters and Pop III stars (also known as the First stars). Among these sources, Pop III stars are expected to induce the strongest signal with levels strongly dependent on the frequency of observation and on the number, Np, of the Pop III stars per halo. Optimistically, a CP signal in the CMB due to the Pop III stars could be at a level of deltaV/TCMB ~ 2x10^{-7} in scales of 1 degree at 10 GHz, which is much smaller than the currently existing up...

  7. Circular polarization of the CMB: Foregrounds and detection prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Soma; Lubin, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the finest probes of cosmology. Its all-sky temperature and linear polarization fluctuations have been measured precisely at a level of δ T /TCMB˜10-6 . In contrast, circular polarization (C P ) of the CMB has not been precisely explored. The current upper limit on the C P of the CMB is at a level of δ V /TCMB˜10-4 and is limited on large scales. Some of the cosmologically important sources which can induce a C P in the CMB include early Universe symmetry breaking, a primordial magnetic field, galaxy clusters, and Pop III stars (also known as the first stars). Among these sources, Pop III stars are expected to induce the strongest signal with levels strongly dependent on the frequency of observation and on the number, Np, of the Pop III stars per halo. Optimistically, a C P signal in the CMB resulting from the Pop III stars could be at a level of δ V /TCMB˜2 ×10-7 in scales of 1° at 10 GHz, which is much smaller than the currently existing upper limits on the C P measurements. Primary foregrounds in the cosmological C P detection will come from the galactic synchrotron emission, which is naturally (intrinsically) circularly polarized. We use data-driven models of the galactic magnetic field, thermal electron density, and relativistic electron density to simulate all-sky maps of the galactic C P . This work also points out that the galactic C P levels are important below 50 GHz and is an important factor for telescopes aiming to detect primordial B modes using C P as a systematic rejection channel. In this paper, we focus on a SNR evaluation for the detectability of the Pop III induced C P signal in the CMB. We find that a SNR higher than unity is achievable, for example, with a 10 m telescope and an observation time of 20 months at 10 GHz, if Np≥100 . We also find that, if frequency of observation and resolution of the beam is appropriately chosen, a SNR higher than unity is possible with Np≥10 and

  8. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  9. Heating of magnetic fluid systems driven by circularly polarized magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsen, Osman O.; Yilmaz, Ugur; Deniz Aksoy, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, EE403 Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ertas, Gulay [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Atalar, Ergin, E-mail: ergin@ee.bilkent.edu.t [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, EE403 Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    A theory is presented to calculate the heat dissipation of a magnetic suspension, a ferrofluid, driven by circularly polarized magnetic field. Theory is tested by in vitro experiments and it is shown that, regardless of the character of the relaxation process, linearly and circularly polarized magnetic field excitations, having the same root-mean-square magnitude, are equivalent in terms of heating efficiency.

  10. Local ISM 3D distribution and soft X-ray background. Inferences on nearby hot gas and the North Polar Spur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitarini, L.; Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Snowden, S. L.

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interstellar medium (ISM) maps can be used to locate not only interstellar (IS) clouds, but also IS bubbles between the clouds that are blown by stellar winds and supernovae, and that are filled by hot gas. To demonstrate this and to derive a clearer picture of the local ISM, we compare our recent 3D maps of the IS dust distribution to the ROSAT diffuse X-ray background maps after removing heliospheric emission. In the Galactic plane, there is a good correspondence between the locations and extents of the mapped nearby cavities and the soft (0.25 keV) background emission distribution, showing that most of these nearby cavities contribute to this soft X-ray emission. Assuming a constant dust-to-gas ratio and homogeneous 106 K hot gas filling the cavities, we modeled the 0.25 keV surface brightness in a simple way along the Galactic plane as seen from the Sun, taking the absorption by the mapped clouds into account. The data-model comparison favors the existence of hot gas in the solar neighborhood, the so-called Local Bubble (LB). The inferred average mean pressure in the local cavities is found to be on the order of 10 000 cm-3 K, in agreement with previous studies, providing a validation test for the method. On the other hand, the model overestimates the emission from the huge cavities located in the third quadrant. Using CaII absorption data, we show that the dust-to-CaII ratio is very low in this region, implying there is a large quantity of lower temperature (non-X-ray emitting) ionized gas and, as a consequence, a reduction in the volume filled by hot gas, explaining at least part of the discrepancy. In the meridian plane, the main two brightness enhancements coincide well with the LB's most elongated parts and chimneys connecting the LB to the halo, but no particular nearby cavity is found towards the enhancement in the direction of the bright North Polar Spur (NPS) at high latitude. We searched in the 3D maps for the source regions of

  11. Dual-frequency Circularly-polarized Patch Antenna with Compact Size and Small Frequency Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2007-01-01

    A novel probe-fed single-layer annular-ring patch antenna for dual-frequency circular polarization is evaluated numerically and experimentally verified. The proposed antenna consists of a small circular patch surrounded by two concentric annular-rings, which is loaded by an unequal lateral cross-slot ground plane. The circularly-polarized frequency ratio of the two resonant modes is tunable to a small value, suitable for wireless communications systems. The patch size of the proposed antenna ...

  12. Generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses by intense ultrashort laser pulses from extended asymmetric molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2011-08-01

    We present a method for generation of single circularly polarized attosecond pulses in extended asymmetric HHe2+ molecular ions. By employing an intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulse with intensity 4.0×1014 W/cm2, wavelength 400 nm, and duration 10 optical cycles, molecular high-order-harmonic generation (MHOHG) spectra with multiple plateaus exhibit characters of circular polarization. Using a classical laser-induced collision model, double collisions of continuum electrons first with neighboring ions and then second with parent ions are presented at a particular internuclear distance and confirmed from numerical solutions of a time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We analyze the MHOHG spectra with a Gabor time window and find that, due to the asymmetry of HHe2+, a single collision trajectory of continuum electrons with ions can produce circularly polarized harmonics, leading to single circularly polarized attosecond pulses for specific internuclear distances.

  13. Generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses by intense ultrashort laser pulses from extended asymmetric molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method for generation of single circularly polarized attosecond pulses in extended asymmetric HHe2+ molecular ions. By employing an intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulse with intensity 4.0x1014 W/cm2, wavelength 400 nm, and duration 10 optical cycles, molecular high-order-harmonic generation (MHOHG) spectra with multiple plateaus exhibit characters of circular polarization. Using a classical laser-induced collision model, double collisions of continuum electrons first with neighboring ions and then second with parent ions are presented at a particular internuclear distance and confirmed from numerical solutions of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We analyze the MHOHG spectra with a Gabor time window and find that, due to the asymmetry of HHe2+, a single collision trajectory of continuum electrons with ions can produce circularly polarized harmonics, leading to single circularly polarized attosecond pulses for specific internuclear distances.

  14. Generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses by intense ultrashort laser pulses from extended asymmetric molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    We present a method for generation of single circularly polarized attosecond pulses in extended asymmetric HHe{sup 2+} molecular ions. By employing an intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulse with intensity 4.0x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, wavelength 400 nm, and duration 10 optical cycles, molecular high-order-harmonic generation (MHOHG) spectra with multiple plateaus exhibit characters of circular polarization. Using a classical laser-induced collision model, double collisions of continuum electrons first with neighboring ions and then second with parent ions are presented at a particular internuclear distance and confirmed from numerical solutions of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We analyze the MHOHG spectra with a Gabor time window and find that, due to the asymmetry of HHe{sup 2+}, a single collision trajectory of continuum electrons with ions can produce circularly polarized harmonics, leading to single circularly polarized attosecond pulses for specific internuclear distances.

  15. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-04-01

    We describe the generation of high-order elliptically and circularly polarized harmonic spectra in an aligned H+2 molecule ion by a combination of two-colour ultrashort intense laser fields from numerical solutions of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). In intense bichromatic circularly and linearly or circularly polarized laser pulses with intensity I0 and angular frequencies ω0 and 2ω0, it is found that maximum molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) energies are functions of the molecular internuclear distance. Based on a classical model of laser-induced electron collisions with neighbouring ions, the optimal values of the pulse relative carrier envelope phase phi, the molecular internuclear distance R and the angle thetav of molecular alignment to the laser polarization axis are obtained for efficiently producing MHOHG spectra with the maximum harmonic energy Ip + 13.5Up, where Ip is the ionization potential of the molecule and Up = I0/4meω20 is the ponderomotive energy of the continuum electron at intensity I0 and frequency ω0 of the laser pulse. The results have been confirmed from corresponding TDSE nonperturbative numerical simulations. The polarization property of the generated harmonics is also presented. The mechanism of MHOHG is further characterized with a Gabor time frequency analysis. It is confirmed that a single collision trajectory of the continuum electron with neighbouring ions dominates in the MHOHG processes. The high efficiency of the proposed MHOHG scheme provides a possible source for production of elliptically and/or circularly polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses can also be generated by using intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulses in combination with static electric fields of comparable intensity for H+2 at equilibrium. A time frequency analysis also confirms the role of single recollisions as the dominant mechanism of the generation

  16. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the generation of high-order elliptically and circularly polarized harmonic spectra in an aligned H+2 molecule ion by a combination of two-colour ultrashort intense laser fields from numerical solutions of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). In intense bichromatic circularly and linearly or circularly polarized laser pulses with intensity I0 and angular frequencies ω0 and 2ω0, it is found that maximum molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) energies are functions of the molecular internuclear distance. Based on a classical model of laser-induced electron collisions with neighbouring ions, the optimal values of the pulse relative carrier envelope phase φ, the molecular internuclear distance R and the angle thetav of molecular alignment to the laser polarization axis are obtained for efficiently producing MHOHG spectra with the maximum harmonic energy Ip + 13.5Up, where Ip is the ionization potential of the molecule and Up = I0/4meω20 is the ponderomotive energy of the continuum electron at intensity I0 and frequency ω0 of the laser pulse. The results have been confirmed from corresponding TDSE nonperturbative numerical simulations. The polarization property of the generated harmonics is also presented. The mechanism of MHOHG is further characterized with a Gabor time frequency analysis. It is confirmed that a single collision trajectory of the continuum electron with neighbouring ions dominates in the MHOHG processes. The high efficiency of the proposed MHOHG scheme provides a possible source for production of elliptically and/or circularly polarized attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses can also be generated by using intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulses in combination with static electric fields of comparable intensity for H+2 at equilibrium. A time frequency analysis also confirms the role of single recollisions as the dominant mechanism of the generation

  17. Polarization evidence for the isotropy of electrons responsible for the production of 5-20 keV X-rays in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramiel, L. J.; Novick, R.; Chanan, G. A.

    1984-05-01

    We have flown a solar flare X-ray polarimeter on the third flight (STS 3) of the Space Shuttle Columbia as part of the OSS-1 pallet of instruments. We observed eight solar flares in the 5-20 keV band on 1982 March 28. The signal-to-background ratio in all cases exceeded 25. A preflight contamination problem invalidated the earlier laboratory calibration, and the instrument had to be calibrated in-flight against two flares near the center of the solar disk, which are expected to be unpolarized on geometric grounds in a variety of models. No statistically significant polarization was then detected in any of the other six flares. Upper limits (99% confidence level) range from 2.5% to 12.7%. For two of the observed flares these results disagree with the predictions of a simple radially beamed, linear bremsstrahlung model at greater than 99% confidence. One of these flares had a hard impulsive burst; the measured upper limit on this burst (10%) also disagrees with the predictions of the beamed hypothesis. If the calibration flares were polarized, then the above upper limits can be interpreted as limits on the changes in polarization from flare to flare. Because the observed flares spanned a large longitude range and because the predictions of the beamed models depend fairly sensitively on viewing angle, the small relative polarizations are still difficult to reconcile with simple beamed models. The results are also compared with recent, more sophisticated models of Leach and Petrosian, which generally predict lower polarizations. We find that the observations are marginally inconsistent with a model in which the electrons are initially strongly beamed, but subsequently become largely isotropic as a result of the effects of a converging magnetic field; they are consistent with a model in which the electrons are injected isotropically, but in which the preference for motion along the magnetic field lines is explicitly taken into account. The results are also consistent

  18. X-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  19. Simulation of circularly polarized luminescence spectra using coupled cluster theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first computations of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) rotatory strengths at the equation-of-motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) level of theory. Using a test set of eight chiral ketones, we compare both dipole and rotatory strengths for absorption (electronic circular dichroism) and emission to the results from time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and available experimental data for both valence and Rydberg transitions. For two of the compounds, we obtained optimized geometries of the lowest several excited states using both EOM-CCSD and TD-DFT and determined that structures and EOM-CCSD transition properties obtained with each structure were sufficiently similar that TD-DFT optimizations were acceptable for the remaining test cases. Agreement between EOM-CCSD and the Becke three-parameter exchange function and Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) corrected using the Coulomb attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) is typically good for most of the transitions, though agreement with the uncorrected B3LYP functional is significantly worse for all reported properties. The choice of length vs. velocity representation of the electric dipole operator has little impact on the EOM-CCSD transition strengths for nearly all of the states we examined. For a pair of closely related β, γ-enones, (1R)-7-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one, we find that EOM-CCSD and CAM-B3LYP agree with the energetic ordering of the two possible excited-state conformations, resulting in good agreement with experimental rotatory strengths in both absorption and emission, whereas B3LYP yields a qualitatively incorrect result for the CPL signal of (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one. Finally, we predict that one of the compounds considered here, trans-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane-3,7-dione, is unique in that it exhibits an achiral ground state and a chiral first excited state, leading to a strong CPL

  20. Multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom exposed to circularly or linearly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom exposed to the linearly or circularly polarized laser pulses by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It finds that the ratio of the ionization probabilities by linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses varies with the numbers of absorbing photons. With the same laser intensity, the circularly polarized laser pulse favors to ionize the atom with more ease than the linearly polarized laser pulse if only two or three photons are necessary to be absorbed. For the higher order multiphoton ionization, the linearly polarized laser pulse has the advantage over circularly polarized laser pulse to ionize the atom. (atomic and molecular physics)

  1. Design of a CPW-feed circularly polarized slot antenna with triangle embedded in half circular disc for UWB applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ram; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    A compact (40 mm x 35 mm) coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed slot antenna for circular polarization is presented in this paper. The antenna is designed and fabricated for applications in the ultra-wideband domain of wireless communications where circular polarization is also required. The axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 35.46% (5.8 GHz- 8.3 GHz), while the experimental impedance bandwidth is from 2.8 GHz - 8.6 GHz. The experimental results are very close to the simulated results. The antenna displays a stable radiation pattern and a moderately high gain of around 5 - 6 dB in the useful band.

  2. A template of atmospheric O2 circularly polarized emission for CMB experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Spinelli, Sebastiano; Tartari, Andrea; Zannoni, Mario; Gervasi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We compute the circularly polarized signal from atmospheric molecular oxygen. Polarization of O2 rotational lines is caused by Zeeman effect in the Earth magnetic field. We evaluate the circularly polarized emission for various sites suitable for CMB measurements: South Pole and Dome C (Antarctica), Atacama (Chile) and Testa Grigia (Italy). An analysis of the polarized signal is presented and discussed in the framework of future CMB polarization experiments. We find a typical circularly polarized signal (V Stokes parameter) of ~ 50 - 300 {\\mu}K at 90 GHz looking at the zenith. Among the other sites Atacama shows the lower polarized signal at the zenith. We present maps of this signal for the various sites and show typical elevation and azimuth scans. We find that Dome C presents the lowest gradient in polarized temperature: ~ 0.3 {\\mu}K/\\circ at 90 GHz. We also study the frequency bands of observation: around {\

  3. Formation of a partially-screened inner acceleration region in radio pulsars: drifting subpulses and thermal X-ray emission from polar cap surface

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J; Zhang, B; Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George; Zhang, Bing

    2006-01-01

    Formation of a partially-screened inner acceleration region in 102 pulsars with drifting subpulses is considered. This is motivated by that spark discharges leading to drifting subpulses cannot be produced in a steady polar cap flow and thus the inner accelerator should be intermittent in nature, that the traditional pure vacuum gap model predicts too fast a sub-pulse drifting rate, and that recent X-ray observations as well as the radio drifting data are both consistent with the inner gap being partially screened. By means of the condition $T_{\\rm c}/T_{\\rm s}>1$ (where $T_{\\rm c}$ is the critical temperature above which the surface delivers a thermal flow to adequately supply the corotation charge density, and $T_{\\rm s}$ is the actual surface temperature), it is found that a partially-screened acceleration region can be formed given that the near surface magnetic fields are very strong and curved. We consider both curvature radiation (CR) and resonant inverse Compton scattering (ICS) to produce seed photon...

  4. Superconducting to insulating transition in Nd1.2Ba1.8Cu3O7+x thin films studied by polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a study of the superconducting-insulator (S-I) transition in epitaxial untwinned Nd1.2Ba1.8Cu3O7+x films using Cu-L and O-K edge polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The S-I transition in realized by reducing the films thickness from 9 to 6 u.c. Due to strain, thin NdBCO films are characterized by structurally identical CuO2 planes. The major differences in the XAS spectra are not associated to states within the CuO2 units in the ab-plane, but to the unoccupied 3d(3z2-r2) states of copper at the Cu(1) and Cu(2) sites hybridized with the apical 2p(z) O(4) state, and to the unoccupied 2p(z) O(4) states themselves. The experimental results show that the S-I transition induced by change of thickness in Nd1.2Ba1.8Cu3O7+x films is correlated to holes localization at the copper sites of the Cu(1)O charge reservoir layer. The results open new perspectives for the interpretation of the superconducting to insulating transition in the HTS compounds

  5. Electronic-structure origin of the anisotropic thermopower of nanolaminated Ti3SiC2 determined by polarized x-ray spectroscopy and Seebeck measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnuson, Martin; Mattesini, Maurizio; Van Nong, Ngo;

    2012-01-01

    taken into account. Positive contribution to the Seebeck coefficient of the element-specific electronic occupations in the basal plane is compensated by 73% enhanced Si 3d electronic states across the laminate plane that give rise to a negative Seebeck coefficient in that direction. Strong phonon...... anisotropies in element-specific electronic states. In bulk polycrystalline form, Ti3SiC2 has a virtually zero Seebeck coefficient over a wide temperature range. In contrast, we find that the in-plane (basal ab) Seebeck coefficient of Ti3SiC2, measured on single-crystal films, has a substantial and positive...... value of 4–6 μV/K. Employing a combination of polarized angle-dependent x-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory we directly show electronic structure anisotropy in inherently nanolaminated Ti3SiC2 single-crystal thin films as a model system. The density of Ti 3d and C 2p states at the Fermi...

  6. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam

  7. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  8. Spinning gold nanoparticles driven by circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Ying-Syuan; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    This study theoretically examines a spinning gold nanoparticle (GNP) driven by circularly polarized (CP) plane waves. The wavelength-dependent optical torques which were exerted on three different shapes of GNPs (spherical, prolate and oblate spheroids) were analyzed by utilizing Mie theory for the former and the multiple multipole method for the latter two, respectively. Numerical results show that both the absorbed and scattered photons contribute to optical torques in most cases. For the case that the CP wave is incident along the long axis of an oblate spheroid or the short axis of a prolate one, the scattering effect in optical torque is more pronounced than the absorption one. This phenomenon is significant especially when the wavelength of the CP wave is close to the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band of the GNP. In contrast, when the CP wave is incident along the axes of revolution of these shapes of GNPs, the ratio of optical torque to absorption power is directly proportional to the wavelength. Moreover, this ratio is independent of the size and even the aspect ratio of GNPs. This result suggests that only the absorbed photons contribute to optical torques, but not the scattered ones, due to the conservation of angular momentum for cases of rotational symmetry.

  9. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  10. Combined structural refinement and spontaneous polarization study of Bi3.5Ce0.5Ti3O12 by using x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined structural refinement of Bi3.5Ce0.5Ti3O12 was carried out by using both neutron and x-ray diffraction results based on the monoclinic space group of B1a1. Weighted R-factors were 6.29% and 8.17% for the neutron and x-ray diffraction data, respectively. The goodness-of-fit indicator (S) was 1.9 for all patterns. Lattice parameters were a = 5.4229(6) A, b = 5.4038(6) A and c = 32.8838(5) A. The β angle was 90.10(1) deg. Spontaneous polarization (Ps) calculated from the refinement results was 26.7 μC cm-2. The contribution of each atom on the spontaneous polarization was plotted and it was clearly shown that the distortion of TiO6 octahedrons was the key factor that determines spontaneous polarization

  11. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  12. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  13. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  14. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, many dentists are taking x-rays using digital technology. The image runs through a computer. The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than traditional methods. Other types of dental x-rays can create a 3-D picture ...

  15. Detection and Measurement of Parsec-Scale Circular Polarization in Four AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, D C

    1999-01-01

    We present five epochs of 15 GHz VLBA observations of 13 AGN. These observations were specially calibrated to detect parsec scale circular polarization and our calibration techniques are discussed and analyzed in detail. We obtained reliable detections of parsec scale circular polarization in the radio jets of 4 AGN: 3C84, PKS 0528+134, 3C273, and 3C279. For each of these objects our detections are at the level of ~ 0.3-1% local fractional circular polarization. Our observations are consistent across multiple epochs (and different calibration techniques) in the sign and magnitude of the circular polarization observed. 3C273 and 3C279 both undergo core outbursts during our observations and changes in the circular polarization of both sources are correlated with these outbursts. In general, we observe the circular polarization to be nearly coincident with the strong VLBI cores of these objects; however, in 3C84 the circular polarization is located a full milli-arcsecond south of the source peak, and in the 1996...

  16. Structure and Orientation of the Mn4Ca Cluster in Plant Photosystem II Membranes Studied by Polarized Range-extended X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy*[S]♦

    OpenAIRE

    Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Glatzel, Pieter; Messinger, Johannes; Lewis, Azul; Sauer, Kenneth; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal

    2006-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy has provided important insights into the structure and function of the Mn4Ca cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II (PS II). The range of manganese extended x-ray absorption fine structure data collected from PSII until now has been, however, limited by the presence of iron in PS II. Using a crystal spectrometer with high energy resolution to detect solely the manganese Kα fluorescence, we are able to extend the extended x-ray absorption fine st...

  17. Dependence on temperature of circular polarization and relaxation time in InAlAs/AlGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the variation of photoluminescence circular polarization as a function of temperature in self-organized InAlAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. We have found that the circular polarization depends on temperature. The relaxation time τs is deduced from the circular polarization degree. It decreases from 2 ns at 40 K to 100 ps at 85 K

  18. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Vadawale, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive polarization measurements in X-ray may address a wealth of astrophysical phenomena, which so far remain beyond our understanding through available X-ray spectroscopic, imaging, and timing studies. Though scientific potential of X-ray polarimetry was realized long ago, there has not been any significant advancement in this field for the last four decades since the birth of X-ray astronomy. The only successful polarization measurement in X-rays dates ...

  19. Detection and Measurement of Parsec-Scale Circular Polarization in Four AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, D. C.; Wardle, J. F. C.

    2000-01-01

    We present five epochs of 15 GHz VLBA observations of 13 AGN. These observations were specially calibrated to detect parsec scale circular polarization and our calibration techniques are discussed and analyzed in detail. We obtained reliable detections of parsec scale circular polarization in the radio jets of 4 AGN: 3C84, PKS 0528+134, 3C273, and 3C279. For each of these objects our detections are at the level of ~ 0.3-1% local fractional circular polarization. Our observations are consisten...

  20. Magnetic fields in X-ray emitting A-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2007-01-01

    A common explanation for the observed X-ray emission of A-type stars is the presence of a hidden late-type companion. While this hypothesis can be shown to be correct in some cases, there is also evidence suggesting that low-mass companions cannot be the proper cause for the observed X-ray activity in all cases. Babel & Montmerle (1997) presented a theoretical framework to explain the X-ray emission for magnetic Ap/Bp stars, focusing on the A0p star IQ Aur. We test if this theoretical model is capable to explain the observed X-ray emissions. We present observations of 13 A-type stars that have been associated with X-ray emission detected by ROSAT. To determine the mean longitudinal magnetic field strength we measured the circular polarization in the wings of the Balmer lines using FORS 1. Although the emission of those objects with magnetic fields fits the prediction of the Babel & Montmerle model, not all X-ray detections are related to the presence of a magnetic field. Additionally, the strengths of...

  1. Panoramic dental X-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panoramic dental X-ray machine is described possessing mechanical and electronic simplicity for providing both continuous and discontinuous radiographs of a dental arch area. The machine includes an excursion mechanism which causes a tubehead-camera assembly to uninterruptedly circularly orbit the patient's head at a constant speed. A drive mechanism is employed which controls the shifting or transport of the patient along an X-axis only, when either continuous or discontinuous images are desired. The kVp and milliamperes remain constant during the entire exposure of the patient to the X-rays as well as the rotational speed of the tubehead-camera assembly, and no attenuating members are required in the X-ray path for varying intensity of the X-ray beam. (Auth.)

  2. Single Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulse Generation by Intense Few Cycle Elliptically Polarized Laser Pulses and Terahertz Fields from Molecular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for producing a single circularly polarized attosecond pulse by an intense few cycle elliptically polarized laser pulse combined with a terahertz field from numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion H2+. It is found that in the presence of a 62.5 THz (λ=4800nm) field at an intensity of ˜1014W/cm2, a single circularly polarized 114 as pulse can be generated by an elliptical polarized laser pulse at a wavelength of 400 nm with an ellipticity of ɛ=0.59. The efficiency of circular polarization attosecond pulse generation is interpreted based on a classical model of single electron recollision with the parent ion.

  3. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  4. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  11. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  12. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  13. Circularly polarized laser emission induced in isotropic and achiral dye systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Luis; García-Moreno, Sara; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The production of efficient, tunable, and switchable circularly polarized laser emission would have far reaching implications in optical communications or biophotonics. In this work, it is demonstrated the direct generation of circularly polarized (CP) laser emission in achiral and isotropic dye laser systems without the use of extracavity polarizing elements, and without resorting to chiral dyes, chiral liquid crystal matrices, or interferometric methods. The origin of this ellipticity arises from the dynamic birefringence induced by the strong and polarized laser pumping and the subsequent orientation anisotropy of the excited molecular dipoles. A complete polarimetric characterization of the polarization state of conventional dye laser oscillators as a function of different experimental parameters is performed and it is shown that the generated light always possesses a certain level of circularity that changes in a distinctive way with pump energy and polarization. These results demonstrate that it is possible to generate and modulate CP laser light from efficient and photostable conventional laser dyes. PMID:27350073

  14. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  15. Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a general theoretical methodology and related open-access computer program for carrying out the calculation of photoelectron, Auger electron, and x-ray emission intensities in the presence of several x-ray optical effects, including total reflection at grazing incidence, excitation with standing-waves produced by reflection from synthetic multilayers and at core-level resonance conditions, and the use of variable polarization to produce magnetic circular dichroism. Calculations illustrating all of these effects are presented, including in some cases comparisons to experimental results. Sample types include both semi-infinite flat surfaces and arbitrary multilayer configurations, with interdiffusion/roughness at their interfaces. These x-ray optical effects can significantly alter observed photoelectron, Auger, and x-ray intensities, and in fact lead to several generally useful techniques for enhancing surface and buried-layer sensitivity, including layer-resolved densities of states and depth profiles of element-specific magnetization. The computer program used in this study should thus be useful for a broad range of studies in which x-ray optical effects are involved or are to be exploited in next-generation surface and interface studies of nanoscale systems.

  16. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  17. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) publishes Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation , ... eSubmitter Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Assembler's Guide to Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Video: Contrast Material Radiology and You Take our survey About this Site ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  4. Application of x-ray phase plate to grazing incidence x-ray topography for the control of penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration depth of x-rays into a crystal is one of the most important parameters in grazing incidence x-ray topography. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for controlling the penetration depth by modifying the polarization of incident x-rays with fixed sample geometry and x-ray wavelength. We employed an x-ray phase plate in transmission geometry for controlling the polarization, and obtained x-ray topographs of an ion-implanted 4H–SiC epitaxial wafer with σ- and π-polarized x-rays. By comparing the two topographs, it was verified that the penetration depth of σ-polarization is smaller than that of π-polarization. -- Highlights: •We propose a new method for controlling the x-ray penetration depth into a crystal. •We use x-ray phase plate for the control of the penetration depth. •We report the x-ray polarization effect for an ion-implanted 4H–SiC epitaxial wafer

  5. Supporting evidence for the signature of the innermost stable circular orbit in Rossi X-ray data from 4U1636-536

    CERN Document Server

    Barret, Didier; Miller, M Coleman; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11491.x

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of archival RXTE data on neutron stars binaries has shown that for several sources the quality factor (Q) of the lower kilohertz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPO) drops sharply beyond a certain frequency. This is one possible signature of the approach to the general relativistic innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), but the implications of such an interpretation for strong gravity and dense matter are important enough that it is essential to explore alternate explanations. In this spirit, Mendez has recently proposed that Q depends fundamentally on mass accretion rate (as measured by spectral hardness) rather than the frequency of the QPO. We test this hypothesis for 4U1636-536 by measuring precisely spectral colors simultaneously with the lower QPO frequency and Q after correction for the frequency drift, over a data set spanning eight years of RXTE observations. We find that in this source there is no correlation between Q and spectral hardness. In particular, no apparent changes in hardness are ...

  6. Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bernhard; Salome, Murielle; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Cotte, Marine; Fayard, Barbara; Sahle, Christoph J; De Nolf, Wout; Hradilova, Jana; Masic, Admir; Kanngießer, Birgit; Bohner, Marc; Varga, Peter; Raum, Kay; Schrof, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Here, we show results on X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy in both transmission and X-ray fluorescence full-field mode (FF-XANES) at the calcium K-edge on human bone tissue in healthy and diseased conditions and for different tissue maturation stages. We observe that the dominating spectral differences originating from different tissue regions, which are well pronounced in the white line and postedge structures are associated with polarization effects. These polarization effects dominate the spectral variance and must be well understood and modeled before analyzing the very subtle spectral variations related to the bone tissue variations itself. However, these modulations in the fine structure of the spectra can potentially be of high interest to quantify orientations of the apatite crystals in highly structured tissue matrices such as bone. Due to the extremely short wavelengths of X-rays, FF-XANES overcomes the limited spatial resolution of other optical and spectroscopic techniques exploiting visible light. Since the field of view in FF-XANES is rather large the acquisition times for analyzing the same region are short compared to, for example, X-ray diffraction techniques. Our results on the angular absorption dependence were verified by both site-matched polarized Raman spectroscopy, which has been shown to be sensitive to the orientation of bone building blocks and by mathematical simulations of the angular absorbance dependence. As an outlook we further demonstrate the polarization based assessment of calcium-containing crystal orientation and specification of calcium in a beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2 scaffold implanted into ovine bone. Regarding the use of XANES to assess chemical properties of Ca in human bone tissue our data suggest that neither the anatomical site (tibia vs jaw) nor pathology (healthy vs necrotic jaw bone tissue) affected the averaged spectral shape of the XANES spectra. PMID:26959687

  7. Optical Rotation Quasi-Phase-Matching for Circularly Polarized High Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lewis Z.; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Hooker, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    The first scheme for quasi-phase-matching high harmonic generation of circularly polarized radiation is proposed: optical rotation quasi-phase-matching (ORQPM). In ORQPM propagation of the driving radiation in a system exhibiting circular birefringence causes its plane of polarization to rotate; by appropriately matching the period of rotation to the coherence length it is possible to avoid destructive interference of the generated radiation. It is shown that ORQPM is approximately 5 times mo...

  8. Circularly polarized reconfigurable patch antenna using Y-branched feed circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Fukusako, Takeshi; KITAMURA Naoki; Mita, Nagahisa; フクサコ, タケシ; キタムラ, ナオキ; ミタ, ナガヒサ; 福迫, 武; 北村, 直樹; 三田, 長久

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a circularly polarized patch antenna with the Y-branch feeding structure for switching circular polarization (CP) between left-hand CP (LHCP) and right-hand CP (RHCP). In this structure, the feed circuit is installed behind the ground plane because the electromagnetic distribution on the feeding line has no effect on the radiation pattern. In addition, the slot coupled structure is adopted to avoid a complicated manufacturing process like via-hole structures resulting...

  9. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved form of x-ray tube is described which consists of a rotatable anode disc and an electron beam source enclosed in an envelope. The beam of electrons strikes the edge of the anode disc at an acute angle, producing x-rays which are transmitted through a window in the envelope. To improve performance and life of the anode disc it is additionally reciprocated back and forth along its axis of rotation. Dimensions are specified. (U.K.)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  14. Connected Spiral Antennas for Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array, Experimental Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Serhir, Mohammed; Guinvarc'H, Régis

    2013-01-01

    International audience A cavity backed array of 5 connected spiral antennas is presented. The circular polarization is generated using mono polarized spirals in an alternating configuration RHCP and LHCP. Due to the connection between spirals, the currents in the arms of one spiral flow into the arms of the adjacent spirals. The currents transmitted to the opposite polarized neighboring spiral radiate the same polarization. The proposed antenna array allows more than 500MHz bandwidth while...

  15. Transmitting Antenna with Dual Circular Polarization for Indoor Antenna Measurement Range

    OpenAIRE

    Mrnka, M.; Vélim, J.

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper describes design of an original transmitting antenna for specific indoor far-field measurement range. The antenna is able to generate both senses of the circular polarization with high polarization purity by using stepped septum polarizer inside a waveguide. Very high suppression of the side lobes is achieved by utilization of the higher order modes in the aperture of the final horn antenna which is directly connected to the septum polarizer. The antenna was simulated and ...

  16. Resonant inelastic scattering at intermediate X-ray energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, C F; Journel, L; Gallet, J J; Rogalev, A; Krill, G; Kappler, J P

    2000-01-01

    We describe resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in X-ray fluorescence performed in the 3-5 keV range. The examples chosen are X-ray fluorescence MCD of FeRh and RIXS experiments performed at the L/sub 3/ edge of Ce. Fe Rh is antiferromagnetic at room temperature but has a transition to the ferromagnetic state above 400 K. The Rh MCD signal is compared with an augmented spherical wave calculation. The experiment confirms the predicted spin polarization of the Rh 4d valence states. The RIXS measurements on Ce compounds and intermetallics address the problem of mixed valency especially in systems where degeneracy with the Fermi level remains small. Examples are taken from the 2p to (4f5d) /sup +1/ followed by 3d to 2p RIXS for a highly ionic compound CeF /sub 3/ and for almost gamma -like CeCuSi. (38 refs).

  17. Pure circular polarization electroluminescence at room temperature with spin-polarized light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, N; Munekata, H

    2016-01-01

    We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: firstly, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensifying the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and secondly, the crystalline AlOx spin tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation. The purity of CP is depressively low in the low current density (J) region, whereas it increases steeply and reaches close to the pure CP when J = 100 A/cm2. There, either right- or left-handed CP component is significantly suppressed depending on the direction of magnetization of the spin injector. Spin-polarized-current induced birefringence and optical spin-axis conversion are suggested to account for the observed experimental results.

  18. L-shaped metasurface for both the linear and circular polarization conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Li, Rongzhen; Zhang, Jingran; Zhang, Anjun; Li, Yan; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-06-01

    A new type of optical polarization converter based on the L-shaped gold nanoantenna array supercell has been presented, which is suitable for both circular and X/Y linear polarization conversion simultaneously. Both the amplitude and phase of transmitted cross-polarization light can be modulated precisely by changing the lengths and widths of the L-shaped nanoantenna units. For circular or X/Y linear polarization incident lights, the corresponding cross-polarized lights can be obtained in the transmitted lights, and the corresponding bending angles of the cross-polarized lights can be modulated by the structures and the incident angles according to the generalized Snell’s law. The multi-spectral characteristics have also been investigated, in which the operating bandwidth of the designed optical polarization converter is 450 nm (in the range of 750 ∼ 1200 nm).

  19. Propagation of radially polarized beams diffracted at a circular aperture in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinting; Yang, Yingping

    2012-12-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and the beam coherence-polarization matrix, the analytical formulae for the average intensity and the degree of polarization of the radially polarized beams diffracted at a circular aperture in turbulent atmosphere are derived, which provide a convenient approach to study the propagation and polarization properties of the apertured radially polarized beams in turbulent atmosphere. The unapertured and free-space cases can be viewed as the special cases of our general result. The analyses indicate that the average intensity and the degree of polarization are closely related to the propagation distance, the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence, and the truncation parameter. The existence of the circular aperture weakens the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the evolution properties of the radially polarized beams.

  20. A Rotating-Frame Perspective on High-Harmonic Generation of Circularly Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and static magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond cur...

  1. Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-layer Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The arbitrary control of the polarization states of light has attracted the interest of the scientific community because of the wide range of modern optical applications that such control can afford. However, conventional polarization control setups are bulky and very often operate only within a narrow wavelength range, thereby resisting optical system miniaturization and integration. Here, we present the basic theory, simulated demonstration, and in-depth analysis of a high-performance broadband and invertible linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization converter composed of a single-layer gold nanorod array with a total thickness of ~λ/70 for the near-infrared regime. This setup can transform a circularly polarized wave into a linearly polarized one or a linearly polarized wave with a wavelength-dependent electric field polarization angle into a circularly polarized one in the transmission mode. The broadband and invertible LTC polarization conversion can be attributed to the tailoring of the light interference at the subwavelength scale via the induction of the anisotropic optical resonance mode. This ultrathin single-layer metasurface relaxes the high-precision requirements of the structure parameters in general metasurfaces while retaining the polarization conversion performance. Our findings open up intriguing possibilities towards the realization of novel integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation, modulation, and phase retardation.

  2. A computational protocol for the study of circularly polarized phosphorescence and circular dichroism in spin-forbidden absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Maciej; Cukras, Janusz; Pecul, Magdalena; Rizzo, Antonio; Coriani, Sonia

    2015-07-15

    We present a computational methodology to calculate the intensity of circular dichroism (CD) in spin-forbidden absorption and of circularly polarized phosphorescence (CPP) signals, a manifestation of the optical activity of the triplet-singlet transitions in chiral compounds. The protocol is based on the response function formalism and is implemented at the level of time-dependent density functional theory. It has been employed to calculate the spin-forbidden circular dichroism and circularly polarized phosphorescence signals of valence n → π* and n ← π* transitions, respectively, in several chiral enones and diketones. Basis set effects in the length and velocity gauge formulations have been explored, and the accuracy achieved when employing approximate (mean-field and effective nuclear charge) spin-orbit operators has been investigated. CPP is shown to be a sensitive probe of the triplet excited state structure. In many cases the sign of the spin-forbidden CD and CPP signals are opposite. For the β,γ-enones under investigation, where there are two minima on the lowest triplet excited state potential energy surface, each minimum exhibits a CPP signal of a different sign. PMID:26126575

  3. Circular Polarization of Pulsar Wind Nebulae and the Cosmic-Ray Positron Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations by the PAMELA and AMS-02 telescopes have uncovered an anomalous rise in the positron fraction at energies above 10~GeV. One possible explanation for this excess is the production of primary electron/positron pairs through electromagnetic cascades in pulsar magnetospheres. This process results in a high multiplicity of electron/positron pairs within the wind-termination shock of pulsar wind nebula (PWN). A consequence of this scenario is that no circular polarization should be observed within PWN, since the contributions from electrons and positrons exactly cancel. Here we note that current radio instruments are capable of setting meaningful limits on the circular polarization of synchrotron radiation in PWNs, which observationally test the model for pulsar production of the local positron excess. The observation of a PWN with detectable circular polarization would cast strong doubt on pulsar interpretations of the positron excess, while observations setting strong limits on the circular po...

  4. X-ray natural birefringence in reflection from graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansing, C.; Mertins, H.-Ch.; Gilbert, M.; Wahab, H.; Timmers, H.; Choi, S.-H.; Gaupp, A.; Krivenkov, M.; Varykhalov, A.; Rader, O.; Legut, D.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The existence of natural birefringence in x-ray reflection on graphene is demonstrated at energies spanning the carbon 1 s absorption edge. This new x-ray effect has been discovered with precision measurements of the polarization-plane rotation and the polarization-ellipticity changes that occur upon reflection of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation on monolayer graphene. Extraordinarily large polarization-plane rotations of up to 30∘, accompanied by a change from linearly to circularly polarized radiation have been measured for graphene on copper. Graphene on single crystalline cobalt, grown on tungsten, exhibits rotation values of up to 17∘. Both graphene systems show resonantly enhanced effects at the π* and σ* energies. The results are referenced against those obtained for polycrystalline carbon and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), respectively. As expected, polycrystalline carbon shows negligible rotation, whereas a huge maximum rotation of 140∘ has been observed for HOPG that may be considered a graphene multilayer system. HOPG is found to exhibit such large rotation values over a broad energy range, even well beyond the π* resonance energy due to the contributions of numerous graphene layers. To explain the origin of the observed natural birefringence of graphene, the Stokes parameters as well as the x-ray natural linear dichroism in reflection have been determined. It is shown that the birefringence directly results from the optical anisotropy related to the orthogonal alignment of π* and σ* bonds in the graphene layer. Our polarization analysis reveals a strong bonding of graphene on Co with a reduced σ* excitation energy and a strong tilt of 50 % of the pz orbitals towards diagonal orientation. In contrast, graphene on Cu is weakly bound with an orthogonal orientation of the pz orbitals. Exhibiting such a large natural birefringence that can be controlled through substrate choice, and because of excellent heat conductivity

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the CrN surface grown on sapphire substrate to control the polarity of ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied on the polarity selection procedure of ZnO grown on CrN buffer by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS studies have been performed on the O- and Zn-treated CrN/Al2O3surfaces and revealed that Cr2O3 and Zn-chromate-like structures are formed on O- and Zn-treated CrN surfaces, respectively. The polarity selection procedure is explained in terms of the variation of bonding coordination by the formation of ZnO on the topmost O- and Zn-atoms of each surface.

  6. Hard-X-ray magnetic microscopy and local magnetization analysis using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motohiro

    2014-11-01

    X-ray measurement offers several useful features that are unavailable from other microscopic means including electron-based techniques. By using X-rays, one can observe the internal parts of a thick sample. This technique basically requires no high vacuum environment such that measurements are feasible for wet specimens as well as under strong electric and magnetic fields and even at a high pressure. X-ray spectroscopy using core excitation provides element-selectivity with significant sensitivities to the chemical states and atomic magnetic moments in the matter. Synchrotron radiation sources produce a small and low-divergent X-ray beam, which can be converged to a spot with the size of a micrometer or less using X-ray focusing optics. The recent development in the focusing optics has been driving X-ray microscopy, which has already gone into the era of X-ray nanoscopy. With the use of the most sophisticated focusing devices, an X-ray beam of 7-nm size has successfully been achieved [1]. X-ray microscopy maintains above-mentioned unique features of X-ray technique, being a perfect complement to electron microscopy.In this paper, we present recent studies on magnetic microscopy and local magnetic analysis using hard X-rays. The relevant instrumentation developments are also described. The X-ray nanospectroscopy station of BL39XU at SPring-8 is equipped with a focusing optics consisting of two elliptic mirrors, and a focused X-ray beam with the size of 100 × 100 nm(2) is available [2]. Researchers can perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy: nano-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) using the X-ray beam as small as 100 nm. The available X-ray energy is from 5 to 16 keV, which allows nano-XAFS study at the K edges of 3d transition metals, L edges of rare-earth elements and 5d noble metals. Another useful capability of the nanoprobe is X-ray polarization tunability, enabling magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy with a sub-micrometer resolution. Scanning

  7. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering ellipsometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult to characterize the polarization of a synchrotron radiation source in the soft and/or intermediate x-ray energy region particularly from 1 to 2 keV. Conventional multilayer mirror or single-crystal polarimeters do not work over this energy region because their throughput (the reflectivities combined with the phase shift) becomes insignificant. In this paper, we present a new ellipsometer scheme that is able to fully characterize the polarization of synchrotron radiation sources in this energy region. It is based on the dichroic x-ray resonant ferromagnetic scattering that yields information on both the polarization of the x-ray and the material (element specific) dielectric-constant tensor [C.-C. Kao et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 9599 (1994)] due to the interband ferromagnetic Kerr effect [B.R. Cooper, Phys. Rev. A 139, 1504 (1965)]. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Spin and orbital magnetic moments of Fe and Co in Co/Fe and Fe/Co multilayers on Si from L2,3 edge X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuru, Krishnamurthy; Rosenberg, Richard; Mankey, Gary

    Nanostructured FeCo thin films are interesting for magnetic recording applications due to their high saturation magnetization, high Curie temperature and low magnetocrystalline anisotropy. It is desirable to know how the magnetism is modified by the nanostructrure. We report Fe L 2 , 3 edge and Co L2 , 3 edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) investigations of element specific spin and orbital magnetism of Fe and Co in two multilayer samples: (S1) Si/SiO2/[Co 0.8 nm/Fe 1.6 nm]x32/W (2nm) and (S2) Si/SiO2/[Co 1.6 nm/Fe 0.8 nm]x32/W (2nm) thin films at room temperature. Sum rule analysis of XMCD at Fe L2 , 3 edge in sample S1 shows that the orbital moment of Fe is strongly enhanced and the spin moment is strongly reduced as compared to the values found in bulk Fe. Details of sum rule analysis will be presented to compare and contrast spin magnetic moments and orbital magnetic moments of Fe and Co in the two multilayer samples. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Characterization of the Cu(Π) and Zn(Π) binding to the Amyloid-β short peptides by both the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and the Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative pathology, clinically characterized by dementia, cognitive impairment, personality disorders and memory loss. It is generally accepted that, misfolding of Aβ peptides is the key element in pathogenesis and the secondary structure of Aβ can be changed to major β-strand with reasons unknown yet. Many studies have shown that the misfolding may be linked with some biometals, mainly copper and zinc ions. To characterize interactions of Aβ and metal ions, we utilized both the extended X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy (SRCD). Aβ (13-22), Aβ (13-21), Aβ (E22G) and Aβ(HH-AA) were selected to study the mechanism of copper and zinc binding to Aβ. We found that Cu interaction with H13 and H14 residues led to the disappearance of the PPΠ, while the Cu binding E22 residue caused a remarkable conformation change to β-sheet enrichment. The Zn ion, in contrast, made little effect on the conformation and it coordinated to only one histidine (H residue) or not.

  10. Electronic states of magnetic refrigerator materials Mn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1.1}P{sub 0.55}As{sub 0.45} using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y; Okane, T; Ohkochi, T; Fujimori, S-I; Saitoh, Y; Yamagami, H [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center SPring-8, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yabuta, H; Takabatake, T, E-mail: ytakeda@spring8.or.j [Department of Quantum Matter, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The system of MnFeP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} is a candidate of a magnetic refrigerator material. We have investigated the temperature (T)- and magnetic field (H)-dependence of the magnetic properties of the Mn and Fe ions for Mn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1.1}P{sub 0.55}As{sub 0.45} using a soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in the regions of the Mn and Fe L{sub 2,3} absorption edges. In the ferromagnetic states, the magnetic moments of the Mn and Fe ions turn to the same direction. It is considered that the Mn ions are close to divalent (Mn{sup 2+}) states and that the Fe ions are a mixture of trivalent (Fe{sup 3+}) and divalent (Fe{sup 2+}) states. However, we deduce that the ferromagnetic properties of the Fe ions are mainly derived from the Fe{sup 2+} states. Using the XMCD sum rules, we have found that the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the Mn ions is larger than that of the Fe ions. The paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transitions are clearly observed by the T- and H- dependent XMCD measurements. Since the shapes of the spectra don't change in all experiment conditions, the electronic configurations of the Mn and Fe ions are not changed by the PM-FM transition.

  11. Characterization of the Cu(Π) and Zn(Π) binding to the Amyloid-β short peptides by both the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and the Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyin; Sun, Shuaishuai; Xu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Bingbing; Tao, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative pathology, clinically characterized by dementia, cognitive impairment, personality disorders and memory loss. It is generally accepted that, misfolding of Aβ peptides is the key element in pathogenesis and the secondary structure of Aβ can be changed to major β-strand with reasons unknown yet. Many studies have shown that the misfolding may be linked with some biometals, mainly copper and zinc ions. To characterize interactions of Aβ and metal ions, we utilized both the extended X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and the synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy (SRCD). Aβ (13-22), Aβ (13-21), Aβ (E22G) and Aβ(HH-AA) were selected to study the mechanism of copper and zinc binding to Aβ. We found that Cu interaction with H13 and H14 residues led to the disappearance of the PPΠ, while the Cu binding E22 residue caused a remarkable conformation change to β-sheet enrichment. The Zn ion, in contrast, made little effect on the conformation and it coordinated to only one histidine (H residue) or not.

  12. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at IrL2,3 edges in Fe100-Ir and Co100-Ir alloys: Magnetism of 5d electronic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Krishnamurthy; M Suzuki; N Kawamura; T Ishikawa

    2002-05-01

    The formation of induced 5 magnetic moment on Ir in Fe100-Ir (=3, 10 and 17) and Co100-Ir (=5, 17, 25 and 32) alloys has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at Ir L2,3 absorption edges. Sum rule analysis of the XMCD data show that the orbital moment of Ir is in the range of -0.071(2)B to -0.030(1)B in Fe–Ir alloys and -0.067(2)B to 0.024(1)B in Co–Ir alloys. We find that the total moment of Ir in Fe–Ir alloys is approximately 1/5 of the total 3 moment on Fe at all the three compositions. In contrast, the total moment on Ir in Co–Ir alloys varies between 1/6 to 1/16 of the 3 moment on cobalt. The observed trends of Ir moments and the role of interatomic exchange interactions in 5 moment formation are discussed.

  13. X-ray nanotomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasov, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    A compact laboratory x-ray "nano-CT" scanner has been created for 3D non-invasive imaging with 150-200 nanometers 3D spatial resolution, using advanced x-ray technologies and specific physical phenomena for signal detection. This spatial resolution in volume terms is 3 orders better than can be achieved in synchrotron tomography, 5 orders better then in existing laboratory micro-CT instruments and 10-12 orders better in comparison to clinical CT. The instrument employs an x-ray source with a 300-400nm x-ray spot size and uses small-angle scattering to attain a detail detectability of 150-200nm. An object manipulator allows positioning and rotation with an accuracy of 150nm. The x-ray detector is based on an intensified CCD with single-photon sensitivity. A typical acquisition cycle for 3D reconstruction of the full object volume takes from 10 to 60 minutes, with the collection of several hundred angular views. Subsequent volumetric reconstruction produces results as a set of cross sections with isotropic voxel size down to 140 x 140 x 140nm, or as a 3D-model, which can be virtually manipulated and measured. This unique spatial resolution in non-invasive investigations gives previously unattainable 3D images in several application areas, such as composite materials, paper and wood microstructure, biomedical applications and others.

  14. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  15. Method for the determination of Pd-catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, E; Van Meel, K; Van Grieken, R; Buendía, A; Fontàs, C; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

    2009-02-15

    In medicinal chemistry, Pd is perhaps the most-widely utilized precious metal, as catalyst in reactions which represent key transformations toward the synthesis of new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The disadvantage of this metal-catalyzed chemistry is that expensive and toxic metal residues are invariably left bound to the desired product. Thus, stringent regulatory guidelines exist for the amount of residual Pd that a drug candidate is allowed to contain. In this work, a rapid and simple method for the determination of Pd in API samples by high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been developed and validated according to the specification limits of current legislation (10 mg kg(-1) Pd) and the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines). Sample and calibration standards preparation includes a first step of homogenization and then, in a second step, the pressing of the powdered material into pellets without any chemical treatment. The use of several synthetic calibration standards made of cellulose to simulate the API matrix appears to be an effective means to obtain reliable calibration curves with a good spread of data points over the working range. With the use of the best measuring conditions, the limit of detection (0.11 mg kg(-1) Pd) as well as the limit of quantitation (0.37 mg kg(-1) Pd) achieved meet rigorous requirements. The repeatability of the XRF measurement appeared to be less than 2%, while the precision of the whole method was around 7%. Trueness was evaluated by analyzing spiked API samples at the level of the specification limit and calculating the recovery factor, which was better than 95%. To study the applicability of the developed methodology for the intended purpose, three batches of the studied API were analyzed for their Pd content, and the attained results were comparable to those obtained by the

  16. A switchable circular polarizer based on zenithal bistable liquid crystal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Isić, Goran; Kriezis, Emmanouil E.; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2016-05-01

    A switchable circular polarizer for infrared telecom wavelengths based on zenithal bistable liquid crystal gratings is designed and investigated by employing the finite-element method for the study of full-wave light propagation and a tensorial formulation for the liquid crystal orientation. The handedness of the output circular polarization can be selected by switching between the two stable states of the liquid-crystal grating. Analysis of the spectral dependence and the tolerance of the polarizer’s performance with respect to deviations from the optimized geometry reveals the robustness of its polarizing properties, which stems from the non-resonant nature of its operation.

  17. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.

  18. Longitudinal field characterization of converging terahertz vortices with linear and circular polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Shi, Jing; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Linearly and circularly polarized terahertz (THz) vortex beams are generated by adopting a THz quarter wave plate and spiral phase plates with topological charges 1 and 2. Taking advantage of a THz digital holographic imaging system, longitudinal components of THz vortices with different polarizations and topological charges are coherently measured and systemically analyzed in a focusing condition. The application potential of circularly polarized THz vortex beams in microscopy is experimentally demonstrated and the transformation between the spin angular momentums and orbital angular momentums of THz waves is also checked. Modified Richards-Wolf vector diffraction integration equations are applied to successfully simulate experimental phenomena. PMID:27137010

  19. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  20. Soft X-ray Polarimetry Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herman; Schulz, Norbert S.; Heine, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    We present continued development of a telescope for measuring linear X-ray polarization over the 0.2-0.8 keV band. We employ multilayer-coated mirrors as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve polarization modulation factors over 95%. We have constructed a source of polarized X-rays that operates at a wide range of energies with a selectable polarization angle. We will present results from measurements of new laterally graded multilayer mirrors and new gratings essential to the design. Finally, we will present a design for a small telescope for suborbital or orbital missions. A suborbital mission could measure the polarization of a blazar such as Mk 421 to 5-10 percent while an orbital version could measure the polarizations of neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, and blazars.