Circularly permuted monomeric red fluorescent proteins with new termini in the beta-sheet.
Carlson, Haley J; Cotton, Darrel W; Campbell, Robert E
2010-08-01
Circularly permuted fluorescent proteins (FPs) have a growing number of uses in live cell fluorescence biosensing applications. Most notably, they enable the construction of single fluorescent protein-based biosensors for Ca(2+) and other analytes of interest. Circularly permuted FPs are also of great utility in the optimization of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors by providing a means for varying the critical dipole-dipole orientation. We have previously reported on our efforts to create circularly permuted variants of a monomeric red FP (RFP) known as mCherry. In our previous work, we had identified six distinct locations within mCherry that tolerated the insertion of a short peptide sequence. Creation of circularly permuted variants with new termini at the locations corresponding to the sites of insertion led to the discovery of three permuted variants that retained no more than 18% of the brightness of mCherry. We now report the extensive directed evolution of the variant with new termini at position 193 of the protein sequence for improved fluorescent brightness. The resulting variant, known as cp193g7, has 61% of the intrinsic brightness of mCherry and was found to be highly tolerant of circular permutation at other locations within the sequence. We have exploited this property to engineer an expanded series of circularly permuted variants with new termini located along the length of the 10th beta-strand of mCherry. These new variants may ultimately prove useful for the creation of single FP-based Ca(2+) biosensors. PMID:20521333
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigated the mechanical unfolding of single circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecule was stretched from its N- and C-termini by an external force causing an elongation of the polypeptide chain up to its full length. The features of the force-extension (F-E) curves were found to depend on the stretching speed. At fast speeds, we detected one peak in the F-E curves before final rupture of the extended molecule, which we interpreted as the unfolding of two terminal halves within cpGFP. We observed several more force peaks in a sawtooth pattern at much slower speeds, and explained the appearance of such force peaks as cooperative unfolding of the hidden sub-structures inside each terminal half
Modified Hill Cipher with Key Dependent Permutation and Circular Rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. U.K. Sastry
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we have modified the Hill cipher, by including a permutation and circular rotation into the cipher. Here both the permutation and the rotation depend upon the key. From the cryptanalysis and the avalanche effect, discussed in this study, we notice that the strength of the cipher is significant.
Probing the functional mechanism of Escherichia coli GroEL using circular permutation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomohiro Mizobata
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL subunit consists of three domains linked via two hinge regions, and each domain is responsible for a specific role in the functional mechanism. Here, we have used circular permutation to study the structural and functional characteristics of the GroEL subunit. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three soluble, partially active mutants with polypeptide ends relocated into various positions of the apical domain of GroEL were isolated and studied. The basic functional hallmarks of GroEL (ATPase and chaperoning activities were retained in all three mutants. Certain functional characteristics, such as basal ATPase activity and ATPase inhibition by the cochaperonin GroES, differed in the mutants while at the same time, the ability to facilitate the refolding of rhodanese was roughly equal. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments using a fluorescent variant of the circularly permuted GroEL CP376 revealed that a specific kinetic transition that reflects movements of the apical domain was missing in this mutant. This mutant also displayed several characteristics that suggested that the apical domains were behaving in an uncoordinated fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of apical domain coordination and a concomitant decrease in functional ability highlights the importance of certain conformational signals that are relayed through domain interlinks in GroEL. We propose that circular permutation is a very versatile tool to probe chaperonin structure and function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akiko eSoma
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A number of genome analyses and searches using programs that focus on the RNA-specific bulge-helix-bulge (BHB motif have uncovered a wide variety of disrupted tRNA genes. The results of these analyses have shown that genetic information encoding functional RNAs is described in the genome cryptically and is retrieved using various strategies. One such strategy is represented by circularly permuted tRNA genes, in which the sequences encoding the 5′-half and 3′-half of the specific tRNA are separated and inverted on the genome. Biochemical analyses have defined a processing pathway in which the termini of tRNA precursors (pre-tRNAs are ligated to form a characteristic circular RNA intermediate, which is then cleaved at the acceptor-stem to generate the typical cloverleaf structure with functional termini. The sequences adjacent to the processing site located between the 3′-half and the 5′-half of pre-tRNAs potentially form a BHB motif, which is the dominant recognition site for the tRNA-intron splicing endonuclease, suggesting that circularization of pre-tRNAs depends on the splicing machinery. Some permuted tRNAs contain a BHB-mediated intron in their 5′- or 3′-half, meaning that removal of an intron, as well as swapping of the 5′- and 3′-halves, are required during maturation of their pre-tRNAs. To date, 34 permuted tRNA genes have been identified from six species of unicellular algae and one archaeon. Although their physiological significance and mechanism of development remain unclear, the splicing system of BHB motifs seems to have played a key role in the formation of permuted tRNA genes. In this review, current knowledge of circularly permuted tRNA genes is presented and some unanswered questions regarding these species are discussed.
Mefford, Melissa A; Zappulla, David C
2015-01-01
Telomerase is a specialized ribonucleoprotein complex that extends the 3' ends of chromosomes to counteract telomere shortening. However, increased telomerase activity is associated with ∼90% of human cancers. The telomerase enzyme minimally requires an RNA (hTR) and a specialized reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) for activity in vitro. Understanding the structure-function relationships within hTR has important implications for human disease. For the first time, we have tested the physical-connectivity requirements in the 451-nucleotide hTR RNA using circular permutations, which reposition the 5' and 3' ends. Our extensive in vitro analysis identified three classes of hTR circular permutants with altered function. First, circularly permuting 3' of the template causes specific defects in repeat-addition processivity, revealing that the template recognition element found in ciliates is conserved in human telomerase RNA. Second, seven circular permutations residing within the catalytically important core and CR4/5 domains completely abolish telomerase activity, unveiling mechanistically critical portions of these domains. Third, several circular permutations between the core and CR4/5 significantly increase telomerase activity. Our extensive circular permutation results provide insights into the architecture and coordination of human telomerase RNA and highlight where the RNA could be targeted for the development of antiaging and anticancer therapeutics. PMID:26503788
Using circular permutation analysis to redefine the R17 coat protein binding site.
Gott, J M; Pan, T; LeCuyer, K A; Uhlenbeck, O C
1993-12-14
The bacteriophage R17 coat protein binding site consists of an RNA hairpin with a single purine nucleotide bulge in the helical stem. Circular permutation analysis (CPA) was used to examine binding effects caused by a single break in the phosphodiester backbone. This method revealed that breakage of all but one phosphodiester bond within a well-defined binding site substantially reduced the binding affinity. This is probably due to destabilization of the hairpin structure upon breaking the ribose phosphates at these positions. One circularly permuted isomer with the 5' and 3' ends at the bulged nucleotide bound with wild-type affinity. However, extending the 5' end of this CP isomer greatly reduces binding, making it unlikely that this circularly permuted binding site will be active when embedded in a larger RNA. CPA also locates the 5' and 3' boundaries of protein binding sites on the RNA. The 5' boundary of the R17 coat protein site as defined by CPA was two nucleotides shorter (nucleotides -15 to +2) than the previously determined site (-17 to +2). The smaller binding site was verified by terminal truncation experiments. A minimal-binding fragment (-14 to +2) was synthesized and was found to bind tightly to the coat protein. The site size determined by 3-ethyl-1-nitrosourea-modification interference was larger at the 5' end (-16 to +1), probably due, however, to steric effects of ethylation of phosphate oxygens. Thus, the apparent site size of a protein binding site is dependent upon the method used. PMID:7504949
Structural consequences of cutting a binding loop: two circularly permuted variants of streptavidin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The crystal structures of two circularly permuted streptavidins probe the role of a flexible loop in the tight binding of biotin. Molecular-dynamics calculations for one of the mutants suggests that increased fluctuations in a hydrogen bond between the protein and biotin are associated with cleavage of the binding loop. Circular permutation of streptavidin was carried out in order to investigate the role of a main-chain amide in stabilizing the high-affinity complex of the protein and biotin. Mutant proteins CP49/48 and CP50/49 were constructed to place new N-termini at residues 49 and 50 in a flexible loop involved in stabilizing the biotin complex. Crystal structures of the two mutants show that half of each loop closes over the binding site, as observed in wild-type streptavidin, while the other half adopts the open conformation found in the unliganded state. The structures are consistent with kinetic and thermodynamic data and indicate that the loop plays a role in enthalpic stabilization of the bound state via the Asn49 amide–biotin hydrogen bond. In wild-type streptavidin, the entropic penalties of immobilizing a flexible portion of the protein to enhance binding are kept to a manageable level by using a contiguous loop of medium length (six residues) which is already constrained by its anchorage to strands of the β-barrel protein. A molecular-dynamics simulation for CP50/49 shows that cleavage of the binding loop results in increased structural fluctuations for Ser45 and that these fluctuations destabilize the streptavidin–biotin complex
Bahr, A; Thompson, J D; Thierry, J C; Poch, O
2001-01-01
BAliBASE is specifically designed to serve as an evaluation resource to address all the problems encountered when aligning complete sequences. The database contains high quality, manually constructed multiple sequence alignments together with detailed annotations. The alignments are all based on three-dimensional structural superpositions, with the exception of the transmembrane sequences. The first release provided sets of reference alignments dealing with the problems of high variability, unequal repartition and large N/C-terminal extensions and internal insertions. Here we describe version 2.0 of the database, which incorporates three new reference sets of alignments containing structural repeats, trans-membrane sequences and circular permutations to evaluate the accuracy of detection/prediction and alignment of these complex sequences. BAliBASE can be viewed at the web site http://www-igbmc.u-strasbg. fr/BioInfo/BAliBASE2/index.html or can be downloaded from ftp://ftp-igbmc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/BAliBASE2 /.
Mathieu, Valéry; Fastrez, Jacques; Soumillion, Patrice
2010-09-01
In nature, the activity of many enzymes involved in important biochemical pathways is controlled by binding a ligand in a site remote from the active site. The allosteric sites are frequently located in hinge regulatory subunits, in which a conformational change can occur and propagate to the active site. The enzymatic activity is then enhanced or decreased depending on the type of effectors. Many artificial binding sites have been created to engineer an allosteric regulation. Generally, these sites were engineered near the active site in loops or at the surface of contiguous helices or strands but rarely in hinge regions. This work aims at exploring the possibility of regulating a monomeric enzyme whose active site is located at the interface between two domains. We anticipated that binding of a ligand in the hinge region linking the domains would modify their positioning and, consequently, modulate the activity. Here, we describe the design of two mutants in a circularly permuted TEM-1 (cpTEM-1) beta-lactamase. The first one, cpTEM-1-His(3) was created by a rational design. It shows little regulation upon metal ion binding except for a weak activation with Zn(2+). The second one, cpTEM-1-3M-His(2), was selected by a directed evolution strategy. It is allosterically down-regulated by Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) with binding affinities around 300 microM.
Crystal Structure of Circular Permuted RoCBM21 (CP90): Dimerisation and Proximity of Binding Sites
Stephen, Preyesh; Cheng, Kuo-Chang; Lyu, Ping-Chiang
2012-01-01
Glucoamylases, containing starch-binding domains (SBD), have a wide range of scientific and industrial applications. Random mutagenesis and DNA shuffling of the gene encoding a starch-binding domain have resulted in only minor improvements in the affinities of the corresponding protein to their ligands, whereas circular permutation of the RoCBM21 substantially improved its binding affinity and selectivity towards longer-chain carbohydrates. For the study reported herein, we used a standard so...
Li, Wenzong; Cantor, Jason R.; Yogesha, S.D.; Yang, Shirley; Chantranupong, Lynne; Liu, June Qingxia; Agnello, Giulia; Georgiou, George; Stone, Everett M.; Yan ZHANG
2012-01-01
The human asparaginase-like protein 1 (hASRGL1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-asparagine and isoaspartyl-dipeptides. As an N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily member, the active form of hASRGL1 is generated by an intramolecular cleavage step with Thr168 as the catalytic residue. However, in vitro, autoprocessing is incomplete (~50 %), fettering the biophysical characterization of hASRGL1. We circumvented this obstacle by constructing a circularly permuted hASRGL1 that uncoupled...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Qingping; Rawlings, Neil D.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SG); (Wellcome)
2012-07-11
NlpC/P60 superfamily papain-like enzymes play important roles in all kingdoms of life. Two members of this superfamily, LRAT-like and YaeF/YiiX-like families, were predicted to contain a catalytic domain that is circularly permuted such that the catalytic cysteine is located near the C-terminus, instead of at the N-terminus. These permuted enzymes are widespread in virus, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotes. We determined the crystal structure of a member of the YaeF/YiiX-like family from Bacillus cereus in complex with lysine. The structure, which adopts a ligand-induced, 'closed' conformation, confirms the circular permutation of catalytic residues. A comparative analysis of other related protein structures within the NlpC/P60 superfamily is presented. Permutated NlpC/P60 enzymes contain a similar conserved core and arrangement of catalytic residues, including a Cys/His-containing triad and an additional conserved tyrosine. More surprisingly, permuted enzymes have a hydrophobic S1 binding pocket that is distinct from previously characterized enzymes in the family, indicative of novel substrate specificity. Further analysis of a structural homolog, YiiX (PDB 2if6) identified a fatty acid in the conserved hydrophobic pocket, thus providing additional insights into possible function of these novel enzymes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rigbi, M.; Rosinski, J.; Siegelman, H.W.; Sutherland, J.C.
1980-04-01
Phycobilisomes are supramolecular assemblies of phycobiliproteins responsible for photosynthetic light collection in red algae and cyanobacteria. They can be selectively dissociated by reduction of temperature and buffer concentration. Phycobilisomes isolated from Fremyella diplosiphon transfer energy collected by C-phycoerythrin and C-phycocyanin to allophycocyanin. The energy transfer to allophycocyanin is nearly abolished at 2/sup 0/C, as indicated by a blue shift in fluorescence emission, and is accompanied by a decrease in the circular dichroism in the region of allophycocyanin absorbance. Further dissociation of the phycobilisomes can be attained by reduction of buffer concentration and holding at 2/sup 0/C. Energy transfer to C-phycocyanin is nearly abolished, and decreases occur in the circular dichroism in the region of C-phycocyanin and C-phycoerythrin absorbance. Complete dissociation of the phycobilisomes at low buffer concentration and 2/sup 0/C requires extended time. Energy transfer to C-phycocyanin is further reduced and the circular dichroism maximum of C-phycoerythrin at 575 nm is lost. Circular dichroism provides information on the hexamer-monomer transitions of the phycobiliproteins, whereas fluorescence is indicative of hexamer-hexamer interactions. We consider that hydrophobic interactions are fundamental to the maintenance of the structure and function of phycobilisomes.
Passman, Donald S
2012-01-01
This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature
Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas
2016-08-19
We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067
Rigbi, Meir; Rosinski, Joanne; Siegelman, Harold W.; Sutherland, John Clark
1980-01-01
Phycobilisomes are supramolecular assemblies of phycobiliproteins responsible for photosynthetic light collection in red algae and cyanobacteria. They can be selectively dissociated by reduction of temperature and buffer concentration. Phycobilisomes isolated from Fremyella diplosiphon transfer energy collected by C-phycoerythrin and C-phycocyanin to allophycocyanin. The energy transfer to allophycocyanin is nearly abolished at 2°C, as indicated by a blue shift in fluorescence emission, and i...
Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J
1999-02-01
Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix. PMID:10333299
Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J
1999-02-01
Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikel Aickin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumptions. Several lines of argument are presented here to show that the permutation principle itself can be invalid, concentrating on the Fisher-Pitman permutation test for two means. A simple counterfactual example illustrates the general problem, and a slightly more elaborate counterfactual argument is used to explain why the main mathematical proof of the validity of permutation tests is mistaken. Two modifications of the permutation test are suggested to be valid in a very modest simulation. In instances where simulation software is readily available, investigating the validity of a specific permutation test can be done easily, requiring only a minimum understanding of statistical technicalities.
Bona, Miklos
2004-01-01
WINNER of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Award for 2006!As linear orders, as elements of the symmetric group, modeled by matrices, modeled by graphs…permutations are omnipresent in modern combinatorics. They are omnipresent but also multifaceted, and while several excellent books explore particular aspects of the subject, no one book has covered them all. Even the classic results are scattered in various resources.Combinatorics of Permutations offers the first comprehensive, up to date treatment of both enumerative and extremal combinatorics and looks at permutation as linear orders and a
Aztec Diamonds and Baxter Permutations
Canary, Hal
2003-01-01
We present a proof of a conjecture about the relationship between Baxter permutations and pairs of alternating sign matrices that are produced from domino tilings of Aztec diamonds. It is shown that if and only if a tiling corresponds to a pair of ASMs that are both permutation matrices, the larger permutation matrix corresponds to a Baxter permutation. There has been a thriving literature on both pattern-avoiding permutations of various kinds and tilings of regions using dominos or rhombuses...
Permutation statistics of products of random permutations
Hultman, Axel
2013-01-01
Given a permutation statistic $s : S_n \\to \\mathbb{R}$, define the mean statistic $\\bar{s}$ as the statistic which computes the mean of $s$ over conjugacy classes. We describe a way to calculate the expected value of $s$ on a product of $t$ independently chosen elements from the uniform distribution on a union of conjugacy classes $\\Gamma \\subseteq S_n$. In order to apply the formula, one needs to express the class function $\\bar{s}$ as a linear combination of irreducible $S_n$-characters. We...
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza;
2012-01-01
-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...
Circular dichroism and polarized fluorescence characteristics of blue-green algal allophycocyanins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canaani, O.D.; Gantt, E.
1980-06-24
Allophycocyanin, the terminal pigment in the phycobiliprotein transfer sequence, isolated from dissociated phycobilisomes of Nostoc sp., was fractionated on calcium phosphate columns into four spectral forms: APC I, II, III, and B. These forms had distinctive isoelectric points of 5.15, 4.68, 4.82, and 4.98, respectively. The APC forms differed in their secondary structure as suggested by the varying percentages of their ..cap alpha.. helix and ..beta..-pleated sheets. APC II and III are short-emitting forms with a fluorescence maximum at 660 nm, while APC I and B are long-emitting forms with a maximum at 681 nm. The maximum of APC I and B at -196/sup 0/C in 0.1 M phosphate and 20% glycerol shifted to 688 nm. Fluorescence polarization spectra suggest that there are at least two groups of chromophores responsible for the absorption of APC I and similarly of APC B. In APC II and III, the fluorescence was mostly depolarized. Circular dichroism revealed extensive positive and negative ellipticity band multiplicities in the chromophore absorption region of APC I and B, but not in APC II and III. Two main CD extrema in APC B, a negative band and a positive band, are probably the result of exciton coupling of phycocyanobilin chromophores absorbing at longer wavelength. In APC I three different peaks are revealed in the absorption spectrum and four ellipticity bands in the CD spectrum at -196/sup 0/C. These can best be explained as being due to the combined interactions of the chromophore with the protein and exciton coupling between chromophores.
Restricted Dumont permutations
Burstein, Alexander
2004-01-01
We analyze the structure and enumerate Dumont permutations of the first and second kinds avoiding certain patterns or sets of patterns of length 3 and 4. Some cardinalities are given by Catalan numbers, powers of 2, little Schroeder numbers, and other known or related sequences.
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
Moroder, Tobias; Toth, Geza; Schwemmer, Christian; Niggebaum, Alexander; Gaile, Stefanie; Gühne, Otfried; Weinfurter, Harald
2012-01-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, also an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a non-linear large-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed n...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania); Hillebrand, Mihaela, E-mail: mihh@gw-chimie.math.unibuc.ro [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania)
2011-08-15
The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the {alpha}-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: > Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. > Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. > Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. > Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. > TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.
Gray Code for Cayley Permutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-L. Baril
2003-10-01
Full Text Available A length-n Cayley permutation p of a total ordered set S is a length-n sequence of elements from S, subject to the condition that if an element x appears in p then all elements y < x also appear in p . In this paper, we give a Gray code list for the set of length-n Cayley permutations. Two successive permutations in this list differ at most in two positions.
Parimutuel Betting on Permutations
Agrawal, Shipra; Ye, Yinyu
2008-01-01
We focus on a permutation betting market under parimutuel call auction model where traders bet on the final ranking of n candidates. We present a Proportional Betting mechanism for this market. Our mechanism allows the traders to bet on any subset of the n x n 'candidate-rank' pairs, and rewards them proportionally to the number of pairs that appear in the final outcome. We show that market organizer's decision problem for this mechanism can be formulated as a convex program of polynomial size. More importantly, the formulation yields a set of n x n unique marginal prices that are sufficient to price the bets in this mechanism, and are computable in polynomial-time. The marginal prices reflect the traders' beliefs about the marginal distributions over outcomes. We also propose techniques to compute the joint distribution over n! permutations from these marginal distributions. We show that using a maximum entropy criterion, we can obtain a concise parametric form (with only n x n parameters) for the joint dist...
Visual recognition of permuted words
Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.
2010-02-01
In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.
Permutability degrees of finite groups
Otera, Daniele Ettore; Russo, Francesco G.
2015-01-01
Given a finite group $G$, we introduce the \\textit{permutability degree} of $G$, as $$pd(G)=\\frac{1}{|G| \\ |\\mathcal{L}(G)|} {\\underset{X \\in \\mathcal{L}(G)}\\sum}|P_G(X)|,$$ where $\\mathcal{L}(G)$ is the subgroup lattice of $G$ and $P_G(X)$ the permutizer of the subgroup $X$ in $G$, that is, the subgroup generated by all cyclic subgroups of $G$ that permute with $X\\in \\mathcal{L}(G)$. The number $pd(G)$ allows us to find some structural restrictions on $G$. Successively, we investigate the re...
Maps, immersions and permutations
Coquereaux, Robert
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of counting and of listing topologically inequivalent "planar" {4-valent} maps with a single component and a given number n of vertices. This enables us to count and to tabulate immersions of a circle in a sphere (spherical curves), extending results by Arnold and followers. Different options where the circle and/or the sphere are/is oriented are considered in turn, following Arnold's classification of the different types of symmetries. We also consider the case of bicolourable and bicoloured maps or immersions, where faces are bicoloured. Our method extends to immersions of a circle in a higher genus Riemann surface. There the bicolourability is no longer automatic and has to be assumed. We thus have two separate countings in non zero genus, that of bicolourable maps and that of general maps. We use a classical method of encoding maps in terms of permutations, on which the constraints of "one-componentness" and of a given genus may be applied. Depending on the orientation issue and on...
Permutation Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Amigo, Jose
2010-01-01
The study of permutation complexity can be envisioned as a new kind of symbolic dynamics whose basic blocks are ordinal patterns, that is, permutations defined by the order relations among points in the orbits of dynamical systems. Since its inception in 2002 the concept of permutation entropy has sparked a new branch of research in particular regarding the time series analysis of dynamical systems that capitalizes on the order structure of the state space. Indeed, on one hand ordinal patterns and periodic points are closely related, yet ordinal patterns are amenable to numerical methods, while periodicity is not. Another interesting feature is that since it can be shown that random (unconstrained) dynamics has no forbidden patterns with probability one, their existence can be used as a fingerprint to identify any deterministic origin of orbit generation. This book is primarily addressed to researchers working in the field of nonlinear dynamics and complex systems, yet will also be suitable for graduate stude...
Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan
2015-01-01
To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-14
To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.
Novel permutation measures for image encryption algorithms
Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K.; AbdElHaleem, Sherif H.; Radwan, Ahmed G.
2016-10-01
This paper proposes two measures for the evaluation of permutation techniques used in image encryption. First, a general mathematical framework for describing the permutation phase used in image encryption is presented. Using this framework, six different permutation techniques, based on chaotic and non-chaotic generators, are described. The two new measures are, then, introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of permutation techniques. These measures are (1) Percentage of Adjacent Pixels Count (PAPC) and (2) Distance Between Adjacent Pixels (DBAP). The proposed measures are used to evaluate and compare the six permutation techniques in different scenarios. The permutation techniques are applied on several standard images and the resulting scrambled images are analyzed. Moreover, the new measures are used to compare the permutation algorithms on different matrix sizes irrespective of the actual parameters used in each algorithm. The analysis results show that the proposed measures are good indicators of the effectiveness of the permutation technique.
Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌
2004-01-01
Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption al-gorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.
Witt Rings and Permutation Polynomials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qifan Zhang
2005-01-01
Let p be a prime number. In this paper, the author sets up a canonical correspondence between polynomial functions over Z/p2Z and 3-tuples of polynomial functions over Z/pZ. Based on this correspondence, he proves and reproves some fundamental results on permutation polynomials mod pl. The main new result is the characterization of strong orthogonal systems over Z/p1Z.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorothy Bollman
1996-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a tensor sum which is useful for the design and analysis of digit-index permutations (DIPs algorithms. Using this operation we obtain a new high-performance algorithm for the family of DIPs. We discuss an implementation in the applicative language Sisal and show how different choices of parameters yield different DIPs. The efficiency of the special case of digit reversal is illustrated with performance results on a Cray C-90.
The permutation testing approach: a review
Fortunato Pesarin; Luigi Salmaso
2013-01-01
In recent years permutation testing methods have increased both in number of applications and in solving complex multivariate problems. A large number of testing problems may also be usefully and effectively solved by traditional parametric or rank-based nonparametric methods, although in relatively mild conditions their permutation counterparts are generally asymptotically as good as the best ones. Permutation tests are essentially of an exact nonparametric nature in a conditional context, w...
Congruence Permutable Symmetric Extended de Morgan Algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie FANG
2006-01-01
An algebra A is said to be congruence permutable if any two congruences on it are per-mutable. This property has been investigated in several varieties of algebras, for example, de Morgan algebras, p-algebras, Kn,o-algebras. In this paper, we study the class of symmetric extended de Morgan algebras that are congruence permutable. In particular we consider the case where A is finite, and show that A is congruence permutable if and only if it is isomorphic to a direct product of finitely many simple algebras.
Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌
2004-01-01
Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms,commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack.In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms.First,a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices.Then,by using probability theory and algebraic principles,the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then,by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices,we improve a specific decryption algorithm.Finally,some simulation results are shown.
An interesting new Mahonian permutation statistic
Wilson, Mark C.
2010-01-01
The standard algorithm for generating a random permutation gives rise to an obvious permutation statistic $\\stat$ that is readily seen to be Mahonian. We give evidence showing that it is not equal to any previously published statistic. Nor does its joint distribution with the standard Eulerian statistics $\\des$ and $\\exc$ appear to coincide with any known Euler-Mahonian pair. A general construction of Skandera yields an Eulerian partner $\\ska$ such that $(\\ska, \\stat)$ is equidistributed with...
Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.
Wilf classification of doubly generalized permutation patterns
Parviainen, Robert
2009-01-01
We classify all doubly generalized patterns of length two and three according to the number of permutations avoiding them. These patterns were recently defined by Bousquet-Melou et. al., and are natural generalizations of Babson and Steingrimsson's generalized patterns. The patterns are divided into seven and 24 Wilf classes, for lengths two and three, respectively. For most of the patterns an explicit form for the number of permutations avoiding the pattern is given.
Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.
Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz
2010-06-01
Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.
Permutations with Ascending and Descending Blocks
Steinhardt, Jacob
2009-01-01
We investigate permutations in terms of their cycle structure and descent set. To do this, we generalize the classical bijection of Gessel and Reutenauer to deal with permutations that have some ascending and some descending blocks. We then provide the first bijective proofs of some known results. We also solve some problems posed in [3] by Eriksen, Freij, and Wastlund, who study derangements that descend in blocks of prescribed lengths.
The permutation testing approach: a review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fortunato Pesarin
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In recent years permutation testing methods have increased both in number of applications and in solving complex multivariate problems. A large number of testing problems may also be usefully and effectively solved by traditional parametric or rank-based nonparametric methods, although in relatively mild conditions their permutation counterparts are generally asymptotically as good as the best ones. Permutation tests are essentially of an exact nonparametric nature in a conditional context, where conditioning is on the pooled observed data as a set of sufficient statistics in the null hypothesis. Instead, the reference null distribution of most parametric tests is only known asymptotically. Thus, for most sample sizes of practical interest, the possible lack of efficiency of permutation solutions may be compensated by the lack of approximation of parametric counterparts. There are many complex multivariate problems (quite common in biostatistics, clinical trials, engineering, the environment, epidemiology, experimental data, industrial statistics, pharmacology, psychology, social sciences, etc. which are difficult to solve outside the conditional framework and outside the nonparametric combination (NPC method for dependent permutation tests. In this paper we review this method along with a number of applications in different experimental and observational situations (e.g. multi-sided alternatives, zero-inflated data and testing for a stochastic ordering and we present properties specific to this methodology, such as: for a given number of subjects, when the number of variables diverges and the noncentrality of the combined test diverges accordingly, then the power of combination-based permutation tests converges to one.
Engineering and Characterization of a Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Existing variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) often misfold when expressed as fusions with other proteins. We have generated a robustly folded version of GFP, called 'superfolder' GFP, that folds well even when fused to poorly folded polypeptides. Compared to 'folding reporter' GFP, a folding-enhanced GFP containing the 'cycle-3' mutations and the 'enhanced GFP' mutations F64L and S65T, superfolder GFP shows improved tolerance of circular permutation, greater resistance to chemical denaturants and improved folding kinetics. The fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing each of eighteen proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum as fusions with superfolder GFP was proportional to total protein expression. In contrast, fluorescence of folding reporter GFP fusion proteins was strongly correlated with the productive folding yield of the passenger protein. X-ray crystallographic structural analyses helped explain the enhanced folding of superfolder GFP relative to folding reporter GFP
On Exact Algorithms for Permutation CSP
Kim, Eun Jung
2012-01-01
In the Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problem (Permutation CSP) we are given a set of variables $V$ and a set of constraints C, in which constraints are tuples of elements of V. The goal is to find a total ordering of the variables, $\\pi\\ : V \\rightarrow [1,...,|V|]$, which satisfies as many constraints as possible. A constraint $(v_1,v_2,...,v_k)$ is satisfied by an ordering $\\pi$ when $\\pi(v_1)<\\pi(v_2)<...<\\pi(v_k)$. An instance has arity $k$ if all the constraints involve at most $k$ elements. This problem expresses a variety of permutation problems including {\\sc Feedback Arc Set} and {\\sc Betweenness} problems. A naive algorithm, listing all the $n!$ permutations, requires $2^{O(n\\log{n})}$ time. Interestingly, {\\sc Permutation CSP} for arity 2 or 3 can be solved by Held-Karp type algorithms in time $O^*(2^n)$, but no algorithm is known for arity at least 4 with running time significantly better than $2^{O(n\\log{n})}$. In this paper we resolve the gap by showing that {\\sc Arity 4 Permutati...
Département des Ressources humaines
2004-01-01
Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...
Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach
Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E
2016-01-01
This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamshidkhan Chamani
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The present study describes an investigation by fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism and UV-visible spectroscopy of the interaction between norfloxacin (NRF and human serum albumin (HSA in the presence of electromagnetic fields (EMFs. The results obtained from this study indicated that NRF had a strong ability to quench HSA at λex = 280 nm. In addition, a slight blue shift occurred, which suggested that the microenvironment of the protein became more hydrophobic after addition of NRF. The interaction between the NRF and HSA, whether in the absence or presence of an EMF, was considered to be a static quenching mechanism. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence demonstrated that the microenvironment around Trp became modified. Data of HSA-NRF in the presence of EMFs between 1 Hz–1 MHz confirmed the results of quenching and blue shifts. Corresponding Stern-Volmer plots were also drawn and the resultant Ksv and kq values were compared. Moreover, the binding parameters, including the number of binding sites, the binding constant and the distance, r, between donor and acceptor, were calculated based on Förster’s non-radiative energy transfer theory. According to far and near UV-CD, the formation of the complex caused changes of the secondary and tertiary structures of HSA. The obtained results are significant for patients who are subjected to high-frequency radiation as this was found to reduce the affinity of NRF to HSA.
Measure permutation formulas in Feynman's operational calculi
Chang, K. S.; Kim, B. S.; Park, Y. H.
2010-03-01
In Jefferies-Johnson’s theory of Feynman’s operational calculi for noncommuting operators, the two operators T µ 1,µ 2 f( Ã, tilde B ) and T µ 2,µ1 f( Ã, tilde B ) are not equal. Relationships between these two operators are given, i.e., “measure permutation formulas” in Feynman’s operational calculi are developed; they correspond to the “index permutation formula” in Maslov’s discretized version of Feynman’s operational calculus.
On Young tableau involutions and patterns in permutations
Ouchterlony, Erik
2005-01-01
This thesis deals with three different aspects of the combinatorics of permutations. In the first two papers, two flavours of pattern avoiding permutations are examined; and in the third paper Young tableaux, which are closely related to permutations via representation theory, are studied. In the first paper we give solutations to several interesting problems regarding pattern avoiding doubly alternating permutations, such as finding a bijection between 1234-avoiding permutations and 1234-avoiding doubly alternating permutations of twice the size. In the second paper partial permutations which can be extended to pattern avoiding permutations are examined. A general algorithm is presented which is subsequently used to solve many different problems. The third paper deals with involutions on Young tableaux. There is a surprisingly large collection of relations among these involutions and in the paper we make the effort to study them systematically in order to create a coherent theory. The most interesting result...
The L-sharp permutation groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李炯生
2000-01-01
An answer is given to a problem proposed by Bannai and Ito for { l, l + s, l + s + t} -sharp permutation group, and the result is used to determine L-sharp groups for L = { l, l + 1, l + 3} and{l,l+2,l+3}.
Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA
Basso, Dario; Salmaso, Luigi; Solari, Aldo
2009-01-01
Permutation testing for multivariate stochastic ordering and ANOVA designs is a fundamental issue in many scientific fields such as medicine, biology, pharmaceutical studies, engineering, economics, psychology, and social sciences. This book presents advanced methods and related R codes to perform complex multivariate analyses
Permutation orbifolds of heterotic Gepner models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maio, M., E-mail: michelem@nikhef.n [Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schellekens, A.N. [Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
2011-07-21
We study orbifolds by permutations of two identical N=2 minimal models within the Gepner construction of four-dimensional heterotic strings. This is done using the new N=2 supersymmetric permutation orbifold building blocks we have recently developed. We compare our results with the old method of modding out the full string partition function. The overlap between these two approaches is surprisingly small, but whenever a comparison can be made we find complete agreement. The use of permutation building blocks allows us to use the complete arsenal of simple current techniques that is available for standard Gepner models, vastly extending what could previously be done for permutation orbifolds. In particular, we consider (0,2) models, breaking of SO(10) to subgroups, weight-lifting for the minimal models and B-L lifting. Some previously observed phenomena, for example concerning family number quantization, extend to this new class as well, and in the lifted models three-family models occur with abundance comparable to two or four.
Flavour singlets in gauge theory as Permutations
Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo
2016-01-01
Gauge-invariant operators can be specified by equivalence classes of permutations. We develop this idea concretely for the singlets of the flavour group $SO(N_f)$ in $U(N_c)$ gauge theory by using Gelfand pairs and Schur-Weyl duality. The singlet operators, when specialised at $N_f =6$, belong to the scalar sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. A simple formula is given for the two-point functions in the free field limit of $g_{YM}^2 =0$. The free two-point functions are shown to be equal to the partition function on a 2-complex with boundaries and a defect, in a topological field theory of permutations. The permutation equivalence classes are Fourier transformed to a representation basis which is orthogonal for the two-point functions at finite $N_c , N_f$. Counting formulae for the gauge-invariant operators are described. The one-loop mixing matrix is derived as a linear operator on the permutation equivalence classes.
Explicit classes of permutation polynomials of F33m
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Permutation polynomials have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in many areas of mathematics and engineering. However, only a small number of specific classes of permutation polynomials are known so far. In this paper, six classes of linearized permutation polynomials and six classes of nonlinearized permutation polynomials over F33m are presented. These polynomials have simple shapes, and they are related to planar functions.
Explicit classes of permutation polynomials of F33m
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING CunSheng; XIANG Qing; YUAN Jin; YUAN PingZhi
2009-01-01
Permutation polynomials have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in many areas of mathematics and engineering. However, only a small number of specific classes of permutation polynomials are known so far. In this paper, six classes of linearized permutation polynomials and six classes of nonlinearized permutation polynomials over F33 are pre-sented. These polynomials have simple shapes, and they are related to planar functions.
Quick Trickle Permutation Based on Quick Trickle Characteristic Sequence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WangLi-na; FeiRu-chun; LiuZhu
2003-01-01
The concept of quick trickle characteristic sequence is presented, the properties and count of quick trickle characteristic sequence are researched, the mapping relationship between quick trickle characteristic sequence and quick trickle permutation is discussed. Finally, an efficient construction of quick trickle permutation based on quick trickle characteristic sequence is given, by which quick trickle permutation can be figured out after constructing quick trickle characteristic sequence. Quick trickle permutation has good cryptographic properties.
A bijection to count (1-23-4)-avoiding permutations
Callan, David
2010-01-01
A permutation is (1-23-4)-avoiding if it contains no four entries, increasing left to right, with the middle two adjacent in the permutation. Here we give a 2-variable recurrence for the number of such permutations, improving on the previously known 4-variable recurrence. At the heart of the proof is a bijection from (1-23-4)-avoiding permutations to increasing ordered trees whose leaves, taken in preorder, are also increasing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akerboom, Jasper; Velez Rivera, Jonathan D.; Rodriguez Guilbe, María M.; Alfaro Malavé, Elisa C.; Hernandez, Hector H.; Tian, Lin; Hires, S. Andrew; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Looger, Loren L.; Schreiter, Eric R.; (MIT); (Puerto Rico); (HHMI)
2009-03-16
The genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP2 shows promise for neural network activity imaging, but is currently limited by low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe x-ray crystal structures as well as solution biophysical and spectroscopic characterization of GCaMP2 in the calcium-free dark state, and in two calcium-bound bright states: a monomeric form that dominates at intracellular concentrations observed during imaging experiments and an unexpected domain-swapped dimer with decreased fluorescence. This series of structures provides insight into the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+}-induced fluorescence change. Upon calcium binding, the calmodulin (CaM) domain wraps around the M13 peptide, creating a new domain interface between CaM and the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein domain. Residues from CaM alter the chemical environment of the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein chromophore and, together with flexible inter-domain linkers, block solvent access to the chromophore. Guided by the crystal structures, we engineered a series of GCaMP2 point mutants to probe the mechanism of GCaMP2 function and characterized one mutant with significantly improved signal-to-noise. The mutation is located at a domain interface and its effect on sensor function could not have been predicted in the absence of structural data.
Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Kancı Bozoğlan, Bahar
2013-07-01
The interactions of metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and guaifenesin (GF) drugs with human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HMG) proteins at pH 7.4 were studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Drugs quenched the fluorescence spectra of HSA and HMG proteins through a static quenching mechanism. For each protein-drug system, the values of Stern-Volmer quenching constant, bimolecular quenching constant, binding constant and number of binding site on the protein molecules were determined at 288.15, 298.15, 310.15 and 318.15 K. It was found that the binding constants of HSA-MPT and HSA-GF systems were smaller than those of HMG-MPT and HMG-GF systems. For both drugs, the affinity of HMG was much higher than that of HSA. An increase in temperature caused a negative effect on the binding reactions. The number of binding site on blood proteins for MPT and GF drugs was approximately one. Thermodynamic parameters showed that MPT interacted with HSA through electrostatic attraction forces. However, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the main interaction forces in the formation of HSA-GF, HMG-MPT and HMG-GF complexes. The binding processes between protein and drug molecules were exothermic and spontaneous owing to negative ∆H and ∆G values, respectively. The values of binding distance between protein and drug molecules were calculated from Förster resonance energy transfer theory. It was found from CD analysis that the bindings of MPT and GF drugs to HSA and HMG proteins altered the secondary structure of HSA and HMG proteins. PMID:23471625
Monitoring methionine sulfoxide with stereospecific mechanism-based fluorescent sensors.
Tarrago, Lionel; Péterfi, Zalán; Lee, Byung Cheon; Michel, Thomas; Gladyshev, Vadim N
2015-05-01
Methionine can be reversibly oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, but its use as a redox marker suffers from the lack of tools to detect and quantify MetO within cells. In this work, we created a pair of complementary stereospecific genetically encoded mechanism-based ratiometric fluorescent sensors of MetO by inserting a circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein between yeast methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxins. The two sensors, respectively named MetSOx and MetROx for their ability to detect S and R forms of MetO, were used for targeted analysis of protein oxidation, regulation and repair as well as for monitoring MetO in bacterial and mammalian cells, analyzing compartment-specific changes in MetO and examining responses to physiological stimuli.
High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ran Qi-Wen; Yuan Lin; Tan Li-Ying; Ma Jing; Wang Qi
2004-01-01
We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT),is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +∞,M = 4k (k is a natural number), and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.
High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms
Ran, Qi-Wen; Yuan, Lin; Tan, Li-Ying; Ma, Jing; Wang, Qi
2004-02-01
We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT), is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +infty, M = 4k (k is a natural number) and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.
Constructing circuit codes by permuting initial sequences
Wynn, Ed
2012-01-01
Two new constructions are presented for coils and snakes in the hypercube. Improvements are made on the best known results for snake-in-the-box coils of dimensions 9, 10 and 11, and for some other circuit codes of dimensions between 8 and 13. In the first construction, circuit codes are generated from permuted copies of an initial transition sequence; the multiple copies constrain the search, so that long codes can be found relatively efficiently. In the second construction, two lower-dimensional paths are joined together with only one or two changes in the highest dimension; this requires a search for a permutation of the second sequence to fit around the first. It is possible to investigate sequences of vertices of the hypercube, including circuit codes, by connecting the corresponding vertices in an extended graph related to the hypercube. As an example of this, invertible circuit codes are briefly discussed.
Permutation Analysis of Track and Column Braiding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李毓陵; 丁辛; 胡良剑
2004-01-01
The positions of braiding carrier in track and column braiding are represented by a diagrammatic braiding plan and a corresponding lattice-array is defined. A set is then formed so that the permutation analysis can be performed to represent the movement of carriers in a braiding process. The process of 4-step braiding is analyzed as an example to describe the application of the proposed method by expressing a braiding cycle as a product of disjoint cycles. As a result, a mapping relation between the disjoint cycles and the movement of carriers is deduced. Following the same analysis principles, a process of 8-step braiding and the corresponding initial state of the lattice-array is developed. A successful permutation analysis to the process manifests the general suitability of the proposed method.
Faster permutation inference in brain imaging.
Winkler, AM; Ridgway, GR; Douaud, G; Nichols, TE; Smith, SM
2016-01-01
Permutation tests are increasingly being used as a reliable method for inference in neuroimaging analysis. However, they are computationally intensive. For small, non-imaging datasets, recomputing a model thousands of times is seldom a problem, but for large, complex models this can be prohibitively slow, even with the availability of inexpensive computing power. Here we exploit properties of statistics used with the general linear model (GLM) and their distributions to obtain accelerations i...
IA-Automorphisms of Permutational Wreath Products
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
John Panagopoulos
2001-01-01
Let W be the permutational wreath product of two groups A and B.In this paper, we study the relationship between the semicompleteness of W and the semicompleteness of A and B. In the general case, we give some necessary conditions for the semicompleteness of the group W. In the case of finite groups A and B with A abelian, we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the group W is semicomplete.
The topology of the permutation pattern poset
McNamara, Peter; Steingrımsson, Einar
2014-01-01
International audience The set of all permutations, ordered by pattern containment, forms a poset. This extended abstract presents the first explicit major results on the topology of intervals in this poset. We show that almost all (open) intervals in this poset have a disconnected subinterval and are thus not shellable. Nevertheless, there seem to be large classes of intervals that are shellable and thus have the homotopy type of a wedge of spheres. We prove this to be the case for all in...
The Shard Intersection Order on Permutations
Bancroft, Erin
2011-01-01
The shard intersection order is a new lattice structure on a finite Coxeter group W which encodes the geometry of the reflection arrangement and the lattice theory of the weak order. In the case where W is the symmetric group, we characterize shard intersections as certain pre-orders which we call permutation pre-orders. We use this combinatorial characterization to determine properties of the shard intersection order. In particular, we give an EL-labeling.
Bin Packing via Discrepancy of Permutations
Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Rothvoß, Thomas
2010-01-01
A well studied special case of bin packing is the 3-partition problem, where n items of size >1/4 have to be packed in a minimum number of bins of capacity one. The famous Karmarkar-Karp algorithm transforms a fractional solution of a suitable LP relaxation for this problem into an integral solution that requires at most O(log n) additional bins. The three-permutations-conjecture of Beck is the following. Given any 3 permutations on n symbols, one can color the symbols red and blue, such that in any interval of any of those permutations, the number of red and blue symbols differs only by a constant. Beck's conjecture is well known in the field of discrepancy theory. We establish a surprising connection between bin packing and Beck's conjecture: If the latter holds true, then the additive integrality gap of the 3-partition linear programming relaxation is bounded by a constant. This result indicates that improving approximability results for bin packing requires a better understanding of discrepancy theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Xiaoyun [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhaowei [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Ximin; Wang, Xiaoru [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2011-09-15
Highlights: {center_dot} Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. {center_dot} HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. {center_dot} Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. {center_dot} The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. {center_dot} The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 10{sup 3}, 3.97 x 10{sup 3}, 3.45 x 10{sup 3}, and 3.20 x 10{sup 3} L mol{sup -1} at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) were measured, and they indicated the presences
Parity-Alternate Permutations and Signed Eulerian Numbers
Tanimoto, Shinji
2006-01-01
In order to study signed Eulerian numbers, we introduce permutations of a particular type, called parity-alternate permutations, because they take even and odd entries alternately. The objective of this paper is twofold. The first is to derive several properties of those permutations, by subdividing them into even and odd ones. The second is to discuss relationships between those and signed Eulerian numbers. Divisibility properties by prime powers are also deduced for signed Eulerian numbers ...
Self-Dual Permutation Codes over Finite Chain Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Yuan; ZHANG Huanguo
2007-01-01
Permutation codes over finite chain rings are introduced; by using the character of the finite chain rings and the knowledge of representation of group, some conditions for existence or non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over finite chain rings are obtained. Specially, when the group is a direct product ora 2-group and a 2'-group, and the group action is transitive, the sufficient and necessary condition of the existence of permutation codes is given.
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Stoltz, Gabriel [Université Paris-Est, CERMICS (ENPC), INRIA, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France)
2015-09-14
We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.
Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups
1996-01-01
The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex
On the effective and automatic enumeration of polynomial permutation classes
Homberger, Cheyne; Vatter, Vince
2013-01-01
We describe an algorithm, implemented in Python, which can enumerate any permutation class with polynomial enumeration from a structural description of the class. In particular, this allows us to find formulas for the number of permutations of length n which can be obtained by a finite number of block sorting operations (e.g., reversals, block transpositions, cut-and-paste moves).
M\\'enage Numbers and M\\'enage Permutations
Li, Yiting
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the combinatorial structures of straight and ordinary m\\'enage permutations. Based on these structures, we prove four formulas. The first two formulas define a relationship between the m\\'enage numbers and the Catalan numbers. The other two formulas count the m\\'enage permutations by number of cycles.
ON SYMMETRIC EXTENDED MS-ALGEBRAS WHOSE CONGRUENCES ARE PERMUTABLE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luo Congwen
2011-01-01
Algebras whose congruences are permutable were investigated by a number of authors in the literature. In this paper, we study the symmetric extended MS-algebras whose congruences are permutable. Some results obtained by Jie Fang on symmetric extended De Morgan algebras are generalized.
A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control.
Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung
2016-01-01
Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations-a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings. PMID:27328860
A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control
Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung
2016-06-01
Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations—a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings.
The Fractional Metric Dimension of Permutation Graphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Eunjeong YI
2015-01-01
Let G = (V (G), E(G)) be a graph with vertex set V (G) and edge set E(G). For two distinct vertices x and y of a graph G, let RG{x, y}denote the set of vertices z such that the distance from x to z is not equal to the distance from y to z in G. For a function g defined on V (G) and for U ⊆V (G), let g(U )=? s∈U g(s). A real-valued function g:V (G)→[0, 1] is a resolving function of G if g(RG{x, y})≥1 for any two distinct vertices x, y∈V (G). The fractional metric dimension dimf (G) of a graph G is min{g(V (G)):g is a resolving function of G}. Let G1 and G2 be disjoint copies of a graph G, and let σ : V (G1) → V (G2) be a bijection. Then, a permutation graph Gσ = (V,E) has the vertex set V = V (G1)∪V (G2) and the edge set E = E(G1)∪E(G2)∪{uv|v = σ(u)}. First, we determine dimf (T ) for any tree T . We show that 1 0, there exists a permutation graph Gσ such that dimf (Gσ)−1dimf (Gσ) for all pairs (G,σ). Furthermore, we investigate dimf (Gσ) when G is a complete k-partite graph or a cycle.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex
Modified permutation-entropy analysis of heartbeat dynamics
Bian, Chunhua; Qin, Chang; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Shen, Qinghong
2012-02-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) contains important information about the modulation of the cardiovascular system. Various methods of nonlinear dynamics (e.g., estimating Lyapunov exponents) and complexity measures (e.g., correlation dimension or entropies) have been applied to HRV analysis. Permutation entropy, which was proposed recently, has been widely used in many fields due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. It maps a time series onto a symbolic sequence of permutation ranks. The original permutation entropy assumes the time series under study has a continuous distribution, thus equal values are rare and can be ignored by ranking them according to their order of emergence, or broken by adding small random perturbations to ensure every symbol in a sequence is different. However, when the observed time series is digitized with lower resolution leading to a greater number of equal values, or the equalities represent certain characteristic sequential patterns of the system, it may not be rational to simply ignore or break them. In the present paper, a modified permutation entropy is proposed that, by mapping the equal value onto the same symbol (rank), allows for a more accurate characterization of system states. The application of the modified permutation entropy to the analysis of HRV is investigated using clinically collected data. Results show that modified permutation entropy can greatly improve the ability to distinguish the HRV signals under different physiological and pathological conditions. It can characterize the complexity of HRV more effectively than the original permutation entropy.
APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreeva, Elena; Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey;
2015-01-01
The domain of lightweight cryptography focuses on cryptographic algorithms for extremely constrained devices. It is very costly to avoid nonce reuse in such environments, because this requires either a hardware source of randomness, or non-volatile memory to store a counter. At the same time, a lot....... To decrypt, APE processes the ciphertext blocks in reverse order, and uses inverse permutation calls. APE therefore requires a permutation that is both efficient for forward and inverse calls. We instantiate APE with the permutations of three recent lightweight hash function designs: Quark, Photon...
Understanding 3-manifolds in the context of permutations
Null, Karoline P
2011-01-01
We demonstrate how a 3-manifold, a Heegaard diagram, and a group presentation can each be interpreted as a pair of signed permutations in the symmetric group $S_d.$ We demonstrate the power of permutation data in programming and discuss an algorithm we have developed that takes the permutation data as input and determines whether the data represents a closed 3-manifold. We therefore have an invariant of groups, that is given any group presentation, we can determine if that presentation presents a closed 3-manifold.
2003-01-01
Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...
Permutation based decision making under fuzzy environment using Tabu search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdi Bashiri
2012-04-01
Full Text Available One of the techniques, which are used for Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM is the permutation. In the classical form of permutation, it is assumed that weights and decision matrix components are crisp. However, when group decision making is under consideration and decision makers could not agree on a crisp value for weights and decision matrix components, fuzzy numbers should be used. In this article, the fuzzy permutation technique for MCDM problems has been explained. The main deficiency of permutation is its big computational time, so a Tabu Search (TS based algorithm has been proposed to reduce the computational time. A numerical example has illustrated the proposed approach clearly. Then, some benchmark instances extracted from literature are solved by proposed TS. The analyses of the results show the proper performance of the proposed method.
Dynamic Permutational Isomerism in a closo-Cluster.
Fu, Junhong; Morshedi, Mahbod; Moxey, Graeme J; Barlow, Adam; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G
2016-04-01
Permutational isomers of trigonal bipyramidal [W2 RhIr2 (CO)9 (η(5) -C5 H5 )2 (η(5) -C5 HMe4 )] result from competitive capping of either a W2 Ir or a WIr2 face of the tetrahedral cluster [W2 Ir2 (CO)10 (η(5) -C5 H5 )2 ] from its reaction with [Rh(CO)2 (η(5) -C5 HMe4 )]. The permutational isomers slowly interconvert in solution by a cluster metal vertex exchange that is proposed to proceed by Rh-Ir and Rh-W bond cleavage and reformation, and via the intermediacy of an edge-bridged tetrahedral transition state. The permutational isomers display differing chemical and physical properties: replacement of CO by PPh3 occurs at one permutational isomer only, while the isomers display distinct optical power limiting behavior. PMID:26868979
Multiscale Permutation Entropy Based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis
Jinde Zheng; Junsheng Cheng; Yu Yang
2014-01-01
A new rolling bearing fault diagnosis approach based on multiscale permutation entropy (MPE), Laplacian score (LS), and support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed in this paper. Permutation entropy (PE) was recently proposed and defined to measure the randomicity and detect dynamical changes of time series. However, for the complexity of mechanical systems, the randomicity and dynamic changes of the vibration signal will exist in different scales. Thus, the definition of MPE is introduced and...
A Comparative Study on the Performance of Permutation Algorithms
Bassil, Youssef
2012-01-01
Permutation is the different arrangements that can be made with a given number of things taking some or all of them at a time. The notation P(n,r) is used to denote the number of permutations of n things taken r at a time. Permutation is used in various fields such as mathematics, group theory, statistics, and computing, to solve several combinatorial problems such as the job assignment problem and the traveling salesman problem. In effect, permutation algorithms have been studied and experimented for many years now. Bottom-Up, Lexicography, and Johnson-Trotter are three of the most popular permutation algorithms that emerged during the past decades. In this paper, we are implementing three of the most eminent permutation algorithms, they are respectively: Bottom-Up, Lexicography, and Johnson-Trotter algorithms. The implementation of each algorithm will be carried out using two different approaches: brute-force and divide and conquer. The algorithms codes will be tested using a computer simulation tool to mea...
Some illustrative examples of permutability of fuzzy operators and fuzzy relations
Bragard, J.; Recasens-Ferres, J. (Jorge); Elorza-Barbajero, J. (Jorge); Carmona-Cervelló, N. (Neus)
2014-01-01
Composition of fuzzy operators often appears and it is natural to ask when the order of composition does not change the result. In previous papers, we characterized permutability in the case of fuzzy consequence operators and fuzzy interior operators. We also showed the connection between the permutability of the fuzzy relations and the permutability of their induced fuzzy operators. In this work we present some examples of permutability and non permutability of fuzzy operators and fuzzy rela...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex
Division des ressources humaines
2000-01-01
N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128
Tight bounds on the threshold for permuted k-colorability
Dani, Varsha; Olson, Anna
2011-01-01
If each edge (u,v) of a graph G=(V,E) is decorated with a permutation pi_{u,v} of k objects, we say that it has a permuted k-coloring if there is a coloring sigma from V to {1,...,k} such that sigma(v) is different from pi_{u,v}(sigma(u)) for all (u,v) in E. Based on arguments from statistical physics, we conjecture that the threshold d_k for permuted k-colorability in random graphs G(n,m=dn/2), where the permutations on the edges are uniformly random, is equal to the threshold for standard graph k-colorability. The additional symmetry provided by random permutations makes it easier to prove bounds on d_k. By applying the second moment method with these additional symmetries, and applying the first moment method to a random variable that depends on the number of available colors at each vertex, we bound the threshold within an additive constant. Specifically, we show that for any constant epsilon > 0, for sufficiently large k we have 2 k ln k - ln k - 2 - epsilon < d_k < 2 k ln k - ln k - 1 + epsilon. I...
Permutation Complexity and Coupling Measures in Hidden Markov Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taichi Haruna
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, the duality between values (words and orderings (permutations has been proposed by the authors as a basis to discuss the relationship between information theoretic measures for finite-alphabet stationary stochastic processes and their permutatio nanalogues. It has been used to give a simple proof of the equality between the entropy rate and the permutation entropy rate for any finite-alphabet stationary stochastic process and to show some results on the excess entropy and the transfer entropy for finite-alphabet stationary ergodic Markov processes. In this paper, we extend our previous results to hidden Markov models and show the equalities between various information theoretic complexity and coupling measures and their permutation analogues. In particular, we show the following two results within the realm of hidden Markov models with ergodic internal processes: the two permutation analogues of the transfer entropy, the symbolic transfer entropy and the transfer entropy on rank vectors, are both equivalent to the transfer entropy if they are considered as the rates, and the directed information theory can be captured by the permutation entropy approach.
Determination of Pavement Rehabilitation Activities through a Permutation Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sangyum Lee
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical programming model for optimal pavement rehabilitation planning. The model maximized the rehabilitation area through a newly developed permutation algorithm, based on the procedures outlined in the harmony search (HS algorithm. Additionally, the proposed algorithm was based on an optimal solution method for the problem of multilocation rehabilitation activities on pavement structure, using empirical deterioration and rehabilitation effectiveness models, according to a limited maintenance budget. Thus, nonlinear pavement performance and rehabilitation activity decision models were used to maximize the objective functions of the rehabilitation area within a limited budget, through the permutation algorithm. Our results showed that the heuristic permutation algorithm provided a good optimum in terms of maximizing the rehabilitation area, compared with a method of the worst-first maintenance currently used in Seoul.
Permutation Code Encryption-New Achievement Based on Path Encryption
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Jinmu; LIU Maohua; FU Guiqin; GUO Lina
2006-01-01
By researching into the attack to present block cipher, we find an essential reason leading to the assailable encryption strength, set up a new block cipher idea and put forward a block cipher encryption concept path encryption. We present permutation code encryption which is based on path encryption. Now permutation code encryption is a patent of Chinese invention. In Permutation Code Encryption, we use a pseudo-random sequence of the keys to control the paths. The simulation result shows that for n-bit block the encryption strength is novel higher than 2n and the algorithm can finish the encryption of one block in 7.5 ns, which is unrelated with the block length.
Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content Authentication for Watermarking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.Maruthuperumal
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In modern days, digital watermarking has become an admired technique for hitting data in digital images to help guard against copyright infringement. The proposed Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content authentication (PHBC methods develop a secure and excellence strong watermarking algorithm that combines the reward of permutation-based Homogeneous block (PHB with that of significant and insignificant bit values with X0R encryption function using Max coefficient of least coordinate value for embedding the watermark. In the projected system uses the relationship between the permutation blocks to embed many data into Homogeneous blocks without causing solemn distortion to the watermarked image. The experimental results show that the projected system is very efficient in achieving perceptual invisibility with an increase in the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. Moreover, the projected system is robust to a variety of signal processing operations, such as image Cropping, Rotation, Resizing, Adding noise, Filtering , Blurring and Motion blurring.
Permutations and the combinatorics of gauge invariants for general N
Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2016-01-01
Group algebras of permutations have proved highly useful in solving a number of problems in large N gauge theories. I review the use of permutations in classifying gauge invariants in one-matrix and multi-matrix models and computing their correlators. These methods are also applicable to tensor models and have revealed a link between tensor models and the counting of branched covers. The key idea is to parametrize $U(N)$ gauge invariants using permutations, subject to equivalences. Correlators are related to group theoretic properties of these equivalence classes. Fourier transformation on symmetric groups by means of representation theory offers nice bases of functions on these equivalence classes. This has applications in AdS/CFT in identifying CFT duals of giant gravitons and their perturbations. It has also lead to general results on quiver gauge theory correlators, uncovering links to two dimensional topological field theory and the combinatorics of trace monoids.
Enumeration of snakes and cycle-alternating permutations
Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu
2010-01-01
Springer numbers are an analog of Euler numbers for the group of signed permutations. Arnol'd showed that they count some objects called snakes, that generalize alternating permutations. Hoffman established a link between Springer numbers, snakes, and some polynomials related with the successive derivatives of trigonometric functions. The goal of this article is to give further combinatorial properties of derivative polynomials, in terms of snakes and other objects: cycle-alternating permutations, weighted Dyck or Motzkin paths, increasing trees and forests. We obtain the generating functions, in terms of trigonometric functions for exponential ones and in terms of J-fractions for ordinary ones. We also define natural q-analogs, make a link with normal ordering problems and combinatorial theory of differential equations.
Profile classes and partial well-order for permutations
Murphy, Maximillian; Vatter, Vincent
2003-01-01
It is known that the set of permutations, under the pattern containment ordering, is not a partial well-order. Characterizing the partially well-ordered closed sets (equivalently: down sets or ideals) in this poset remains a wide-open problem. Given a 0/+-1 matrix M, we define a closed set of permutations called the profile class of M. These sets are generalizations of sets considered by Atkinson, Murphy, and Ruskuc. We show that the profile class of M is partially well-ordered if and only if...
On the topology of the permutation pattern poset
McNamara, Peter R. W.; Steingrimsson, Einar
2013-01-01
The set of all permutations, ordered by pattern containment, forms a poset. This paper presents the first explicit major results on the topology of intervals in this poset. We show that almost all (open) intervals in this poset have a disconnected subinterval and are thus not shellable. Nevertheless, there seem to be large classes of intervals that are shellable and thus have the homotopy type of a wedge of spheres. We prove this to be the case for all intervals of layered permutations that h...
Glycerol acyl-transfer kinetics of a circular permutated Candida antarctica Lipase B
Triacylglycerols containing a high abundance of unusual fatty acids, such as y-linolenic acid, or novel arylaliphatic acids, such as ferulic acid, are useful in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is quite often used for non-aqueous synthesis, although ...
Mixing Times of Self-Organizing Lists and Biased Permutations
Bhakta, Prateek; Randall, Dana; Streib, Amanda Pascoe
2012-01-01
Sampling permutations from S_n is a fundamental problem from probability theory. The nearest neighbor transposition chain \\cal{M}}_{nn} is known to converge in time \\Theta(n^3 \\log n) in the uniform case and time \\Theta(n^2) in the constant bias case, in which we put adjacent elements in order with probability p \
Permutation Matrix Method for Dense Coding Using GHZ States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Rui-Bo; CHEN Li-Bing; WANG Fa-Qiang; SU Zhi-Kun
2008-01-01
We present a new method called the permutation matrix method to perform dense coding using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We show that this method makes the study of dense coding systematically and regularly. It also has high potential to be realized physically.
Introduction to Permutation and Resampling-Based Hypothesis Tests
LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Greevy, Robert A.
2009-01-01
A resampling-based method of inference--permutation tests--is often used when distributional assumptions are questionable or unmet. Not only are these methods useful for obvious departures from parametric assumptions (e.g., normality) and small sample sizes, but they are also more robust than their parametric counterparts in the presences of…
A central limit theorem for a new statistic on permutations
Chatterjee, Sourav; Diaconis, Persi
2016-01-01
This paper does three things: It proves a central limit theorem for a novel permutation statistic, the number of descents plus the number of descents in the inverse. It provides a clear illustration of a new approach to proving central limit theorems more generally. It gives us an opportunity to acknowledge the work of our teacher and friend B. V. Rao.
SELF-DUAL PERMUTATION CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS AND FINITE PRINCIPAL IDEAL RINGS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张光辉; 刘宏伟
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings and finite principal ideal rings. We first give some results on the torsion codes associated with the linear codes over formal power series rings. These results allow for obtaining some conditions for non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings. Finally, we describe self-dual permutation codes over finite principal ideal rings by examining permutation codes over their component chain rings.
Non-parametric combination and related permutation tests for neuroimaging.
Winkler, Anderson M; Webster, Matthew A; Brooks, Jonathan C; Tracey, Irene; Smith, Stephen M; Nichols, Thomas E
2016-04-01
In this work, we show how permutation methods can be applied to combination analyses such as those that include multiple imaging modalities, multiple data acquisitions of the same modality, or simply multiple hypotheses on the same data. Using the well-known definition of union-intersection tests and closed testing procedures, we use synchronized permutations to correct for such multiplicity of tests, allowing flexibility to integrate imaging data with different spatial resolutions, surface and/or volume-based representations of the brain, including non-imaging data. For the problem of joint inference, we propose and evaluate a modification of the recently introduced non-parametric combination (NPC) methodology, such that instead of a two-phase algorithm and large data storage requirements, the inference can be performed in a single phase, with reasonable computational demands. The method compares favorably to classical multivariate tests (such as MANCOVA), even when the latter is assessed using permutations. We also evaluate, in the context of permutation tests, various combining methods that have been proposed in the past decades, and identify those that provide the best control over error rate and power across a range of situations. We show that one of these, the method of Tippett, provides a link between correction for the multiplicity of tests and their combination. Finally, we discuss how the correction can solve certain problems of multiple comparisons in one-way ANOVA designs, and how the combination is distinguished from conjunctions, even though both can be assessed using permutation tests. We also provide a common algorithm that accommodates combination and correction. PMID:26848101
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher J Reed
Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Chin-Chuan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q and NCaBD(E63Q showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract
Sensitive detection of p65 homodimers using red-shifted and fluorescent protein-based FRET couples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joachim Goedhart
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET between the green fluorescent protein (GFP variants CFP and YFP is widely used for the detection of protein-protein interactions. Nowadays, several monomeric red-shifted fluorescent proteins are available that potentially improve the efficiency of FRET. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To allow side-by-side comparison of several fluorescent protein combinations for detection of FRET, yellow or orange fluorescent proteins were directly fused to red fluorescent proteins. FRET from yellow fluorescent proteins to red fluorescent proteins was detected by both FLIM and donor dequenching upon acceptor photobleaching, showing that mCherry and mStrawberry were more efficient acceptors than mRFP1. Circular permutated yellow fluorescent protein variants revealed that in the tandem constructs the orientation of the transition dipole moment influences the FRET efficiency. In addition, it was demonstrated that the orange fluorescent proteins mKO and mOrange are both suitable as donor for FRET studies. The most favorable orange-red FRET pair was mKO-mCherry, which was used to detect homodimerization of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 in single living cells, with a threefold higher lifetime contrast and a twofold higher FRET efficiency than for CFP-YFP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed high FRET efficiency of red-shifted couples is in accordance with increased Förster radii of up to 64 A, being significantly higher than the Förster radius of the commonly used CFP-YFP pair. Thus, red-shifted FRET pairs are preferable for detecting protein-protein interactions by donor-based FRET methods in single living cells.
A chronicle of permutation statistical methods 1920–2000, and beyond
Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke Jr , Paul W
2014-01-01
The focus of this book is on the birth and historical development of permutation statistical methods from the early 1920s to the near present. Beginning with the seminal contributions of R.A. Fisher, E.J.G. Pitman, and others in the 1920s and 1930s, permutation statistical methods were initially introduced to validate the assumptions of classical statistical methods. Permutation methods have advantages over classical methods in that they are optimal for small data sets and non-random samples, are data-dependent, and are free of distributional assumptions. Permutation probability values may be exact, or estimated via moment- or resampling-approximation procedures. Because permutation methods are inherently computationally-intensive, the evolution of computers and computing technology that made modern permutation methods possible accompanies the historical narrative. Permutation analogs of many well-known statistical tests are presented in a historical context, including multiple correlation and regression, ana...
The Query Complexity of Finding a Hidden Permutation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Afshani, Peyman; Afrawal, Manindra; Benjamin, Doerr;
2012-01-01
We study the query complexity of determining a hidden permutation. More specifically, we study the problem of learning a secret (z) consisting of a binary string z of length n and a permutation of [n]. The secret must be unveiled by asking queries x01n , and for each query asked, we are returned....... The deterministic query complexity is (nlogn), which, surprisingly, improves to (nloglogn) in the randomized setting. For the randomized query complexity, both the upper and lower bound are stronger than what can be achieved by standard arguments like the analysis of random queries or information......-theoretic considerations. Our proof of the (nloglogn) lower bound is based on a potential function argument, which seems to be uncommon in the query complexity literature. We find this potential function technique a very powerful tool in proving lower bounds for randomized query schemes and we expect it to find...
A WATERMARKING ALGORITHM BASED ON PERMUTATION AND 2-D BARCODE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ji Zhen; Zhang Jihong; Xie Weixin
2001-01-01
This letter presents a method for digital image watermarking for copyright protection. This technique produces a watermarked image that closely retains the quality of the original host image while concurrently surviving various image processing operations such as lowpass/highpass filtering, lossy JPEG compression, and cropping. This image watermarking algorithm takes full advantage of permutation and 2-D barcode (PDF417). The actual watermark embedding in spatial domain is followed using permutated image for improving the resistance to image cropping. Much higher watermark robustness is obtainable via a simple forward error correction technique, which is the main feature of PDF417 codes. Additional features of this technique include the easy determination of the existence of the watermark and that the watermark verification procedure does not need the original host image. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.
Permutation based speech scrambling for next generation mobile communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhanya G
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Scrambling is a really significant method that provides protection in communication systems by using random permutation and pseudorandom binary scrambling method. To enhance the security in communication, OFDM scrambling can provide better protection than an FFT scrambler under same permutation operation. To evaluate the quality of the proposed system, perceptual evaluation of speech quality is used. The objective test SNR and BER are used to estimate the noise performance of the system. STI and CIS were applied to know the performance of the system. From the simulations, it is clear that, the proposed system shows better performance than conventional scrambling technique and it is more robust in the 4th generation of mobile communication.
Information sets as permutation cycles for quadratic residue codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard A. Jenson
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The two cases p=7 and p=23 are the only known cases where the automorphism group of the [p+1, (p+1/2] extended binary quadratic residue code, O(p, properly contains PSL(2,p. These codes have some of their information sets represented as permutation cycles from Aut(Q(p. Analysis proves that all information sets of Q(7 are so represented but those of Q(23 are not.
Successful attack on permutation-parity-machine-based neural cryptography.
Seoane, Luís F; Ruttor, Andreas
2012-02-01
An algorithm is presented which implements a probabilistic attack on the key-exchange protocol based on permutation parity machines. Instead of imitating the synchronization of the communicating partners, the strategy consists of a Monte Carlo method to sample the space of possible weights during inner rounds and an analytic approach to convey the extracted information from one outer round to the next one. The results show that the protocol under attack fails to synchronize faster than an eavesdropper using this algorithm.
Counting permutations with no long monotone subsequence via generating trees
Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille
2010-01-01
We recover Gessel's determinantal formula for the generating function of permutations with no ascending subsequence of length m+1. The starting point of our proof is the recursive construction of these permutations by insertion of the largest entry. This construction is of course extremely simple. The cost of this simplicity is that we need to take into account in the enumeration m-1 additional parameters --- namely, the positions of the leftmost increasing subsequences of length i, for i=2,...,m. This yields for the generating function a functional equation with m-1 "catalytic" variables, and the heart of the paper is the solution of this equation. We perform a similar task for involutions with no descending subsequence of length m+1, constructed recursively by adding a cycle containing the largest entry. We refine this result by keeping track of the number of fixed points. In passing, we prove that the ordinary generating functions of these families of permutations can be expressed as constant terms of rati...
Properties of permuted-block randomization in clinical trials.
Matts, J P; Lachin, J M
1988-12-01
This article describes some of the important statistical properties of the commonly used permuted-block design, also known simply as blocked-randomization. Under a permutation model for statistical tests, proper analyses should employ tests that incorporate the blocking used in the randomization. These include the block-stratified Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for binary data, the blocked analysis of variance F test, and the blocked nonparametric linear rank test. It is common, however, to ignore the blocking in the analysis. For these tests, it is shown that the size of a test obtained from an analysis incorporating the blocking (say T), versus an analysis ignoring the blocking (say TI), is related to the intrablock correlation coefficient (R) as TI = T(1-R). For blocks of common length 2m, the range of R is from -1/(2m-1) to 1. Thus, if there is a positive intrablock correlation, which is more likely than not for m greater than 1, an analysis ignoring blocking will be unduly conservative. Permutation tests are also presented for the case of stratified analyses within one or more subgroups of patients defined post hoc on the basis of a covariate. This provides a basis for the analysis when responses from some patients are assumed to be missing-at-random. An alternative strategy that requires no assumptions is to perform the analysis using only the subset of complete blocks in which no observations are missing. The Blackwell-Hodges model is used to assess the potential for selection bias induced by investigator attempts to guess which treatment is more likely to be assigned to each incoming patient. In an unmasked trial, the permuted-block design provides substantial potential for selection bias in the comparison of treatments due to the predictability of the assignments that is induced by the requirement of balance within blocks. Further, this bias is not eliminated by the use of random block sizes. We also modify the Blackwell-Hodges model to allow for
PERMUTATION-BASED POLYMORPHIC STEGO-WATERMARKS FOR PROGRAM CODES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denys Samoilenko
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: One of the most actual trends in program code protection is code marking. The problem consists in creation of some digital “watermarks” which allow distinguishing different copies of the same program codes. Such marks could be useful for authority protection, for code copies numbering, for program propagation monitoring, for information security proposes in client-server communication processes. Methods: We used the methods of digital steganography adopted for program codes as text objects. The same-shape symbols method was transformed to same-semantic element method due to codes features which makes them different from ordinary texts. We use dynamic principle of marks forming making codes similar to be polymorphic. Results: We examined the combinatorial capacity of permutations possible in program codes. As a result it was shown that the set of 5-7 polymorphic variables is suitable for the most modern network applications. Marks creation and restoration algorithms where proposed and discussed. The main algorithm is based on full and partial permutations in variables names and its declaration order. Algorithm for partial permutation enumeration was optimized for calculation complexity. PHP code fragments which realize the algorithms were listed. Discussion: Methodic proposed in the work allows distinguishing of each client-server connection. In a case if a clone of some network resource was found the methodic could give information about included marks and thereby data on IP, date and time, authentication information of client copied the resource. Usage of polymorphic stego-watermarks should improve information security indexes in network communications.
Circularity and Lambda Abstraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian
2013-01-01
In this tribute to Doaitse Swierstra, we present the rst transformation between lazy circular programs a la Bird and strict cir- cular programs a la Pettorossi. Circular programs a la Bird rely on lazy recursive binding: they involve circular unknowns and make sense equa- tionally. Circular...... unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...
Dyck Paths, Standard Young Tableaux, and Pattern Avoiding Permutations
Gudmundsson, Hilmar
2009-01-01
We present a generating function and a closed counting formula in two variables that enumerate a family of classes of permutations that avoid or contain an increasing pattern of length three and have a prescribed number of occurrences of another pattern of length three. This gives a refinement of some previously studied statistics, most notably one by Noonan. The formula is also shown to enumerate a family of classes of Dyck paths and Standard Young Tableaux, and a bijection is given between the corresponding classes of these two families of objects. Finally, the results obtained are used to solve an optimization problem for a certain card game.
Genuine multipartite nonlocality of permutationally invariant Gaussian states
Xu, Buqing; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-01-01
We investigate genuine multipartite nonlocality of pure permutationally invariant multimode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, as detected by the violation of Svetlichny inequality. We identify the phase space settings leading to the largest violation of the inequality when using displaced parity measurements, distinguishing between even and odd number of modes. We further consider pseudospin measurements and show that, for three-mode states with asymptotically large squeezing degree, particular settings of these measurements allow one to approach the maximum violation allowed by quantum mechanics. This indicates that the highest possible genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality is in principle verifiable on Gaussian states.
Some open questions in the theory of generalized permutable subgroups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
A subgroup H of a group G is said to be weakly s-supplemented in G if H has a supplement T in G such that H ∩ T HsG, where HsG is the largest s-permutable subgroup of G contained in H. This paper constructs an example to show that the open questions 6.3 and 6.4 in J Algebra, 315: 192–209 (2007) have negative solutions, and shows that in many cases Question 6.4 is positive. A series of known results are unified and generalized.
Permutation Groups with Bounded Movement having Maximum Orbits
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mehdi Alaeiyan; Behnam Razzaghmaneshi
2012-05-01
Let be a permutation group on a set with no fixed points in and let be a positive integer. If no element of moves any subset of by more than points (that is, $|^g\\backslash|≤ m$ for every $\\subseteq$ and $g\\in G$), and also if each -orbit has size greater than 2, then the number of -orbits in is at most $\\frac{1}{2}(3m-1)$. Moreover, the equality holds if and only if is an elementary abelian 3-group.
Secure physical layer using dynamic permutations in cognitive OFDMA systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meucci, F.; Wardana, Satya Ardhy; Prasad, Neeli R.
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a novel lightweight mechanism for a secure Physical (PHY) layer in Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). User's data symbols are mapped over the physical subcarriers with a permutation formula. The PHY layer is secured...... confidentiality. The method is shown to be effective also for existing non-cognitive systems. The proposed mechanism is effective against eavesdropping even if the eavesdropper adopts a long-time patterns analysis, thus protecting cryptography techniques of higher layers. The correlation properties...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun
2003-01-01
@@ "Mo" literally means "rubbing between two things"and "eliminating". Circular-rubbing is one of the earliest manipulations used in clinical practice. Circular-rubbing differs from pressing actually. Pressing is a static manipulation and acts to inhibit motion; circular-rubbing is a movable manipulation and serves to eliminate stationary. Circular-rubbing can be performed by either the palm or the finger.
Multiscale Permutation Entropy Based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinde Zheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new rolling bearing fault diagnosis approach based on multiscale permutation entropy (MPE, Laplacian score (LS, and support vector machines (SVMs is proposed in this paper. Permutation entropy (PE was recently proposed and defined to measure the randomicity and detect dynamical changes of time series. However, for the complexity of mechanical systems, the randomicity and dynamic changes of the vibration signal will exist in different scales. Thus, the definition of MPE is introduced and employed to extract the nonlinear fault characteristics from the bearing vibration signal in different scales. Besides, the SVM is utilized to accomplish the fault feature classification to fulfill diagnostic procedure automatically. Meanwhile, in order to avoid a high dimension of features, the Laplacian score (LS is used to refine the feature vector by ranking the features according to their importance and correlations with the main fault information. Finally, the rolling bearing fault diagnosis method based on MPE, LS, and SVM is proposed and applied to the experimental data. The experimental data analysis results indicate that the proposed method could identify the fault categories effectively.
Macquart, JP
2002-01-01
We discuss the constraints that recent observations place on circular polarisation in AGN. In many sources the circular polarisation is variable on short timescales, indicating that it originates in compact regions of the sources. The best prospects for gleaning further information about circular po
Exact Permutation Algorithm for Paired Observations: The Challenge of R. A. Fisher
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. I. Odiase
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The major handicap of permutation test is the logical and computational requirement necessary to develop and implement the exact permutation scheme. This study provides an algorithm that systematically enumerates all the distinct permutations of the paired observations in an experiment without the possibility of repeating any of the permutations. The permutation algorithm presented completely breaks down the permutation problem for ease of implementation and analysis. The algorithm was illustratively implemented in Intel Visual Fortran to recreate Fishers manual compilation of 32,768 permutations of Charles Darwins data on heights of cross-fertilized and self-fertilized plants. The algorithm provides exact p-values for any experiment involving paired observations and exposes the danger in using asymptotic or parametric distributions such as the t-test to analyze small data sets when the exact functional form of the distribution is not explicitly known. This becomes more obvious especially when the experiment leads to a p-value close to the threshold level of significance. The exact distribution and the graphical presentation provided in this study give credence to the use of the permutation test.
An upper bound on the number of high-dimensional permutations
Linial, Nathan
2011-01-01
What is the higher-dimensional analog of a permutation? If we think of a permutation as given by a permutation matrix, then the following definition suggests itself: A d-dimensional permutation of order n is an [n]^(d+1) array of zeros and ones in which every "line" contains a unique 1 entry. A line here is a set of entries of the form {(x_1,...,x_{i-1},y,x_{i+1},...,x_{d+1})}, for y between 1 and n, some index i between 1 and d+1 and some choice of x_j in [n] for all j except i. It is easy to observe that a one-dimensional permutation is simply a permutation matrix and that a two-dimensional permutation is synonymous with an order-n Latin square. We seek an estimate for the number of d-dimensional permutations. Our main result is the following upper bound on their number: ((1+o(1))(n/e^d))^(n^d). We tend to believe that this is actually the correct number, but the problem of proving the complementary lower bound remains open. Our main tool is an adaptation of Bregman's proof of the Minc conjecture on permane...
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Minimal Degrees of Faithful Quasi-Permutation Representations for Direct Products of -Groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ghodrat Ghaffarzadeh; Mohammad Hassan Abbaspour
2012-08-01
In [2], the algorithms of $c(G), q(G)$ and $p(G)$, the minimal degrees of faithful quasi-permutation and permutation representations of a finite group are given. The main purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between these minimal degrees of non-trivial -groups and with the group × .
Discriminating chaotic and stochastic dynamics through the permutation spectrum test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulp, C. W., E-mail: Kulp@lycoming.edu [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Lycoming College, Williamsport, Pennsylvania 17701 (United States); Zunino, L., E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata—CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2014-09-01
In this paper, we propose a new heuristic symbolic tool for unveiling chaotic and stochastic dynamics: the permutation spectrum test. Several numerical examples allow us to confirm the usefulness of the introduced methodology. Indeed, we show that it is robust in situations in which other techniques fail (intermittent chaos, hyperchaotic dynamics, stochastic linear and nonlinear correlated dynamics, and deterministic non-chaotic noise-driven dynamics). We illustrate the applicability and reliability of this pragmatic method by examining real complex time series from diverse scientific fields. Taking into account that the proposed test has the advantages of being conceptually simple and computationally fast, we think that it can be of practical utility as an alternative test for determinism.
Permutation Centralizer Algebras and Multi-Matrix Invariants
Mattioli, Paolo
2016-01-01
We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multi-matrix gauge invariant observables. One family of such non-commutative algebras is parametrised by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of 2-matrix models. The structure of the algebra, notably its dimension, its centre and its maximally commuting sub-algebra, is related to Littlewood-Richardson numbers for composing Young diagrams. It gives a precise characterization of the minimal set of charges needed to distinguish arbitrary matrix gauge invariants, which are related to enhanced symmetries in gauge theory. The algebra also gives a star product for matrix invariants. The centre of the algebra allows efficient computation of a sector of multi-matrix correlator...
A permutation test for the race model inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gondan, Matthias
2010-01-01
When participants are asked to respond in the same way to several stimulus identities, responses are often observed to be faster if two stimuli are presented simultaneously as opposed to when a single stimulus is presented (redundant signals effect; Miller, 1982). An important issue...... of such experiments is whether the observed redundancy gains can be explained by parallel processing of the two stimuli in a race-like fashion. To test the parallel processing model, Miller derived the well-known race model inequality which has become a routine test for behavioral data in experiments with redundant...... signals. Several statistical procedures have been used for testing the race model inequality. However, the commonly employed procedure does not control the Type I error. In this article a permutation test is described that keeps the Type I error at the desired level. Simulations show that the power...
Matrices with restricted entries and q-analogues of permutations
Lewis, Joel Brewster; Morales, Alejandro H; Panova, Greta; Sam, Steven V; Zhang, Yan
2010-01-01
We study the functions that count matrices of given rank over a finite field with specified positions equal to zero. We show that these matrices are $q$-analogues of permutations with certain restricted values. We obtain a simple closed formula for the number of invertible matrices with zero diagonal, a $q$-analogue of derangements, and a curious relationship between invertible skew-symmetric matrices and invertible symmetric matrices with zero diagonal. In addition, we provide recursions to enumerate matrices and symmetric matrices with zero diagonal by rank, and we frame some of our results in the context of Lie theory. Finally, we provide a brief exposition of polynomiality results for enumeration questions related to those mentioned, and give several open questions.
Efficient SAT Techniques for Relative Encoding of Permutations with Constraints
Velev, Miroslav N.; Gao, Ping
We present new techniques for relative SAT encoding of permutations with constraints, resulting in improved scalability compared to the previous approach by Prestwich, when applied to searching for Hamiltonian cycles. We observe that half of the ordering variables and two-thirds of the transitivity constraints can be eliminated. We exploit minimal enumeration of transitivity, based on 12 triangulation heuristics, and 11 heuristics for selecting the first node in the Hamiltonian cycle. We propose the use of inverse transitivity constraints. We achieve 3 orders of magnitude average speedup on satisfiable random graphs from the phase transition region, 2 orders of magnitude average speedup on unsatisfiable random graphs, and up to 4 orders of magnitude speedup on satisfiable structured graphs from the DIMACS graph coloring instances.
All possible permutational symmetries of a quantum system
Arnaud, Ludovic
2016-01-01
We investigate the intermediate permutational symmetries of a system of qubits that lie in between the perfect symmetric and antisymmetric cases. We prove that, on average, pure states of qubits picked at random with respect to the uniform measure on the unit sphere of the Hilbert space are almost as antisymmetric as they are allowed to be. We then observe that multipartite entanglement, measured by the generalized Meyer-Wallach measure, tends to be larger in subspaces that are more antisymmetric than the complete symmetric one. Eventually, we prove that all states contained in the most antisymmetric subspace are relevant multipartite entangled states in the sense that their 1-qubit reduced states are all maximally mixed.
Raybould, T. A.; Fedotov, V. A.; Papasimakis, N.; Kuprov, I.; Youngs, I. J.; Chen, W. T.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that the induced toroidal dipole, represented by currents flowing on the surface of a torus, makes a distinct and indispensable contribution to circular dichroism. We show that toroidal circular dichroism supplements the well-known mechanism involving electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions. We illustrate this with rigorous analysis of the experimentally measured polarization-sensitive transmission spectra of an artificial metamaterial, constructed from elements of toroidal symmetry. We argue that toroidal circular dichroism will be found in large biomolecules with elements of toroidal symmetry and should be taken into account in the interpretation of circular dichroism spectra of organics.
Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian J. Michel
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.
Publication of administrative circular
HR Department
2009-01-01
ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003
PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR
HR Department
2008-01-01
ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003
How to write a permutation as a product of involutions (and why you might care)
Petersen, T Kyle
2012-01-01
It is well-known that any permutation can be written as a product of two involutions. We provide an explicit formula for the number of ways to do so, depending only on the cycle type of the permutation. In many cases, these numbers are sums of absolute values of irreducible characters of the symmetric group evaluated at the same permutation, although apart from the case where all cycles are the same size, we have no good explanation for why this should be so.
Predecessor and permutation existence problems for sequential dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Hunt, H. B. (Harry B.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Rosenkrantz, D. J. (Daniel J.); Stearns, R. E. (Richard E.)
2002-01-01
A class of finite discrete dynamical systems, called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDSs), was introduced in BMR99, BR991 as a formal model for analyzing simulation systems. An SDS S is a triple (G, F,n ),w here (i) G(V,E ) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a state, (ii) F = (fi, fi, . . ., fn), with fi denoting a function associated with node ui E V and (iii) A is a permutation of (or total order on) the nodes in V, A configuration of an SDS is an n-vector ( b l, bz, . . ., bn), where bi is the value of the state of node vi. A single SDS transition from one configuration to another is obtained by updating the states of the nodes by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by n. Here, we address the complexity of two basic problems and their generalizations for SDSs. Given an SDS S and a configuration C, the PREDECESSOR EXISTENCE (or PRE) problem is to determine whether there is a configuration C' such that S has a transition from C' to C. (If C has no predecessor, C is known as a garden of Eden configuration.) Our results provide separations between efficiently solvable and computationally intractable instances of the PRE problem. For example, we show that the PRE problem can be solved efficiently for SDSs with Boolean state values when the node functions are symmetric and the underlying graph is of bounded treewidth. In contrast, we show that allowing just one non-symmetric node function renders the problem NP-complete even when the underlying graph is a tree (which has a treewidth of 1). We also show that the PRE problem is efficiently solvable for SDSs whose state values are from a field and whose node functions are linear. Some of the polynomial algorithms also extend to the case where we want to find an ancestor configuration that precedes a given configuration by a logarithmic number of steps. Our results extend some of the earlier results by Sutner [Su95] and Green [@87] on the complexity of
Orders induced by segments in floorplan partitions and (2-14-3,3-41-2)-avoiding permutations
Asinowski, Andrei; Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille; Mansour, Toufik; Pinter, Ron
2010-01-01
Floorplan partitions are certain tilings of a rectangle by other rectangles. There are natural ways to order their elements (rectangles and segments). In particular, Ackerman, Barequet, and Pinter studied a pair of orders induced by neighborhood relations between rectangles of a floorplan partition, and obtained a natural bijection between these pairs and (2-41-3, 3-14-2)-avoiding permutations (also known as Baxter permutations). In the present paper, we study a pair of orders induced by neighborhood relations between segments of a floorplan partition. We obtain a natural bijection between these pairs and another family of permutations, namely (2-14-3,3-41-2)-avoiding permutations. We also enumerate these permutations, investigate relations between the two kinds of pairs of orders --- and correspondingly, between (2-14-3,3-41-2)-avoiding permutations and Baxter permutations --- and study the special case of "guillotine" partitions.
Perfect Circular Dichroic Metamirrors
Wang, Zuojia; Liu, Yongmin
2015-01-01
In nature, the beetle Chrysina gloriosa derives its iridescence by selectively reflecting left-handed circularly polarized light only. Here, for the first time, we introduce and demonstrate the optical analogue based on an ultrathin metamaterial, which we term circular dichroic metamirror. A general method to design the circular dichroic metasmirror is presented under the framework of Jones calculus. It is analytically shown that the metamirror can be realized by two layers of anisotropic metamaterial structures, in order to satisfy the required simultaneous breakings of n-fold rotational (n>2) and mirror symmetries. We design an infrared metamirror, which shows perfect reflectance for left-handed circularly polarized light without reversing its handedness, while almost completely absorbs right-handed circularly polarized light. These findings offer new methodology to realize novel chiral optical devices for a variety of applications, including polarimetric imaging, molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum ...
Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals.
Trevino, Jacob; Cao, Hui; Dal Negro, Luca
2011-05-11
In this paper, we combine experimental dark-field imaging, scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy with rigorous electrodynamics calculations in order to investigate light scattering from planar arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in aperiodic spirals with diffuse, circularly symmetric Fourier space. In particular, by studying the three main types of Vogel's spirals fabricated by electron-beam lithography on quartz substrates, we demonstrate polarization-insensitive planar light diffraction in the visible spectral range. Moreover, by combining dark-field imaging with analytical multiparticle calculations in the framework of the generalized Mie theory, we show that plasmonic spirals support distinctive structural resonances with circular symmetry carrying orbital angular momentum. The engineering of light scattering phenomena in deterministic structures with circular Fourier space provides a novel strategy for the realization of optical devices that fully leverage on enhanced, polarization-insensitive light-matter coupling over planar surfaces, such as thin-film plasmonic solar cells, plasmonic polarization devices, and optical biosensors. PMID:21466155
Efficiency and credit ratings: a permutation-information-theory analysis
Fernandez Bariviera, Aurelio; Zunino, Luciano; Belén Guercio, M.; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.
2013-08-01
The role of credit rating agencies has been under severe scrutiny after the subprime crisis. In this paper we explore the relationship between credit ratings and informational efficiency of a sample of thirty nine corporate bonds of US oil and energy companies from April 2008 to November 2012. For this purpose we use a powerful statistical tool, relatively new in the financial literature: the complexity-entropy causality plane. This representation space allows us to graphically classify the different bonds according to their degree of informational efficiency. We find that this classification agrees with the credit ratings assigned by Moody’s. In particular, we detect the formation of two clusters, which correspond to the global categories of investment and speculative grades. Regarding the latter cluster, two subgroups reflect distinct levels of efficiency. Additionally, we also find an intriguing absence of correlation between informational efficiency and firm characteristics. This allows us to conclude that the proposed permutation-information-theory approach provides an alternative practical way to justify bond classification.
A MULTICRITERIA PERMUTATION FLOWSHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM WITH SETUP TIMES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Saravanan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The permutation flow shop scheduling problem has been completely concentrated on in late decades, both from single objective and additionally from multi-objective points of view. To the best of our information, little has been carried out with respect to the multi-objective flow shop with sequence dependent setup times are acknowledged. As setup times and multi-criteria problems are significant in industry, we must concentrate on this area. We propose a simple and powerful meta-heuristic algorithm as artificial immune system for the sequence dependent setup time’s flow shop problem with several criteria. The objective functions are framed to simultaneously minimize the makespan time, tardiness time, earliness time and total completion time. The proposed approach is in conjunction with the constructive heuristic of Nawaz et al. evaluated using benchmark problems taken from Taillard and compared with the prevailing Simulated annealing approach and B-Grasp approach. Computational experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm is better than the SA approach and B-Grasp approach in all cases and can be very well applied to find better schedule.
Single-Cycle Bit Permutations with MOMR Execution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ruby B. Lee; Xiao Yang; Zhi-Jie Jerry Shi
2005-01-01
Secure computing paradigms impose new architectural challenges for general-purpose processors. Cryptographic processing is needed for secure communications, storage, and computations. We identify two categories of operations in symmetric-key and public-key cryptographic algorithms that are not common in previous general-purpose workloads:advanced bit operations within a word and multi-word operations. We define MOMR (Multiple Operands Multiple Results)execution or datarich execution as a unified solution to both challenges. It allows arbitrary n-bit permutations to be achieved in one or two cycles, rather than O(n) cycles as in existing RISC processors. It also enables significant acceleration of multiword multiplications needed by public-key ciphers. We propose two implementations of MOMR: one employs only hardware changes while the other uses Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) support. We show that MOMR execution leverages available resources in typical multi-issue processors with minimal additional cost. Multi-issue processors enhanced with MOMR units provide additional speedup over standard multi-issue processors with the same datapath. MOMR is a general architectural solution for word-oriented processor architectures to incorporate datarich operations.
A permutation testing framework to compare groups of brain networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sean L Simpson
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Brain network analyses have moved to the forefront of neuroimaging research over the last decade. However, methods for statistically comparing groups of networks have lagged behind. These comparisons have great appeal for researchers interested in gaining further insight into complex brain function and how it changes across different mental states and disease conditions. Current comparison approaches generally either rely on a summary metric or on mass-univariate nodal or edge-based comparisons that ignore the inherent topological properties of the network, yielding little power and failing to make network level comparisons. Gleaning deeper insights into normal and abnormal changes in complex brain function demands methods that take advantage of the wealth of data present in an entire brain network. Here we propose a permutation testing framework that allows comparing groups of networks while incorporating topological features inherent in each individual network. We validate our approach using simulated data with known group differences. We then apply the method to functional brain networks derived from fMRI data.
Efficiency and credit ratings: a permutation-information-theory analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of credit rating agencies has been under severe scrutiny after the subprime crisis. In this paper we explore the relationship between credit ratings and informational efficiency of a sample of thirty nine corporate bonds of US oil and energy companies from April 2008 to November 2012. For this purpose we use a powerful statistical tool, relatively new in the financial literature: the complexity–entropy causality plane. This representation space allows us to graphically classify the different bonds according to their degree of informational efficiency. We find that this classification agrees with the credit ratings assigned by Moody’s. In particular, we detect the formation of two clusters, which correspond to the global categories of investment and speculative grades. Regarding the latter cluster, two subgroups reflect distinct levels of efficiency. Additionally, we also find an intriguing absence of correlation between informational efficiency and firm characteristics. This allows us to conclude that the proposed permutation-information-theory approach provides an alternative practical way to justify bond classification. (paper)
On the permutation combinatorics of worldsheet moduli space
Freidel, Laurent; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2014-01-01
Light-cone string diagrams have been used to reproduce the orbifold Euler characteristic of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces at low genus and with few punctures. Nakamura studied the meromorphic differential introduced by Giddings and Wolpert to characterise light-cone diagrams and introduced a class of graphs related to this differential. These Nakamura graphs were used to parametrise the cells in a light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space. We develop links between Nakamura graphs and realisations of the worldsheet as branched covers. This leads to a development of the combinatorics of Nakamura graphs in terms of permutation tuples. For certain classes of cells, including those of top dimension, there is a simple relation to Belyi maps, which allows us to use results from Hermitian and complex matrix models to give analytic formulae for the counting of cells at arbitrarily high genus. For the most general cells, we develop a new equivalence relation on Hurwitz classes which organises the cell...
Balancedness of Permutation Games and Envy-Free Allocations in Indivisible Good Economies
Klijn, F.; Tijs, S.H.; Hamers, H.J.M.
1999-01-01
We present a simple proof of the balancedness of permutation games. In the proof we use the existence of envy-free allocations in economies with indivisible objects, quasi-linear utility functions, and an amount of money.
A counterexample to Beck's conjecture on the discrepancy of three permutations
Newman, Alantha
2011-01-01
Given three permutations on the integers 1 through n, consider the set system consisting of each interval in each of the three permutations. Jozsef Beck conjectured (c. 1987) that the discrepancy of this set system is O(1). We give a counterexample to this conjecture: for any positive integer n = 3^k, we exhibit three permutations whose corresponding set system has discrepancy Omega(log(n)). Our counterexample is based on a simple recursive construction, and our proof of the discrepancy lower bound is by induction. This example also disproves a generalization of Beck's conjecture due to Spencer, Srinivasan and Tetali, who conjectured that a set system corresponding to l permutations has discrepancy O(sqrt(l)).
A Design of New Fast Image Permutation Approach for Food Intellectual-property Protection
Feng Huang; Wei Zou; Qingzheng Li
2015-01-01
The security of food image was important in food intellectual-property protection. Permutation could protect security of image which charged the correlation among adjacent pixels. Some chaotic maps were used in image permutation; act as baker map or some other maps. But the plain image must be square. At the same time the plain image always is stretched to a line firstly. Obviously, it wasted precious time. The study found the pixels location could arrange freely using some new maps without s...
Multivariate Multi-Scale Permutation Entropy for Complexity Analysis of Alzheimer’s Disease EEG
Isabella Palamara; Giuseppe Morabito; Alessia Bramanti; Fabio La Foresta; Domenico Labate; Francesco Carlo Morabito
2012-01-01
An original multivariate multi-scale methodology for assessing the complexity of physiological signals is proposed. The technique is able to incorporate the simultaneous analysis of multi-channel data as a unique block within a multi-scale framework. The basic complexity measure is done by using Permutation Entropy, a methodology for time series processing based on ordinal analysis. Permutation Entropy is conceptually simple, structurally robust to noise and artifacts, computationally very fa...
Qiaoning Yang; Jianlin Wang
2016-01-01
Sensor is the core module in signal perception and measurement applications. Due to the harsh external environment, aging, and so forth, sensor easily causes failure and unreliability. In this paper, three kinds of common faults of single sensor, bias, drift, and stuck-at, are investigated. And a fault diagnosis method based on wavelet permutation entropy is proposed. It takes advantage of the multiresolution ability of wavelet and the internal structure complexity measure of permutation entr...
The genus distributions for a certain type of permutation graphs in orientable surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rong-xia; HAO; Wei-li; HE; Yan-pei; LIU; Er-ling; WEI
2007-01-01
A circuit is a connected nontrivial 2-regular graph. A graph G is a permutation graph over a circuit C, if G can be obtained from two copies of C by joining these two copies with a perfect matching. In this paper, based on the joint tree method introduced by Liu, the genus polynomials for a certain type of permutation graphs in orientable surfaces are given.
Benchmarch results of a genetic algorithm for non-permutation flowshops using constrained buffers
Färber, Gerrit Hartmut; Coves Moreno, Anna Maria
2006-01-01
This paper presents the performance study of a Genetic Algorithm, for the special case of a mixed model non-permutation flowshop production line, where resequencing is permitted when stations have access to intermittent or centralized resequencing buffers. The access to the buffers is restricted by the number of available buffer places and the physical size of the products. Results from other authors are compared which presented results on permutation sequences [1] or which treat a problem si...
BALANCEDNESS OF THE CLASS OF INFINITE PERMUTATION GAMES AND RELATED CLASSES OF GAMES
Fragnelli, V.; Llorca, N.; Tijs, S.H.
2007-01-01
Recently it is proved that all infinite assignment games have a non-empty core. Using this fact, and a technique suggested by L. S. Shapley for finite permutation games, we prove similar results for infinite permutation games. Infinite transportation games can be interpreted as a generalization of infinite assignment games. We show that infinite transportation games are balanced via a related assignment game. By using certain core elements of infinite transportation games it can be shown that...
Pattern avoidance and RSK-like algorithms for alternating permutations and Young tableaux
Lewis, Joel Brewster
2009-01-01
We define a class L_{n, k} of permutations that generalizes alternating (up-down) permutations. We then give bijective proofs of certain pattern-avoidance results for this class. The bijections employed include are a modified form of the RSK insertion algorithm and a different bijection with RSK-like properties. As a special case of our results, we give two bijections between the set A_{2n}(1234) of alternating permutations of length 2n with no four-term increasing subsequence and standard Young tableaux of shape (3^n), and between the set A_{2n + 1}(1234) and the standard Young tableaux of shape (3^{n - 1}, 2, 1). This represents the first enumeration of alternating permutations avoiding a pattern of length four. We also extend previous work on doubly-alternating permutations (alternating permutations whose inverses are alternating) to our more general context. The set L_{n, k} may be viewed as the set of reading words of the standard Young tableaux of a certain skew shape. In the last section of the paper, ...
Pewsey, Arthur; Ruxton, Graeme D
2013-01-01
Circular Statistics in R provides the most comprehensive guide to the analysis of circular data in over a decade. Circular data arise in many scientific contexts whether it be angular directions such as: observed compass directions of departure of radio-collared migratory birds from a release point; bond angles measured in different molecules; wind directions at different times of year at a wind farm; direction of stress-fractures in concretebridge supports; longitudes of earthquake epicentres or seasonal and daily activity patterns, for example: data on the times of day at which animals are c
Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder
HR Department
2011-01-01
All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp Department Head Office
Particle Filter with State Permutations for Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles
Yang, Xingwei; Adluru, Nagesh; Latecki, Longin Jan
2016-01-01
We deal with an image jigsaw puzzle problem, which is defined as reconstructing an image from a set of square and non-overlapping image patches. It is known that a general instance of this problem is NP-complete, and it is also challenging for humans, since in the considered setting the original image is not given. Recently a graphical model has been proposed to solve this and related problems. The target label probability function is then maximized using loopy belief propagation. We also formulate the problem as maximizing a label probability function and use exactly the same pairwise potentials. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach in the sampling framework of Particle Filter (PF). Usually in the PF framework it is assumed that the observations arrive sequentially, e.g., the observations are naturally ordered by their time stamps in the tracking scenario. Based on this assumption, the posterior density over the corresponding hidden states is estimated. In the jigsaw puzzle problem all observations (puzzle pieces) are given at once without any particular order. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations and extend the PF framework to estimate the posterior density by exploring different orders of observations and selecting the most informative permutations of observations. This significantly broadens the scope of applications of the PF inference. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms the loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, the extended PF inference triples the accuracy of the label assignment compared to that using loopy belief propagation.
Circular words and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benoît Rittaud
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Yaqun; WANG Jue
2006-01-01
Orthomorphic permutations have good characteristics in cryptosystems. In this paper, by using of knowledge about relation between orthomorphic permutations and multi-output functions, and conceptions of the generalized Walsh spectrum of multi-output functions and the auto-correlation function of multi-output functions to investigate the Walsh spectral characteristics and the auto-correlation function characteristics of orthormophic permutations, several results are obtained.
Compact waveguide circular polarizer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tantawi, Sami G.
2016-08-16
A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.
A Design of New Fast Image Permutation Approach for Food Intellectual-property Protection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Huang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The security of food image was important in food intellectual-property protection. Permutation could protect security of image which charged the correlation among adjacent pixels. Some chaotic maps were used in image permutation; act as baker map or some other maps. But the plain image must be square. At the same time the plain image always is stretched to a line firstly. Obviously, it wasted precious time. The study found the pixels location could arrange freely using some new maps without stretching and those also could encrypt rectangle images not only square image. The ideas of maps were: firstly the plain image was divided into two halves. Using two different scanning methods it could stretch the halves to two different lines. Then it inserted the pixels of a line into the adjacent pixels of another line in order. Lastly the new line could be fold to a new image. For different of scanning methods, it got some different map patterns. A permutation approach was developed which used those patterns. It used decimal numbers as the keys and could permute rectangle images easily. The permutation process was quite fast and enough safe. Deciphering process was an invertible process using the same keys. Some studies proved that high correlation among adjacent pixels was rapidly charged. The approach could satisfy the most security requirements in Internet.
Antennas on circular cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, H. L.
1959-01-01
antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two......On the basis of the results obtained by Silver and Saunders [4] for the field radiated from an arbitrary slot in a perfectly conducting circular cylinder, expressions have been derived for the field radiated by a narrow helical slot, with an arbitrary aperture field distribution, in a circular...... cylindrical surfaces have the sane characteristic constants and different constants are treated separately. Extensive numerical computations of the field radiated from the slot antennas described here are being carried out, but no numerical results are yet available...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tejashree Damle
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Microarray is the gene expression data that represent gene in different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM is a statistical technique for determining whether changes in gene expression are statistically significant. During the SAM procedure permutation of microarray data is considered to observe the changes in the overall expression level of data. With increasing number of permutations false discovery rate for gene set varies. In our work we took microarray data of Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT, and Diabetes Mellitus (DM Type II. In this paper we proposed the result of permutations during execution of SAM algorithm. The hierarchical clustering is applied for observing expression levels of significant data and visualize it with heat map.
Multiple comparisons permutation test for image based data mining in radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comparing incidental dose distributions (i.e. images) of patients with different outcomes is a straightforward way to explore dose-response hypotheses in radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduced a permutation test that compares images, such as dose distributions from radiotherapy, while tackling the multiple comparisons problem. A test statistic Tmax was proposed that summarizes the differences between the images into a single value and a permutation procedure was employed to compute the adjusted p-value. We demonstrated the method in two retrospective studies: a prostate study that relates 3D dose distributions to failure, and an esophagus study that relates 2D surface dose distributions of the esophagus to acute esophagus toxicity. As a result, we were able to identify suspicious regions that are significantly associated with failure (prostate study) or toxicity (esophagus study). Permutation testing allows direct comparison of images from different patient categories and is a useful tool for data mining in radiotherapy
Security enhanced optical encryption system by random phase key and permutation key.
He, Mingzhao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2009-12-01
Conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) encrypts plaintext to white noise-like ciphertext which may attract attention of eavesdroppers, and recent research reported that DRPE is vulnerable to various attacks. Here we propose a security enhanced optical encryption system that can hide the existence of secret information by watermarking. The plaintext is encrypted using iterative fractional Fourier transform with random phase key, and ciphertext is randomly permuted with permutation key before watermarking. Cryptanalysis shows that linearity of the security system has been broken and the permutation key prevent the attacker from accessing the ciphertext in various attacks. A series of simulations have shown the effectiveness of this system and the security strength is enhanced for invisibility, nonlinearity and resistance against attacks. PMID:20052170
Heimann, G; Neuhaus, G
1998-03-01
In the random censorship model, the log-rank test is often used for comparing a control group with different dose groups. If the number of tumors is small, so-called exact methods are often applied for computing critical values from a permutational distribution. Two of these exact methods are discussed and shown to be incorrect. The correct permutational distribution is derived and studied with respect to its behavior under unequal censoring in the light of recent results proving that the permutational version and the unconditional version of the log-rank test are asymptotically equivalent even under unequal censoring. The log-rank test is studied by simulations of a realistic scenario from a bioassay with small numbers of tumors.
Numerical and experimental study of the effects of noise on the permutation entropy
Quintero-Quiroz, C; Torrent, M C; Masoller, Cristina
2015-01-01
We analyze the effects of noise on the permutation entropy of dynamical systems. We take as numerical examples the logistic map and the R\\"ossler system. Upon varying the noise strengthfaster, we find a transition from an almost-deterministic regime, where the permutation entropy grows slower than linearly with the pattern dimension, to a noise-dominated regime, where the permutation entropy grows faster than linearly with the pattern dimension. We perform the same analysis on experimental time-series by considering the stochastic spiking output of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback. Because of the experimental conditions, the dynamics is found to be always in the noise-dominated regime. Nevertheless, the analysis allows to detect regularities of the underlying dynamics. By comparing the results of these three different examples, we discuss the possibility of determining from a time series whether the underlying dynamics is dominated by noise or not.
Bordenave, Charles
2011-01-01
These expository notes are centered around the circular law theorem, which states that the empirical spectral distribution of a n \\times n random matrix with i.i.d. entries of variance 1/n tends to the uniform law on the unit disc of the complex plane as the dimension n tends to infinity. This phenomenon is the non-Hermitian counterpart of the semi circular limit for Wigner random Hermitian matrices, and the quarter circular limit for Marchenko-Pastur random covariance matrices. We present a proof in a Gaussian case, due to Silverstein, based on a formula by Ginibre, and a proof of the universal case by revisiting the approach of Tao and Vu, based on the Hermitization of Girko, the logarithmic potential, and the control of the small singular values. Beyond the finite variance model, we also consider the case where the entries have heavy tails, by using the objective method of Aldous and Steele borrowed from randomized combinatorial optimization. The limiting law is then no longer the circular law and is relat...
Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion
Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary
2013-01-01
The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…
Structured LDPC Codes from Permutation Matrices Free of Small Trapping Sets
Nguyen, Dung Viet; Marcellin, Michael; Chilappagari, Shashi Kiran
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a class of structured lowdensity parity-check (LDPC) codes whose parity check matrices are arrays of permutation matrices. The permutation matrices are obtained from Latin squares and form a finite field under some matrix operations. They are chosen so that the Tanner graphs do not contain subgraphs harmful to iterative decoding algorithms. The construction of column-weight-three codes is presented. Although the codes are optimized for the Gallager A/B algorithm over the binary symmetric channel (BSC), their error performance is very good on the additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC) as well.
EPEPT: A web service for enhanced P-value estimation in permutation tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knijnenburg Theo A
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In computational biology, permutation tests have become a widely used tool to assess the statistical significance of an event under investigation. However, the common way of computing the P-value, which expresses the statistical significance, requires a very large number of permutations when small (and thus interesting P-values are to be accurately estimated. This is computationally expensive and often infeasible. Recently, we proposed an alternative estimator, which requires far fewer permutations compared to the standard empirical approach while still reliably estimating small P-values 1. Results The proposed P-value estimator has been enriched with additional functionalities and is made available to the general community through a public website and web service, called EPEPT. This means that the EPEPT routines can be accessed not only via a website, but also programmatically using any programming language that can interact with the web. Examples of web service clients in multiple programming languages can be downloaded. Additionally, EPEPT accepts data of various common experiment types used in computational biology. For these experiment types EPEPT first computes the permutation values and then performs the P-value estimation. Finally, the source code of EPEPT can be downloaded. Conclusions Different types of users, such as biologists, bioinformaticians and software engineers, can use the method in an appropriate and simple way. Availability http://informatics.systemsbiology.net/EPEPT/
The coupling analysis between stock market indices based on permutation measures
Shi, Wenbin; Shang, Pengjian; Xia, Jianan; Yeh, Chien-Hung
2016-04-01
Many information-theoretic methods have been proposed for analyzing the coupling dependence between time series. And it is significant to quantify the correlation relationship between financial sequences since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Recently, we developed a new permutation-based entropy, called cross-permutation entropy (CPE), to detect the coupling structures between two synchronous time series. In this paper, we extend the CPE method to weighted cross-permutation entropy (WCPE), to address some of CPE's limitations, mainly its inability to differentiate between distinct patterns of a certain motif and the sensitivity of patterns close to the noise floor. It shows more stable and reliable results than CPE does when applied it to spiky data and AR(1) processes. Besides, we adapt the CPE method to infer the complexity of short-length time series by freely changing the time delay, and test it with Gaussian random series and random walks. The modified method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation compared with the conventional one. Finally, the weighted cross-permutation entropy of eight important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.
Permutation test for non-inferiority of the linear to the optimal combination of multiple tests.
Jin, Hua; Lu, Ying
2009-03-01
We proposed a permutation test for non-inferiority of the linear discriminant function to the optimal combination of multiple tests based on Mann-Whitney statistic estimate of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Monte Carlo simulations showed its good performance.
Bo, Pengbo
2011-07-01
The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.
Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo
2013-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva
A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring
Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro
2016-01-01
Objective Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Methods Six MSPE algorithms—derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis—were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. Results CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. Conclusions MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect
Fine-grained permutation entropy as a measure of natural complexity for time series
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Xiao-Feng; Wang Yue
2009-01-01
In a recent paper [2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 174102], Bandt and Pompe propose permutation entropy (PE)as a natural complexity measure for arbitrary time series which may be stationary or nonstationary, deterministic or stochastic. Their method is based on a comparison of neighbouring values. This paper further develops PE, and proposes the concept of fine-grained PE (FGPE) defined by the order pattern and magnitude of the difference between neighbouring values. This measure excludes the case where vectors with a distinct appearance are mistakenly mapped onto the same permutation type, and consequently FGPE becomes more sensitive to the dynamical change of time series than does PE, according to our simulation and experimental results.
Fundamental Group and Euler Characteristic of Permutation Products and Fat Diagonals
Kallel, Sadok
2010-01-01
Permutation products and their various "fat diagonal" subspaces are studied from the topological and geometric point of view. We first write down an expression for the fundamental group of any permutation product of a connected space $X$, having the homotopy type of a simplicial complex, in terms of $\\pi_1(X)$ and $H_1(X;{\\mathbb Z})$. We then prove that the fundamental group of the configuration space of $n$-points on $X$ of which multiplicities do not exceed $n/2$ coincides with $H_1(X;{\\mathbb Z})$. Useful additivity properties for the Euler characteristic are then spelled out and used to give explicit formulae for the Euler characteristics of various fat diagonals. Several examples and calculations are included.
Data Hiding by LSB Substitution Using Genetic Optimal Key-Permutation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marghny Mohamed
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The least significant bit (LSB embedding method is one of the most commonly used techniques; it targets the LSB'sof the host image to hide the data. This paper deals with three main steganography challenges (i.e. capacity, imperceptibility,and security. This is achieved by hybrid data hiding scheme incorporates LSB technique with a key-permutation method. Thepaper also proposes an optimal key permutation method using genetic algorithms for best key selection. Both normal andoptimized methods are tested with standard images, varying both data size as well as key space. Final experimental resultsshow decrement in computation time when increasing number of keys, at the same time system security improves.
A note on the estimation of the Pareto efficient set for multiobjective matrix permutation problems.
Brusco, Michael J; Steinley, Douglas
2012-02-01
There are a number of important problems in quantitative psychology that require the identification of a permutation of the n rows and columns of an n × n proximity matrix. These problems encompass applications such as unidimensional scaling, paired-comparison ranking, and anti-Robinson forms. The importance of simultaneously incorporating multiple objective criteria in matrix permutation applications is well recognized in the literature; however, to date, there has been a reliance on weighted-sum approaches that transform the multiobjective problem into a single-objective optimization problem. Although exact solutions to these single-objective problems produce supported Pareto efficient solutions to the multiobjective problem, many interesting unsupported Pareto efficient solutions may be missed. We illustrate the limitation of the weighted-sum approach with an example from the psychological literature and devise an effective heuristic algorithm for estimating both the supported and unsupported solutions of the Pareto efficient set.
Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on ELCD Permutation Entropy and RVM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Xingmeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the nonstationary characteristic of a gear fault vibration signal, a recognition method based on permutation entropy of ensemble local characteristic-scale decomposition (ELCD and relevance vector machine (RVM is proposed. First, the vibration signal was decomposed by ELCD; then a series of intrinsic scale components (ISCs were obtained. Second, according to the kurtosis of ISCs, principal ISCs were selected and then the permutation entropy of principal ISCs was calculated and they were combined into a feature vector. Finally, the feature vectors were input in RVM classifier to train and test and identify the type of rolling bearing faults. Experimental results show that this method can effectively diagnose four kinds of working condition, and the effect is better than local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-bo Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to satisfy the increasing requirements for secure medical image transmission and storage over public networks. The proposed scheme can simultaneously encrypt and compress the medical image using compressive sensing (CS and pixel swapping based permutation approach. In the CS phase, the plain image is compressed and encrypted by chaos-based Bernoulli measurement matrix, which is generated under the control of the introduced Chebyshev map. The quantized measurements are then encrypted by permutation-diffusion type chaotic cipher for the second level protection. Simulations and extensive security analyses have been performed. The results demonstrate that at a large scale of compression ratio the proposed cryptosystem can provide satisfactory security level and reconstruction quality.
A permutation information theory tour through different interest rate maturities: the Libor case.
Bariviera, Aurelio Fernández; Guercio, María Belén; Martinez, Lisana B; Rosso, Osvaldo A
2015-12-13
This paper analyses Libor interest rates for seven different maturities and referred to operations in British pounds, euros, Swiss francs and Japanese yen, during the period 2001-2015. The analysis is performed by means of two quantifiers derived from information theory: the permutation Shannon entropy and the permutation Fisher information measure. An anomalous behaviour in the Libor is detected in all currencies except euros during the years 2006-2012. The stochastic switch is more severe in one, two and three months maturities. Given the special mechanism of Libor setting, we conjecture that the behaviour could have been produced by the manipulation that was uncovered by financial authorities. We argue that our methodology is pertinent as a market overseeing instrument.
Weck, Peter J; Brown, Michael R; Wicks, Robert T
2014-01-01
The Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy and the Jensen-Shannon statistical complexity are used to analyze fluctuating time series of three different plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the plasma wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX), drift-wave turbulence of ion saturation current fluctuations in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and fully-developed turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the solar wind taken from the WIND spacecraft. The entropy and complexity values are presented as coordinates on the CH plane for comparison among the different plasma environments and other fluctuation models. The solar wind is found to have the highest permutation entropy and lowest statistical complexity of the three data sets analyzed. Both laboratory data sets have larger values of statistical complexity, suggesting these systems have fewer degrees of freedom in their fluctuations, with SSX magnetic fluctuations having slightly less complexity than the LAPD edge fluctuations. The CH ...
Break the Ties for NEH Heuristic in Solving the Permutation Flow Shop Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Shou-wei; LEISTEN Rainer; DAI Yang; ZHANG Wei-dong
2008-01-01
This study deals with the Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (PFSP) based on the maximum completion time (makespan). NEH (the algorithm of Nawaz, Enscore and Ham) is the concluded most efficient constructive method in solving this NP-hard problem. The principal features of its strengths are the initial arrangement of jobs and the job insertion phase. In some instances, ties will occur in both the initial permutation and the partial sequences. The problem of ties breaking may have a significant impact on the NEH performance, but evaluate all the ties will be non-polynomial in the worst case. Several kinds of methods are presented in the paper to break the ties in a quick time. Together with the basic one, all 22 methods are tested on the famous Taillard's benchmarks and the most suitable ties breaking policy is recommended.
Accidental permutation symmetries as a test for Grand Unification: the supersymmetric $SU(5)$ case
Fichet, Sylvain
2016-01-01
Unification of matter fields implies the existence of accidental permutation symmetries, which potentially remain immune to large quantum corrections up to the TeV scale. We investigate the case of a supersymmetric $SU(5)$ grand unified theory, where such a permutation symmetry is present in the up-type squark sector. We present a variety of tests allowing to challenge the $SU(5)$ hypothesis based on the observation of squarks at the LHC. These tests appear as relations among observables involving flavour-violating or chirality-flipping decays of squarks. Moreover, they rely on top-polarimetry and charm-tagging. As an example, we discuss the application to the scenario of Natural Supersymmetry, while more examples can be found in the related journal publications.
Li-bo Zhang; Zhi-liang Zhu; Ben-qiang Yang; Wen-yuan Liu; Hong-feng Zhu; Ming-yu Zou
2015-01-01
This paper presents a solution to satisfy the increasing requirements for secure medical image transmission and storage over public networks. The proposed scheme can simultaneously encrypt and compress the medical image using compressive sensing (CS) and pixel swapping based permutation approach. In the CS phase, the plain image is compressed and encrypted by chaos-based Bernoulli measurement matrix, which is generated under the control of the introduced Chebyshev map. The quantized measureme...
X-s-Permutable Subgroups%X-s-置换子群
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石磊; 郭文彬; 易小兰
2008-01-01
Let X be a nonempty subset of a group G.A subgroup H of G is said to be X-spermutable in G if,for every Sylow subgroup T of G,there exists an element x ∈X such that HTx=Tx H.In this paper,we obtain some results about the X-s-permutable subgroups and use them to determine the structure of some finite groups.
Computationally efficient permutation-based confidence interval estimation for tail-area FDR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua eMillstein
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Challenges of satisfying parametric assumptions in genomic settings with thousands or millions of tests have led investigators to combine powerful False Discovery Rate (FDR approaches with computationally expensive but exact permutation testing. We describe a computationally efficient permutation-based approach that includes a tractable estimator of the proportion of true null hypotheses, the variance of the log of tail-area FDR, and a confidence interval (CI estimator, which accounts for the number of permutations conducted and dependencies between tests. The CI estimator applies a binomial distribution and an overdispersion parameter to counts of positive tests. The approach is general with regards to the distribution of the test statistic, it performs favorably in comparison to other approaches, and reliable FDR estimates are demonstrated with as few as 10 permutations. An application of this approach to relate sleep patterns to gene expression patterns in mouse hypothalamus yielded a set of 11 transcripts associated with 24 hour REM sleep (FDR = .15 (.08, .26. Two of the corresponding genes, Sfrp1 and Sfrp4, are involved in wnt signaling and several others, Irf7, Ifit1, Iigp2, and Ifih1, have links to interferon signaling. These genes would have been overlooked had a typical a priori FDR threshold such as 0.05 or 0.1 been applied. The CI provides the flexibility for choosing a significance threshold based on tolerance for false discoveries and precision of the FDR estimate. That is, it frees the investigator to use a more data-driven approach to define significance, such as the minimum estimated FDR, an option that is especially useful for weak effects, often observed in studies of complex diseases.
A Cell-Based Protein-Protein Interaction Method Using a Permuted Luciferase Reporter
Eishingdrelo, Haifeng; Cai, Jidong; Weissensee, Paul; Sharma, Praveen; Tocci, Michael J; Wright, Paul S
2011-01-01
We have developed a novel cell-based protein-protein interaction assay method. The method relies on conversion of an inactive permuted luciferase containing a Tobacco Etch Virus protease (TEV) cleavage sequence fused onto protein (A) to an active luciferase upon interaction and cleavage by another protein (B) fused with the TEV protease. We demonstrate assay applicability for ligand-induced protein-protein interactions including G-protein coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases and nucle...
On $2$-star-permutability in regular multi-pointed categories
Gran, Marino; Rodelo, Diana
2014-01-01
$2$-star-permutable categories were introduced in a joint work with Z. Janelidze and A. Ursini as a common generalisation of regular Mal'tsev categories and of normal subtractive categories. In the present article we first characterise these categories in terms of what we call star-regular pushouts. We then show that the $3 \\times 3$ Lemma characterising normal subtractive categories and the Cuboid Lemma characterising regular Mal'tsev categories are special instances of a more general homolo...
Li-Ye Zhao; Lei Wang; Ru-Qiang Yan
2015-01-01
This paper presents a rolling bearing fault diagnosis approach by integrating wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) with multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE). The approach uses MPE values of the sub-frequency band signals to identify faults appearing in rolling bearings. Specifically, vibration signals measured from a rolling bearing test system with different defect conditions are decomposed into a set of sub-frequency band signals by means of the WPD method. Then, each sub-frequency band sign...
Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Multiscale Permutation Entropy and Support Vector Machine
Jian-Jiun Ding; Chun-Chieh Wang; Chiu-Wen Wu; Po-Hung Wu; Shuen-De Wu
2012-01-01
Bearing fault diagnosis has attracted significant attention over the past few decades. It consists of two major parts: vibration signal feature extraction and condition classification for the extracted features. In this paper, multiscale permutation entropy (MPE) was introduced for feature extraction from faulty bearing vibration signals. After extracting feature vectors by MPE, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied to automate the fault diagnosis procedure. Simulation results demonstr...
A Highly Nonlinear Differentially 4 Uniform Power Mapping That Permutes Fields of Even Degree
Bracken, Carl; Leander, Gregor
2009-01-01
Functions with low differential uniformity can be used as the s-boxes of symmetric cryptosystems as they have good resistance to differential attacks. The AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) uses a differentially- 4 uniform function called the inverse function. Any function used in a symmetric cryptosystem should be a permutation. Also, it is required that the function is highly nonlinear so that it is resistant to Matsui’s linear attack. In this article we demonstrate that t...
Design-based random permutation models with auxiliary information(¶)
Li, Wenjun; Stanek, Edward J; Singer, Julio M
2012-01-01
We extend the random permutation model to obtain the best linear unbiased estimator of a finite population mean accounting for auxiliary variables under simple random sampling without replacement (SRS) or stratified SRS. The proposed method provides a systematic design-based justification for well-known results involving common estimators derived under minimal assumptions that do not require specification of a functional relationship between the response and the auxiliary variables. PMID:23645951
Construction Zero Cross Correlation Code using Permutation Matrix for SAC-OCDMA Systems
Nisar, K. S.
2016-01-01
This paper present a new method for constructing zero cross correlation code with the help of permutation matrices. The benefits of this newly proposed code are easy way code construction, the code weight exist for every natural number and the code length is acceptable. The numerical comparison shows that the proposed code has better or compatible code length compared with other existing zero cross correlation code in Optical Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (OSCDMA) systems.
Flavour symmetry as a Spontaneously Broken Discrete Permutation Symmetry Embedded in Colour
Törnqvist, N A
1999-01-01
A new mechanism for breaking an internal symmetry spontaneously is discussed, which is intermediate between the Nambu-Goldstone and Wigner modes of symmetry breaking. Here the quark-antiquark sea takes the role of the vacuum of the Nambu-Goldstone case. Flavour symmetry becomes a discrete permutation symmetry of the valence quarks with respect to the sea quarks, which can be spontaneously broken without generation of massless Goldstone bosons.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg
2014-01-01
It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...
Circular PVDF Airborne Transducer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAO Li-hua; XU Li-mei; HONG Hu
2007-01-01
With the required increased audio pressure of the parametric ultrasonic transducer array and the difficulty to theoretically analyse the complex ultrasonic structure in audio beam application, an computafionally efficient model is desired to describe the characteristic of the parametric ultrasonic transducer array for the system design and optimization. By applying the symmetry boundary conditions at the mid-plane in the thickness direction, a finite element model based on the half thickness simplification is presented to analyze the parametric circular transducer which is designed by gluing the poly Vinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by a comparison of finite element aalysis results with the theoretical value and experimental data, which show that they are making a good agreement with each other.
Hippocampal activation during face-name associative memory encoding: blocked versus permuted design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Vogelaere, Frederick; Vingerhoets, Guy [Ghent University, Laboratory for Neuropsychology, Department of Neurology, Ghent (Belgium); Santens, Patrick; Boon, Paul [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Erik [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)
2010-01-15
The contribution of the hippocampal subregions to episodic memory through the formation of new associations between previously unrelated items such as faces and names is established but remains under discussion. Block design studies in this area of research generally tend to show posterior hippocampal activation during encoding of novel associational material while event-related studies emphasize anterior hippocampal involvement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the involvement of anterior and posterior hippocampus in the encoding of novel associational material compared to the viewing of previously seen associational material. We used two different experimental designs, a block design and a permuted block design, and applied it to the same associative memory task to perform valid statistical comparisons. Our results indicate that the permuted design was able to capture more anterior hippocampal activation compared to the block design, which emphasized more posterior hippocampal involvement. These differences were further investigated and attributed to a combination of the polymodal stimuli we used and the experimental design. Activation patterns during encoding in both designs occurred along the entire longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, but with different centers of gravity. The maximal activated voxel in the block design was situated in the posterior half of the hippocampus while in the permuted design this was located in the anterior half. (orig.)
Ram, Sumit Kumar; Molinas, Marta
2016-01-01
This article presents the applicability of Permutation Entropy based complexity measure of a time series for detection of fault in wind turbines. A set of electrical data from one faulty and one healthy wind turbine were analysed using traditional FastFourier analysis in addition to Permutation Entropy analysis to compare the complexity index of phase currents of the two turbines over time. The 4 seconds length data set did not reveal any low frequency in the spectra of currents, neither did they show any meaningful differences of spectrum between the two turbine currents. Permutation Entropy analysis of the current waveforms of same phases for the two turbines are found to have different complexity values over time, one of them being clearly higher than the other. The work of Yan et. al. in has found that higher entropy values related to thepresence of failure in rotary machines in his study. Following this track, further efforts will be put into relating the entropy difference found in our study to possible...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadia Mammone
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Permutation entropy (PE has been widely exploited to measure the complexity of the electroencephalogram (EEG, especially when complexity is linked to diagnostic information embedded in the EEG. Recently, the authors proposed a spatial-temporal analysis of the EEG recordings of absence epilepsy patients based on PE. The goal here is to improve the ability of PE in discriminating interictal states from ictal states in absence seizure EEG. For this purpose, a parametrical definition of permutation entropy is introduced here in the field of epileptic EEG analysis: the permutation Rényi entropy (PEr. PEr has been extensively tested against PE by tuning the involved parameters (order, delay time and alpha. The achieved results demonstrate that PEr outperforms PE, as there is a statistically-significant, wider gap between the PEr levels during the interictal states and PEr levels observed in the ictal states compared to PE. PEr also outperformed PE as the input to a classifier aimed at discriminating interictal from ictal states.
Revisiting the European sovereign bonds with a permutation-information-theory approach
Fernández Bariviera, Aurelio; Zunino, Luciano; Guercio, María Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.
2013-12-01
In this paper we study the evolution of the informational efficiency in its weak form for seventeen European sovereign bonds time series. We aim to assess the impact of two specific economic situations in the hypothetical random behavior of these time series: the establishment of a common currency and a wide and deep financial crisis. In order to evaluate the informational efficiency we use permutation quantifiers derived from information theory. Specifically, time series are ranked according to two metrics that measure the intrinsic structure of their correlations: permutation entropy and permutation statistical complexity. These measures provide the rectangular coordinates of the complexity-entropy causality plane; the planar location of the time series in this representation space reveals the degree of informational efficiency. According to our results, the currency union contributed to homogenize the stochastic characteristics of the time series and produced synchronization in the random behavior of them. Additionally, the 2008 financial crisis uncovered differences within the apparently homogeneous European sovereign markets and revealed country-specific characteristics that were partially hidden during the monetary union heyday.
Weck, P J; Schaffner, D A; Brown, M R; Wicks, R T
2015-02-01
The Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy and the Jensen-Shannon statistical complexity are used to analyze fluctuating time series of three different turbulent plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the plasma wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX), drift-wave turbulence of ion saturation current fluctuations in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), and fully developed turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the solar wind taken from the Wind spacecraft. The entropy and complexity values are presented as coordinates on the CH plane for comparison among the different plasma environments and other fluctuation models. The solar wind is found to have the highest permutation entropy and lowest statistical complexity of the three data sets analyzed. Both laboratory data sets have larger values of statistical complexity, suggesting that these systems have fewer degrees of freedom in their fluctuations, with SSX magnetic fluctuations having slightly less complexity than the LAPD edge I(sat). The CH plane coordinates are compared to the shape and distribution of a spectral decomposition of the wave forms. These results suggest that fully developed turbulence (solar wind) occupies the lower-right region of the CH plane, and that other plasma systems considered to be turbulent have less permutation entropy and more statistical complexity. This paper presents use of this statistical analysis tool on solar wind plasma, as well as on an MHD turbulent experimental plasma.
Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars
HR Department
2011-01-01
Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office
Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-03-13
A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank
2015-01-01
In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The interna...
Towards Future Circular Colliders
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank
2016-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank
2015-01-01
In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The internat...
Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna
Stanton, P. H.
1985-01-01
Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.
Multistage Off-Line Permutation Packet Routing on a Mesh: An Approach with Elementary Mathematics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kevin Chiew; Yingjiu Li
2009-01-01
Various methods have been proposed for off-line permutation packet routing on a mesh. One of the methods is known as multistage routing, in which the first stage is crucial. For the first stage of routing, the previous study normally converts it to a problem of graph theory and proves the existence of solutions. However, there is a lack of simple algorithms to the first stage of routing. This article presents an explicit and simple approach for the first stage of routing based on elementary mathematics.
Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS
O'Gorman, Thomas W
2012-01-01
Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma
A NEW ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR THE SHUFFLE-EXCHANGE PERMUTATION NETWORK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Baoxing CHEN; Wenjun XIAO; Ni DU
2006-01-01
In this paper, a new routing algorithm is given for the shuffle-exchange permutation network (SEPn). The length of the path between any two nodes given by our algorithm is not more than 11/16n2 +O(n), i.e., the diameter of SEPn is at most 11/16n2+O(n). This improves on a 1/8(9n2 -22n+24)routing algorithm described earlier by S. Latifi and P. K. Srimani. We also show that the diameter of SEPn is more than 1/2n2-n.
Wilson, S.
1977-01-01
A method is presented for the determination of the representation matrices of the spin permutation group (symmetric group), a detailed knowledge of these matrices being required in the study of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. The method is characterized by the use of two different coupling schemes. Unlike the Yamanouchi spin algebraic scheme, the method is not recursive. The matrices for the fundamental transpositions can be written down directly in one of the two bases. The method results in a computationally significant reduction in the number of matrix elements that have to be stored when compared with, say, the standard Young tableaux group theoretical approach.
A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ute
of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable....... It also shows improved behavior compared to a test suggested by Diggle et al. (1991, 2000) for the comparison of groups of independently replicated point patterns. In an application to two point patterns from pathology that represent capillary positions in sections of healthy and tumorous tissue, our...
Impact of Energetically Accessible Proton Permutations in the Spectroscopy and Dynamics of H{_5^+}
Lin, Zhou; McCoy, Anne B.
2016-06-01
H{_5^+} has been proposed to be the intermediate of the astrochemically interesting proton transfer reaction H_3^+ + H_2 → H_2 + H_3^+. The scrambling of five protons in this floppy, ``structureless'' ion introduces complications to its high-resolution rovibrational spectroscopy and the proton transfer dynamics between H{_3^+} and H_2. Quantum chemical studies are performed to predict and interpret the spectroscopic and dynamical properties of H{_5^+}, with special consideration paid to the group theoretical aspects. If the full permutation of protons were allowed in H{_5^+}, just like in CH{_5^+}, the system should have been characterized by the G240 complete permutation-inversion group. However, our diffusion Monte Carlo calculations indicate that such a full permutation is not allowed for most of the molecular configurations sampled by the reaction path of the proton transfer process in question, and the energetically accessible permutations are functions of the distance between the H{_3^+} and H_2 fragments. In the present study, we investigate two extreme geometries of H{_5^+}, the [H_2-H-H_2]^+ shared-proton intermediate and the H_3^+\\cdots H_2 long-range complex, using two subgroups of G240, G16 and G24, respectively. In these two limiting circumstances, we derive the symmetry-adapted basis functions for the energy levels that describe the nuclear spins and the rovibrational motions of H{_5^+}. Based on the results of these derivations, we discuss the spectroscopic properties of H{_5^+}, including the coupling between different rovibrational degrees of freedom in the effective nuclear motion Hamiltonian, the electric-dipole selection rules for rovibrational spectroscopy, and correlations of energy levels between [H_2-H-H_2]^+ and H_3^+\\cdots H_2. Our study can be considered as the first step towards the implementation of future quantitative theoretical investigations for comparison with spectroscopic and dynamical experiments. X.-G. Wang and T
Analyzing Permutations for AES-like Ciphers: Understanding ShiftRows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beierle, Christof; Jovanovic, Philipp; Lauridsen, Martin Mehl;
2015-01-01
by the operation resembling ShiftRows has never been studied in depth. Here, we provide the first structured study of the influence of ShiftRows-like operations, or more generally, word-wise permutations, in AES-like ciphers with respect to diffusion properties and resistance towards differential- and linear...... normal form. Using a mixed-integer linear programming approach, we obtain optimal parameters for a wide range of AES-like ciphers, and show improvements on parameters for Rijndael-192, Rijndael-256, PRIMATEs-80 and Prøst-128. As a separate result, we show for specific cases of the state geometry...
The Influence of s-Conditional Permutability of Subgroups on the Structure of Finite Groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Juan NIU; Wen Bin GU; Yu Feng LIU
2011-01-01
Let G be a finite group.Fix a prime divisor p of |G|and a Sylow p-subgroup P of G, let d be the smallest generator number of P and Md(P) denote a family of maximal subgroups P1, P2,…,Pd of P satisfying ∩idPi＝Φ(P), the Frattini subgroup of P.In this paper, we shall investigate the influence of s-conditional permutability of the members of some fixed Md(P) on the structure of finite groups.Some new results are obtained and some known results are generalized.
Circular dichroism readout of sugar recognition in the cleft of a fused-pyridine receptor
Tamaru, Shun-ichi; Shinkai, Seiji; Khasanov, Alisher B.; Bell, Thomas W.
2002-01-01
Dicarboxamide host 2 forms 1:1 complexes with n-octyl pyranosides derived from d-glucose, d-mannose, d-galactose, d-fucose, d-lyxose, and d-arabinose. Association constants (Ka) in the range of 77–940 M−1 were measured in chloroform by means of induced circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Variations in Ka values correspond qualitatively to expected differences in hydrogen-bonding abilities of guest hydroxyl groups. Induced circular dichroism effects for...
Linear algebra of the permutation invariant Crow-Kimura model of prebiotic evolution.
Bratus, Alexander S; Novozhilov, Artem S; Semenov, Yuri S
2014-10-01
A particular case of the famous quasispecies model - the Crow-Kimura model with a permutation invariant fitness landscape - is investigated. Using the fact that the mutation matrix in the case of a permutation invariant fitness landscape has a special tridiagonal form, a change of the basis is suggested such that in the new coordinates a number of analytical results can be obtained. In particular, using the eigenvectors of the mutation matrix as the new basis, we show that the quasispecies distribution approaches a binomial one and give simple estimates for the speed of convergence. Another consequence of the suggested approach is a parametric solution to the system of equations determining the quasispecies. Using this parametric solution we show that our approach leads to exact asymptotic results in some cases, which are not covered by the existing methods. In particular, we are able to present not only the limit behavior of the leading eigenvalue (mean population fitness), but also the exact formulas for the limit quasispecies eigenvector for special cases. For instance, this eigenvector has a geometric distribution in the case of the classical single peaked fitness landscape. On the biological side, we propose a mathematical definition, based on the closeness of the quasispecies to the binomial distribution, which can be used as an operational definition of the notorious error threshold. Using this definition, we suggest two approximate formulas to estimate the critical mutation rate after which the quasispecies delocalization occurs.
Matrix genetics, part 1: permutations of positions in triplets and symmetries of genetic matrices
Petoukhov, Sergey V
2008-01-01
The hidden connection between the degeneracy of the vertebrate mitochondria genetic code and the positional permutations inside genetic triplets is described. The Kronecker family of the genetic matrices is investigated, which is based on the genetic matrix [C A; U G], where C, A, U, G are the letters of the genetic alphabet. The natural system of binary numeration of genetic multiplets in the genetic matrices is proposed. The matrix [C A; U G] in the third Kronecker power is the (8*8)-matrix, which contains 64 triplets. When 64 triplets in this matrix are numbered in accordance with the natural system, the coincidence with the famous table of 64 hexagrams of the ancient Chinese book "I Ching" arises. It is significant that peculiarities of the degeneracy of the vertebrate mitochondria genetic code are reflected in the symmetrical black-and-white mosaic of this genetic (8*8)-matrix of 64 triplets. This matrix is reformed into a new mosaic matrix when internal positions in all triplets are permuted simultaneou...
An algorithm for permutationally invariant state reconstruction for larger qubit numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moroder, Tobias [IQOQI, Innsbruck (Austria); Hyllus, Philipp [Department Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Toth, Geza [Department Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Budapest (Hungary); Schwemmer, Christian; Niggebaum, Alexander; Weinfurter, Harald [MPQ, Garching (Germany); Fakultaet Physik, LMU, Muenchen (Germany); Gaile, Stefanie [DTU Mathematics, Lyngby (Denmark); Guehne, Otfried [IQOQI, Innsbruck (Austria); Department Physik, Siegen (Germany)
2012-07-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, also an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since this state reconstruction task typically requires the solution of a non-linear large-scale optimization problem, this becomes another major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. In this talk we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant tomography [PRL 105, 250403]. It works for common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, among others, maximum likelihood and least squares which are the preferred choices in experiments. This is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin-coupling and moreover by using convex optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations allow state reconstruction of 20 qubits in about 20 minutes on a standard computer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhijie Bian
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Diabetes is a significant public health issue as it increases the risk for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this study, we aim to investigate whether weighted-permutation entropy (WPE and permutation entropy (PE of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as potential objective biomarkers to distinguish type 2 diabetes patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from those with normal cognitive function. rsEEG series were acquired from 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls, and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signals were analysed using WPE and PE methods. The correlations between the PE or WPE of the rsEEG and the neuropsychological assessments were analysed as well. The WPE in the right temporal (RT region of the aMCI diabetics was lower than the controls, and the WPE was significantly positively correlated to the scores of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT (AVLT-Immediate recall, AVLT-Delayed recall, AVLT-Delayed recognition and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span Test (WAIS-DST. These findings were not obtained with PE. We concluded that the WPE of rsEEG recordings could distinguish aMCI diabetics from normal cognitive function diabetic controls among the current sample of diabetic patients. Thus, the WPE could be a potential index for assisting diagnosis of aMCI in type 2 diabetes.
Xu, Ye; Wang, Ling; Wang, Shengyao; Liu, Min
2014-09-01
In this article, an effective hybrid immune algorithm (HIA) is presented to solve the distributed permutation flow-shop scheduling problem (DPFSP). First, a decoding method is proposed to transfer a job permutation sequence to a feasible schedule considering both factory dispatching and job sequencing. Secondly, a local search with four search operators is presented based on the characteristics of the problem. Thirdly, a special crossover operator is designed for the DPFSP, and mutation and vaccination operators are also applied within the framework of the HIA to perform an immune search. The influence of parameter setting on the HIA is investigated based on the Taguchi method of design of experiment. Extensive numerical testing results based on 420 small-sized instances and 720 large-sized instances are provided. The effectiveness of the HIA is demonstrated by comparison with some existing heuristic algorithms and the variable neighbourhood descent methods. New best known solutions are obtained by the HIA for 17 out of 420 small-sized instances and 585 out of 720 large-sized instances.
Estimating temporal causal interaction between spike trains with permutation and transfer entropy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaohui Li
Full Text Available Estimating the causal interaction between neurons is very important for better understanding the functional connectivity in neuronal networks. We propose a method called normalized permutation transfer entropy (NPTE to evaluate the temporal causal interaction between spike trains, which quantifies the fraction of ordinal information in a neuron that has presented in another one. The performance of this method is evaluated with the spike trains generated by an Izhikevich's neuronal model. Results show that the NPTE method can effectively estimate the causal interaction between two neurons without influence of data length. Considering both the precision of time delay estimated and the robustness of information flow estimated against neuronal firing rate, the NPTE method is superior to other information theoretic method including normalized transfer entropy, symbolic transfer entropy and permutation conditional mutual information. To test the performance of NPTE on analyzing simulated biophysically realistic synapses, an Izhikevich's cortical network that based on the neuronal model is employed. It is found that the NPTE method is able to characterize mutual interactions and identify spurious causality in a network of three neurons exactly. We conclude that the proposed method can obtain more reliable comparison of interactions between different pairs of neurons and is a promising tool to uncover more details on the neural coding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nader Ghaffari-Nasab
2010-07-01
Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been increasing interests on permutation flow shop with different types of objective functions such as minimizing the makespan, the weighted mean flow-time etc. The permutation flow shop is formulated as a mixed integer programming and it is classified as NP-Hard problem. Therefore, a direct solution is not available and meta-heuristic approaches need to be used to find the near-optimal solutions. In this paper, we present a new discrete firefly meta-heuristic to minimize the makespan for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The results of implementation of the proposed method are compared with other existing ant colony optimization technique. The preliminary results indicate that the new proposed method performs better than the ant colony for some well known benchmark problems.
Circularly polarized open-loop antenna
Li, Rong-Lin; Fusco, Vincent F.; Nakano, Hisamatsu
2003-01-01
A printed circular open-loop antenna is introduced as a simple structure for producing circular polarization; the antenna is fed with a coaxial probe. By introducing a gap within the circular loop a traveling-wave current is excited and thus circularly polarized radiation can be achieved. An optimized circularly polarized antenna is designed through numerical analysis using a so-called parametric method of moment technique. Experimental verification of the new antenna is presented. The antenn...
Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Nietfeld, W; A. Engel; Neukammer, J.; Nitschke, R.; Ebert, P.; Macdonald, R
2005-01-01
The scope of this paper is to illustrate the need for an improved quality assurance in fluorometry. For this purpose, instrumental sources of error and their influences on the reliability and comparability of fluorescence data are highlighted for frequently used photoluminescence techniques ranging from conventional macro- and microfluorometry over fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to microarray technology as well as in vivo fluorescence imaging. Particularly, the need for and requir...
Implementing circularity using partial evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawall, Julia Laetitia
2001-01-01
Complex data dependencies can often be expressed concisely by defining a variable in terms of part of its own value. Such a circular reference can be naturally expressed in a lazy functional language or in an attribute grammar. In this paper, we consider circular references in the context...... of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful...
Podokinetic circular vection: characteristics and interaction with optokinetic circular vection.
Becker, W; Kliegl, K; Kassubek, J; Jürgens, R
2016-07-01
Stabilising horizontal body orientation in space without sight on a rotating platform by holding to a stationary structure and circular 'treadmill' stepping in the opposite direction can elicit an illusion of self-turning in space (Bles and Kapteyn in Agressologie 18:325-328, 1977). Because this illusion is analogous to the well-known illusion of optokinetic circular vection (oCV), we call it 'podokinetic circular vection' (pCV) here. Previous studies using eccentric stepping on a path tangential to the rotation found that pCV was always contraversive relative to platform rotation. In contrast, when our subjects stepped at the centre of rotation about their vertical axis, we observed an inverted, ipsiversive pCV as a reproducible trait in many of our subjects. This ipCV occurred at the same latency as the pCV of subjects reporting the actually expected contraversive direction, but had lower gain. In contrast to pCV, the nystagmus accompanying circular treadmill stepping had the same direction in all individuals (slow phase in the direction of platform motion). The direction of an individual's pCV predicted the characteristics of the CV resulting from combined opto- and podokinetic stimulation (circular treadmill stepping while viewing a pattern rotating together with the platform): in individuals with contraversive pCV, latency shortened and both gain and felt naturalness increased in comparison with pure oCV, whereas the opposite (longer latency, reduced gain and naturalness) occurred in individuals with ipCV. Taken together, the reproducibility of ipCV, the constant direction of nystagmus and the fact that pCV direction predicts the outcome of combined stimulation suggest that ipCV is an individual trait of many subjects during compensatory stepping at the centre of rotation. A hypothetical model is presented of how ipCV possibly could arise. PMID:26965438
Hu, Yuwei; Ren, Jiangtao; Lu, Chun-Hua; Willner, Itamar
2016-07-13
The switchable pH-driven reversible assembly and dissociation of interlocked circular DNA dimers is presented. The circular DNA dimers are interconnected by pH-responsive nucleic acid bridges. In one configuration, the two-ring nanostructure is separated at pH = 5.0 to individual rings by reconfiguring the interlocking bridges into C-G·C(+) triplex units, and the two-ring assembly is reformed at pH = 7.0. In the second configuration, the dimer of circular DNAs is bridged at pH = 7.0 by the T-A·T triplex bridging units that are separated at pH = 10.0, leading to the dissociation of the dimer to single circular DNA nanostructures. The two circular DNA units are also interconnected by two pH-responsive locks. The pH-programmed opening of the locks at pH = 5.0 or pH = 10.0 yields two isomeric dimer structures composed of two circular DNAs. The switchable reconfigured states of the circular DNA nanostructures are followed by time-dependent fluorescence changes of fluorophore/quencher labeled systems and by complementary gel electrophoresis experiments. The dimer circular DNA structures are further implemented as scaffolds for the assembly of Au nanoparticle dimers exhibiting controlled spatial separation. PMID:27225955
Accurate DOSY measure of out-of-equilibrium systems by permutated DOSY (p-DOSY)
Oikonomou, Maria; Velders, Aldrik H; Delsuc, Marc-André
2015-01-01
NMR spectroscopy is a perfect tool for monitoring in-situ chemical reactions. In particular, DOSY measurement is well suited to characterize transient species by the determination of their sizes. However, here we bring to light a difficulty in the DOSY experiments performed on out-of-equilibrium systems. On such a system, the evolution of the concentration of species interferes with the measurement process, and creates a bias on the diffusion coefficient determination that may lead to erroneous interpretations. We show that a random permutation of the series of gradient strengths used during the DOSY experiment allows to average out this bias. This approach, that we name p-DOSY does not require changes in the the pulse sequences nor in the processing software, and restores completely the full accuracy of the measure. This technique is demonstrated on the monitoring of the anomerization reaction of $\\alpha$ to $\\beta$ glucose.
Multivariate permutation entropy and its application for complexity analysis of chaotic systems
He, Shaobo; Sun, Kehui; Wang, Huihai
2016-11-01
To measure the complexity of multivariate systems, the multivariate permutation entropy (MvPE) algorithm is proposed. It is employed to measure complexity of multivariate system in the phase space. As an application, MvPE is applied to analyze the complexity of chaotic systems, including hyperchaotic Hénon map, fractional-order simplified Lorenz system and financial chaotic system. Results show that MvPE algorithm is effective for analyzing the complexity of the multivariate systems. It also shows that fractional-order system does not become more complex with derivative order varying. Compared with PE, MvPE has better robustness for noise and sampling interval, and the results are not affected by different normalization methods.
Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.
Karlin, S; Williams, P T
1984-07-01
A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.
Iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated Block codes using cyclic permutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Allouch
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Iterative decoding techniques have gain popularity due to their performance and their application in most communications systems. In this paper, we present a new application of our iterative decoder on the GPCB (Generalized Parallel Concatenated Block codes which uses cyclic permutations. We introduce a new variant of the component decoder. After extensive simulation; the obtained result is very promising compared with several existing methods. We evaluate the effects of various parameters component codes, interleaver size, block size, and the number of iterations. Three interesting results are obtained; the first one is that the performances in terms of BER (Bit Error Rate of the new constituent decoder are relatively similar to that of original one. Secondly our turbo decoding outperforms another turbo decoder for some linear block codes. Thirdly the proposed iterative decoding of GPCB-BCH (75, 51 is about 2.1dB from its Shannon limit.
Bit Reversal through Direct Fourier Permutation Method and Vectorial Digit Reversal Generalization
Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie
2011-01-01
This paper describes the Direct Fourier Permuation Algorithm, an efficient method of computing Bit Reversal of natural indices [1, 2, 3, ..., 2^k] in a vectorial manner (k iterations) and also proposes the Vectorial Digit Reversal Algorithm, a natural generalization of Direct Fourier Permutation Algorithm that is enabled to compute the r-digit reversal of natural indices [1, 2, 3, ..., r^k] where r is an arbitrary radix. Matlab functions implementing these two algo- rithms and various test and comparative results are presented in this paper to support the idea of inclusion of these two algorithms in the next Matlab Signal Processing Toolbox official distribution package as much faster alternatives to current Matlab functions bitrevorder and digitrevorder.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanov, Andrey; Knudsen, L.R.; Leander, Gregor;
2012-01-01
This paper considers—for the first time—the concept of key-alternating ciphers in a provable security setting. Key-alternating ciphers can be seen as a generalization of a construction proposed by Even and Mansour in 1991. This construction builds a block cipher PX from an n-bit permutation P and...
广义置换图的最大亏格%Maximum Genus of the Generalized Permutation Graph
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马登举; 任韩
2008-01-01
In this paper we prove that the generalized permutation graph G(n, k) is upper embeddable if it has at most two odd subcycles, and that the maximum genus of G(n,k) is more than [β(G(n,k))/3] in most cases.
Circular RNA expands its territory.
Bao, Chunyang; Lyu, Dongbin; Huang, Shenglin
2016-03-01
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a novel class of widespread non-coding RNAs in eukaryotes. They are unusually stable RNA molecules with cell type-specific expression patterns, and are predominantly present in the cytoplasm. We recently demonstrated the existence of abundant circRNAs in exosomes and suggest a potential application of exosomal circRNAs for cancer detection. PMID:27308606
Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence
Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.
1980-01-01
While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and
Aalto, Juha; Pirinen, Pentti; Jylhä, Kirsti
2016-04-01
Long-term time series of key climate variables with a relevant spatiotemporal resolution are essential for environmental science. Moreover, such spatially continuous data, based on weather observations, are commonly used in, e.g., downscaling and bias correcting of climate model simulations. Here we conducted a comprehensive spatial interpolation scheme where seven climate variables (daily mean, maximum, and minimum surface air temperatures, daily precipitation sum, relative humidity, sea level air pressure, and snow depth) were interpolated over Finland at the spatial resolution of 10 × 10 km2. More precisely, (1) we produced daily gridded time series (FMI_ClimGrid) of the variables covering the period of 1961-2010, with a special focus on evaluation and permutation-based uncertainty estimates, and (2) we investigated temporal trends in the climate variables based on the gridded data. National climate station observations were supplemented by records from the surrounding countries, and kriging interpolation was applied to account for topography and water bodies. For daily precipitation sum and snow depth, a two-stage interpolation with a binary classifier was deployed for an accurate delineation of areas with no precipitation or snow. A robust cross-validation indicated a good agreement between the observed and interpolated values especially for the temperature variables and air pressure, although the effect of seasons was evident. Permutation-based analysis suggested increased uncertainty toward northern areas, thus identifying regions with suboptimal station density. Finally, several variables had a statistically significant trend indicating a clear but locally varying signal of climate change during the last five decades.
Ritus, V. I.
2008-07-01
The asymmetry of the relativistic addition law for noncollinear velocities under the velocity permutation leads to two modified triangles on a Euclidean plane depicting the addition of unpermuted and permuted velocities and the appearance of a nonzero angle ω between two resulting velocities. A particle spin rotates through the same angle ω under a Lorentz boost with a velocity noncollinear to the particle velocity. Three mutually connected three-parameter representations of the angle ω, obtained by the author earlier, express the three-parameter symmetry of the sides and angles of two Euclidean triangles identical to the sine and cosine theorems for the sides and angles of a single geodesic triangle on the surface of a pseudosphere. Namely, all three representations of the angle ω, after a transformation of one of them, coincide with the representations of the area of a pseudospherical triangle expressed in terms of any two of its sides and the angle between them. The angle ω is also symmetrically expressed in terms of three angles or three sides of a geodesic triangle, and therefore it is an invariant of the group of triangle motions over the pseudo-sphere surface, the group that includes the Lorentz group. Although the pseudospheres in Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces are locally isometric, only the latter is isometric to the entire Lobachevsky plane and forms a homogeneous isotropic curved 4-velocity space in the flat Minkowski space. In this connection, relativistic physical processes that may be related to the pseudosphere in Euclidean space are especially interesting.
Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.
1995-01-01
Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.
Convex mappings on some circular domains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,we consider some circular domains.And we give an extension theorem for some normalized biholomorphic convex mapping on some circular domains.Especially,we discover the normalized biholomorphic convex mapping on some circular domains have the form f(z) =(f1(z1),...,fn(zn)),where fj:D → C are normalized biholomorphic convex mapping.
Energy dissipation in circular tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.D. Girgidov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Energy dissipation distribution along the circular tube radius is important in solving such problems as calculation of heat transfer by the air flow through building envelope; calculation of pressure loss in spiral flows; calculation of cyclones with axial and tangential supply of dust-containing gas.Two types of one-dimensional radially axisymmetric flows in circular tube were considered: axial flow and rotation about the axis (Rankine vortex. Relying on two- and four-layer description of axial turbulent flow energy dissipation was calculated in each layer.Similar calculation for Rankine vortex with viscous sublayer at the tube surface was provided. By employing the dissipation minimum principle the boundary radius between rigid rotation and free vortex is calculated. Approximation of the velocity distribution in Rankine vortex is proposed.
Gohil, Trushar B; Muralidhar, K
2010-01-01
The present study report direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a circular jet and the effect of a large scale perturbation at the jet inlet. The perturbation is used to control the jet for increased spreading. Dual-mode perturbation is obtained by combining an axisymmetric excitation with the helical. In the fluid dynamics videos, an active control of the circular jet at a Reynolds number of 2000 for various frequency ratios (both integer and non-integer) has been demonstrated. When the frequency ratio is fixed to 2, bifurcation of the jet on a plane is evident. However, for a non-integer frequency ratio, the axisymmetric jet is seen to bloom in all directions.
Capacitance of circular patch resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miano, G.; Verolino, L. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettrica, Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Panariello, G. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Naples (Italy); Vaccaro, V.G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche
1995-11-01
In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants.
Total positive curvature of circular DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper Wibeck
2013-01-01
micro-DNAs longer than the minimum length must be concave, a result that is consistent with typical atomic force microscopy images of plasmids. Predictions for the total positive curvature of circular micro-DNAs are given as a function of length, and comparisons with circular DNAs from the literature...... molecules, e.g., plasmids, it is shown to have implications for the total positive curvature integral. For small circular micro-DNAs it follows as a consequence of Fenchel's inequality that there must exist a minimum length for the circular plasmids to be double stranded. It also follows that all circular...
Circular Polarization in Pulsar Integrated Profiles: Updates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
We update the systematic studies of circular polarization in integrated pulse profiles by Han et al. Data of circular polarization profiles are compiled. Sense reversals can occur in core or cone components, or near the intersection between components. The correlation between the sense of circular polarization and the sense of position angle variation for conal-double pulsars is confirmed with a much large database. Circular polarization of some pulsars has clear changes with frequency.Circular polarization of millisecond pulsars is marginally different from that of normal pulsars.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haas Jürgen
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screens have been among the most powerful methods to detect and analyze protein-protein interactions. However, they suffer from a significant degree of false negatives, i.e. true interactions that are not detected, and to a certain degree from false positives, i.e. interactions that appear to take place only in the context of the Y2H assay. While the fraction of false positives remains difficult to estimate, the fraction of false negatives in typical Y2H screens is on the order of 70-90%. Here we present novel Y2H vectors that significantly decrease the number of false negatives and help to mitigate the false positive problem. Results We have constructed two new vectors (pGBKCg and pGADCg that allow us to make both C-terminal fusion proteins of DNA-binding and activation domains. Both vectors can be combined with existing vectors for N-terminal fusions and thus allow four different bait-prey combinations: NN, CC, NC, and CN. We have tested all ~4,900 pairwise combinations of the 70 Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV proteins for interactions, using all possible combinations. About ~20,000 individual Y2H tests resulted in 182 NN, 89 NC, 149 CN, and 144 CC interactions. Overlap between screens ranged from 17% (NC-CN to 43% (CN-CC. Performing four screens (i.e. permutations instead of one resulted in about twice as many interactions and thus much fewer false negatives. In addition, interactions that are found in multiple combinations confirm each other and thus provide a quality score. This study is the first systematic analysis of such N- and C-terminal Y2H vectors. Conclusions Permutations of C- and N-terminal Y2H vectors dramatically increase the coverage of interactome studies and thus significantly reduce the number of false negatives. We suggest that future interaction screens should use such vector combinations on a routine basis, not the least because they provide a built-in quality score for Y2H
Mixing in Circular and Non-circular Jets in Crossflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salewski, Mirko; Stankovic, D.; Fuchs, L.
2008-01-01
Coherent structures and mixing in the flow field of a jet in crossflow have been studied using computational (large eddy simulation) and experimental (particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence) techniques. The mean scalar fields and turbulence statistics as determined by both...
Application of permutation to lossless compression of multispectral thematic mapper images
Arnavut, Ziya; Narumalani, Sunil
1996-12-01
The goal of data compression is to find shorter representations for any given data. In a data storage application, this s done in order to save storage space on an auxiliary device or, in the case of a communication scenario, to increase channel throughput. Because remotely sensed data require tremendous amounts of transmission and storage space, it is essential to find good algorithms that utilize the spatial and spectral characteristics of these data to compress them. A new technique is presented that uses a spectral and spatial correlation to create orderly data for the compression of multispectral remote sensing data, such as those acquired by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor system. The method described simply compresses one of the bands using the standard Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression, and then orders the next band's data with respect to the previous sorting permutation. Then, the move-to-front coding technique is used to lower the source entropy before actually encoding the data. Owing to the correlation between visible bands of TM images, it was observed that this method yields tremendous gain on these brands (on an average 0.3 to 0.5 bits/pixel compared with lossless JPEG) and can be successfully used for multispectral images where the spectral distances between bands are close.
An Efficient Constructive Heuristic for Permutation Flow Shops to Minimize Total Flowtime
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIXiaoping; WUCheng
2005-01-01
In this paper, FFC (Fast fiowtime-computing) is presented for fiowtime computing in flow shops. The CPU-time of an algorithm for flow shops can be reduced considerably by replacing classical flowtime computing with FFC based on the facts that FFC is faster than the classical one and that flowtime computing of schedules/partial schedules is the main computational burden of most algorithms for flow shops. This is illustrated by modifying RZ, one of the three best existing heuristics(FL, WY and RZ) for flowtime minimization, with FFC in which about half of the CPU-time is saved. An efficient constructive heuristic is proposed for permutation flow shops with flowtime minimization, of which the CPU-time is more than that of RZ but much less than those of FL and WY. Our proposal is compared with FL, WYand RZ in terms of ARPD (Average relative percentage deviation), STD (Standard deviation) and BEST (number of best solutions obtained for a given size of problems). Computational results show that the proposed heuristic outperforms WY and RZ, and also outperforms FL when job-machine ratio is small. However, as the ratio increases, the proposal will finally be outperformed by FL but needs far less CPU-time than FL does.
CRYPTANALYSIS OF AN IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH A PSEUDORANDOM PERMUTATION AND ITS IMPROVED VERSION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jing; Jiang Guoping; Lin Bing
2012-01-01
Under Kerckhoff principle,this paper discusses the security property of an image encryption scheme with a pseudorandom permutation.Some findings on the security problems of the algorithm are reported in the following:(1) If each row or column of the plain-image matrix is the same,the receiver cannot decrypt correctly.(2) Each plain-text word is correlated with single cipher-text word,but independent of other cipher-text word,which cannot meet the principles of algorithm designdiffusion and confusion.(3) If the cycle numbers β are relatively small,statistics attack can be used to reveal some visual information of any other plain-images encrypted with the same secret key.Considering the above problems,we propose an improved algorithm and then analyze its performance.Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the improved algorithm can obtain better cryptographic properties,such as statistical characteristics,difference characteristics,and so on.
Dornheim, Tobias; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael
2015-11-28
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for N = 33 electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, rs=r¯/aB≳1. These data have been complemented by configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for rs ≤ 1 that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller rs and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method-the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to half the Fermi temperature (θ = kBT/EF = 0.5) and, therefore, to compare our results to both aforementioned methods. While we find excellent agreement with CPIMC, where results are available, we observe deviations from RPIMC that are beyond the statistical errors and increase with density. PMID:26627944
Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.
2016-08-01
In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.
Permutation entropy of finite-length white-noise time series.
Little, Douglas J; Kane, Deb M
2016-08-01
Permutation entropy (PE) is commonly used to discriminate complex structure from white noise in a time series. While the PE of white noise is well understood in the long time-series limit, analysis in the general case is currently lacking. Here the expectation value and variance of white-noise PE are derived as functions of the number of ordinal pattern trials, N, and the embedding dimension, D. It is demonstrated that the probability distribution of the white-noise PE converges to a χ^{2} distribution with D!-1 degrees of freedom as N becomes large. It is further demonstrated that the PE variance for an arbitrary time series can be estimated as the variance of a related metric, the Kullback-Leibler entropy (KLE), allowing the qualitative N≫D! condition to be recast as a quantitative estimate of the N required to achieve a desired PE calculation precision. Application of this theory to statistical inference is demonstrated in the case of an experimentally obtained noise series, where the probability of obtaining the observed PE value was calculated assuming a white-noise time series. Standard statistical inference can be used to draw conclusions whether the white-noise null hypothesis can be accepted or rejected. This methodology can be applied to other null hypotheses, such as discriminating whether two time series are generated from different complex system states. PMID:27627257
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Ye Zhao
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a rolling bearing fault diagnosis approach by integrating wavelet packet decomposition (WPD with multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE. The approach uses MPE values of the sub-frequency band signals to identify faults appearing in rolling bearings. Specifically, vibration signals measured from a rolling bearing test system with different defect conditions are decomposed into a set of sub-frequency band signals by means of the WPD method. Then, each sub-frequency band signal is divided into a series of subsequences, and MPEs of all subsequences in corresponding sub-frequency band signal are calculated. After that, the average MPE value of all subsequences about each sub-frequency band is calculated, and is considered as the fault feature of the corresponding sub-frequency band. Subsequently, MPE values of all sub-frequency bands are considered as input feature vectors, and the hidden Markov model (HMM is used to identify the fault pattern of the rolling bearing. Experimental study on a data set from the Case Western Reserve University bearing data center has shown that the presented approach can accurately identify faults in rolling bearings.
Cutoff for the Transposition Walk on Permutations with One-Sided Restrictions
Blumberg, Olena
2012-01-01
This paper explores the mixing time of the random transposition walk on permutations with one-sided interval restrictions. In particular, we're interested in the notion of cutoff, a phenomenon which occurs when mixing occurs in a window of order smaller than the mixing time. One of the main tools of the paper is the diagonalization obtained by Hanlon; the use of the spectral information is inspired by the famous paper of Diaconis and Shahshahani on the mixing time of the random transposition walk on the entire symmetric group. The diagonalization allows us to prove chi-squared cutoff for a broad class of one-sided restriction matrices. Furthermore, under an extra condition, the walk also undergoes total variation cutoff. Finally, a large collection of examples which undergo chi-squared cutoff but in which total variation mixing occurs substantially earlier and without cutoff is produced. These results resolve a conjecture of Diaconis and Hanlon from Section 5 of Hanlon's paper.
A Highly Flexible LDPC Decoder using Hierarchical Quasi-Cyclic Matrix with Layered Permutation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vikram Arkalgud Chandrasetty
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Hardware implementation of partially-parallel Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC decoders using unstructured random matrices is very complex and requires huge hardware resources. To alleviate the complexity and minimize resource requirements, structured LDPC matrices are used. This paper presents a novel technique for constructing a multi-level Hierarchical Quasi-Cyclic (HQC structured matrix for LDPC decoder. A unique multi-level structure of the proposed matrix provides flexibility in generating different code lengths and code rates for various applications such as WiMAX, WLAN and DVB-S2. In addition, different combinations of permuted sub-matrices are inserted in layers at different levels of matrix hierarchy to provide virtual randomness in the LDPC matrix. Simulation results show that the HQC matrices generated using the proposed technique have a marginal loss of less than 0.1 dB at a bit error rate (BER performance 10-5 compared to unstructured random matrices. A hardware model of the proposed matrix structure has been developed and synthesized on Xilinx FPGA to verify the flexibility features, hardware requirements and to analyze the performance of the LDPC decoder.
Permutation entropy of finite-length white-noise time series
Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.
2016-08-01
Permutation entropy (PE) is commonly used to discriminate complex structure from white noise in a time series. While the PE of white noise is well understood in the long time-series limit, analysis in the general case is currently lacking. Here the expectation value and variance of white-noise PE are derived as functions of the number of ordinal pattern trials, N , and the embedding dimension, D . It is demonstrated that the probability distribution of the white-noise PE converges to a χ2 distribution with D !-1 degrees of freedom as N becomes large. It is further demonstrated that the PE variance for an arbitrary time series can be estimated as the variance of a related metric, the Kullback-Leibler entropy (KLE), allowing the qualitative N ≫D ! condition to be recast as a quantitative estimate of the N required to achieve a desired PE calculation precision. Application of this theory to statistical inference is demonstrated in the case of an experimentally obtained noise series, where the probability of obtaining the observed PE value was calculated assuming a white-noise time series. Standard statistical inference can be used to draw conclusions whether the white-noise null hypothesis can be accepted or rejected. This methodology can be applied to other null hypotheses, such as discriminating whether two time series are generated from different complex system states.
Mass textures and wolfenstein parameters from breaking the flavour permutational symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondragon, A; Rivera, T. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico,Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez Jauregui, E. [Deutsches Elekronen-Synchrotron, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)
2001-12-01
We will give an overview of recent progress in the phenomenological study of quark mass matrices, quark flavour mixings and CP-violation with emphasis on the possibility of an underlying discrete, flavour permutational symmetry and its breaking, from which realistic models of mass generation could be built. The quark mixing angles and CP-violating phase, as well as the Wolfenstein parameters are given in terms of four quark mass ratios and only two parameters (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) characterizing the symmetry breaking pattern. Excellent agreement with all current experimental data is found. [Spanish] Daremos una visita panoramica del progreso reciente en el estudio fenomenologico de las matrices de masas y de mezclas del sabor de los quarks y la violacion de PC, con enfasis en la posibilidad de que, subyacentes al problema, se halle una simetria discreta, permutacional del sabor y su rompimiento a partir de las cuales se puedan construir modelos realistas de la generacion de las masas. Los angulos de mezcla de los quarks y la fase que viola CP, asi como los parametros de Wolfenstein se dan en terminos de cuatro razones de masas de los quarks y solamente dos parametros (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) que caracterizan el patron del rompimiento de la simetria. Los resultados se encuentran en excelente acuerdo con todos los datos experimentales mas recientes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. K. L. B. Adikaram
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing demand for online/inline data processing efficient Fourier analysis becomes more and more relevant. Due to the fact that the bit reversal process requires considerable processing time of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT algorithm, it is vital to optimize the bit reversal algorithm (BRA. This paper is to introduce an efficient BRA with multiple memory structures. In 2009, Elster showed the relation between the first and the second halves of the bit reversal permutation (BRP and stated that it may cause serious impact on cache performance of the computer, if implemented. We found exceptions, especially when the said index mapping was implemented with multiple one-dimensional memory structures instead of multidimensional or one-dimensional memory structure. Also we found a new index mapping, even after the recursive splitting of BRP into equal sized slots. The four-array and the four-vector versions of BRA with new index mapping reported 34% and 16% improvement in performance in relation to similar versions of Linear BRA of Elster which uses single one-dimensional memory structure.
Weighted permutation entropy based on different symbolic approaches for financial time series
Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian
2016-02-01
In this paper, we introduce weighted permutation entropy (WPE) and three different symbolic approaches to investigate the complexities of stock time series containing amplitude-coded information and explore the influence of using different symbolic approaches on obtained WPE results. We employ WPE based on symbolic approaches to the US and Chinese stock markets and make a comparison between the results of US and Chinese stock markets. Three symbolic approaches are able to help the complexity containing in the stock time series by WPE method drop whatever the embedding dimension is. The similarity between these stock markets can be detected by the WPE based on Binary Δ-coding-method, while the difference between them can be revealed by the WPE based on σ-method, Max-min-method. The combinations of the symbolic approaches: σ-method and Max-min-method, and WPE method are capable of reflecting the multiscale structure of complexity by different time delay and analyze the differences between complexities of stock time series in more detail and more accurately. Furthermore, the correlations between stock markets in the same region and the similarities hidden in the S&P500 and DJI, ShangZheng and ShenCheng are uncovered by the comparison of the WPE based on Binary Δ-coding-method of six stock markets.
Polynômes de permutation et applications en cryptographie - Cryptanalyse de registres combinés
Laigle-Chapuy, Yann
2009-01-01
This thesis adresses two different aspects of cryptology: the design of new ciphers and the cryptanalysis of existing systems. The first part deals with permutation polynomials. We first introduce the basic properties of those objects before presenting the different known classes of such polynomials. We will also consider the problem of the repartition of those polynomials Finally we will review different situations where those polynomials occur in cryptology. We will especially detail the li...
Färber, Gerrit Hartmut; Coves Moreno, Anna Maria
2006-01-01
This paper presents the performance study of a Genetic Algorithm applied to a mixed model non-permutation flowshop production line. Resequencing is permitted where stations have access to intermittent or centralized resequencing buffers. The access to the buffers is restricted by the number of available buffer places and the physical size of the products. Characteristics such as the difference between the intermittent and the centralized case, the number of buffer places and the distributi...
Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan
2016-08-01
In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules.
Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan
2016-08-21
In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules. PMID:27544099
Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan
2016-08-21
In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules.
Biard, L; Porcher, R; Resche-Rigon, M
2014-07-30
When analysing multicentre data, it may be of interest to test whether the distribution of the endpoint varies among centres. In a mixed-effect model, testing for such a centre effect consists in testing to zero a random centre effect variance component. It has been shown that the usual asymptotic χ(2) distribution of the likelihood ratio and score statistics under the null does not necessarily hold. In the case of censored data, mixed-effects Cox models have been used to account for random effects, but few works have concentrated on testing to zero the variance component of the random effects. We propose a permutation test, using random permutation of the cluster indices, to test for a centre effect in multilevel censored data. Results from a simulation study indicate that the permutation tests have correct type I error rates, contrary to standard likelihood ratio tests, and are more powerful. The proposed tests are illustrated using data of a multicentre clinical trial of induction therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients. PMID:24676752
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anders Eklund
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM and canonical correlation analysis (CCA are compared at the same significance level.
Deterministic Circular Self Test Path
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Ke; HU Yu; LI Xiaowei
2007-01-01
Circular self test path (CSTP) is an attractive technique for testing digital integrated circuits(IC) in the nanometer era, because it can easily provide at-speed test with small test data volume and short test application time. However, CSTP cannot reliably attain high fault coverage because of difficulty of testing random-pattern-resistant faults. This paper presents a deterministic CSTP (DCSTP) structure that consists of a DCSTP chain and jumping logic, to attain high fault coverage with low area overhead. Experimental results on ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that 100% fault coverage can be obtained with low area overhead and CPU time, especially for large circuits.
Robust, angstrom level circularity profilometry
Glenn, Paul
1990-01-01
A noncontacting approach is presented which involves measuring the local circumferential curvature of the test piece by simultaneously measuring its circumferential slope at two slightly displaced locations. A pair of sensing beams is scanned along the circumference, and a profile of curvature is built, from which the circularity profile is deduced. The sensing of curvature makes the approach insensitive to all types of vibration and drift and runout errors in the relative rotation. The special qualities of the approach are summarized which make it well suited to measuring cylindrical optics and enable it to accommodate radii as small as twenty millimeters.
Albert, Mélisande
2015-01-01
On the one hand, we construct such tests based on bootstrap and permutation approaches. Their asymptotic performance are studied in a point process framework through the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of the conditional distributions of both bootstrapped and permuted test statistics, under the null hypothesis as well as under any alternative. A simulation study is performed verifying the usability of these tests in practice, and comparing them to existing classical methods in Neuroscienc...
Hirata, Shuzo; Vacha, Martin
2016-04-21
Circularly polarized room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) with persistent emission characteristics was observed from metal-free chiral binaphthyl structures. Enantiomers of the binaphthyl compounds doped into an amorphous hydroxylated steroid matrix produced blue fluorescence and yellow persistent RTP in air. The lifetime and quantum yield of the yellow persistent RTP were 0.67 s and 2.3%, respectively. The dissymmetry factors of circular dichroism (CD) in the first absorption band, circularly polarized fluorescence (CPF), and circularly polarized persistent RTP were |1.1 × 10(-3)|, |4.5 × 10(-4)|, and |2.3 × 10(-3)|, respectively. A comparison between the experimental data and calculations by time-dependent density functional theory for transient CD spectra confirmed that the binaphthyl conformations in the lowest singlet excited state (S1) and the lowest triplet state (T1) were different. The large difference in the dissymmetry factors for the CPF and the circularly polarized persistent RTP was likely caused by this conformational change between S1 and T1. PMID:27058743
Hirata, Shuzo; Vacha, Martin
2016-04-21
Circularly polarized room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) with persistent emission characteristics was observed from metal-free chiral binaphthyl structures. Enantiomers of the binaphthyl compounds doped into an amorphous hydroxylated steroid matrix produced blue fluorescence and yellow persistent RTP in air. The lifetime and quantum yield of the yellow persistent RTP were 0.67 s and 2.3%, respectively. The dissymmetry factors of circular dichroism (CD) in the first absorption band, circularly polarized fluorescence (CPF), and circularly polarized persistent RTP were |1.1 × 10(-3)|, |4.5 × 10(-4)|, and |2.3 × 10(-3)|, respectively. A comparison between the experimental data and calculations by time-dependent density functional theory for transient CD spectra confirmed that the binaphthyl conformations in the lowest singlet excited state (S1) and the lowest triplet state (T1) were different. The large difference in the dissymmetry factors for the CPF and the circularly polarized persistent RTP was likely caused by this conformational change between S1 and T1.
Physics at Future Circular Colliders
Kotwal, Ashutosh
2016-03-01
The Large Hadron Collider has been a grand success with the discovery of the Higgs boson, with bright prospects for additional discoveries since the recent increase in collider energy and the anticipated large datasets. Big open questions such as the nature of dark matter, the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, and the theoretical puzzle of the finely-tuned parameters in the Higgs sector, demand new physics principles that extend the established Standard Model paradigm. Future circular colliders in a substantially larger tunnel can house both a high luminosity electron-positron collider for precision measurements of Higgs and electroweak parameters, as well as a very high energy proton-proton collider which can directly manifest particles associated with these new physics principles. We discuss the physics goals of these future circular colliders, and the prospects for elucidating fundamental new laws of nature that will significantly extend our understanding of the Universe. Detailed studies of the discovery potential in specific benchmark models will be presented, with implications for detector design.
The permuted generator hypothesis for the origin of a genetic code
Folsome, C.
1977-01-01
Protocells had no known means of ensuring that their randomly collected proteins would be duplicated. A possible, albeit inexact, mechanism for protein synthesis in a primitive t-RNA is presented, whereby an oligonucleotide (12 units) in a circular configuration is able to align a generator site with amino acid discriminator sites. In this way, unique anticodons could be specified for each site and replication could occur.
CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN ROMANIA WITHIN EUROPEAN CONTEXT
Cornelia Marcela Danu; Valentin Nedeff
2015-01-01
In the present paper we have approached some conceptual and coordinated marks of the societal reality connected to the circular economy. Generated by „the limits of certainty” regarding the future of the world business, the operationalization of the circular economy has become a part of the EU strategies and started the various stages of implementation as an active process in all countries. We have highlighted the opportunities and the risks related to the circular economy, the European dimen...
A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
V. Jebaraj; K.R.S. Ravi Kumar; D. Mohanageetha
2014-01-01
Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation techni...
Reconfigurable Monopole Antennas With Circular Polarization
Panahi, Afshin
2015-01-01
This thesis presents research on printed circularly-polarized monopole antennas and their application in reconfigurable monopole antennas. The proposed circularly-polarised monopole antennas benefit from advantages such as small size, low-cost, low-profile and simple designs. The first part of this thesis introduces three printed circularly-polarized monopole antennas for global navigation satellite systems and Wi-Fi applications. The primary focus is on the ground plane which is used as a ra...
Molecular alignment using circularly polarized laser pulses
Smeenk, C T L
2013-01-01
We show that circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produce field-free alignment in linear and planar molecules. We study the rotational wavepacket evolution of O$_2$ and benzene created by circularly polarized light. For benzene, we align the molecular plane to the plane of polarization. For O$_2$, we demonstrate that circular polarization yields a net alignment along the laser propagation axis at certain phases of the evolution. Circular polarization gives us the ability to control alignment of linear molecules outside the plane of polarization, providing new capabilities for molecular imaging.
Pinyol i Bori, Francesc
2007-01-01
És un text epistemològic sobre les qüestions cognitives circulars que apareixen: a) Quan el subjecte forma part de l'objecte estudiat; b) En la recerca de les bases del coneixement; c) Al voler justificar la inducció; d) En algunes interpretacions filosòfiques i científiques. S'hi explica l'estat del punt a) el més problemàtic, i s'aclareixen els altres tres punts: els b) i c) pel fet científic que l'evolució cognitiva humana ha anat acoblada a l'evolució biològica, la qual ha generat els a p...
Circular Loudspeaker Array with Controllable Directivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Martin; Olsen, Martin; Agerkvist, Finn T.;
2010-01-01
Specific directivity patterns for circular arrays of loudspeakers can be achieved by utilizing the concept of phase-modes, which expands the directivity pattern into a series of circular harmonics. This paper investigates the applicability of this concept applied on a loudspeaker array on a...
Exon circularization in mammalian nuclear extracts.
Pasman, Z; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A
1996-06-01
Correct ligation of exons in pre-mRNA splicing requires splice site juxtaposition (splice site pairing), usually involving a 5' splice site and a downstream 3' splice site. Splicing of a 5' splice site to an upstream 3' splice site, however, is predicted to result in a circular RNA. This mode of splice site pairing across the axon has been hypothesized to account for rare RNAs containing scrambled exons (Nigro JM et al., 1991, Celt 64:607-613; Cocquerelle C et al., 1992, EMBO J 11:1 095-1098). Additionally, this mode of splice site pairing has been postulated to explain the formation of SRY circular transcripts in mouse testis (Capel B et al., 1993, Celt 73:1019- 1030). Here we show that splice site pairing across the exon can result in exon circularization in vitro. These results indicate that spliceosome-mediated axon circularization indeed can account for the formation of scrambled exons and circular RNAs. Exon circularization efficiency decreased dramatically as the length of the exon was increased from 95 nt to 274 nt. Circularization of this longer exon was restored, however, when intronic complementary sequences were included in the RNA substrate. These complementary sequences could form a stem that served to bring the splice sites into proximity and thereby promote splice site pairing. Therefore, the splicing of this structured RNA recapitulated SRY-like exon circularization in vitro.
Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam
Huang, J.
1986-01-01
Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.
CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN ROMANIA WITHIN EUROPEAN CONTEXT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cornelia Marcela Danu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we have approached some conceptual and coordinated marks of the societal reality connected to the circular economy. Generated by „the limits of certainty” regarding the future of the world business, the operationalization of the circular economy has become a part of the EU strategies and started the various stages of implementation as an active process in all countries. We have highlighted the opportunities and the risks related to the circular economy, the European dimension and, in particular, the Romanian one of this process, the role of the triad: consumer-company-natural environment, while implementing the circular economy. Circular economy is both a new approach of the societal life, based on changing the mentalities of the individuals having the role of decision makers at the company level and public administration and the decision makers – consumers, as well as a policy meant to be made operational across all entities: governmental, entrepreneurial, individually – human.
Nanofocusing in circular sector-like nanoantennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zenin, Volodymyr; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Han, Zhanghua;
2014-01-01
Gold circular sector-like nanoantennas (with a radius of 500 nm and a taper angle of 60°, 90°, and 120°) on glass are investigated in a near-infrared wavelength range (900 - 2100 nm). Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field images of circular sector-like antenna modes at telecom wavelength feature...... a concentric circular line of phase contrast, demonstrating resonant excitation of a standing wave of counter-propagating surface plasmons, travelling between a tip and opposite circular edge of the antenna. Transmission spectra obtained in the range 900 - 2100 nm are in good agreement with numerical...... circular sector-like nanoantennas very promising for implementing bowtie antennas and attractive for many applications....
Circular motion in NUT space-time
Jefremov, Paul
2016-01-01
We consider circular motion in the NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. Among other things, we determine the location of circular time-like geodesic orbits, in particular of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and of the marginally bound circular orbit. Moreover, we discuss the von Zeipel cylinders with respect to the stationary observers and with respect to the Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs). We also investigate the relation of von Zeipel cylinders to inertial forces, in particular in the ultra-relativistic limit. Finally, we generalise the construction of thick accretion tori ("Polish doughnuts") which are well known on the Schwarzschild or Kerr background to the case of the NUT metric. We argue that, in principle, a NUT source could be distinguished from a Schwarzschild or Kerr source by observing the features of circular matter flows in its neighbourhood.
Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.
Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A
2016-07-12
Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment. PMID:27295541
2D Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor via a 3D space using a specialized permutation scheme
Omerbashich, Mensur
2009-01-01
When a space in which Christoffel symbols of the second kind are symmetrical in lower indices exists, it makes for a supplement to the standard procedure when a 2D surface is normally induced from the geometry of the surrounding 3D space in which the surface is embedded. There it appears appropriate to use a scheme for straightforward permutation of indices of Gkij, when such a space would make this transformation possible, so as to obtain the components of the 2D Riemann-Christoffel tensor (...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Xin-rui; XU You-yun; ZHANG Le
2007-01-01
It is well known that interleavers play a critical role in Turbo coding/decoding schemes, and contention-free interleaver design has become a serious problem in the parallelization of Turbo decoding, which is indispensable to meet the demands for high throughput and low latency in next generation mobile communication systems. This paper unveils the fact that interleavers based on permutation polynomials modulo N are contention-free for every window size W, a factor of the interleaver length N, which, also called maximum contention-free interleavers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rony Peterson da Rocha
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Current research addresses the Permutation Flow Shop scheduling problem, characterized as Production Scheduling in Batch Process (PSBP to minimize total time to complete the schedule (Makespan. A method to approach the problem of production scheduling is to turn it into Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP and to solve it by using commercial mathematical programming packages. An electronic spreadsheet with user-friendly interface (ESUFI was developed in Microsoft Excel. Results showed that it is possible to use ESUFI to solve small problems.
[Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].
Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S
2015-01-01
Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed. PMID:26016038
Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy
Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van
2009-01-01
We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The g
Process engineering in circular economy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lothar Reh
2013-01-01
Driven by increasing global population and by growing demand for individual wealth,the consumption of energy and raw materials as well as the steadily growing CO2 concentration in atmosphere pose great challenges to process engineering.This complex multi-scale discipline deals with the transformation of mass by energy to manifold products in different industrial fields under economical and ecological sustainable conditions.In growing circular economy,process engineering increasingly plays an important role in recovering valuable components from very diffuse material flows leaving the user stocks following widely variable time periods of use.As well it is engaged in thermal recovery of energy therefrom and in environmentally safe disposal of residual solid wastes whose recovery economically is not feasible.An efficient recovery of materials and energy following the laws of entropy is a must.A complex network of mass,energy,transportation and information flows has to be regarded with growing traded quantities of used goods even on global level.Important constraints in time,however,exist for a necessary realization of innovative new processes and communal mobility and industrial infrastructure on medium and large scale.Based on reasonable long term and highly reliable statistics from industrial organizations representing steel and paper industry,some limits and trends of possible developments in processing of those industries with long recycling experience will be discussed.
Sakai, Hayato; Kubota, Takako; Yuasa, Junpei; Araki, Yasuyuki; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi; Wada, Takehiko; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Hasobe, Taku
2016-07-12
Benzimidazole-fused [5]carbohelicene ([5]HeliBI) was newly synthesized to examine the spectroscopic and chiroptical properties. The reversible protonation and deprotonation processes of [5]HeliBI were successfully investigated using (1)H NMR, absorption and fluorescence spectral measurements. We also confirmed the circularly polarized luminescence of protonated [5]HeliBI (H(+)-[5]HeliBI). This is the first observation of red-coloured CPL of a helicene derivative. PMID:27319321
Polarimetric investigation of materials with both linear and circular anisotropy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naydenova, I.; Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.;
1997-01-01
We investigate light propagation through materials with both linear and circular anisotropy and find the relation of the amplitude and polarization transfer functions to the four anisotropic characteristics: linear circular birefringence, and linear and circular dichroism. We determine these four...
Uniformity Tests in Circular Data: Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismet DOGAN
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Circular data are a large class of directional data, which are interest in many fields. Examples include phenomena that are periodic in time, including those dependent on hours of the day (hospital visits, times of birth, etc. or days of the year (unemployment or sales variations. The elementary but also fundamental property of circular data is that the beginning and end of the scale coincide: for example, 0° = 360°. An immediate implication is that the arithmetic mean is likely to be a poor summary: the mean of 1° and 359° cannot sensibly be 180°. The solution is use the vector mean direction as circular mean. The statistical analysis of angular or circular data differs from the analysis of linear data. Unlike linear distributions, which are often two-tailed and infinite, circular distributions exhibit finite closure because a circular data set comes back on itself, and therefore, 0° and 360° are actually the same point on a circle. Circular statistics is concerned mainly with observations which are unit vectors in the plane. Thus the sample space is typically a circle or a sphere, so that standart methods for analysing univariate or multivariate measurement data can?t be used. Special circular methods are required take into account the structure of these sample spaces. In most circular statistical analyses, the null hypothesis is a uniform distribution in which all directions occur with equal probability. In this study, eight different testing methods improved for uniformity in angular data have been introduced and these methods were compared with each other by using the information obtained from the literature.
Entanglement of quantum circular states of light
Horoshko, D. B.; De Bièvre, S.; Kolobov, M. I.; Patera, G.
2016-06-01
We present a general approach to calculating the entanglement of formation for superpositions of two-mode coherent states, placed equidistantly on a circle in phase space. We show that in the particular case of rotationally invariant circular states the Schmidt decomposition of two modes, and therefore the value of their entanglement, are given by analytical expressions. We analyze the dependence of the entanglement on the radius of the circle and number of components in the superposition. We also show that the set of rotationally invariant circular states creates an orthonormal basis in the state space of the harmonic oscillator, and this basis is advantageous for representation of other circular states of light.
Circular polarization memory in polydisperse scattering media
Macdonald, Callum M; Meglinski, Igor
2015-01-01
We investigate the survival of circularly polarized light in random scattering media. The surprising persistence of this form of polarization has a known dependence on the size and refractive index of scattering particles, however a general description regarding polydisperse media is lacking. Through analysis of Mie theory, we present a means of calculating the magnitude of circular polarization memory in complex media, with total generality in the distribution of particle sizes and refractive indices. Quantification of this memory effect enables an alternate pathway towards recovering particle size distribution, based on measurements of diffusing circularly polarized light.
Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Aoki, Yasunori; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi
2013-01-01
Adaptive nonlinear beamformer technique for analyzing magnetoencephalography (MEG) data has been proved to be powerful tool for both brain research and clinical applications. A general method of analyzing multiple subject data with a formal statistical treatment for the group data has been developed and applied for various types of MEG data. Our latest application of this method was frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ), which indicates focused attention and appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings. To localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ precisely and identify cortical sources and underlying neural activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction), we applied adaptive nonlinear beamformer and permutation analysis on MEG data. As a result, it was indicated that Fmθ is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Gamma event-related synchronization is as an index of activation in right parietal regions subserving mental subtraction associated with basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task. We suggest that the combination of adaptive nonlinear beamformer and permutation analysis on MEG data is quite powerful tool to reveal the oscillatory neuronal dynamics in human brain. PMID:24110810
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Browning Brian L
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genetic association studies can test hundreds of thousands of genetic markers for association with a trait. Since the genetic markers may be correlated, a Bonferroni correction is typically too stringent a correction for multiple testing. Permutation testing is a standard statistical technique for determining statistical significance when performing multiple correlated tests for genetic association. However, permutation testing for large-scale genetic association studies is computationally demanding and calls for optimized algorithms and software. PRESTO is a new software package for genetic association studies that performs fast computation of multiple-testing adjusted P-values via permutation of the trait. Results PRESTO is an order of magnitude faster than other existing permutation testing software, and can analyze a large genome-wide association study (500 K markers, 5 K individuals, 1 K permutations in approximately one hour of computing time. PRESTO has several unique features that are useful in a wide range of studies: it reports empirical null distributions for the top-ranked statistics (i.e. order statistics, it performs user-specified combinations of allelic and genotypic tests, it performs stratified analysis when sampled individuals are from multiple populations and each individual's population of origin is specified, and it determines significance levels for one and two-stage genotyping designs. PRESTO is designed for case-control studies, but can also be applied to trio data (parents and affected offspring if transmitted parental alleles are coded as case alleles and untransmitted parental alleles are coded as control alleles. Conclusion PRESTO is a platform-independent software package that performs fast and flexible permutation testing for genetic association studies. The PRESTO executable file, Java source code, example data, and documentation are freely available at http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~browning/presto/presto.html.
Fluorescence detection: SPIE volume 743
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menzel, E.R.
1987-01-01
This book contains proceedings arranged into four sessions. They are: Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques; Fluorescence in analysis and materials characterization; Fluorescence in medicine and biochemistry; and Fluorescence in criminalistics.
Dual frequency launcher for circularly polarized antenna
Chen, Ming H.
1989-10-01
A dual frequency antenna feed is formed from a central, circular waveguide connected to the flat boundry of circular, disk-shaped resonant cavity. A second circular waveguide is connected one end of a disk-shaped resonant cavity. Energy of one frequency enters and exits the cavity along the common axis of the waveguides. Energy of the second frequency is introduced to the same resonant cavity by way of a plurality of bandpass filters, also connected to the cavity. This energy enters by way of slots in the cylindrical walls of the cavity. The central circular waveguide is propagating at one frequency but cut off at the second frequency. These bandpass filters are at this pass band for the second frequency, but at the rejection band for the first frequency. Therefore, the isolation between these two input ports are obtained.
A Conceptual Framework for Circular Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariale Moreno
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Design has been recognised in the literature as a catalyst to move away from the traditional model of take-make-dispose to achieve a more restorative, regenerative and circular economy. As such, for a circular economy to thrive, products need to be designed for closed loops, as well as be adapted to generate revenues. This should not only be at the point of purchase, but also during use, and be supported by low-cost return chains and reprocessing structures, as well as effective policy and regulation. To date, most academic and grey literature on the circular economy has focused primarily on the development of new business models, with some of the latter studies addressing design strategies for a circular economy, specifically in the area of resource cycles and design for product life extension. However, these studies primarily consider a limited spectrum of the technical and biological cycles where materials are recovered and restored and nutrients (e.g., materials, energy, water are regenerated. This provides little guidance or clarity for designers wishing to design for new circular business models in practice. As such, this paper aims to address this gap by systematically analysing previous literature on Design for Sustainability (DfX (e.g., design for resource conservation, design for slowing resource loops and whole systems design and links these approaches to the current literature on circular business models. A conceptual framework is developed for circular economy design strategies. From this conceptual framework, recommendations are made to enable designers to fully consider the holistic implications for design within a circular economy.
Dual-band Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antenna
Narbudowicz, Adam; Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max
2013-01-01
A dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna is proposed. The antenna comprises back-to-back microstrip patches fed by a coplanar waveguide. A very low frequency ratio of 1.182 has been achieved, which can be easily tuned by adjusting four lumped capacitors incorporated into the antenna. An analysis of the omnidirectional circular polarization mechanism as well the dual band operation is provided and confirmed by numerical and experimental data. Key parameters to tune the resonant...
On the circular polarization of pulsar radiation
Lyubarskii, Y. E.; Petrova, S. A.
1999-01-01
We consider the polarization behaviour of radio waves propagating through an ultrarelativistic highly magnetized electron-positron plasma in a pulsar magnetosphere. The rotation of magnetosphere gives rise to the wave mode coupling in the polarization-limiting region. The process is shown to cause considerable circular polarization in the linearly polarized normal waves. Thus, the circular polarization observed for a number of pulsars, despite the linear polarization of the emitted normal wav...
Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2013-04-15
The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.
Construction of Circular Economy Industrial System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Man; Ye Wenhu
2007-01-01
It is difficult to realize the transformation from traditional economy industrial system to circular economy industrial system.Regarding primary raw materials as the indicators,the industrial system has been specified according to the divergence among the indicators and the circular utilization modes.In comparison with the association among industrial systems,the relationship among industrial sub-systems is named as industrial cross-linking in this paper.The industrial system which could completely utilize and recycle the indicators should be increased and strengthened,and the circular economy industrial system with complete industrial association and industrial cross-linking should also be constructed.Taking the development of circular agricultural system basing on the traditional agricultural system as an example,the traditional agricultural products are regarded as the indicators which have been divided into foodstuff and crop straws which are used to produce food and articlesfor use,like fertilizer,energy and papers etc.The way to construct the circular agricultural industrial system is to increase the industrial systems that could utilize the products generated from crop straws,feces and other castoffs and transform the wastewater and other trucks into environmental friendly products.It has also been pointed out that the construction of circular economy industrial system is conducive to the foundation of circular industrial economics and the establishment of the construction layout of circular economy and the application schemes.Suggestions to the theoretical and practical work of the next step have also been brought forward in this paper.
Broadband circularly polarized planar antenna using partially covered circular wide-slot and L-probe
Fukusako, Takeshi; Sakami, Ryo; Iwata, Kazuki; フクサコ, タケシ; サカミ, リョウ; イワタ, カズキ; 福迫, 武; 酒見, 遼; 岩田, 一樹
2008-01-01
The novel structure of a unique circularly polarized broadband antenna that combines an L-shaped probe with a partially covered circular slot has been presented. A principle that can be used to generate CP using the proposed structure has been presented using an L-shaped probe and a modified circular wide slot. Using the above, a 3 -dB AR bandwidth of 58% and matching bandwidth of 57% were obtained at 3.2 GHz.
An improved chaotic cryptosystem based on circular bit shift and XOR operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A type of chaotic encryption scheme by combining circular bit shift with XOR operations was proposed in 2006 based on iterating chaotic maps. Soon after the proposal, it was cryptanalyzed and improved. Unfortunately, there are still two drawbacks in the two improved schemes. To strengthen the performance of the focused type of scheme, a new improved scheme based on Chen's chaotic system is proposed in this Letter. Simulation results and theoretical analysis show that our improved scheme is immune to information extracting by chosen plaintext attack and has expected cryptographic properties. -- Highlights: ► There are 2 drawbacks in 2 improved chaos-based encryption schemes by bit shift and XOR operation. ► FIPS 140-2 test show the random number sequence generated by CCS is statistical random. ► The plaintext is first permuted byte by byte, and then masked in the inverse order. ► Small perturbation based on output ciphertext is given to c of CCS after iterating it every time.
PLANAR MOTION OF A SLIGHTLY DISTORTED CIRCULAR CYLINDER AROUND ANOTHER CIRCULAR ONE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Ren; CHWANG Allen T.
2004-01-01
Accurate prediction of the motion of a body moving around another one in an unbounded fluid and determi-nation of the hydrodynamic interaction between them are im-portant in the coastal and offshore engineering. For two-dimensional cases, most of the previous studies were focused on the interaction between circular cylinders without considering the non-circular situation. To break through the limitation of"circular" bodies, in the present paper the boundary perturbation method was employed to investigate the motion of a slightly distorted circular cylinder around a circular one. An approximate complex velocity potential in terms of double infinite series expanded at two singular points was derived using the method of continued fractions. The hydrodynamic interaction between two cylinders was computed by solving the dynamical equations of motion. In a relative coordinate system moving with the uniform stream, the kinetic energy of the fluid was expressed as a function of fifteen added masses. Approximate analytical solutions of added masses in the series form were obtained and applied to determine the trajectories of the slightly distorted circular cylinder around a fixed circular one. Numerical results show that the presence of the circular cylinder affects the planar motion of the slightly distorted cirular cylinder and the initial configuration of the slightly distorted circular cylinder has a decisive influence on the development of its rotational motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yahya S. Masrahi
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Several species of the stem succulent Caralluma (Apocynaceae are abundant perennials in arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula. These arid regions have a short wet season with erratic rainfall and are characterized by harsh climatic conditions of high temperature, high evaporation and sand storms. Work presented in this paper aimed at investigating importance of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM for survival of three Caralluma species in their natural habitat. Investigations involved studying stomatal characteristics, stomatal diffusive conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and CAM in three species of Caralluma, namely C. acutangula (Decne. N.E.Br., C. edulis (Edgew. Benth. ex Hook.f., and C. subulata (Forssk. Decne. Microscopic examination revealed a pattern of stomatal characteristics typical of CAM plants in these three Caralluma species. Results showed that these three Caralluma species were obligate CAM plants exhibiting this mode of photosynthesis during both the wet and the dry seasons. Under protracted water stress during the long dry season very low values of stomatal diffusive conductance and dampening of CAM acidification-deacidification cycles denoted the tendency of these three Caralluma species to shift from the obligate CAM physiotype to CAM-idling mode. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that protracted water stress induced a reduction in Photosystem II (PSII antenna efficiency and quantum yield in the three studied Caralluma species. This reduction of PSII activity occurred in concomitance with a marked rise in non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence denoting operation of non-photochemical energy dissipating mechanisms known to be important for photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus.
OPERATIONAL CIRCULAR NO 6 - JUNE 2001 'CERN SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTS'
Human Resources Division
2001-01-01
This new operational circular has been drawn up. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 29 entitled "Principles and procedures governing CERN publications and reports and other publications arising from CERN work". Copies are available from Divisional Secretariats. Note : Administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on WWW : ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARSOPERATIONAL CIRCULARS
Researches on Relationship between Circular Agriculture and Industrial Diversity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
First, this paper establishes the conceptual model of circular agriculture, conducts systematic analysis on the circular agriculture on the basis of conceptual model, and discusses the characteristics of closeness and openness of circular agriculture and relationship between closeness and openness of circular agriculture. Second, this paper introduces the industrial diversity related to circular agriculture, defines the concept of industry and the concept of industries related to agriculture, and illustrates the related industries that are conducive to circular agriculture and the related industries that are not conducive to circular agriculture. Finally, this paper analyzes the mutual relationship between circular agriculture and industrial diversity as follows: in the system of circular agriculture, the industrial diversity can transform the wastes in upstream industries into resources in downstream industries; the industrial diversity creates possibility for recycling of agricultural byproducts; the industrial diversity is conducive to the diversification of industries related to circular agriculture.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Baskar
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Permutation flow shop scheduling problems have been an interesting area of research for over six decades. Out of the several parameters, minimization of makespan has been studied much over the years. The problems are widely regarded as NP-Complete if the number of machines is more than three. As the computation time grows exponentially with respect to the problem size, heuristics and meta-heuristics have been proposed by many authors that give reasonably accurate and acceptable results. The NEH algorithm proposed in 1983 is still considered as one of the best simple, constructive heuristics for the minimization of makespan. This paper analyses the powerful job insertion technique used by NEH algorithm and proposes seven new variants, the complexity level remains same. 120 numbers of problem instances proposed by Taillard have been used for the purpose of validating the algorithms. Out of the seven, three produce better results than the original NEH algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tan, Qihua; Sørensen, Mette; Kruse, Torben A;
2013-01-01
Genetic interactions or epistasis could make a substantial contribution to variation in human complex traits including longevity. However, detecting epistatic interactions in high dimensional datasets is difficult due to various reasons including multiple testing of correlated tests. We introduce a...... novel permutation strategy to the case-only analysis of gene by gene interaction using multiple SNPs. The method is applied to genes coding for Forkhead box O transcription factors which recently have been associated with human longevity across different populations hypothesizing that epistatic...... interaction in the regulation and expression of the FOXO gene family could contribute to the human longevity phenotype. Genotype data was collected from 1088 individuals from the Danish 1905 birth cohort aged over 92/93 years with 12 SNPs in the FOXO1a and 15 SNPs in the FOXO3a genes. Our analysis detected a...
Circular design - A manual on how to integrate circular design in buildings
Mac-lean, M.; Van Splunter, M.; Sun, X.
2014-01-01
This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability Circular design is based on two sustainability concepts: Cradle to Cradle® and circular economy. The former is more dogmatic and specific for the manufacturing and design industry, while the latter presents
Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.
Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C
2015-11-17
We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.
Szymański, S
2009-12-28
The damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory describes manifestations in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the coherent and stochastic dynamics of N-fold molecular rotors composed of indistinguishable particles. The standard jump model is only a limiting case of the DQR approach; outside this limit, the stochastic motions of such rotors have no kinematic description. In this paper, completing the previous two of this series, consequences of nuclear permutation symmetry for the properties of the DQR line shape equation are considered. The systems addressed are planar rotors, such as aromatic hydrocarbons' rings, occurring inside of molecular crystals oriented in the magnetic field. Under such conditions, oddfold rotors can have nontrivial permutation symmetries only for peculiar orientations while evenfold ones always retain their intrinsic symmetry element, which is rotation by 180 degrees about the N-fold axis; in specific orientations the latter can gain two additional symmetry elements. It is shown that the symmetry selection rules applicable to the classical rate processes in fluids, once recognized as having two diverse aspects, macroscopic and microscopic, are also rigorously valid for the DQR processes in the solid state. However, formal justification of these rules is different because the DQR equation is based on the Pauli principle, which is ignored in the jump model. For objects like the benzene ring, exploitation of these rules in simulations of spectra using the DQR equation can be of critical significance for the feasibility of the calculations. Examples of such calculations for the proton system of the benzene ring in a general orientation are provided. It is also shown that, because of the intrinsic symmetries of the evenfold rotors, many of the DQR processes, which such rotors can undergo, are unobservable in NMR spectra. PMID:20059076
Environmental issues elimination through circular economy
Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.
2016-04-01
Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.
A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface
Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader
2016-06-01
We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.
A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Jebaraj
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.
Circular Ribbon Flares and Homologous Jets
Wang, Haimin
2012-01-01
Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), and this has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a closed circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan--spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence \\ha blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite magnetic polarity, forming a circular PIL that is also traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons bright...
Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.
Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-02-26
Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable
Response-Adaptive Allocation for Circular Data.
Biswas, Atanu; Dutta, Somak; Laha, Arnab Kumar; Bakshi, Partho K
2015-01-01
Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger proportion of patients to the better treatment. Circular data is a natural outcome in many clinical trial setup, e.g., some measurements in opthalmologic studies, degrees of rotation of hand or waist, etc. There is no available work on response-adaptive designs for circular data. With reference to a dataset on cataract surgery we provide some response-adaptive designs where the responses are of circular nature and propose some test statistics for treatment comparison under adaptive data allocation procedure. Detailed simulation study and the analysis of the dataset, including redesigning the cataract surgery data, are carried out.
Circular object recognition based on shape parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Aijun; Li Jinzong; Zhu Bing
2007-01-01
To recognize circular objects rapidly in satellite remote sensing imagery, an approach using their geometry properties is presented.The original image is segmented to be a binary one by one dimension maximum entropy threshold algorithm and the binary image is labeled with an algorithm based on recursion technique.Then, shape parameters of all labeled regions are calculated and those regions with shape parameters satisfying certain conditions are recognized as circular objects.The algorithm is described in detail, and comparison experiments with the randomized Hough transformation (RHT) are also provided.The experimental results on synthetic images and real images show that the proposed method has the merits of fast recognition rate, high recognition efficiency and the ability of anti-noise and anti-jamming.In addition, the method performs well when some circular objects are little deformed and partly misshapen.
Analytical Optimization of Piezoelectric Circular Diaphragm Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mohammadi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the piezoelectric circular diaphragm microgenerator using strain energy method. Piezoelectrics are the intelligent materials that can be used as transducer to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to optimize produced electrical energy from mechanical pressure. Therefore, the circular metal plate equipped with piezoelectric circular patch has been considered with simply and clamped supports. A comprehensive modeling, parametrical study and the effect of the boundary conditions on the performance of the microgenerator have been investigated. The system is under variable pressure from an oscillating pressure source. Results are presented for PZT and PMN-PT piezoelectric materials with steel and aluminum substrates. An optimal value for the radius and thickness of the piezoelectric layer with a special support condition has been obtained.
Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission.
le Feber, B; Rotenberg, N; Kuipers, L
2015-01-01
Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway. PMID:25833305
Seismic interpretation of circular geological structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stewart, S.A. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom)
1999-08-01
3D seismic data provide images of geological features which are approximately circular in plan view but whose shape and origin may be possible to constrain using 2D seismic data. As 3D seismic data become more commonly employed in hydrocarbon exploration, the number of demonstrably 'circular' structures will increase. At least ten different geological processes can result in seismically resolvable 'circular' structures in sedimentary basins. These include salt/shale diapirs, salt withdrawal basins, polygonal fault blocks, dissolution collapse hollows, breccia pipes, calderas, gas pockmarks, bioherms, sand volcanoes, pull-aparts, impact craters and tectonic folds. Geometrical and geological criteria for each are summarized to facilitate identification of such features should they be encountered in the course of a 3D seismic interpretation. Certain types of geological feature have distinctive properties, others are less straightforward to recognize on the basis of individual criteria. (Author)
Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toews Michael D
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.
Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)
2003-01-01
Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.
Circularly polarized U-Slot antenna
Tong, K. F.; Wong, T P
2007-01-01
Circularly polarized single-layer U-slot microstrip patch antenna has been proposed. The suggested asymmetrical U-slot can generate the two orthogonal modes for circular polarization without chamfering any corner of the probe-fed square patch microstrip antenna. A parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effects caused by different arm lengths of the U-slot. The thickness of the foam substrate is about 8.5% of the wavelength at the operating frequency. The 3 dB axial ratio ban...
Broadband Suspended Microstrip Antenna For Circular Polarization
Kasabegoudar, VG; Vinoy, KJ
2009-01-01
In this paper we propose a circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna on a suspended substrate with a coplanar capacitive feed and a slot within the rectangular patch. The antenna has an axial ratio bandwidth (< 3 dB) of 7.1%. The proposed antenna exhibits a much higher impedance bandwidth of about 49% (S11 < -10 dB) and also yields return loss better than -15 dB in the useful range of circular polarization. Measured characteristics of the antenna are in good agreement with the simulated re...
Circular economy in China and recommendations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Hongchun
2006-01-01
@@ It is an overall, urgent and long-term strategic task for China to vigorously develop the circular economy and build a resource-saving and environmental-friendly society. China is now at the accelerating stage of industrialization and urbanization.Lower per-capita resource amount and tendency of environmental deterioration has not been fundamentally averted. Therefore a circular economy development is an inevitable choice to realize the goal of building a well-off society, ensure sustainable development of national economy, and coordinate the relationship between mankind and nature.
NPCirc: An R Package for Nonparametric Circular Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María Oliveira
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Nonparametric density and regression estimation methods for circular data are included in the R package NPCirc. Specifically, a circular kernel density estimation procedure is provided, jointly with different alternatives for choosing the smoothing parameter. In the regression setting, nonparametric estimation for circular-linear, circular-circular and linear-circular data is also possible via the adaptation of the classical Nadaraya-Watson and local linear estimators. In order to assess the significance of the features observed in the smooth curves, both for density and regression with a circular covariate and a linear response, a SiZer technique is developed for circular data, namely CircSiZer. Some data examples are also included in the package, jointly with a routine that allows generating mixtures of different circular distributions.
Self-organization in circular shear layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergeron, K.; Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter;
1996-01-01
Experiments on forced circular shear layers performed in both magnetized plasmas and in rotating fluids reveal qualitatively similar self-organization processes leading to the formation of patterns of coherent vortical structures with varying complexity. In this paper results are presented from...
77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular
2012-08-28
... Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations,'' 77 FR 27534, May 10... complying with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The purpose of this Circular is to provide... Ontiveros, Office of Civil Rights, Federal Transit Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Room...
CIRCULAR CHROMATIC NUMBER AND MYCIELSKI GRAPHS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Hongmei
2006-01-01
For a general graph G, M(G) denotes its Mycielski graph. This article gives a number of new sufficient conditions for G to have the circular chromatic number xc (M(G))equals to the chromatic number x(M(G)), which have improved some best sufficient conditions published up to date.
Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ze-gao YIN
2010-06-01
Full Text Available On the basis of Fluent software, Renormalization Group (RNGk-ε turbulent model and Volume of Fluid (VOF method are employed to simulate the flow past circular duct to obtain and analyze the hydraulic parameters. According to various upper and bottom gap-ratios, the force on duct is calculated. Firstly, when bottom gap-ratio is 0, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient and composite force reach the maximum respectively and azimuth reaches the minimum. Secondly, with the increase of bottom gap-ratio from 0 to 1, drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply, lift force coefficient decreases a little, but azimuth increases dramatically. Thirdly, with the continuous increase of bottom gap-ratio from 1, drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, composite force and azimuth vary little. So, bottom gap-ratio is the key factor influencing the force on circular duct. When bottom gap-ratio is less than 1, upper gap-ratio has the remarkable influence on the circular duct force. When bottom gap-ratio is greater than 1, the varation of upper gap-ratio has a little influence on the circular duct force.
2003-01-01
"Delivering the Albert Einstein lecture at the Centre for Philosophy and Foundations of Science on Tuesday, Nobel Laureate Professor Gerard Hooft said that any notion of time can not be circular or have loops or multi dimensionality" (1/2 page).
Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines
Kain, V
2016-01-01
A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.
Helically corrugated circular waveguides as antenna feeders
Jecko, F.; Papiernik, A.
1983-07-01
Rotation of the plane of polarization of the TE(11)-mode is predicted and observed in a helically corrugated circular waveguide. Rotation is suppressed by a longitudinal deformation produced on the corrugation. This modified structure can be used as an antenna feeder with low losses.
Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718
Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi
Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.
Discrete Fresnel Transform and Its Circular Convolution
Ouyang, Xing; Gunning, Fatima; Zhang, Hongyu; Guan, Yong Liang
2015-01-01
Discrete trigonometric transformations, such as the discrete Fourier and cosine/sine transforms, are important in a variety of applications due to their useful properties. For example, one well-known property is the convolution theorem for Fourier transform. In this letter, we derive a discrete Fresnel transform (DFnT) from the infinitely periodic optical gratings, as a linear trigonometric transform. Compared to the previous formulations of DFnT, the DFnT in this letter has no degeneracy, which hinders its mathematic applications, due to destructive interferences. The circular convolution property of the DFnT is studied for the first time. It is proved that the DFnT of a circular convolution of two sequences equals either one circularly convolving with the DFnT of the other. As circular convolution is a fundamental process in discrete systems, the DFnT not only gives the coefficients of the Talbot image, but can also be useful for optical and digital signal processing and numerical evaluation of the Fresnel ...
A yarn interaction model for circular braiding
Ravenhorst, van J.H.; Akkerman, R.
2016-01-01
Machine control data for the automation of the circular braiding process has been generated using previously published mathematical models that neglect yarn interaction. This resulted in a significant deviation from the required braid angle at mandrel cross-sectional changes, likely caused by an inc
Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA
2010-01-01
The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.
The Global Future Circular Colliders Effort
Benedikt, Michael
2013-01-01
This presentation has been given during the P5 Workshop at BNL Brookhaven (US). It contains - Global Future Circular Collier Studies Overview and Status - Main challenges and R&D areas for hadron collider - Main challenges and R&D areas for lepton collider - Conclusions
Geddes, Chris D
2011-01-01
""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc
Principles of fluorescence techniques
2016-01-01
Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.
A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material
Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu
1988-02-01
It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
M.A. Hink
2015-01-01
Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques allow the quantification of fluorescent molecules present at the nanomolar concentration level. After a brief introduction to the technique, this chapter presents a protocol including background information in order to measure and quantify the molecul
Fluorescent optical position sensor
Weiss, Jonathan D.
2005-11-15
A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.
Callis, Patrik R.
2014-12-01
The three amino acids with aromatic ring side chains-phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and especially tryptophan (Trp) have played a long and productive role in helping unlock the secrets of protein behavior by optical spectroscopy (absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, etc.) In principle, an appropriately placed Trp will undergo fluorescence wavelength and/or intensity changes upon whatever functional process a protein performs. Although perceived to be enigmatic and not well understood, Trp is arguably now better understood than many of the extrinsic probes currently in use. Basic principles of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching and wavelength shifts in proteins are presented, with strong emphasis on the importance of electrostatics. The condensed description of findings from recent experiments and simulations of tryptophan fluorescence and intrinsic quenching in proteins is designed to help authors in planning and interpreting experimental results of ligand binding studies.
SOME RESULTS ON CIRCULAR PERFECT GRAPHS AND PERFECT GRAPHS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Baogang
2005-01-01
An r-circular coloring of a graph G is a map f from V(G) to the set of open unit intervals of an Euclidean circle of length r,such that f(u) ∩ f(v) = φ whenever uv ∈ E(G).Circular perfect graphs are defined analogously to perfect graphs by means of two parameters,the circular chromatic number and the circular clique number.In this paper,we study the properties of circular perfect graphs.We give (1) a necessary condition for a graph to be circular perfect,(2) some circular critical imperfect graphs,and (3) a characterization of graphs with the property that each of their induced subgraphs has circular clique number the same as its clique number,and then the two conjectures that are equivalent to the perfect graph conjecture.
Circular Economy Development Mode Based on System Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Huamao; Wang Fengqi
2007-01-01
The paper tries to explore circular economy from the viewpoint of the system theory.Circular economy is a kind of complicated economic acdvity,and it is a wholly new ecotype economy pmposed by Western countries after they had summed up many experiences and lessons from traditional economy.It is an entirety and has many layers.It keeps an open and dynamic balance.Because the system theory is the theoretical foundation of circular economy,we should systemically analyze and study circular economy from the macroscopic view,correctly grasp its operational laws,improve its service functions,and realize human beings's ustainable development.The paper introduces the content and general characteristics of the system theory and the idea of circular economy.Then it analyzes circular economy based on the systemtheory.The paper concludes that the intonation of circular economy and the system theory can promote the functions of circular economy.
Interaction of Melittin with Membrane Cholesterol: A Fluorescence Approach
Raghuraman, H.; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha
2004-01-01
We have monitored the organization and dynamics of the hemolytic peptide melittin in membranes containing cholesterol by utilizing the intrinsic fluorescence properties of its functionally important sole tryptophan residue and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The significance of this study is based on the fact that the natural target for melittin is the erythrocyte membrane, which contains high amounts of cholesterol. Our results show that the presence of cholesterol inhibits melittin-induced...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jun, E-mail: jli15@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H., E-mail: jli15@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Xie, Daiqian [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo, Hua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2015-05-28
We report a permutationally invariant global potential energy surface (PES) for the H + CH{sub 4} system based on ∼63 000 data points calculated at a high ab initio level (UCCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ) using the recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method. The small fitting error (5.1 meV) indicates a faithful representation of the ab initio points over a large configuration space. The rate coefficients calculated on the PES using tunneling corrected transition-state theory and quasi-classical trajectory are found to agree well with the available experimental and previous quantum dynamical results. The calculated total reaction probabilities (J{sub tot} = 0) including the abstraction and exchange channels using the new potential by a reduced dimensional quantum dynamic method are essentially the same as those on the Xu-Chen-Zhang PES [Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)].
Chirality and Circular Polarization in Models of Inflation
Alexander, Stephon; Sims, Robert
2016-01-01
We investigate the possibility that a chiral asymmetry during inflation can manifest as net circular polarization in photons. Using an example known to produce a helicity imbalance in fermions, we show that superhorizon photon modes produced during inflation acquire net circular polarization. Modes that reenter the horizon around last scattering can thermalize into the Cosmic Microwave Background while retaining a portion of their net circular polarization. We also consider the possibility of direct detection of the circular polarization in the CMB.
2D Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor via a 3D space using a specialized permutation scheme
Omerbashich, Mensur
2009-01-01
When a space in which Christoffel symbols of the second kind are symmetrical in lower indices exists, it makes for a supplement to the standard procedure when a 2D surface is normally induced from the geometry of the surrounding 3D space in which the surface is embedded. There it appears appropriate to use a scheme for straightforward permutation of indices of Gkij, when such a space would make this transformation possible, so as to obtain the components of the 2D Riemann-Christoffel tensor (here expressed in geodetic coordinates for an ellipsoid of revolution, of use in geophysics). By applying my scheme I find the corresponding indices in 2D and 3D supplement-spaces, and I compute components of the Riemann-Christoffel tensor. By operating over the elements of the projections alone, the all-known value of 1/MN for the Gaussian curvature on an ellipsoid of revolution is obtained. To further validate my scheme, I show that in such a 3D space the tangent vector to a PHI-curve for LAM=const1 would be parallel to...
Li, Rui; Wang, Jun
2016-01-01
A financial price model is developed based on the voter interacting system in this work. The Lempel-Ziv complexity is introduced to analyze the complex behaviors of the stock market. Some stock market stylized facts including fat tails, absence of autocorrelation and volatility clustering are investigated for the proposed price model firstly. Then the complexity of fluctuation behaviors of the real stock markets and the proposed price model are mainly explored by Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) analysis and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy (MWPE) analysis. A series of LZC analyses of the returns and the absolute returns of daily closing prices and moving average prices are performed. Moreover, the complexity of the returns, the absolute returns and their corresponding intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with MWPE is also investigated. The numerical empirical study shows similar statistical and complex behaviors between the proposed price model and the real stock markets, which exhibits that the proposed model is feasible to some extent.
López Hernández, Fernando Antonio; Páez, Antonio
2012-01-01
The objective of this paper is to present a distribution-free inferential framework for the Q(m) statistic based on permutational bootstrapping. Q(m) was introduced in the literature as a tool to test for spatial association of qualitative variables, or more precisely, patterns of co-location/co-occurrence. The existing inferential framework for this statistic is based on asymptotic results. A challenge for these results is the need to limit the overlap in the neighborhoods of ...
Guiji Tang; Xiaolong Wang; Yuling He
2016-01-01
A novel method of fault diagnosis for rolling bearing, which combines the dual tree complex wavelet packet transform (DTCWPT), the improved multiscale permutation entropy (IMPE), and the linear local tangent space alignment (LLTSA) with the extreme learning machine (ELM), is put forward in this paper. In this method, in order to effectively discover the underlying feature information, DTCWPT, which has the attractive properties as nearly shift invariance and reduced aliasing, is firstly utili...
Novel X band Compact Waveguide Dual Circular Polarizer
Xu, Chen; Wang, Juwen
2014-01-01
A novel type of dual circular polarizer is developed to convert the TE10 mode into two different polarization TE11 modes in a circular waveguide. This design consists two major parts: a TE10 to TE10/TE20 converter and an overmoded TE10/TE20 to circular TE11 modes converter.
Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.;
1997-01-01
We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...
Symmetric Circular Matchings and RNA Folding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofacker, Ivo L.; Reidys, Christian; Stadler, Peter F.
2012-01-01
RNA secondary structures can be computed as optimal solutions of certain circular matching problems. An accurate treatment of this energy minimization problem has to account for the small --- but non-negligible --- entropic destabilization of secondary structures with non-trivial automorphisms....... Such intrinsic symmetries are typically excluded from algorithmic approaches, however, because the effects are small, they play a role only for RNAs with symmetries at sequence level, and they appear only in particular settings that are less frequently used in practical application, such as circular folding...... or the co-folding of two or more identical RNAs. Here, we show that the RNA folding problem with symmetry terms can still be solved with polynomial-time algorithms. Empirically, the fraction of symmetric ground state structures decreases with chain length, so that the error introduced by neglecting...
Circular on early marriage, March 1988.
1988-01-01
This Circular calls on government at all levels in Hunan, China, to summon the departments concerned thoroughly to investigate the problem of early child-bearing so that they can do a good job in managing the problems of unregistered cohabiting and of unmarried mothers. The Circular recommends that: "It is necessary to criticize and educate, and even punish by discipline, those parents who connive with their sons and daughters in practicing unregistered cohabiting." It also states the following: "It is necessary to keep a strict check on registry personnel who do not carry out their duties properly. Those who violate laws and discipline, engage in malpractices for selfish ends, and practice bribery and corruption, resulting in early marriage and child-bearing, must be dealt with strictly. Legal sanctions must be enforced against those who break the law." PMID:12289639
Shock structure in non-circular jets
Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.
1989-01-01
The shock-cell structure of supersonic jets with non-circular exit geometry is modeled using a linearized analysis. The model takes into account the finite thickness of the jet shear layer using realistic velocity and density profiles. The effects of the shear layer turbulence are included by incorporating eddy-viscosity terms. A finite-difference numerical method is used to solve the steady linearized equations of motion. A body-fitted coordinate system is used to describe the shear layer. The variation of the pressure fluctuation with downstream distance is given for circular jets and for an elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2.0. Comparisons with experimental data are made. Difficulties with the numerical technique are also discussed.
Circular β ensembles, CMV representation, characteristic polynomials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU ZhongGen
2009-01-01
In this note we first briefly review some recent progress in the study of the circular β ensemble on the unit circle, where 0 > 0 is a model parameter. In the special cases β = 1,2 and 4, this ensemble describes the joint probability density of eigenvalues of random orthogonal, unitary and sympletic matrices, respectively. For general β, Killip and Nenciu discovered a five-diagonal sparse matrix model, the CMV representation. This representation is new even in the case β = 2; and it has become a powerful tool for studying the circular β ensemble. We then give an elegant derivation for the moment identities of characteristic polynomials via the link with orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle.
FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY
Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI
2014-01-01
Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circu...
Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bustamante, C.J.
1980-12-01
In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.
Gravitational collapse of a circularly symmetric star
Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam; Rahaman, Farook; Shit, Gopal Chandra
2015-01-01
We investigate the collapse of a circularly symmetric star with outgoing radiation in ($2+1$)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. The exterior spacetime of the collapsing star is assumed to be described by the non-static generalization of the Ba\\~nados, Teitelboim and Zanelli [{\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 69} (1992) 1849 ] metric. Making use of the junction conditions joining smoothly the interior and the exterior spacetimes across the boundary, we analyze the impacts of various factors on t...
MULTI SEGMENT CIRCULAR FRACTAL REFLECT ARRAY ANTENNA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahareh Baghani BAJGIRAN
2014-01-01
Full Text Available in this paper with using novel fractal structure which is composed of multi segment circular fractal. A unit cell and then reflectarray antenna have been designed. The unit cell of reflect array has been designed in 4.4 GHz with 24*24*1 mm3 dimension. The reflectarray is consist of 400 (20* 20 elements that even element is placed in the locus has been calculated. Maximum gain of antenna is 12.9 dBi.
Broadband circularly polarized antennas for UHF SATCOM
Tekin, İbrahim; Tekin, Ibrahim; Manzhura, Oksana; Niver, Edip
2011-01-01
Novel circularly polarized (CP) antenna configurations derived from Moxon type antenna (bent dipole element over a ground plane) for broadband VHF SATCOM applications. A sequence of topologies starting from a single vertical element to two vertical elements of the Moxon arms, then widened strip arm elements were studied. Further, arms were widened to bow tie structures with bents at 900.for achieving broadband operation. Bow tie elements were further split and optimized at a certain angle to...
Drops with non-circular footprints
Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. This type of drops is a consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to hysteresis effects of the contact angle since some parts of the contact line are wetting, while others are dewetting. Here, we obtain a peculiar drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting ...
Continuous-wave circular polarization terahertz imaging
Martin, Jillian P.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.
2016-07-01
Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) radiation are appealing because THz radiation is nonionizing and has the demonstrated ability to detect intrinsic contrasts between cancerous and normal tissue. A linear polarization-sensitive detection technique for tumor margin delineation has already been demonstrated; however, utilization of a circular polarization-sensitive detection technique has yet to be explored at THz frequencies. A reflective, continuous-wave THz imaging system capable of illuminating a target sample at 584 GHz with either linearly or circularly polarized radiation, and capable of collecting both cross- and copolarized signals remitted from the target, is implemented. To demonstrate the system's utility, a fresh ex vivo human skin tissue specimen containing nonmelanoma skin cancer was imaged. Both polarization-sensitive detection techniques showed contrast between tumor and normal skin tissue, although some differences in images were observed between the two techniques. Our results indicate that further investigation is required to explain the contrast mechanism, as well as to quantify the specificity and sensitivity of the circular polarization-sensitive detection technique.
FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.
Circular block matching based video stabilization
Xu, Lidong; Fu, Fangwen; Lin, Xinggang
2005-07-01
Video sequences captured by handheld digital camera need to be stabilized to eliminate the tiresome effects caused by camera"s undesirable shake or jiggle. The key issue of video stabilization is to estimate the global motion parameters between two successive frames. In this paper, a novel circular block matching algorithm is proposed to estimate the global motion parameters. This algorithm can deal with not only translational motion but even large rotational motion. For an appointed circular block in current frame, a four-dimensional rotation invariant feature vector is firstly extracted from it and used to judge if it is an effective block. Then the rotation invariant features based circular block matching process is performed to find the best matching blocks in reference frame for those effective blocks. With the matching results of any two effective blocks, a two-dimensional motion model is constructed to produce one group of frame motion parameters. A statistical method is proposed to calculate the estimated global motion parameters with all groups of global motion parameters. Finally, using the estimated motion parameters as the initial values, an iteration algorithm is introduced to obtain the refined global motion parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent in stabilizing frames with even burst global translational and rotational motions.
Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.
Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh
2009-06-01
Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.
Background, Pattern and Policy of China for Developing Circular Economy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Dajian
2008-01-01
Circular economy has become one of China's important strategies to realize scientific development and build ecological civilization at present. As in China circular economy was put forward as a new economic pattern, the international community generally holds that this is an innovative move for China's economy to realize leap-forward development and hopes to learn more about the theory, policy and practice relating to China's circular economy. This article introduces and comments on the necessity to develop circular economy in China, implications and characteristics of China's circular economy, and China's main practices and policies to promote it at present.
Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs
Shi, Ling
2013-12-01
In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the
Circular RNAs as Promising Biomarkers: A Mini-Review.
Abu, Nadiah; Jamal, Rahman
2016-01-01
The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as "junk" for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the "next big thing" especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response. PMID:27588005
Nanoconfined circular and linear DNA - equilibrium conformations and unfolding kinetics
Alizadehheidari, M; Noble, C; Reiter-Schad, M; Nyberg, L K; Fritzsche, J; Mehlig, B; Tegenfeldt, J O; Ambjörnsson, T; Persson, F; Westerlund, F
2016-01-01
Studies of circular DNA confined to nanofluidic channels are relevant both from a fundamental polymer-physics perspective and due to the importance of circular DNA molecules in vivo. We here observe the unfolding of DNA from the circular to linear configuration as a light-induced double strand break occurs, characterize the dynamics, and compare the equilibrium conformational statistics of linear and circular configurations. This is important because it allows us to determine to which extent existing statistical theories describe the extension of confined circular DNA. We find that the ratio of the extensions of confined linear and circular DNA configurations increases as the buffer concentration decreases. The experimental results fall between theoretical predictions for the extended de Gennes regime at weaker confinement and the Odijk regime at stronger confinement. We show that it is possible to directly distinguish between circular and linear DNA molecules by measuring the emission intensity from the DNA....
Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard
2016-08-28
The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH(+) ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3 (+) has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10(13) W/cm(2) and 3.15 × 10(13) W/cm(2), respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3 (+). The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene. PMID:27586924
Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard
2016-08-01
The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH+ ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3+ has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 1013 W/cm2 and 3.15 × 1013 W/cm2, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3+. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryan R Conroy
Full Text Available Multivariate decoding models are increasingly being applied to functional magnetic imaging (fMRI data to interpret the distributed neural activity in the human brain. These models are typically formulated to optimize an objective function that maximizes decoding accuracy. For decoding models trained on full-brain data, this can result in multiple models that yield the same classification accuracy, though some may be more reproducible than others--i.e. small changes to the training set may result in very different voxels being selected. This issue of reproducibility can be partially controlled by regularizing the decoding model. Regularization, along with the cross-validation used to estimate decoding accuracy, typically requires retraining many (often on the order of thousands of related decoding models. In this paper we describe an approach that uses a combination of bootstrapping and permutation testing to construct both a measure of cross-validated prediction accuracy and model reproducibility of the learned brain maps. This requires re-training our classification method on many re-sampled versions of the fMRI data. Given the size of fMRI datasets, this is normally a time-consuming process. Our approach leverages an algorithm called fast simultaneous training of generalized linear models (FaSTGLZ to create a family of classifiers in the space of accuracy vs. reproducibility. The convex hull of this family of classifiers can be used to identify a subset of Pareto optimal classifiers, with a single-optimal classifier selectable based on the relative cost of accuracy vs. reproducibility. We demonstrate our approach using full-brain analysis of elastic-net classifiers trained to discriminate stimulus type in an auditory and visual oddball event-related fMRI design. Our approach and results argue for a computational approach to fMRI decoding models in which the value of the interpretation of the decoding model ultimately depends upon optimizing a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Frantz
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Spatio-temporal information on process-based forest loss is essential for a wide range of applications. Despite remote sensing being the only feasible means of monitoring forest change at regional or greater scales, there is no retrospectively available remote sensor that meets the demand of monitoring forests with the required spatial detail and guaranteed high temporal frequency. As an alternative, we employed the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM to produce a dense synthetic time series by fusing Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF adjusted reflectance. Forest loss was detected by applying a multi-temporal disturbance detection approach implementing a Disturbance Index-based detection strategy. The detection thresholds were permutated with random numbers for the normal distribution in order to generate a multi-dimensional threshold confidence area. As a result, a more robust parameterization and a spatially more coherent detection could be achieved. (i The original Landsat time series; (ii synthetic time series; and a (iii combined hybrid approach were used to identify the timing and extent of disturbances. The identified clearings in the Landsat detection were verified using an annual woodland clearing dataset from Queensland’s Statewide Landcover and Trees Study. Disturbances caused by stand-replacing events were successfully identified. The increased temporal resolution of the synthetic time series indicated promising additional information on disturbance timing. The results of the hybrid detection unified the benefits of both approaches, i.e., the spatial quality and general accuracy of the Landsat detection and the increased temporal information of synthetic time series. Results indicated that a temporal improvement in the detection of the disturbance date could be achieved relative to the irregularly spaced Landsat
Toeppen, John S.
1994-01-01
A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).
Fluorescent minerals, a review
Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.
1996-01-01
Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors
Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selvaggi, Jerry P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
2005-12-01
This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six
Flow in a rotating curved circular pipe.
Zhang, Jinsuo; Li, Ning; Zhang, Benzhao
2003-05-01
The flow in a rotating curved pipe with circular cross section is investigated theoretically and numerically. A perturbation solution up to the second order is obtained. A numerical procedure is used to solve the full governing equations and the simplified governing equations in the small curvature limit. Comparisons are made between the numerical and perturbation results, elucidating the lost information due to simplification and the valid range of the perturbation solution. The flow characteristics, including the secondary flow, the axial flow, and the friction factor ratio, are examined in detail.
Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Rod Antenna
Min Guo; Ji-Jun Yan; Shun-Shi Zhong; Zhu Sun
2012-01-01
A new dielectric rod antenna (DRA) is introduced to produce circular polarization (CP) over a wide frequency band without a complex feed network. Along with the simulated results, measured results of the antenna prototype are presented, showing a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) CP bandwidth of 17.7%. The radiation characteristics of the fabricated antenna are also demonstrated showing the measured gain of better than 6.2 dBi. Moreover, the measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤2) reaches 20.1%, from 8.75...
Build a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna
Kisliuk, M.; Axelrod, A.
1987-06-01
The development and design of a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna are described. Consideration is given to the resonance frequency, radiation efficiencies, excitement, and resonant conductance of the transverse and longitudinal slots. The transverse and longitudinal slots in a rectangular guide are analyzed. The voltage distribution across the slot is calculated from the solution of a standard transmission line equation; and using the Poynting theorem the fields scattered by the slot in an arbitrary frequency range are determined. The proposed antenna is examined using an equivalent circuit; a diagram of the circuit is given. The radiation, slot, and antenna efficiencies are measured.
Denaturation of circular DNA: Supercoils and overtwist
Kabakçıoğlu, Alkan; Bar, Amir ; Mukamel, David
2012-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 061904 (2012) Denaturation of circular DNA: Supercoils and overtwist Amir Bar,1,2 Alkan Kabakc¸ıo˘glu,3 and David Mukamel1 1Department of Physics of Complex Systems, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 3Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Sarıyer 34450 ˙Istanbul, Turkey (Received 30 July 2012; published 11 December 2...
Circular orbits on a warped spandex fabric
Middleton, Chad A
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of circular-like orbits made by a marble rolling on a warped spandex fabric. We show that the mass of the fabric interior to the orbital path influences the motion of the marble in a nontrivial way, and can even dominate the orbital characteristics. We also compare a Kepler-like expression for such orbits to similar expressions for orbits about a spherically-symmetric massive object in the presence of a constant vacuum energy, as described by general relativity.
[Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].
Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K
2010-01-01
The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331
Future Circular Collider study week 2017
2017-01-01
The annual meetings of the worldwide Future Circular Collider study (FCC) are major international events that review the progress in every domain which is relevant to develop feasible concepts for a next generation frontier particle accelerate based high-energy physics research infrastructure. This 3rd meeting is jointly organised by CERN and DESY. It is also the annual meeting of the EuroCirCol EC Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action project. Previous events took place in Washington and Rome. In 2017 the FCC Week will take place in Berlin, Germany between May 29 and June 2.
Supercoiling induces denaturation bubbles in circular DNA.
Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Adamcik, Jozef; Dietler, Giovanni; Metzler, Ralf
2010-11-12
We present a theoretical framework for the thermodynamic properties of supercoiling-induced denaturation bubbles in circular double-stranded DNA molecules. We explore how DNA supercoiling, ambient salt concentration, and sequence heterogeneity impact on the bubble occurrence. An analytical derivation of the probability distribution to find multiple bubbles is derived and the relevance for supercoiled DNA discussed. We show that in vivo sustained DNA bubbles are likely to occur due to partial twist release in regions rich in weaker AT base pairs. Single DNA plasmid imaging experiments clearly demonstrate the existence of bubbles in free solution.
Polarized triplet production by circularly polarized photons
Bytev, V V; Galynsky, M V; Potylitsin, A P
2002-01-01
A process of the pair production by a circularly polarized photon in the field of unpolarized atomic electron has been considered in the Weizaecker-Williams approximation. The degree of longitudinal polarization of positron and electron has been calculated. An exclusive cross-section as well as a spectral distribution are obtained. We estimate the accuracy of our calculations at the level of a few percent. We show the identity of the positron polarization for considered process and for process of pair production in the screened Coulomb field of nucleus.
Simple Broadband Circular Polarizer in Oversized Waveguide
Stange, Torsten
2016-02-01
In this paper, a possibility is shown to realize a simple waveguide polarizer producing nearly the same circular polarization over a broad frequency range up to an octave. It is based upon the combination of two smoothly squeezed oversized waveguides with different diameters. The principle is similar to an achromatic lens in optics, where two counteracting lenses with differently sloped wavelength dependencies of the refractive index are combined to compensate the dispersion in the desired wavelength range. Consequently, two different wavelengths of light are brought into focus at the same plane. A waveguide for the transmission of microwaves has a similar frequency dependence of the refractive index resulting in a frequency-dependent phase shift between two propagating waves polarized along the symmetry axes of a waveguide with an elliptical cross section. For this reason, an incident wave with a linear polarization between the axes of symmetry can be only converted into a circularly polarized wave over a limited frequency range. However, the diameter and the shape along two counteracting squeezed waveguides can be adjusted in such a way that the frequency dependence of the resultant phase shift is finally canceled out.
Circular economy: from an institutional perspective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Jingchao
2007-01-01
Circular economy (CE) has been put fonvard as an important environmental and resource strategy in China.Aiming at the high utilization rate of resources and reduction of pollutants,CE means to realize a shift of fundamental paradigm.With the mode of production and consumption from linear to recycling model,the promotion requires transdisciplinary researches which integrate technological,ecological,social-cultural and other sciences.The present study focuses on the implementation of circular economy from an institutional perspective.Institution acts as a crucial factor by providing incentives for technical innovation,leading investment orientation and determining policy effectiveness,etc.This paper mainly discusses about: firstly,the feature of institution,institutional changes and institutional innovation is articulated,together with eco-industrial park strategy,extended producer's responsibility and dematerialization principle as innovative institutional arrangements; secondly,as policy plays great role on institutional changing process,the mechanism of policy implementation is needed to be related; as a result,coevolution of institutions and policies is thus presented; at last,a pilot attempt is made to find out some operational avenues in accomplishment of CE through both theoretical and practical methodology,special resolutions are put forward after some projecting difficulties and dilemmas in China are described.
High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna
Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.
The Circular Velocity Function of Group Galaxies
Abramson, Louis E; Benson, Andrew J; Kollmeier, Juna A; Mulchaey, John S
2013-01-01
A robust prediction of LCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. However, the correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened relative to LCDM expectations at circular velocities v_c < 200 km/s. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role of environment in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v_c estimators, we find no transition from field- to LCDM-shaped CVF above v_c = 50 km/s as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 < log(M_halo/M_sun) < 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs that are marginally suppressed at low-v_c compared to tha...
Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol
2012-10-01
Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.
Fluorescence of atopic allergens
Berrens, L.
1967-01-01
Purified atopic allergens have been found to emit flue fluorescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light of 365 mμ wavelength. The maximum of fluorescence is in the region 445–490 mμ and the intensity is of the same order of magnitude for different atopic allergens. Synthetic model compounds, inc
LEDs for fluorescence microscopy
Young, I.T.; Garini, Y.; Dietrich, H.R.C.; Van Oel, W.; Liqui Lung, G.
2004-01-01
Traditional light sources for fluorescence microscopy have been mercury lamps, xenon lamps, and lasers. These sources have been essential in the development of fluorescence microscopy but each can have serious disadvantages: lack of near monochromaticity, heat generation, cost, lifetime of the light
Circular RNAs are abundant, conserved, and associated with ALU repeats
Jeck, William R.; Sorrentino, Jessica A.; Wang, Kai; Slevin, Michael K.; Christin E Burd; Liu, Jinze; Marzluff, William F.; Sharpless, Norman E.
2013-01-01
Using a novel approach to identify exonic circular RNAs (ecircRNAs), the authors show widespread production of circular RNAs from a significant fraction of expressed genes in murine and human cells. They demonstrate that several of these noncoding transcripts are stable and abundant and can be targeted by siRNA. Bioinformatic analysis of the entire ecircRNA complement revealed gene features associated with RNA circularization.
Microstrip-fed Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Antenna
Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; McEvoy, Patrick
2010-01-01
A wideband circularly-polarized printed antenna is proposed, which employs an asymmetrical dipole and a slit in the ground plane which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feedline using a via. The proposed antenna geometry is arranged so that the orthogonal surface currents, which are generated in the dipole, feedline and ground plane, have the appropriate phase to provide circular polarization. A parametric study of the key parameters is made and the mechanism for circular polarization is desc...
High Performance Circularly Polarized Antenna Based on Fractal EBG Structure
Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; Ruvio, Giuseppe; John, Matthias
2006-01-01
Circularly polarized patch antennas have been widely applied in wireless communication system, global positioning system, etc., because of their low-profile, lightweight, ease of fabrication and low lost [1,2]. To achieve high performance for circularly polarized patch antennas, some new structures were reported in the literature, such as antennas array, stack layer antennas, using periodic structures [3-7], etc. In this paper, a high performance circularly polarized low frequency patch anten...
Logarithmic space and permutations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aubert, Clément; Seiller, Thomas
2013-01-01
In a recent work, Girard proposed a new and innovative approach to computational complexity based on the proofs-as-programs correspondence. In a previous paper, the authors showed how Girard's proposal succeeds in obtaining a new characterization of co-NL languages as a set of operators acting on...... on a Hilbert Space. In this paper, we extend this work by showing that it is also possible to define a set of operators characterizing the class L of logarithmic space languages....
The quantum spectra analysis of the circular billiards in wells
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Yan-Hui; Zhang Li-Qin; Xu Xue-You; Ge Mei-Hua; Lin Sheng-Lu; Du Meng-Li
2006-01-01
We use a recently defined quantum spectral function and apply the method of closed-orbit theory to the 2D circular billiard system. The quantum spectra contain rich information of all classical orbits connecting two arbitrary points in the well. We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the circular, 1/2 circular and 1/4 circular wells using the analytic and numerical methods. We find that the peak positions in the Fourier-transformed quantum spectra match accurately with the lengths of the classical orbits. These examples show evidently that semi-classical method provides a bridge between quantum and classical mechanics.
Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism
Bandrauk, Andre D
2014-01-01
Various schemes are presented for the generation of circularly polarized molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) from molecules. In particular it is shown that combinations of counter-rotating circularly polarized pulses produce the lowest frequency Coriolis forces with the highest frequency recollisions, thus generating new harmonics which are the source of circular polarized attosecond pulses (CPAPs). These can be used to generate circularly polarized electronic currents in molecular media on attosecond time scale. Molecular attosecond currents allow then for the generation of ultrashort magnetic field pulses on the attosecond time scale, new tools for molecular atto-magnetism (MOLAM).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.
1982-06-01
This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.
Liu, Weibo; Jin, Yan; Price, Mark
2016-10-01
A new heuristic based on the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is proposed in this article for solving a permutation flow-shop scheduling problem. A new priority rule is proposed by accounting for the average, mean absolute deviation, skewness and kurtosis, in order to fully describe the distribution style of processing times. A new tie-breaking rule is also introduced for achieving effective job insertion with the objective of minimizing both makespan and machine idle time. Statistical tests illustrate better solution quality of the proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark heuristics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.
1978-04-11
This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index
Fluorescence and Spectral Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralph S. DaCosta
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Early identification of dysplasia remains a critical goal for diagnostic endoscopy since early discovery directly improves patient survival because it allows endoscopic or surgical intervention with disease localized without lymph node involvement. Clinical studies have successfully used tissue autofluorescence with conventional white light endoscopy and biopsy for detecting adenomatous colonic polyps, differentiating benign hyperplastic from adenomas with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. In Barrett's esophagus, the detection of dysplasia remains problematic because of background inflammation, whereas in the squamous esophagus, autofluorescence imaging appears to be more dependable. Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence endoscopic imaging, does not seem to have a current function in endoscopy because of its nontargeted sampling and suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Other point spectroscopic modalities, such as Raman spectroscopy and elastic light scattering, continue to be evaluated in clinical studies, but still suffer the significant disadvantages of being random and nonimaging. A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which provides real-time optical biopsy for the first time. To improve detection of dysplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of disease-related cellular biomarkers using conventional fluorescent dyes and novel potent fluorescent nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots. This is an area of great promise, but still in its infancy, and preclinical studies are currently under way.
3D measurement using circular gratings
Harding, Kevin
2013-09-01
3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.
Transition from Poisson to circular unitary ensemble
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vinayak; Akhilesh Pandey
2009-09-01
Transitions to universality classes of random matrix ensembles have been useful in the study of weakly-broken symmetries in quantum chaotic systems. Transitions involving Poisson as the initial ensemble have been particularly interesting. The exact two-point correlation function was derived by one of the present authors for the Poisson to circular unitary ensemble (CUE) transition with uniform initial density. This is given in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter Λ. The same result was obtained for Poisson to Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) transition by Kunz and Shapiro, using the contour-integral method of Brezin and Hikami. We show that their method is applicable to Poisson to CUE transition with arbitrary initial density. Their method is also applicable to the more general ℓ CUE to CUE transition where CUE refers to the superposition of ℓ independent CUE spectra in arbitrary ratio.
Gravitational collapse of a circularly symmetric star
Sharma, Ranjan; Rahaman, Farook; Shit, Gopal Chandra
2015-01-01
We investigate the collapse of a circularly symmetric star with outgoing radiation in ($2+1$)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. The exterior spacetime of the collapsing star is assumed to be described by the non-static generalization of the Ba\\~nados, Teitelboim and Zanelli [{\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\\bf 69} (1992) 1849 ] metric. Making use of the junction conditions joining smoothly the interior and the exterior spacetimes across the boundary, we analyze the impacts of various factors on the evolution of the star which begins its collapse from an initial static configuration. In particular, depending on initial conditions, two possible outcomes of the collapse process are shown: (i) formation of a BTZ black hole, and (ii) evaporation of all mass-energy even before the singularity is reached.
Circular arc snakes and kinematic surface generation
Barton, Michael
2013-05-01
We discuss the theory, discretization, and numerics of curves which are evolving such that part of their shape, or at least their curvature as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The discretization of a curve as a smooth sequence of circular arcs is well suited for such purposes, and allows us to reduce evolution of curves to the evolution of a control point collection in a certain finite-dimensional shape space. We approach this evolution by a 2-step process: linearized evolution via optimized velocity fields, followed by optimization in order to exactly fulfill all geometric side conditions. We give applications to freeform architecture, including "rationalization" of a surface by congruent arcs, form finding and, most interestingly, non-static architecture. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
THE FLOW IN ROTATING CURVED CIRCULAR PIPE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The combined effects of the system rotation (Coriolis force) and curvature (centrifugal force) on the flow in rotating curved circular pipe with small curvature are examined by perturbation method. A second-order perturbation solution is presented. The secondary flow structure and the primary axial velocity distributions are studied in detail. The loops of the secondary flow are more complex than those in a curved pipe without rotation or a rotating straight pipe. Its numbers depend on the body force ratio F which represents the ratio of the Coriolis to the centrifugal force. The maximum of the axial velocity is pushed to either outer bend or inner bend, which is also determined by F. The results are confirmed by the results of other authors who studied the same problem by different methods.
Tangent hyperbolic circular frequency diverse array radars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah Saeed
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Frequency diverse array (FDA with uniform frequency offset (UFO has been in spot light of research for past few years. Not much attention has been devoted to non-UFOs in FDA. This study investigates tangent hyperbolic (TH function for frequency offset selection scheme in circular FDAs (CFDAs. Investigation reveals a three-dimensional single-maximum beampattern, which promises to enhance system detection capability and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio. Furthermore, by utilising the versatility of TH function, a highly configurable type array system is achieved, where beampatterns of three different configurations of FDA can be generated, just by adjusting a single function parameter. This study further examines the utility of the proposed TH-CFDA in some practical radar scenarios.
Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna
Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.
Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Rod Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Guo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new dielectric rod antenna (DRA is introduced to produce circular polarization (CP over a wide frequency band without a complex feed network. Along with the simulated results, measured results of the antenna prototype are presented, showing a 3 dB axial ratio (AR CP bandwidth of 17.7%. The radiation characteristics of the fabricated antenna are also demonstrated showing the measured gain of better than 6.2 dBi. Moreover, the measured impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤2 reaches 20.1%, from 8.75 GHz to 10.7 GHz, while the CP beamwidth (AR ≤3 dB at the central frequency is measured over 120°.
TRIPLET CIRCULAR HOUGH TRANSFORM FOR CIRCLE DETECTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luo Daisheng; He Xiaohai; Teng Qizhi; Tao Qingchuan
2002-01-01
A new method, triplet circular Hough transform, is proposed for circle detection in image processing and pattern recognition. In the method, a curve in an image is first detected.Next, a sequence of three points on the curve are selected, a sequence of parameters (a,b,r)corresponding to the three points are calculated by solving the circle equation of the curve, and two 2-D accumulators A(a,b) and R(a,b) are accumulated with 1 and r, respectively. Then the parameters {(a, b, r)} of the circles fitting the curve are determined from A(a, b) and R(a, b) by searching for the local maximum over A(a,b). Because no computation loops over center (a, b)and/or radius r are needed, the method is faster than the basic and directional gradient methods.It needs also much smaller memory for accumulation.
Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.
1986-01-01
One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.
Low Latency High Throughout Circular Asynchronous FIFO
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Yong; ZHOU Runde
2008-01-01
This paper describes a circular first in first out (FIFO) and its protocols which have a very low la-tency while still maintaining high throughput. Unlike the existing serial FIFOs based on asynchronous micro-pipelines, this FIFO's cells communicate directly with the input and output ports through a common bus, which effectively eliminates the data movement from the input port to the output port, thereby reducing the latency and the power consumption. Furthermore, the latency does not increase with the number of FIFO stages. Single-track asynchronous protocols are used to simplify the FIFO controller design, with only three C-gates needed in each cell controller, which substantially reduces the area. Simulations with the TSMC 0.25 Ijm CMOS logic process show that the latency of the 4-stage FIFO is less than 581 ps and the throughput is higher than 2.2 GHz.
Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider
Dainese, A; Armesto, N; d'Enterria, D; Jowett, J M; Lansberg, J -P; Milhano, J G; Salgado, C A; Schaumann, M; van Leeuwen, M; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonioli, P; Apolinario, L; Bass, S; Beraudo, A; Bilandzic, A; Borsanyi, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Chen, Z; Mendez, L Cunqueiro; Denicol, G S; Eskola, K J; Floerchinger, S; Fujii, H; Giubellino, P; Greiner, C; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Ko, C -M; Kotko, P; Krajczar, K; Kutak, K; Laine, M; Liu, Y; Lombardo, M P; Luzum, M; Marquet, C; Masciocchi, S; Okorokov, V; Paquet, J -F; Paukkunen, H; Petreska, E; Pierog, T; Ploskon, M; Ratti, C; Rezaeian, A H; Riegler, W; Rojo, J; Roland, C; Rossi, A; Salam, G P; Sapeta, S; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Stachel, J; Uphoff, J; van Hameren, A; Watanabe, K; Xiao, B -W; Yuan, F; Zaslavsky, D; Zhou, K; Zhuang, P
2016-01-01
The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.
The circular velocity function of group galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramson, Louis E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S., E-mail: labramson@uchicago.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
2014-09-20
A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.
Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins
Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba
2011-03-22
Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Smith Eiamsa-ard; Vichan Kongkaitpaiboon; Kwanchai Nanan
2013-01-01
The influences of circular-ring turbulators (CRT) and twisted tape (TT) swirl generators on the heat transfer enhancement,pressure drop and thermal performance factor characteristics in a round tube are reported.The circular-ring turbulators were individually employed and together with the twisted tape swirl generators in the heated section of the tube.Three different pitch ratios (l/D =1.0,1.5,and 2.0) of the CRT and three different twist ratios (y/W=3,4,and 5) of the TT were introduced.The experiments were conducted using air as the working fluid under a uniform wall heat flux condition,for the Reynolds number between 6000 and 20000.The experimental resuits reveal that the heat transfer rate,friction factor and thermal performance factor of the combined CRT and TT are considerably higher than those of CRT alone.For the range examined,the ìncreases of mean Nusselt number,friction factor and thermal performance,in the tube equipped with combined devices,respectively,are 25.8％,82.8％ and 6.3％ over those in the tube with the CRT alone.The highest thermal performance factor of 1.42 is found for the combined device consisting of the CRT with l/D =1.0 and TT with y/W=3.The correlations of the Nusselt number,friction factor and thermal performance factor of the tubes with combined devices are also developed in terms of Reynolds number,Prandtl number,twist ratio and pitch ratio.
Lang, Jun
2015-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method by using Color Blend (CB) and Chaos Permutation (CP) operations in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (RPMPFRFT) domain. The original color image is first exchanged and mixed randomly from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) color space to R‧G‧B‧ color space by rotating the color cube with a random angle matrix. Then RPMPFRFT is employed for changing the pixel values of color image, three components of the scrambled RGB color space are converted by RPMPFRFT with three different transform pairs, respectively. Comparing to the complex output transform, the RPMPFRFT transform ensures that the output is real which can save storage space of image and convenient for transmission in practical applications. To further enhance the security of the encryption system, the output of the former steps is scrambled by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by two coupled chaotic logistic maps. The parameters in the Color Blend, Chaos Permutation and the RPMPFRFT transform are regarded as the key in the encryption algorithm. The proposed color image encryption can also be applied to encrypt three gray images by transforming the gray images into three RGB color components of a specially constructed color image. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible, secure, sensitive to keys and robust to noise attack and data loss.
Sabanadzovic, Sead; Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina Abou; Gorbalenya, Alexander E
2009-11-10
To direct the genome synthesis, RNA viruses without a DNA stage in the replication cycle use RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). All RdRps have conserved right hand-like shape that includes characteristic A-->B-->C sequence motifs forming the active site. Recently, the structural permutation of the RdRp active site (C-->A-->B) has been described in few double-stranded RNA birnaviruses and a subset of positive-stranded RNA tetraviruses distantly related to Picorna-like viruses. Here we describe a permuted RdRp in the newly identified plant alpha-like virus with 6.5 kb-long polyadenylated genome, dubbed Grapevine virus Q (GVQ). The multi-domain layout and sequence similarities place GVQ into the genus Marafivirus of the family Tymoviridae. In contrast to other tymovirids, GVQ has 21 amino acid residues corresponding to the motif C relocated upstream of the motif A in the putative RdRp. This unique sequence characteristic was extensively verified and identified in several GVQ isolates infecting wild and cultivated Vitis and Rubus spp. PMID:19793602
Coughlan, Michael R.
2016-05-01
Forest managers are increasingly recognizing the value of disturbance-based land management techniques such as prescribed burning. Unauthorized, "arson" fires are common in the southeastern United States where a legacy of agrarian cultural heritage persists amidst an increasingly forest-dominated landscape. This paper reexamines unauthorized fire-setting in the state of Georgia, USA from a historical ecology perspective that aims to contribute to historically informed, disturbance-based land management. A space-time permutation analysis is employed to discriminate systematic, management-oriented unauthorized fires from more arbitrary or socially deviant fire-setting behaviors. This paper argues that statistically significant space-time clusters of unauthorized fire occurrence represent informal management regimes linked to the legacy of traditional land management practices. Recent scholarship has pointed out that traditional management has actively promoted sustainable resource use and, in some cases, enhanced biodiversity often through the use of fire. Despite broad-scale displacement of traditional management during the 20th century, informal management practices may locally circumvent more formal and regionally dominant management regimes. Space-time permutation analysis identified 29 statistically significant fire regimes for the state of Georgia. The identified regimes are classified by region and land cover type and their implications for historically informed disturbance-based resource management are discussed.
Fluorescent filtered electrophosphorescence
Forrest, Stephen R.; Sun, Yiru; Giebink, Noel; Thompson, Mark E.
2009-01-06
The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.
GRAPHS WHOSE CIRCULAR CLIQUE NUMBER EQUAL THE CLIQUE NUMBER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Baogang; ZHOU Xinghe
2005-01-01
The circular clique number of a graph G is the maximum fractional k/d such that Gkd admits a homomorphism to G. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for graphs whose circular clique number equal the clique number, we also characterize the K1,3-free graphs and planar graphs with the desired property.
LARGE DEFORMATION OF CIRCULAR MEMBRANE UNDER THE CONCENTRATED FORCE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈山林; 郑周练
2003-01-01
Making use of basic equation of large deformation of circular membrane underthe concentrated force and its boundary conditions and Hencky transformation, the problemsof nonlinear boundary condition were solved. The Hencky transformation was extended anda exact solution of large deformation of circular membrane under the concentrated force hasbeen obtained.
Modal radiation patterns of baffled circular plates and membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;
2014-01-01
The far field velocity potential and radiation pattern of baffled circular plates and membranes are found analytically using the full set of modal velocity profiles derived from the corresponding equation of motion. The derivation is valid for a plate or membrane subjected to an external excitation...... circular radiator....
THE PROJECTIVE PLANE CROSSING NUMBERS OF CIRCULAR GRAPHS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dengju MA; Han REN
2008-01-01
The authors give an upper bound for the projective plane crossing number of a circular graph. Also, the authors prove the projective plane crossing numbers of circular graph C (8,3) and C (9,3) are 2 and 1, respectively.
Calculations of circular waveguide with a rectangular metal insert.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. K. Sydoruk
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Calculated and analyzed the basic parameters of electromagnetic wave in a circular waveguide with a rectangular metal plate in the following cases: when the circular waveguide without metal plate for a H11 wave of subcritical, critical and supercritical. For calculations was used a finite element method and Ansoft HFSS program.
Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, S.S.
1985-06-01
This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs. (JDB)
Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs
Structures of generalized 3-circular projections for symmetric norms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A B Abubaker; S Dutta
2016-05-01
Recently several authors investigated structures of generalized bi-circular projections in spaces where the descriptions of the group of surjective isometries are known. Following the same idea in this paper we give complete descriptions of generalized 3-circular projections for symmetric norms on ${\\mathbb C}^n$ and ${\\mathbb M}_{m \\times n}({\\mathbb C})$.
Similarities between circular polarization in Galactic jet sources and AGN
Macquart, JP; Wu, K; Hannikainen, DC; Sault, RJ; Jauncey, DL
2003-01-01
We compare the observational properties of the circular polarization in Galactic jet sources with that observed in AGN, and outline the constraints they place on the mechanism responsible for the circular polarization. We also discuss the implications of the time scale of polarization variations on
Monacelli, Fiammetta; Storace, Daniela; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Sanguineti, Roberta; Borghi, Roberta; Pacini, Davide; Furfaro, Anna L; Pronzato, Maria A; Odetti, Patrizio; Traverso, Nicola
2013-01-01
The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of oxidative and glycative stressors to modify properties of human serum albumin (HSA) by analyzing markers of glycation (pentosidine) and oxidation (advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs)) and assessing fluorescence and circular dichroism. HSA was incubated for up to 21 days with ribose, ascorbic acid (AA) and diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) in various combinations in order to evaluate influences of these substances on the structure of HSA. Ribose was included as a strong glycative molecule, AA as a modulator of oxidative stress, and DTPA as an inhibitor of metal-catalyzed oxidation. Ribose induced a significant increase in pentosidine levels. AA and DTPA prevented the accumulation of pentosidine, especially at later time points. Ribose induced a mild increase in AOPP formation, while AA was a strong inducer of AOPP formation. Ribose, in combination with AA, further increased the formation of AOPP. DTPA prevented the AA-induced generation of AOPP. Ribose was also a potent inducer of fluorescence at 335nm ex/385nm em, which is typical of pentosidine. AA and DTPA prevented this fluorescence. Circular dichroism showed complex results, in which AA and DTPA were strong modifiers of the percentages of the alpha-helical structure of HSA, while ribose affected the structure of HSA only at later time points.
Choke position effects in double-choked circular waveguide antennas
Miyata, K.; Suzuki, M.
1984-06-01
A number of studies have been conducted regarding choke-loaded circular waveguide antennas. Aoki et al. (1970) have obtained improved results with respect to the beam circularity and the wide-angle radiation properties. Cowan (1973) suggested the employment of suitable compact, double choked feeds for frequency-reuse application. Further improvements can apparently be obtained by loading double chokes on a circular waveguide. The present investigation is concerned with the variation of the radiated fields for various choke positions in double-choked circular waveguide antennas. In the case of double-choked small circular waveguide antennas, it is found that the choke position has a pronounced effect on the radiation properties. Particularly sensitive to the choke position is the cross-polar level.
Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit
2014-01-01
Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here). This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department
Conversion from linear to circular polarization in FPGA
Das, Koyel; Keller, R; Tuccari, G
2011-01-01
Context: Radio astronomical receivers are now expanding their frequency range to cover large (octave) fractional bandwidths for sensitivity and spectral flexibility, which makes the design of good analogue circular polarizers challenging. Better polarization purity requires a flatter phase response over increasingly wide bandwidth, which is most easily achieved with digital techniques. They offer the ability to form circular polarization with perfect polarization purity over arbitrarily wide fractional bandwidths, due to the ease of introducing a perfect quadrature phase shift. Further, the rapid improvements in field programmable gate arrays provide the high processing power, low cost, portability and reconfigurability needed to make practical the implementation of the formation of circular polarization digitally. Aims: Here we explore the performance of a circular polarizer implemented with digital techniques. Methods: We designed a digital circular polarizer in which the intermediate frequency signals from...
Circularization of Tidally Disrupted Stars around Spinning Supermassive Black Holes
Hayasaki, Kimitake; Loeb, Abraham
2015-01-01
We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with Post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disk. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precurso...
Nearest Neighbor Estimates of Entropy for Multivariate Circular Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neeraj Misra
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In molecular sciences, the estimation of entropies of molecules is important for the understanding of many chemical and biological processes. Motivated by these applications, we consider the problem of estimating the entropies of circular random vectors and introduce non-parametric estimators based on circular distances between n sample points and their k th nearest neighbors (NN, where k (≤ n – 1 is a fixed positive integer. The proposed NN estimators are based on two different circular distances, and are proven to be asymptotically unbiased and consistent. The performance of one of the circular-distance estimators is investigated and compared with that of the already established Euclidean-distance NN estimator using Monte Carlo samples from an analytic distribution of six circular variables of an exactly known entropy and a large sample of seven internal-rotation angles in the molecule of tartaric acid, obtained by a realistic molecular-dynamics simulation.
TRAJECTORY GENERATION AND CONTROL FOR NON-CIRCULAR CNC TURNING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Simin; YAN Han; WANG Xiankui
2008-01-01
A trajectory generation method which is based on NURBS interpolation is studied to improve the fitting accuracy and smoothness of non-circular cross section and obtain higher accuracy of the final non-circular profile control. After using the NURBS, the most optimized and smooth trajectory for the linear actuator can be obtained. For the purpose of machining the non-circular cross section by CNC turning, the fast response linear actuator has been used. The control algorithm which is compound control of proportional-integral-differential (PID) and iterative learning control has been developed for non-circular profile generation. By using the NURBS interpolation and the compound control of PID and iterative learning control, the final motion accuracy of linear actuator has been improved, therefore, the machining accuracy of the non-circular turning can be improved.
Circular Interpolation Algorithms of 5-Axis Simultaneous CNC System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Kuijing; SHANG Bo
2006-01-01
Spatial circular arc can be machined conveniently by a 5-axis NC machine tool. Based on the data sampling method, circular interpolation in two-dimensional plane is discussed briefly. The key is to solve the problem of circular center expressed in the workpiece coordinate system by means of the transformation matrix. Circular interpolation in three-dimensional space is analyzed in detail. The method of undetermined coefficient is used to solve the center of the spatial circle and the method of coordinate transformation is used to transform the spatial circle into the XY_plane. Circular arc in three-dimensional space can be machined by the positional 5-axis machining and the conical surface can be machined by the continuous 5-axis machining. The velocity control is presented to avoid the feedrate fluctuation. The interpolation algorithms are tested by a simulation example and the interpolation algorithms are proved feasible. The algorithms are applied to the 5-axis CNC system software.
Circularly Polarized Broadband RFID Microstrip Tag Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Rajini
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the application of radio frequency identification (RFID operating in the ultra-high frequency (UHF band (860-960MHz are expanding exponentially, due to the advantages such as long reading distance, high data transfer rate, and small tag size. So the design of a CP tag antenna with broadband characteristic is presently one of the most challenging topics. This project presents a square patch passive RFID tag antenna designed for UHF band. To achieve compact size broadband and circular polarization (CP radiation, the square patch is embedded with a cross slot, while an L-shaped open-end microstrip line coupled to the patch. By selecting an appropriate length for the microstrip line and its coupling distance with the radiating element, easy control on the input impedance of the designed tag antenna which leads to excellent impedance matching is achieved. The measured 10-dB return-loss bandwidth of the tag antenna is 27MHz (from 901–928 MHz.
Power performance of circular piezoelectric diaphragm generators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kehong TANG; Junwu KAN; Taijiang PENG; Zhigang YANG; Guangming CHENG
2008-01-01
Energy generation performance of a piezo-electric generator depends mainly on several elements such as the structural style, boundary conditions, geo-metry parameters, materials, vibration-source frequency, and external load. To obtain the optimal energy-harvest-ing device, the Raleigh method is used to establish the analysis model of circular piezoelectric composite dia-phragms. Simply supported and clamped boundary con-ditions were considered. The relationships between the output power and the structural parameters of piezo-electric composite diaphragms, and the external load res-istance and frequency were shown. Given the correlative material parameters and boundary conditions, the output power, using structural parameters, external load, or vibrating frequency as variables, can be calculated. Simulation results show that there are optimal structural parameters and load for a composite diaphragm to achieve the maximum output power. A piezoelectric dia-phragm generator with given dimensions tends to achieve higher output power under clamped boundary conditions than that under simply supported boundary conditions.
SEAMLESS TECHNOLOGY ON CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CRETU Viorica
2014-05-01
Full Text Available With industrial progress, the advancements in garment manufacturing have evolved from cut & sew to complete garment knitting, which produces one entire garment without sewing or linking process. Seamless knitting technology is similar to sock manufacture, the specialized circular knitting machines producing 3 dimensional garments with no side seams, with the waistband integrated with body of the garment and with knitted washing instructions and logos. The paper starts by presenting the main advantages of seamless garments but also some limitations because the technology. Because for a seamless garment, which is realized as a knitted tub, is very important to ensure the required final chest size, it was presented the main components involved: the knitting machine, the garment design and the yarns used. The knitting machines, beside the values of diameters and gauges with a great impact on the chest size, are characterized by a very innovative and complex construction. The design of a seamless garment is fundamental different compared to garments produced on a traditional way because the designer must to work backwards from a finished garment to create the knitting programme that will ultimately give the correct finished size. On the end of the paper it was presented some of the applications of the seamless products that cover intimate apparel and other bodywear, outwear, activewear and functional sportswear, upholstery, industrial, automotive and medical textiles.
Circular SAR Optimization Imaging Method of Buildings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Jian-feng
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can obtain the entire scattering properties of targets because of its great ability of 360° observation. In this study, an optimal orientation of the CSAR imaging algorithm of buildings is proposed by applying a combination of coherent and incoherent processing techniques. FEKO software is used to construct the electromagnetic scattering modes and simulate the radar echo. The FEKO imaging results are compared with the isotropic scattering results. On comparison, the optimal azimuth coherent accumulation angle of CSAR imaging of buildings is obtained. Practically, the scattering directions of buildings are unknown; therefore, we divide the 360° echo of CSAR into many overlapped and few angle echoes corresponding to the sub-aperture and then perform an imaging procedure on each sub-aperture. Sub-aperture imaging results are applied to obtain the all-around image using incoherent fusion techniques. The polarimetry decomposition method is used to decompose the all-around image and further retrieve the edge information of buildings successfully. The proposed method is validated with P-band airborne CSAR data from Sichuan, China.
Future Circular Colliders Study, Kickoff Meeting
2014-01-01
This meeting is the starting point of a five-year international design study called “Future Circular Colliders” (FCC) with emphasis on a hadron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new 80-100 km tunnel as a long-term goal. The design study includes a 90-400 GeV lepton collider, seen as a potential intermediate step. It also examines a lepton-hadron collider option. The international kick-off meeting for the FCC design study will be held at the University of Geneva, Unimail site, on 12–15 February 2014. The scope of this meeting will be to discuss the main study topics and to prepare the groundwork for the establishment of international collaborations and future studies. The formal part of the meeting will start at noon on Wednesday 12 February and last until noon on Friday 14 February. It will be followed by break-out sessions on the various parts of the project on the Friday afternoon, with summary sessions until noon on Saturday 15 February.
TRIPLET CIRCULAR HOUGH TRANSFORM FOR CIRCLE DETECTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LuoDaisheng; HeXiaohai; 等
2002-01-01
A new method,triplet circular Hough transform,is proposed for circle detection in image processing and pattern recognition.In the method,a curve in an image is first detected.Next,a sequence of three points on the curve are selected.a sequence of parameters(a,b,r)corresponding to the three points are calculated by solving the circle equation of the curve,and two 2-D accumulators A(a,b)and R(a,b)are accumulated with 1 and r,respectively,Then the parameters{(a,b,r)}of the circles fitting the curve are determined from A(a,b)and R(a,b) by searching for the local maximum over A(a,b).Because no computation loops over center(a,b) and/or radius r are needed,the method is faster than the basic and directional gradient methods It needs also much smaller memory for accumulation.
Drops with non-circular footprints
Ravazzoli, Pablo D; Diez, Javier A
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. This type of drops is a consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to hysteresis effects of the contact angle since some parts of the contact line are wetting, while others are dewetting. Here, we obtain a peculiar drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate, and analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non--trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of...
Circularly Polarized Light and Growth of Plants
Shibayev, Pavel; Pergolizzi, Robert
2011-03-01
The influence of linearly polarized light on the direction of plants growth has been recently demonstrated. The state of circularly polarized (CP) light can also change when it is reflected from the surface of leaves and stems. However, the role of light handedness in the development of plants and CP light interaction with the complexes of chlorophyll molecules have still not been studied enough. In this work, the role of left CP light in the accelerated growth of lentil and pea plants is revealed and studied. The mechanism of such an enhancement is discussed in terms of the model considering transmission, absorption, and scattering of CP light on micro and macro levels of leaf organization. Theoretical modeling of light interaction with the interior of the leaf was conducted for a number of recently proposed models of organization of chlorophyll molecules and chloroplasts. All the calculations were performed by employing a 4x4 matrix method in solving Maxwell equations. It is shown that left-handed chiral organization of chlorophyll molecules can greatly enhance the absorption of light and therefore lead to the enhanced growth of the whole plant under CP light.
Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2)
HR Department
2007-01-01
The HR Department wishes to draw the attention of members of the personnel to a number of amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2) entitled "Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability" which came into force on 1st July 2006 (cf. Weekly Bulletin of 14 and 21 August 2006). Occupational Accident Declaration Form (HS50) https://cern.ch/service-procedures/AdminMan/Forms/HS50E.doc •\tIt must be completed within 10 working days of the date on which the accident occurred (§ 29.2.1), unless the person concerned is materially unable to meet this deadline. • The completed formula must be accompanied by a medical certificate giving details of any bodily injuries resulting from the accident (Annex 1, § 5). The medical certificate must be obtained from the doctor who has been consulted for that purpose. Benefits resulting from illnesses and accidents Medical treatment will cease to be reimbursed under ...
On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dale Umbach
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.
Drops with non-circular footprints
Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.
2016-04-01
In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. These drops are consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to the hysteresis of the contact angle since there is a wetting process in some parts of the contact line, while a dewetting occurs in other parts. Here, we obtain a characteristic drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate. We analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non-trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and we compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equation, where we emulate the hysteretic effects with an appropriate spatial distribution of the static contact angle over the substrate.
Challenges for highest energy circular colliders
Benedikt, M; Wenninger, J; Zimmermann, F
2014-01-01
A new tunnel of 80–100 km circumference could host a 100 TeV centre-of-mass energy-frontier proton collider (FCC-hh/VHE-LHC), with a circular lepton collider (FCCee/TLEP) as potential intermediate step, and a leptonhadron collider (FCC-he) as additional option. FCC-ee, operating at four different energies for precision physics of the Z, W, and Higgs boson and the top quark, represents a significant push in terms of technology and design parameters. Pertinent R&D efforts include the RF system, topup injection scheme, optics design for arcs and final focus, effects of beamstrahlung, beam polarization, energy calibration, and power consumption. FCC-hh faces other challenges, such as high-field magnet design, machine protection and effective handling of large synchrotron radiation power in a superconducting machine. All these issues are being addressed by a global FCC collaboration. A parallel design study in China prepares for a similar, but smaller collider, called CepC/SppC.
Wave Interaction with Dual Circular Porous Plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Arpita Mondal; R.Gayen
2015-01-01
In this paper we have investigated the reflection and the transmission of a system of two symmetric circular-arc-shaped thin porous plates submerged in deep water within the context of linear theory. The hypersingular integral equation technique has been used to analyze the problem mathematically. The integral equations are formulated by applying Green’s integral theorem to the fundamental potential function and the scattered potential function into a suitable fluid region, and then using the boundary condition on the porous plate surface. These are solved approximately using an expansion-cum-collocation method where the behaviour of the potential functions at the tips of the plates have been used. This method ultimately produces a very good numerical approximation for the reflection and the transmission coefficients and hydrodynamic force components. The numerical results are depicted graphically against the wave number for a variety of layouts of the arc. Some results are compared with known results for similar configurations of dual rigid plate systems available in the literature with good agreement.
A novel broadband circularly polarised monopole antenna
Kang, Ding; Cheng, Gao; Tongbin, Yu; Dexin, Qu
2015-11-01
A novel broadband circularly polarised (CP) monopole antenna is designed and implemented in this article. The antenna consists of a radiating patch that is composed of an annular-ring linked by a square ring over the corner and a modified ground plane. The broadband property is achieved based on a novel monopole structure that is connected by two perturbed loops, so the CP wave is generated due to the perturbation. Besides, by cutting a rectangular slit and embedding a vertical stub on the ground plane, the impedance and axial-ratio (AR) bandwidths can be greatly enhanced. The measured results reveal that the proposed monopole antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 4.575 GHz from 2.3 to 6.85 GHz, reaching the particularly broad bandwidth of 99.5%. Furthermore, a wide 3-dB AR bandwidth of 34.6% (1.53 GHz, 3.65-5.18 GHz) centred at 4.42 GHz is achieved. The radiation characteristics of the designed antenna are also presented.
Cutting force prediction for circular end milling process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Baohai; Yan Xue; Luo Ming; Gao Ge
2013-01-01
A deduced cutting force prediction model for circular end milling process is presented in this paper.Traditional researches on cutting force model usually focus on linear milling process which does not meet other cutting conditions,especially for circular milling process.This paper presents an improved cutting force model for circular end milling process based on the typical linear milling force model.The curvature effects of tool path on chip thickness as well as entry and exit angles are analyzed,and the cutting force model of linear milling process is then corrected to fit circular end milling processes.Instantaneous cutting forces during circular end milling process are predicted according to the proposed model.The deduced cutting force model can be used for both linear and circular end milling processes.Finally,circular end milling experiments with constant and variable radial depth were carried out to verify the availability of the proposed method.Experiment results show that measured results and simulated results corresponds well with each other.
Inversion of the circular averages transform using the Funk transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The integral of a function defined on the half-plane along the semi-circles centered on the boundary of the half-plane is known as the circular averages transform. Circular averages transform arises in many tomographic image reconstruction problems. In particular, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) when the transmitting and receiving antennas are colocated, the received signal is modeled as the integral of the ground reflectivity function of the illuminated scene over the intersection of spheres centered at the antenna location and the surface topography. When the surface topography is flat the received signal becomes the circular averages transform of the ground reflectivity function. Thus, SAR image formation requires inversion of the circular averages transform. Apart from SAR, circular averages transform also arises in thermo-acoustic tomography and sonar inverse problems. In this paper, we present a new inversion method for the circular averages transform using the Funk transform. For a function defined on the unit sphere, its Funk transform is given by the integrals of the function along the great circles. We used hyperbolic geometry to establish a diffeomorphism between the circular averages transform, hyperbolic x-ray and Funk transforms. The method is exact and numerically efficient when fast Fourier transforms over the sphere are used. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the inversion method. Dedicated to Dennis Healy, a friend of Applied Mathematics and Engineering
Curved-Line Cutting Using a Flexible Circular Saw
Yamada, Yohei; Osumi, Nobuyuki; Takasugi, Akio; Sasahara, Hiroyuki
We propose a flexible circular saw for high-speed cutting of curved lines in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). A conventional circular saw is appropriate for straight line cutting, but it cannot be applied to curved line cutting because of the interference between the saw body and the machined surface. To eliminate this problem, the flexible circular saw is deflected into a bowl shape by circular forced displacement, and the cross-section of the saw becomes a circular arc. A curved line can be cut by the bowl-like-deflection. The deflection shape is very important to realize the curved-line cutting without interference. We investigated the deflection of the flexible circular saw by a finite element method (FEM) analysis. Suitable slit shapes for the saw body are also proposed, based on the FEM results regarding stress in the saw body, the minimum radius of curvature, and the effects of cutting force and centrifugal force and eigenvalue. We also conducted a curved-line cutting test on a CFRP plate, and we found that the flexible circular saw can cut curved lines with high accuracy and high speed without interference between the saw body and the machined surface.
Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter
Shaffer, Franklin D.
1994-01-01
A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on an analytical solution of Maxwell's equations for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on a right circular cone. The problem was solved for THz frequencies in real metals and was therefore derived using the Leontovich approximation, which is valid for media with small surface impedances. The solution also accounts for both surface plasmon polaritons that are axisymmetric and those that have an angular structure in a plane normal to the cone's axis. This was an important consideration since it is crucial for describing surface phenomena such as surface-enhanced absorption, fluorescence, and Raman scattering. Our findings predict a total reflection of surface plasmon polaritons at the cone's apex, which was experimentally verified by an absence of light emitted from a heated cone's tip into the far-field region.
Localization and dynamics of small circular DNA in live mammalian nuclei
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mearini, Giulia; Nielsen, Peter E; Fackelmayer, Frank O
2004-01-01
or experimental transfection. To address this point, we have created traceable model substrates by direct labeling of plasmid DNA with fluorescent peptide nucleic acids, and have investigated their fate after microinjection into living cells. Here, we report that foreign DNA rapidly undergoes interactions......While genomic DNA, packaged into chromatin, is known to be locally constrained but highly dynamic in the nuclei of living cells, little is known about the localization and dynamics of small circular DNA molecules that invade cells by virus infection, application of gene therapy vectors...... with intranuclear structural sites that strongly reduce its mobility and restrict the DNA to regions excluding nucleoli and nuclear bodies such as PML bodies. The labeled plasmids partially co-localize with SAF-A, a well characterized marker protein for the nuclear 'scaffold' or 'matrix', and are resistant towards...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wakabayashi, Masamitsu [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi, E-mail: yokojima@toyaku.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukaminato, Tuyoshi [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ohtani, Hiroyuki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: snakamura@riken.jp [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2015-04-21
In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.
Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro
2015-04-01
In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.
Wang, S; Kool, E T
1994-06-25
We report the synthesis and nucleic acid binding properties of two cyclic RNA oligonucleotides designed to bind single-stranded nucleic acids by pyr.pur.pyr-type triple helix formation. The circular RNAs are 34 nucleotides in size and were cyclized using a template-directed nonenzymatic ligation. To ensure isomeric 3'-5' purity in the ligation reaction, one nucleotide at the ligation site is a 2'-deoxyribose. One circle (1) is complementary to the sequence 5'-A12, and the second (2) is complementary to 5'-AAGAAAGAAAAG. Results of thermal denaturation experiments and mixing studies show that both circles bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA substrates by triple helix formation, in which two domains in a pyrimidine-rich circle sandwich a central purine-rich substrate. The affinities of these circles with their purine complements are much higher than the affinities of either the linear precursors or simple Watson-Crick DNA complements. For example, circle 1 binds rA12 (pH 7.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl) with a Tm of 48 degrees C and a Kd (37 degrees C) of 4.1 x 10(-9) M, while the linear precursor of the circle binds with a Tm of 34 degrees C and a Kd of 1.2 x 10(-6) M. The complexes of circle 2 are pH-dependent, as expected for triple helical complexes involving C(+)G.C triads, and mixing plots for both circles reveal one-to-one stoichiometry of binding either to RNA or DNA substrates. Comparison of circular RNAs with previously synthesized circular DNA oligonucleotides of the same sequence reveals similar behavior in the binding of DNA, but strikingly different behavior in the binding of RNA. The cyclic DNAs show high DNA-binding selectivity, giving relatively weaker duplex-type binding with complementary RNAs. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the four types of triplex studied here is found to be DDD > RRR > RDR > DRD. The results are discussed in the context of recent reports of strong triplex dependence on RNA versus DNA backbones. Triplex
THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND MOMENTS OF CIRCULAR FREELY JOINTED CHAIN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAO Minghong
1991-01-01
The spatial distribution function and second moments of circular freely jointed chain are derived based on an analytical method. The circular Gauss chain, which is simple for long chains, is compared with the circular freely jointed chain, which is exact for short chains. It is shown that the Gauss chain model predicts a more compact configurational distribution than the exact freely jointed chain. The two chain models, however, become closer to each other when the chain length increases.It is found that the difference of the mean square radius of gyration calculated with these two chain models is a constant, independent of the chain length.
Plastic welding techniques based on torsional and circular motion.
Kising, J
2001-05-01
The torsion ultrasonic welding process and the frequency decoupled circular friction process at low frequencies deliver low particle production. In addition, the even, circular movement of the circular welding process over the whole seam area and the freely selectable frequency open up applications in the medical field that cannot be achieved, or can only be achieved with difficulty, by traditional welding processes. The processes are fast and can be process controlled to a fine degree with a facility to be integrated into automation lines. PMID:11521653