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Sample records for circadian blood pressure

  1. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Matteucci; Ottavio Giampietro

    2013-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures display a circadian rhythmicity that can be assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and analysed using the cosinor procedure. Altered characteristics to the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, which may result in adverse health outcomes, have been observed in both prediabetes and diabetes. We have investigated the circadian variability of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Chronobiologically interpreted ambulator...

  2. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

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    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  3. Circadian variations in blood pressure in health and disease: implications for patient management

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    Slaughter MS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Atul R Chugh1, John H Loughran1, Mark S Slaughter21Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Traditionally, blood pressure measurements have been performed in office settings and have provided the basis for all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. However, the development of a clinically relevant 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system has added greatly to the ability of blood pressure values to confer additional clinical information, including prognostic value. Mechanistically, the circadian rhythm of blood pressure is mediated by a complex process as a part of the neurohormonal cascade. Pattern recognition of blood pressure peaks and troughs over a 24-hour period has led to categorization into specific subsets namely, ie, dippers, nondippers, extreme dippers, and reverse dippers. Cardiovascular risk is associated with certain pattern types, as has been demonstrated in large observational and prospective studies. The development of therapies for the purpose of restoring more pathological patterns to normal ones continues to grow. These include both pharmaceutical and device therapy. This article describes the development of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring systems, the identification of circadian blood pressure patterns, and the treatment strategies studied thus far which affect these newer blood pressure parameters.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure measurement, nocturnal blood pressure, dippers, nondippers, extreme dippers, device therapy

  4. Circadian variation of blood pressure in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Ladefoged, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The circadian pattern of blood pressure variation was investigated in 10 patients with advanced chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and in an age-matched group of controls without renal disease with similar office blood pressure level. Monitoring was done using....... In patients with chronic renal failure undergoing CAPD, an otherwise unnoticed 24-h hypertension and nocturnal blood pressure elevation can be discovered by use of 24-h blood pressure monitoring and this may indicate a need of earlier start of antihypertensive treatment in CAPD patients with borderline...

  5. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ON DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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    I. Rajagopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of gender difference and circadian rhythm on diastolic blood pressure for volleyball players. METHODS: To achieve the purpose, a total of thirty volleyball players [men (n = 15 and women (n = 15] age between 19 years and 22 years from Einstein College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India were selected as subjects. The two independent variables of gender and circadian variations and dependent variable of diastolic blood pressure were selected for this study. The experimental design used was static group factorial design. The data were collected at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00 hours on diastolic blood pressure by using Erkameter during the academic year of 2009 – 2010. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis by using two-way factorial (2 x 6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Cosinor analysis. RESULTS: There was insignificant difference between genders, significant difference at different times of the day and insignificant circadian rhythmicity exists on diastolic blood pressure for women and significant for men. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to the physical educators to adopt the findings of this study while planning to improve sports skills for the players and athletes.

  6. Association among epicardial fat, heart rate recovery and circadian blood pressure variability in patients with hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Da-Jung; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Cho, Eun-A; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Sun-Min; Kim, Hyun-Su; Heo, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Epicardial fat tissue is known to have an unique endocrine function which affect the cardiac autonomic system. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a simple non-invasive measurement that assesses autonomic nervous system dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association among epicardial fat thickness (EFT), HRR and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation in patients with hypertension. Methods A total of 358 consecutive patients who underwent both 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) ...

  7. THE CIRCADIAN ALTERATIONS OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱珠; 王宪衍; 金翠燕; 陈丽莎; 董寿琪

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the pattern of circadian blood pressure changes in patients with secondary hypertension. Methods The 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 80 patients with secondary hypertension ( SH ) including primary aldosteronisrn in 44, pheochromocytoma in 11, renovascular hypertension in 10, renoparenchymal hypertension in 15 and compared with 80 patients with essential hypertension (EH) matched by age and sex. Results The diurnal rhythm in patients with SH was different from that of patients with EH. The diurnal curves in SH and EH was overlapped in daytime and separated from each other at nighttime. The nocturnal blood pressure fall was less and average blood pressure at nighttime was higher in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure loading and non-dipper phenomenon were much more frequently seen in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure/daytime blood pressure ratio was significantly higher in patients with SH than that in patients with EH (P<0.01). Conclusion The non-invasive 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be a useful method in screening for SH.

  8. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus

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    Duarte D.P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter. Animals moved freely in an isolated and temperature-controlled room (24ºC with 12/12-h artificial light-dark cycles and behaviors were observed during resting, eating and moving. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressures were sampled for 1 min every 15 min for 24 h. BP rhythm over 24 h was analyzed by the cosinor method and the mesor, amplitude, acrophase and percent rhythm were calculated. A total of 764 measurements were made in the light cycle and 721 in the dark cycle. Twenty-four-hour values (mean ± SD were obtained for SBP (121 ± 22 mmHg, DBP (86 ± 17 mmHg, mean BP (MBP, 98 ± 18 mmHg and heart rate (73 ± 16 bpm. The SBP, DBP and MBP were significantly higher (unpaired Student t-test during the light period (125 ± 21, 88 ± 15 and 100 ± 17 mmHg, respectively than during the dark period (120 ± 21, 85 ± 17 and 97 ± 17 mmHg, respectively and the acrophase occurred between 16:00 and 17:45 h. This circadian variation is similar to that observed in cats, dogs and marmosets. The BP decreased during "behavioral sleep" (MBP down from 110 ± 19 to 90 ± 19 mmHg at 21:00 to 8:00 h. Both feeding and moving induced an increase in MBP (96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg at 17:00 h and 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg at 15:00 h, respectively. The results show that conscious sloths present biphasic circadian fluctuations in BP levels, which are higher during the light period and are mainly synchronized with feeding.

  9. Effects of Restricted Fructose Access on Body Weight and Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythms

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    Danielle Senador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fructose diet is known to produce cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The objective was to determine whether the timing of high fructose (10% liquid solution intake affect the metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Male C57BL mice with radiotelemetric probes were divided into four groups: (1 24 h water (control; (2 24 h fructose (F24; (3 12 h fructose during the light phase (F12L; (4 12 h fructose during the dark phase (F12D. All fructose groups had higher fluid intake. Body weight was increased in mice on restricted access with no difference in total caloric intake. Fasting glycemia was higher in groups with restricted access. F24 mice showed a fructose-induced blood pressure increase during the dark period. Blood pressure circadian rhythms were absent in F12L mice. Results suggest that the timing of fructose intake is an important variable in the etiology of cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies produced by high fructose consumption.

  10. Circadian variations in blood pressure in health and disease: implications for patient management

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Mark; Chugh,; Loughran,

    2011-01-01

    Atul R Chugh1, John H Loughran1, Mark S Slaughter21Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Traditionally, blood pressure measurements have been performed in office settings and have provided the basis for all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. However, the development of a clinically relevant 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system has added greatly to the ability of blood pressure values...

  11. Value of variation in circadian rhythm of blood pressure for early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of 24 h ambulatory blood pressure in patients with subclinical diabetic nephropathy.Methods A total of 190 type 2 diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) :glomerular

  12. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Strandgaard, Svend; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that status as a 'non-dipper' determined from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings is associated with increased risk of end-organ damage but little is known about the consistency of dipper status in renal patients. The present post hoc analysis evaluated dipper...

  13. Impact of Gender on the Association of Epicardial Fat Thickness, Obesity, and Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern in Hypertensive Patients

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    In Kyoung Shim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender on the association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT and circadian blood pressure (BP changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension (EH. A total of 441 patients with EH (male/female: 236/205, mean age: 50.7 ± 13.8 and 83 control patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography. Obese EH patients had higher circadian BP profile with BP variability, wall thickness, and left ventricular mass than nonobese EH patients and controls (all p’s <0.05 without gender differences. EFT was higher in female than in male patients (7.0 ± 2.5 versus 5.9 ± 2.2 mm, p<0.001 and higher in the obese female EH group (7.5 ± 2.6 mm than in the control (6.4 ± 2.8 mm or nonobese EH group (6.7 ± 2.8 mm among women, whereas EFT did not vary among males (5.9 ± 1.9 versus 6.0 ± 2.7 versus 5.9 ± 2.4 mm, p=0.937. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the 24-hour mean BP variability was associated with SBP (p=0.018 and EFT (p=0.016 in female patients, but not in male patients. The relationships among circadian BP variability, obesity, and EFT were affected by gender in different manners. EFT may be a more valuable parameter in the evaluation of BP severity and obesity in women than in men.

  14. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  15. 24 Hours chronomics of ambulatory blood pressure and its relation with circadian rhythm of 6-sulfatoxy melatonin in night shift health care workers

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    B. Anjum

    2015-08-01

    Results: Ambulatory BP and HR were recorded at every 30 min intervals in day time and each hour in night time synchronically with circadian pattern of 6 sulfatoxy melatonin during shift duties. Highly Significant difference was found in double amplitude (2DA of blood pressure between night and day shift (p<0.001. In night shift, hyperbaric index (HBI of mean systolic blood pressure was found to be increased at 00-03 am (midnight while during day shift, peak was found at 06-09 am. Peak melatonin was to be found in early morning as compared to mid night in both the shift. Conclusions: The present study concluded that the desynchronization was appeared during night shift and entrainment of circadian rhythm in the day shift. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1922-1931

  16. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

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    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states. PMID:26818652

  17. Circadian control of mouse heart rate and blood pressure by the suprachiasmatic nuclei: behavioral effects are more significant than direct outputs.

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    W John Sheward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diurnal variations in the incidence of events such as heart attack and stroke suggest a role for circadian rhythms in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN circadian clock on cardiovascular function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and locomotor activity (LA were measured in circadian mutant (Vipr2(-/- mice and wild type littermates, using implanted radio-telemetry devices. Sleep and wakefulness were studied in similar mice implanted with electroencephalograph (EEG electrodes. There was less diurnal variation in the frequency and duration of bouts of rest/activity and sleep/wake in Vipr2(-/- mice than in wild type (WT and short "ultradian" episodes of arousal were more prominent, especially in constant conditions (DD. Activity was an important determinant of circadian variation in BP and HR in animals of both genotypes; altered timing of episodes of activity and rest (as well as sleep and wakefulness across the day accounted for most of the difference between Vipr2(-/- mice and WT. However, there was also a modest circadian rhythm of resting HR and BP that was independent of LA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If appropriate methods of analysis are used that take into account sleep and locomotor activity level, mice are a good model for understanding the contribution of circadian timing to cardiovascular function. Future studies of the influence of sleep and wakefulness on cardiovascular physiology may help to explain accumulating evidence linking disrupted sleep with cardiovascular disease in man.

  18. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

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    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  19. Effects of plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio on blood pressure circadian rhythms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weiying; Yue Hongmei; Zhang Jiabin; Pu Jiayuan; Yu Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is strongly associated with obesity and with cardiovascular disease.Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptides from the same source but have opposite roles.Both of them can affect feeding and regulate vascular tune.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin,obestatin,the ratio of ghrelin and obestatin (G/O) and sleep parameters and blood pressure circadian rhythms in patients with OSAS.Methods This study enrolled 95 newly diagnosed over-weight OSAS patients (OSAS group),30 body mass index (BMI)-match non-OSAS adults (over-weight group) and 30 non-OSAS normal weight adults (control group).Polysomnography (PSG) was performed in the OSAS group and over-weight group.Blood pressure of all subjects was monitored by means of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.The concentration of plasma ghrelin and obestatin was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Plasma ghrelin levels in the OSAS group and over-weight group were significantly lower than that of the control group (P <0.05).Plasma obestatin levels were lower in the over-weight group and OSAS group,but there was no significant difference among the three groups.The blood pressure in OSAS patients was higher,and there was a significant difference in all blood pressure parameters compared to the control group,and in the daytime average diastolic blood pressure (DBP),nocturnal average systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP,DBP variability values as compared to over-weight subjects.Furthermore,there were significantly more non-dipper patterns of blood pressure (including hypertension and normotension) in the OSAS group than in the other two groups (P <0.01).Correlation analysis showed that ghrelin levels had a significant correlation with BMI and nocturnal average DBP but not with PSG parameters.In contrast,the G/O ratio had a negative correlation with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (P <0.05),as well as a

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

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    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  2. Changes in Plasma Angiotensin II and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome Before and After Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-ling Wang; Qing-zeng Liu; Yu Wang; Ying Zhang; Yun-dai Chen; Xin-chun Wang; Zhi-xuan Liu; Guo-li Jing; Hai-feng Tong; Yuan Tian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes in plasma angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and circadian rhythm of blood pressure among hypertensive patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or surgical treatment. Methods A total of 180 essential hypertension patients were enrolled in our study. The determination of plasma Ang Ⅱ concentration, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), and polysomnography (PSG) monitoring were performed before and 3 months after CPAP or surgical treatment.Results Patients were dassified into three groups by their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): essential hypertension group (EH group, n=72; AHI<5), essential hypertension with mild SAS group (EH+mild SAS group, n=60, 5≤AHI<20), and essential hypertension with moderate and severe SAS group (EH+moderate-severe SAS group, n=48, AHI≥20). The concentrations of plasma Ang Ⅱ in the above three groups were 13.42±3.27, 16.17±3.82, and 18.73±4.05 ng/mL respectively before treatment, and AngⅡ concentration in EH patients combined with SAS was significantly higher than that in EH group (all P<O.05).After treatment the values in the latter two groups significantly decreased to 14.67±2.56 and 15.03±3.41 ng/mL respectively (P<0.05). The incidence of non-dipper blood pressure curve in EH patients was 31.9%,and those in hypertensive patients with mild SAS and moderate-severe SAS were 51.7% and 58.3%, respectively before treatment. The incidence of non-dipper blood pressure curve in the EH patients with mild SAS was significantly higher than that of patients with EH alone (P<0.05). After CPAP treatment or surgery, the incidence of non-dipper blood pressure curve in the two SAS groups was significantly decreased to 38.3% and 39.6%, respectively (P<0.05).Condusions Ang Ⅱ might phy a role in blood pressure variability in patients with obstructive SAS. CPAP or surgical treatment can improve blood pressure disorder and decrease plasma Ang

  3. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  4. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  5. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  6. Effects of music composed by Mozart and Ligeti on blood pressure and heart rate circadian rhythms in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Björn

    2008-11-01

    There is continuing discussion on the effect of music ("Mozart effect") on numerous functions in man and experimental animals. Radiotelemetry now allows one to monitor cardiovascular functions in freely-moving unrestrained experimental animals. Radiotelemetry was used to monitor systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA) in male normotensive WKY and hypertensive SHR animals. Rats were synchronized to a 12 h light (L): 12 h dark (D) regimen in an isolated, ventilated, light-controlled, sound-isolated animal container. Music (Mozart, Symphony # 40; Ligeti, String Quartet # 2) were played for 2 h at 75 dB in the animal cabin starting at the onset of L or D in a cross-over design. Data were collected every 5 min for 24 h under control conditions and during and after music. In addition, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) were determined in unrestrained animals at 3 h intervals over 24 h. In both WKY and SHR, highly significant circadian rhythms were obtained in SBP, DBP, HR, and MA under control conditions; HR was lower and BP higher in SHR than in WKY. NE was circadian rhythmic in both strains with higher values in D; the increase in NE with immobilization was much more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. The music of Mozart had no effect on either parameter in WKY, neither in L nor in D. In contrast, in SHR, the music of Mozart presented in L significantly decreased HR and left BP unaffected, leading to a small decrease in cardiac output. The music of Ligeti significantly increased BP both in L and in D and reflexively reduced HR in L, the effects being long-lasting over 24 h. Interestingly, white noise at 75 dB had no effect at all on either function in both strains. The effects of both Mozart and Ligeti cannot be attributed to a stress reaction, as stress due to cage switch increased HR and BP both in WKY and SHR. The study clearly demonstrates that music of different character (tempo, rhythm, pitch, tonality) can

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  8. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

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    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  9. High Blood Pressure

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    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  10. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  11. Effect of different drug administration time on blood pressure circadian rhythm and morning blood pressure of non dipper type dosing in elderly hypertensive%不同给药时间对非杓型老年高血压患者血压昼夜节律及清晨血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淼; 李潞; 熊亦涵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of different drug administration time on blood pressure circadian rhythm and morning blood pressure of non dipper type dosing in elderly hypertensive. Methods 98 elderly non dipper hypertensive patients were selected , randomly divided into two groups, and were given amlodipine besylate 5mg for 12 weeks in the early morning and evening. Before and after treatment, two groups had monitored ambulatory blood pressure, recorded the mean blood pressure changes in day and night, calculated the percentage of circadian blood pressure difference, measured the early morning blood pressure with family self testing during, and calculated the morning blood pressure mean value and standard rate. Results After 12 weeks, the blood pressure circadian difference giving drug at night were higher than in the morning (P<0.05). No matter the family self testing early morning blood pressure in SBP or DBP, evening medication group were lower than control group in the morning, and the success rate was better (P<0.05). Conclusion Evening medication group adjusts better non dipper circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension in elderly patients and reduces the morning blood pressure.%目的:探讨不同给药时间对非杓型老年高血压患者血压昼夜节律及清晨血压的影响。方法入选非杓型老年高血压患者98例,随机分成两组,分别在清晨及晚上给予苯磺酸氨氯地平5 mg治疗12周,并于治疗前后进行24h动态血压监测,记录治疗前后两组白天、夜间平均血压变化,并计算出血压昼夜差值百分比,并于治疗期间通过家庭自测血压方法测量清晨血压,并计算出清晨血压平均值及达标率。结果12周后晚上服药组血压昼夜差值百分比高于清晨服药组(P<0.05),且家庭自测清晨血压无论是SBP还是DBP,晚上服药组均低于清晨服药组,且达标率较好(P<0.05)。结论晚上服药组能更好地调整非杓型老

  12. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  13. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  14. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  15. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  16. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  17. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  18. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  19. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  20. 褪黑素与血压昼夜节律的相关性研究%Circadian rhythm of melatonin and blood pressure changes in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪伟; 张忠霞; 高名同; 刘瑜; 宿爱华; 王美英

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the association between melatonin(MLT)secretion and blood pressure changes during 24 hours in hypertensive patients (HPT) with (dipping) or without (non-dipping)night time blood pressure reduction.Methods The 24-hour blood pressure and urine 6-SMT(6-sulfatoxymelatonin,metabolism product of MLT in urine) in the daytime and nighttime were measured in normal control subjects (n=20),non-dipping HPT group (n=32) and dipping HPT group (n=36).Results As expected,blood pressure reduction during the night was significantly lower in non-dipping HPT group compared to control and dipping HPT groups.Nighttime 6-SMT was significantly higher than daytime 6-SMT in all groups and nighttime urine 6-SMT levels and ratio of nighttime/daytime urine 6-SMT levels were significantly lower in non-dipping HPT group compared to control and dipping HPT groups (all P<0.01).Moreover,ratio of nighttime/daytime urine 6-SMT levels are positively correlated blood pressure reduction during nighttime(P<0.05)in all groups.Conclusions Circadian rhythm of MLT secretion is maintained but nighttime MLT secretion was significantly reduced and related to disorders of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in non-dipping HPT group.%目的 研究褪黑素(MLT)与血压昼夜节律的关系.方法 选门诊、住院患者及健康查体者88例分为非杓型高血压组、杓型高血压组及对照组;行24小时动态血压监测;同期测定患者白昼和黑夜尿6羟基硫酸褪黑素(6-SMT)含量,并计算黑夜/白昼尿6-SMT比值.结果 (1)非杓型高血压组的夜间收缩压、舒张压及平均动脉压下降率均低于杓型高血压组和对照组(P<0.01);杓型高血压组和对照组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)各组患者的黑夜尿6-SMT含量高于白昼(P<0.01);非杓型高血压组的黑夜尿6-SMT含量和黑夜/白昼尿6-SMT比值低于杓型高血压组和对照组(P<0.01).(3)在各组内,各黑夜/白昼尿6-SMT比值与其组夜间血压

  1. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  2. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  3. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  4. Relationship between circadian rhythm of blood pressure and coronary artery lesions%血压昼夜节律与冠状动脉病变之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玲; 殷兆芳; 许左隽; 张阿莲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) of essential hypertensive (EH) patients with satisfactory BP control by occasionally examine and its relation with coronary artery lesions. Methods: According to coronary angiography 157 EH patients with satisfactory BP control by occasionally examine were divided into single-vessel coronary disease group (51 cases), double-vessel coronary disease group (57 cases) and multi—vessel coronary disease group (49 cases) . They were monitored by 24h ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and divided into deep-dipper group (n=20), dipper group (n=75), non—dipper group (n=53) and anti—dipper group (n= 9) according to ABPM. Relationship between circadian rhythm of blood pressure and coronary artery lesions was investigated then. Results: From single-vessel coronary disease group to multi-vessel coronary disease group, ratios of patients with deep — dipper blood pressure (23. 5% vs. 12. 3% vs. 2. 0%) and dipper blood pressure (56. 9% vs. 49. 1% vs. 36. 7%) decreased progressively, ratios of patients with non-dipper blood pressure (19. 6% vs. 35. 1% vs. 46. 9%) and anti-dipper blood pressure (0% vs. 3. 5% vs. 14. 3%) increased progressively (P<0. 05 all) . From deep-dipper group to anti—dipper group, ratio of patients with single-vessel coronary disease decreased progressively (60. 0% vs. 38. 7% vs. 18. 9% vs. 0%), ratio of patients with multi-vessel coronary disease increased progressively (5. 0% vs. 24. 0% vs. 43. 4% vs. 77. 8%) (P<0. 05 all). Conclusion: Circadian rhythm of blood pressure would seriously influence coronary artery lesions even EH patients with satisfactory BP control by occasionally examine.%目的:探讨偶测血压控制良好的高血压患者的血压昼夜节律及其与冠状动脉病变之间的关系.方法:选择157例接受冠状动脉造影、偶测血压控制良好的原发性高血压患者.根据冠脉造影患者被分

  5. Variability of arterial blood pressure in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, T; Meyer-Sabellek, W

    1990-12-01

    In normal pregnancy the circadian blood pressure rhythm is similar to that in the non-pregnant state, with the highest blood pressure values in the morning and the lowest at midnight. This rhythm is lost in patients with pre-eclampsia. Women with severe pre-eclampsia show a reversed circadian rhythm, with a nocturnal increase in blood pressure during the sleeping phase. Although the reasons for this nocturnal hypertension in severe pre-eclampsia are poorly understood, the results suggest that pre-eclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies, mostly at night. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be extended to the night, and antihypertensive treatment must be adapted to the demands of a reversed circadian rhythm in relevant subgroups of patients. PMID:2082002

  6. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  7. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  8. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  9. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  10. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  13. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  14. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangerous as elevations of both systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is elevated for two main reasons: too ... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart ...

  15. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  16. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  17. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  20. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  1. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  2. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure ... same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ... he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due ...

  4. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  5. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  6. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Myths About High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 12,2014 You CAN manage your ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  7. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ... the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care ...

  10. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters September 26, 2011 Genes that Influence Blood Pressure In one of the ... 16 previously unknown variations. Six were found in genes already suspected of regulating blood pressure. The remaining ...

  11. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  12. Effects of Topical Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% on Circadian IOP, Blood Pressure and Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Randomized, Double Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oddone

    Full Text Available To compare the 24-hour (24h effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and cardiovascular parameters of timolol 0.5% and bimatoprost 0.01% in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertensive subjects.In this prospective, randomized, double masked, crossover, clinical trial, after washout from previous medications enrolled subjects underwent 24h IOP, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR measurements and were randomized to either topical bimatoprost 0.01% at night plus placebo in the morning or to timolol 0.5% bid. After 8 weeks of treatment a second 24h assessment of IOP, BP and HR was performed and then subjects switched to the opposite treatment for additional 8 weeks when a third 24h assessment was performed. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the mean 24h IOP after each treatment. Secondary endpoints included the comparisons of IOP at each timepoint of the 24h curve and the comparison of BP, HR, ocular perfusion pressure and tolerability.Mean untreated 24h IOP was 20.3 mmHg (95%CI 19.0 to 21.6. Mean 24h IOP was significantly lower after 8 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than after 8 weeks of treatment with timolol 0.5% bid (15.7 vs 16.8 mmHg, p = 0.0003. Mean IOP during the day hours was significantly reduced from baseline by both drugs while mean IOP during the night hours was reduced by -2.3 mmHg (p = 0.0002 by bimatoprost 0.01% plus placebo and by -1.1 mmHg by timolol 0.5% bid (p = 0.06. Timolol 0.5% significantly reduced the mean 24h systolic BP from baseline, the diastolic BP during the day hours, the HR during the night hours, and the mean 24h systolic ocular perfusion pressure.Both Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% are effective in reducing the mean 24h IOP from an untreated baseline but Bimatoprost 0.01% is more effective than timolol 0.5% throughout the 24h. Timolol 0.5% effect on IOP is reduced during the night hours and is associated with reduced BP, HR and ocular perfusion pressure.EU Clinical Trial Register and Eudra

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  15. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... care provider and take steps to control your blood pressure by making healthy lifestyle changes and taking medications, ...

  16. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  17. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts on ... and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  18. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff, or an automatic device may measure the pressure. Blood pressure is given as 2 numbers. The first ... described above. High Blood Pressure NIHSeniorHealth: High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Heart and Vascular Diseases ...

  19. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  20. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  1. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  2. Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's Worth the Effort!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Numbers: What They Mean / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" / Keep the Beat ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and ...

  4. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1998-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...... increased urinary loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal...... circadian variation. The demonstrated differences in blood pressure may offer a partial explanation for the association between elevated urinary albumin excretion and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk....

  6. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  7. High Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood to pass through more easily. Alpha-beta blockers not only reduce nerve impulses, but also make ... with less force. They combine the effects of beta blockers and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also ...

  8. The relationship between pathological type and blood pressure level or its circadian rhythm in patients with chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病患者病理类型与血压水平及昼夜节律变化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方曙波; 王国政; 王方芳; 王军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between pathological type and blood pressure level or its circadian rhythm,as well as the relationship between the latter and the lesion degree of renal arterioles in patients with chronic kidney disease.Methods Data of 1746 cases with chronic kidney disease were collected form our hospitals who underwent renal biopsies and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring from 2008-2013,and were analyzed according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension Practice Guidelines.24 h average blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg was referred to as hypertension. Nocturnal blood pressure decline rate =[(daytime blood pressure-nocturnal blood pressure)/daytime blood pressure]×100%.Nocturnal blood pressure decline >20% was referred to as extreme dippers rhythm, 10%-20% as dippers rhythm,<10% as nondipper rhythm,and <0% as risers rhythm.Both the extreme dippers rhythm and the dippers rhythm were defined as normal circadian rhythm,while the nondipper and risers rhythms defined as the abnormal blood pressure rhythm.The pathological diagnosis and typing were in reference to the 1995 WHO Glomerular Diseases Histological Type Amendments and the domestic 2001 Renal Biopsy Pathological Diagnosis Standard Guidance.Renal arteriole injury score standard was in reference to the IgA nephropathy Oxford typing score system.Results (1 )Age range of the 1746 cases was 47.4 ± 24.9 years,including 929 male cases (53.2%).The 24 h average blood pressure was≥130/80 mmHg in 560 cases (32.1%),the daytime average blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mmHg in 474 cases (27.1%),and the nocturnal average blood pressure ≥ 120/70 mmHg in 762 cases (43.6%).Extreme dippers blood pressure was in 38 cases (2.2%),dippers blood pressure in 647 cases (37.1%),nondipper blood pressure in 908 cases (52%),and risers blood pressure in 155 cases (8.9%).(2)The incidence of hypertension in patients with different pathological types of CKD was 75 .5% (74 cases ) in diabetic nephropathy,41

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  12. [24-hour blood pressure measurement in normal pregnancy in hypertensive pregnant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Schrader, J; Guhlke, U; Buhr-Schinner, H; Haupt, A; Kramer, A; Kuhn, W

    1990-08-01

    Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 17 normotensive and 19 preeclamptic pregnant women. The normotensive women showed a significant nightly decline in their systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, the preeclamptic women demonstrated either an attenuated circadian rhythm or no circadian rhythm at all. This result was even more pronounced in patients with severe hypertension, some of whom had a nocturnal increase in blood pressure in spite of being treated with antihypertensive drugs in an evening dose. The lack of nocturnal blood pressure decrease was also found 24 hours post partum. In summary, these results suggest that preeclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies mostly during the night. Therefore blood pressure controls should be extended into the night, and antihypertensive drugs should also be given in a sufficient evening dose. PMID:2214601

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood ...

  14. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  15. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? Based on your diagnosis, health care providers ... the medicine suspected of causing your high blood pressure. If high blood pressure persists or is first diagnosed as primary ...

  16. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  17. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... are sent to the brain. Causes High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood ...

  18. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  19. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... is your pressure when your heart relaxes ( diastolic pressure ). High Blood Pressure Medicines Use this guide to help you ...

  20. Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper in presumably healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.D.

    Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper has been studied in presumably healthy subjects of a particular ethnic group in India who are vegetarians. A definite 24-hr variation has been observed for both blood and urinary copper. The peak for blood copper was 1500 hr and the lowest value was 0600 hr, with values of 0.185 mg/100 ml and 0.160 mg/100 ml respectively. The urinary peak and trough occurred at 0600 and 0300 hr, respectively. Remarkably higher 24-hr copper excretion values were noted (64.49 ..mu..g/day) with a range of 15-100 ..mu..g/day. The blood level of copper (0.134 mg/100 ml) remained within the range reported. One subject out of 25 deviated from the group with respect to circadian phasing and amplitude to urinary copper excretion. 20 references.

  1. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...... for differences >20 mmHg. This study confirmed the presence of a systematic but clinically insignificant difference in systolic blood pressure between arms. The interarm difference was larger in hypertension and PAD. Consistent lateralisation is present for differences ≥20 mmHg and an interarm difference >25 mm...

  2. The Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythm of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Essential Hypertension%原发性高血压并发心房颤动患者血压的昼夜节律及心率变异性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坚; 詹伟跃

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract ]Objective to explore the circadian rhythm change of blood pressure in essontial hypertension patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods 128 cases of hypertensive patients in our hospital from August 2012 to August 2014. were divided into concurrent group and the normal group with afrial fibritlation or without afrial fibritlation. 64 cases in each group. Concurrent group of were composed of hypertanzine patients with of. The normal group of patients with normal heart function,giving ambulatory blood pressure and Holter monitoring. To Compare the changes of ECG within 24 hours as well as circadian(Including daytime mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at night and 24-hour mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) between the two groups.Results Compared with the normal group, the 24h average diastolic blood pressure, mean daytime diastolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and daytime minimum minimum daytime systolic blood pressure were lower than the normal group, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05);The largest nighttime systolic diastolic blood pressure, and the anti-dipper patients between two groups increased, significantly compered with normel group (P<0.05).Conclusions Primary hypertension patients with atrial fibrillation, day can lead to decreased blood pressure and night hypertension, and alsoced cause the decrease of HRV.%目的:探讨原发性高血压并发心房颤动患者血压的昼夜节律变化情况。方法选取我院收治的原发性高血压128例资料,根据心功能情况,分为并发组和正常组,每组各64例。并发组为原发性高血压并发心房颤动的患者,正常组为原发性高血压不伴房颤且心功能正常的患者,对患者采取动态血压和动态心电图24 h同步监测,比较两组患者的24 h内心率变异性情况以及昼夜血压(包括白昼平均收缩压和舒张压、夜间平

  3. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  4. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute To Improve Blood Pressure, Try the DASH Diet If you're one ...

  5. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  8. A Circadian and Cardiac Intraocular Pressure Sensor for Smart Implantable Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donida, Achille; Di Dato, Giuseppe; Cunzolo, Paolo; Sala, Marco; Piffaretti, Filippo; Orsatti, Paolo; Barrettino, Diego

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new system to measure the Intraocular Pressure (IOP) with very high accuracy (0.036 mbar) used for monitoring glaucoma. The system not only monitors the daily variation of the IOP (circadian IOP), but also allows to perform an spectral analysis of the pressure signal generated by the heartbeat (cardiac IOP). The system comprises a piezoresistive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read out the sensor data and an external reader installed on customized glasses. The ASIC readout electronics combines chopping modulation with correlated double sampling (CDS) in order to eliminate both the amplifier offset and the chopper ripple at the sampling frequency. In addition, programmable current sources are used to compensate for the atmospheric pressure ( 800-1200 mbar ) and the circadian component (± 7 mbar) thus allowing to read out the very weak cardiac signals (± 1.6 mbar) with a maximum accuracy of 0.036 mbar.

  9. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    blood pressure and related to the results of an invasive haemodynamic investigation, including measurements of intra-arterial blood pressure (9.00-11.00 h) in 37 patients with cirrhosis. RESULTS: The 24-h blood pressures were significantly lower and the heart rate was significantly higher in patients......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  10. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  11. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. Blood Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High ...

  12. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure reading) of more than 6,700 Dutch adults. Participants were ages 55 to 106 and ... stroke or death from other blood pressure-related diseases up to age 80, the study found. Moderately ...

  13. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  14. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  15. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  16. Murata - A Pressure Sensor Based Blood Pressure : Preliminary Reliability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Elina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of a blood pressure sensor developed by Murata as a blood pressure monitoring tool compared to an automatic blood pressure monitor, Omron M6. Blood pressure is one of the principal vital signs and is utilized for monitoring both short-term and long-term health of the cardiovascular system and thereby the health of the patient. Therefore there is a need for a non-invasive blood pressure monitor for accurate, continuous and comfortab...

  17. Relationships between circadian rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure and vascular endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness in prehypertensives%正常高值血压者动脉血压昼夜节律与血管内皮功能及颈动脉内膜中层厚度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁薇芬; 张赛丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between circadian rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure and carotid arterial intima-media thickness (IMT), vascular endothelial function assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in prehypertensives. Methods One hundred and four prehypertensives collected continually from the physical examination center of Xiangya hospital between August 2010 and December 2010 were divided into two groups according to the circadian rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): the dipper group (55 cases) and the non-dipper group (49 cases). Forty normotensives were enrolled as control group. FMD and IMT were detected by high resolution ultrasonography. Results Dipper pattern and non-dipper pattern of prehypertension accounted for 52. 9% and 47. 1% respectively. Compared to the control group, IMT values of two prehypertensive groups were higher [(0. 74±0. 06), (0. 75±0. 06) vs (0. 47±0. 05)mm, while the FMD values were lower (8. 07 + 1.18)%, (5.89 + 0.93)% vs (13. 78±1. 98)%, all P<0. 05]. The FMD value of dipper group was higher than that of non-dipper group. FMD value was negatively correlated with IMT (r= -0. 843, P<0. 01). Conclusion Prehypertensives demonstrated abnormal ABPM rhythm, increased IMT value and decreased FMD. Compared to dipper prehypertensives, non-dipper individuals showed a more severe impairment of endothelial function as manifested by a reduced ability of FMD.%目的 了解正常高值血压动态血压昼夜节律及血管内皮功能(FMD)、颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT),探讨三者之间的关系.方法 连续收集2010-08-12湘雅医院体检中心正常高值血压者104例,根据动态血压昼夜变化规律分为杓型组(55例)和非杓型组(49例),健康体检者40例为对照组.高分辨超声检测肱动脉FMD及颈动脉IMT.结果 正常高值血压动态血压呈杓型及非杓型各占52.9%及47.1%,杓型组与非杓型组的IMT大于对照组[(0.74±0.06)、(0.75±0.06)比(0.47±0

  18. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Özanli; Sebahat Tülpar; Yunus Yılmaz; Fatih Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP) values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males) children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pr...

  19. Home blood pressure monitoring for mild hypertensives.

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, L T; Resnick, B; Hurley, L B; Smith, E J; Mccarthy, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinical trial of 204 untreated patients with mild hypertension was conducted to assess the effect of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure level, pharmacologic treatment, reduction of risk factors, and use of health services. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups. The findings indicate that, while home blood pressure monitoring may be useful, it has no measurable short-term impact on these aspects of blood pres...

  20. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  1. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  2. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...

  3. Life style as a blood pressure determinant.

    OpenAIRE

    Staessen, J A; Bieniaszewski, L; Pardaens, K; V. Petrov; Thijs, L.; Fagard, R.

    1996-01-01

    In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary output, and smoking were not associated with blood pressure. Controlled intervention studies have proven that weight reduction, endurance training and alcohol absti...

  4. 老年2型糖尿病患者认知功能与血压昼夜节律变化特点%Relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure circadian rhythm and cognition function in the patients of elderly type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军霞; 王建军; 詹开宇; 吴海棠; 张冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure circadian rhythm and cognition function in the patients of elderly type 2 diabetes.Methods Two hundred and seventy elderly patients of type 2.diabetes were performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and divided into dipper group (n=95), non-dipper group (n=86), super-dipper group (n=47) and reverse-dipper group (n=42).100 healthy subjects served as control.Cognition function were evaluated by Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE).Results MMSE of type 2 diabetes group was significantly lower than that of control (24.34±2.51 vs.control: 28.88±3.02, P<0.05).MMSE of non-dipper group, super-dipper group and reverse-dipper group were significantly lower than that of dipper group, super-dipper group and reverse-dipper group were also lower than that of non-dipper group (non-dipper.24.77±2.53 vs.super-dipper: 23.34±2.41 vs.reverse- dipper:23.03±2.26 vs.dipper: 26.03±2.68 ,respectively P<0.05),but there was no significant difference between super-dipper and reverse-dipper group.Pearson correlation analysis showed that,MMSE was negatively correlated with 24hSBP(r=-0.73),24hDBP(r=-0.60),24hPP(r=-0.54)and 24hMBP(r=-0.56)(all P<0.05).Conclusions The decrease on cognition function in the patients of elderly type 2 diabetes may be related with the attenuation or disappearance of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure circadian rhythm.%目的 探讨老年2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者认知功能与24h动态血压昼夜节律变化特点.方法 选择270例老年T2DM患者为糖尿病组,另选择同期健康体检者100例为对照组.对两组行24 h动态血压监测,根据夜间血压下降率(△MBP)分为杓型(△MBP 10%~20%,n=95)、非杓型(△MBP 0%~<10%,n=86)、超杓型(△MBP>20%,n=47)和反杓型(△MBP<0%,n=42);用中文版简易智能状态检查表(MMSE)对所有受试者进行认知功能调查,比较各组间MMSE得分的差异.结果

  5. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  6. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP) measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment...

  7. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    a high post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations with...... other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  8. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J;

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR......), and Sprague-Dawley rats with two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension (2K,1C). Time series analysis was by fast Fourier transform. Power spectra were divided into ultradian (frequencies > 1/day), circadian (frequency = 1/day), and infradian (frequencies

  9. Characteristic of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaochao; Xu Mingtong; Kong Minyi; Xue Shengneng

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To observe the characteristic of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive diabetic subjects with normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Methods Fifty-two normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes received ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were divided into normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric groups according to their albumin excretion rate, the other 28 normotensive subjects without diabetes were contributed as control group. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed on a working day and measurement of blood pressure circadian rhythm was analyzed. Results Normotensive microalbuminuric diabetic patients had higher night-time systolic blood pressure and more blood pressure burden than normotensive normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Additionally, the microalbuminuric patients had a higher frequency of non-dippers than normoalbuminuric ones, although they were all normotensive. Compared to the normotensive non-diabetic control subjects, the nighttime systolic blood pressure and frequency of nondippers of the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients were significantly higher. Conclusions Intensive attention should be paid in control of blood pressure in diabetic patients to prevent and limit damage of target organ including kidney, even in those normotensive subjects.

  10. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  11. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  12. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  13. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment during systole and causes auscultatory sound and, the first sound, which, in Korotkoff’s opinion, is a measurement of systolic blood pressure. In the same BP measurement, when normal blood flow is fully restored, the auscultatory sounds disappear and, the last sound, which, in Korotkoff's opinion is a measurement of diastolic blood pressure. Listening to Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP has been the standard for noninvasive BP measurement in medical practices for nearly 100 years and it is the essential tool used for evaluation and assessment of patients with hypertension and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD by physicians and nurses despite limited understanding of the nature of K-sounds. This article focuses particularly on the cardiovascular biomechanics of the first and last auscultatory sound and suggests two new terminologies; Highest systolic blood pressure and Baseline systolic blood pressure to represent the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, respectively. Experimenting blood pressures on the basis of these two new suggested terminologies may reveal various additional undiscovered aspects of normal BP and abnormal BP. KEY WORDS: Highest systolic blood pressure, Baseline systolic blood pressure, Korotkoff sounds

  14. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  15. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  16. Elderly Benefit from Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater ... The study included more than 2,600 patients, aged 75 and older. They were randomly assigned to ...

  17. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...

  18. Blood Pressure Measurement Guidelines for Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical the...

  19. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  20. Daily blood pressure profile in Cushing's syndrome before and after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreze A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available No significant difference has been demonstrated in the altered circadian blood pressure pattern between the pituitary-dependent and adrenal forms of Cushing's syndrome before surgery. The effect of therapy, however, proved to be different. The mesor was normalized in the pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome more conspicuously for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. In Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma, systolic and diastolic blood pressure mesors have been even significantly "overnormalized" after treatment, being 11 to 27 and 2 to 13 mmHg (95% confidence lower than corresponding mesors in controls. There was no difference between forms in the effect of treatment on blood pressure amplitudes, which remained significantly lower than in controls. Finally, acrophase patterns were partly normalized after treatment of the pituitary-dependent form only for diastolic blood pressure, while both systolic and diastolic blood pressure acrophases were normalized in the treated adrenal form. In conclusion, complete normalization of the pattern of daily blood pressure profile has not been achieved in either form of the syndrome. This may be one of the reasons for the reduced long-term survival after surgical cure of hypercortisolism, than expected.

  1. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  2. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Drawz, Paul E; ABDALLA, MOHAMED; Rahman, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk...

  3. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...

  4. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  5. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  6. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...

  7. Circadian and Ultradian Rhythms of Free Glucocorticoid Hormone Are Highly Synchronized between the Blood, the Subcutaneous Tissue, and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoxiao; Droste, Susanne K.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total glucocorticoid hormone levels in plasma of various species, including humans, follow a circadian rhythm that is made up from an underlying series of hormone pulses. In blood most of the glucocorticoid is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin and albumin, resulting in low levels of free hormone. Although only the free fraction is biologically active, surprisingly little is known about the rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormones. We used single-probe microdialysis to measure directly the free corticosterone levels in the blood of freely behaving rats. Free corticosterone in the blood shows a distinct circadian and ultradian rhythm with a pulse frequency of approximately one pulse per hour together with an increase in hormone levels and pulse height toward the active phase of the light/dark cycle. Similar rhythms were also evident in the subcutaneous tissue, demonstrating that free corticosterone rhythms are transferred from the blood into peripheral target tissues. Furthermore, in a dual-probe microdialysis study, we demonstrated that the circadian and ultradian rhythms of free corticosterone in the blood and the subcutaneous tissue were highly synchronized. Moreover, free corticosterone rhythms were also synchronous between the blood and the hippocampus. These data demonstrate for the first time an ultradian rhythm of free corticosterone in the blood that translates into synchronized rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormone in peripheral and central tissues. The maintenance of ultradian rhythms across tissue barriers in both the periphery and the brain has important implications for research into aberrant biological rhythms in disease and for the development of improved protocols for glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:22822164

  8. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement in large vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse pressure in the aorta was evaluated by the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood flow velocity (BFV). PWV reflects the elasticity of the vessel and was determined by a time-of-flight method. BFV was measured by analyzing the change of magnetization decay due to flow in multiecho experiments. If one neglects pulse wave reflections at vascular branch points and flow resistance due to blood viscosity, pulse pressure is proportional to PWV and BFV. Noninvasive MR imaging measurements were obtained in 12 patients, all of whom underwent correlative arterial catheterization. Values varied between 35 and 100 mm Hg. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the two methods

  9. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  10. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet Updated:Apr 8, ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  11. Blood pressure control among type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)

  12. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  13. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196

  14. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder;

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional...

  15. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  16. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  17. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play an i

  18. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  19. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  20. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  1. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  2. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  3. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  4. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  5. [Blood pressure control in eldery hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Case of diabetes mellitus associated with essential hypertension are mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in elderly patients. In the JNC VI and JSH 2004, it is recommended that the therapeutic target blood pressure level should be lower then 130/80 mmHg in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus, and this target has recently obtained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the target blood pressure in elderly is recommended below 140/90 mmHg. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus in elderly hypertensives should be treated similarly as in the young and middle-aged. Because ACE inhibitors/ARBs or Ca blockers increase insulin sensitivity, these drugs should be used as the first choice in cases of elderly hypertensive patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16408451

  6. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...... of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation...... studies in hypertensive patients (n = 23 856) separately from those in individuals randomly recruited from populations (n = 9641). We pooled summary statistics and individual subject data, respectively. In both patients and populations, in analyses in which nighttime BP was additionally adjusted...

  7. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  8. Blood pressure: trends, determinants and consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, van E.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and

  9. Accurate blood pressure recording: Is it difficult?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalla A; Singh R; D'cruz S; Lehl S; Sachdev A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All ...

  10. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Chopra; Chris Baby; Jubbin Jagan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP con...

  11. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contr...

  12. Blood pressure changes resulting from aortography.

    OpenAIRE

    Snowdon, S L; Whitehouse, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Patients requiring aortography frequently suffer from generalized arteriosclerosis. Uncontrolled hypotension is therefore clearly undesirable, especially if associated with myocardial depression. Significant hypotension was observed following the use of conventional ionic contrast media, Urografin 370 and Cardioconray, and occurred following every injection in this study. Metrizamide, a non-ionic contrast medium, was found to be associated with a smaller fall in blood pressure of a shorter du...

  13. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  14. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  15. Homeostasis in Primates in the Hyperdynamic Environment. [circadian timekeeping and effects of lower body positive pressure on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic centrifugation upon the homestatic regulation of the circadian timekeeping system was examined. The interactions of body temperature regulation and the behavioral state of arousal were studied by evaluating the influence of cephalic fluid shifts induced by lower body positive air pressure (LBPP), upon these systems. The small diurnal squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) was used as the non-human primate model. Results show that the circadian timekeeping system of these primates is functional in the hyperdynamic environment, however, some of its components appear to be regulated at different homeostatic levels. The LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.7 C decrease in DBT (p 0.01). However, although on video some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in state of arousal. Thus, the physiological mechanisms underlying this lowering of body temperature can be independent of the arousal state.

  16. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Katz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  17. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  18. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  19. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  20. Standard Blood Pressure Target is Sufficient for Treating Some Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Wednesday, June 8, 2016 Standard blood pressure target is sufficient for treating some ... of Minnesota An international stroke study found that standard and intensive blood pressure treatments were equally effective ...

  1. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control People who didn't get enough daily ... nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good blood pressure, new research suggests. "Magnesium dilates arteries, and in ...

  2. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Compartir Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  3. Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...

  4. Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... HealthDay News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...

  5. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  6. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  7. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  9. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  10. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  11. [Influence of treatment with olmesartan on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregvadze, T R; Tseluĭko, V I; Mishchuk, N E

    2013-12-01

    Hypertension is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system. Active treatment of hypertension with adequate control of blood pressure (BP) can prevent complications, improve life quality and increase life expectancy. One of the interesting new antihypertensive agents, from the group of angiotensin receptor blockers is olmesartan. The obvious advantages of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to traditional one-time measurements of BP make this method perspective for quality control of anti-hypertensive therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of treatment with olmesartan on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with hypertension. 38 out-patients with hypertension at the age of 25-84 years (mean 55,3±10,6) were studied. Patients received olmesartan 20 mg daily as monotherapy (20 patients (52,6%)) or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (18 patients (47,4%)). Treatment continued for 6 months. The complex examination included: measurement of office brachial BP, electrocardiography, echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). As a result of treatment, office BP and diurnal BP, according to ABPM, significantly decreased; the favorable circadian BP profile dynamics were found: significantly less frequently observed lack of reduction in BP during night (daily index - non-dipper) - 18% vs. 64% (p treatment of hypertensive patients with olmesartan provides significant decline not only in office BP, but also in diurnal BP, normalizes BP of active and passive periods, also - daily index and reduces BP variability.

  12. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Merhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  13. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Abou Merhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims : The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90 th and 95 th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  15. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José;

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  16. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  17. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi Meldgaard;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectiv...

  18. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  19. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  20. Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

  1. Surfactant bolus instillation: effects of different doses on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M.; Segerer, Hugo; Kiessling, C.; Obladen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen preterm infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were randomly allocated to receive either high-dose (200 mg/kg) or low-dose (100 mg/kg) surfactant treatment. Retreatments were done with the low dose. Blood pressure, blood gases and cerebral blood flow velocities were determined before and after 24 bolus instillations. With the high dose mean blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity dropped significantly. With the low dose only mean cerebral blood flow velocity...

  2. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  3. Chronobiologically Interpreted Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Franz; Mult, Hc; Cornélissen, Germaine; Hillman, Dewayne; Beaty, Larry A; Hong, Shiyu; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Siegelova, Jarmila

    2012-05-01

    To detect vascular variability anomalies (VVAs), a blood pressure and heart rate profile around the clock for at least 7 days is a start. As a minimum, measurement every 60 or preferably 30 minutes for a week is needed, to be continued if abnormality is found, to assess the about 24-hour (circadian) variability that exists in all individuals. As a first dividend, one then also obtains a glimpse of 2 of the very many longer-than-circadian periodicities, the biological half-week and week. Certainly if we can have sensors and computer chips in our cars that continuously monitor the pressure over a tire's life, we should be able to do the same job for ourselves for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Healthcare today emphasizes wellness with recommendations for exercise and a proper diet, yet these evaluations may not be adequate. BP may be measured at a visit to the doctor or before an exercise session, along with measuring body weight and performing a physical exam. The seeds of disease are planted long before they are visible, and what appears to be normal from a conventional point of view may in fact actually be abnormal. Hidden alterations of physiological function, masked by the body's remarkable adaptive capabilities, may become visible through a new diagnostic and therapeutic realm-chronobiology-that reveals hitherto unseen abnormalities. The tools of chronobiology may yield additional dividends, such as the detection of physiological "loads" related to stress and stress relief and the undesirable effcts of space weather upon personal events such as sudden cardiac death, societal events like terrorism and war, and natural disasters. Chronobiologi cally interpreted automatic ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring (C-ABPM) may detect the antecedents of these types of events. C-ABPM is of interest in preventive cardiology, since it reveals new diagnoses as vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) and renders previous conventional diagnoses more reliable, such

  4. Salt Really Does Boost Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根

    2000-01-01

    盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.

  5. Accurate blood pressure recording: Is it difficult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. STATISTICAL METHODS: The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. RESULTS: In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. CONCLUSION: The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard

  6. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement. Objective. To compare blood pressure by auscultatory and oscillometric measurements in...... patients 80 years. Method. 100 patients had blood pressure measured by auscultation with a sphygmomanometer and by an electronic device using the oscillometric method. For each patient the mean of two blood pressures with each method measured within 15 min were compared. Results. The mean age of...... participants was 85.8 years; 55.8% were women. The correlation coeffi cient for systolic blood pressure was 0.88 and for diastolic 0.79. Differences between auscultatory and oscillometric values were less than 10 mmHg in 70.6% of systolic blood pressures and in 83.2% for diastolic. Arrhythmia and hypertension...

  7. 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds Incorrectly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160930.html 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds Incorrectly The lifesaving ... Sept. 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 5 million Medicare prescription drug enrollees aren't taking their blood ...

  8. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP...... with normotension (n = 2,639), prehypertension (n = 3,076) carried higher risk (P ≤ 0.015) of cardiovascular (+41%) and cerebrovascular (+92%) endpoints; compared with hypertension (n = 2,111) prehypertension entailed lower risk (P ≤ 0.005) of total mortality (-14%) and cardiovascular mortality (-29......%) and of cardiovascular (-34%), cardiac (-33%), or cerebrovascular (-47%) events. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke associated with 24-hour and daytime diastolic ABP (+5 mm Hg) were higher (P ≤ 0.045) in normotension than in prehypertension and hypertension (1.98 vs.1.19 vs.1.28 and 1.73 vs.1.09 vs. 1...

  9. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV.

  10. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  11. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Papacosta, O

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  12. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue;

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  13. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...... were used for measurement of blood flow rates. An automatic portable blood pressure recorder and processor unit was used for measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate every 15 min. The change from upright to supine position at the beginning of the night period...... was associated with a 30-40% increase in blood flow rate and a highly significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (P less than 0.001 for all). Approximately 100 min after the subjects went to sleep an additional blood flow rate increment (mean 56%) and a simultaneous significant decrease...

  14. A new method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang

    2005-12-01

    Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.

  15. Water sodium, urinary electrolytes, and blood pressure of adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Blood pressure measurements were made on children in their fourth year at secondary schools in parts of Scunthorpe Health District supplied with drinking water of varying sodium content. Of the 3131 children, 2740 were examined (1394 boys and 1346 girls). Boys had slightly higher systolic pressures and slightly lower diastolic pressures than the girls. There was no difference between the blood pressure distributions of children in areas supplied with water containing 105 mg/l sodium, 50 mg/l ...

  16. Electrocardiogram-assisted blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif; Chen, Silu; Soueidan, Karen; Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag; Dajani, Hilmi; Groza, Voicu

    2012-03-01

    Accurate automatic noninvasive assessment of blood pressure (BP) presents a challenge due to conditions like arrhythmias, obesity, and postural changes that tend to obfuscate arterial amplitude pulsations sensed by the cuff. Researchers tried to overcome this challenge by analyzing oscillometric pulses with the aid of a higher fidelity signal-the electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, pulse transit time (PTT) was employed to provide an additional method for BP estimation. However, these methods were not fully developed, suitably integrated, or tested. To address these issues, we present a novel method whereby ECG-assisted oscillometric and PTT (measured between ECG R-peaks and maximum slope of arterial pulse peaks) analyses are seamlessly integrated into the oscillometric BP measurement paradigm. The method bolsters oscillometric analysis (amplitude modulation) with more reliable ECG R-peaks provides a complementary measure with PTT analysis (temporal modulation) and fuses this information for robust BP estimation. We have integrated this technology into a prototype that comprises a BP cuff with an embedded conductive fabric ECG electrode, associated hardware, and algorithms. A pilot study has been undertaken on ten healthy subjects (150 recordings) to validate the performance of our prototype against United States Food and Drug Administration approved Omron oscillometric monitor (HEM-790IT). Our prototype achieves mean absolute difference of less than 5 mmHg and grade A as per the British Hypertension Society protocol for estimating BP, with the reference Omron monitor.

  17. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  18. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  19. Managing hypertension with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William B; Gulati, Vinay

    2015-02-01

    There has been a dramatic shift in the manner in which blood pressure (BP) is measured to provide far more comprehensive clinical information than that provided by a single set of office BP readings. Extensive clinical and epidemiological research shows an important role of ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in the management of hypertensive patients. A 24-h BP profile helps to determine the absence of nocturnal dipping status and evaluate BP control in patients on antihypertensive therapy. The ability to detect white-coat or masked hypertension is enhanced by ambulatory BP monitoring. In 2001, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services approved ABPM for reimbursement for the identification of patients with white-coat hypertension. In 2011, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK published guidelines that recommended the routine use of ABPM in all patients suspected of having hypertension. The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) 2013 guidelines also support greater use of ABPM in clinical practice. While the advantages of ABPM are apparent from a clinical perspective, its use should be considered in relation to its cost, the complexity of data evaluation, as well as patient inconvenience. In this review, we evaluate the clinical importance of ABPM, highlighting its role in the current management of hypertension.

  20. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.36 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook ... by County http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National ...

  1. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  2. Multiple imputation of missing blood pressure covariates in survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, H.C.; Knook, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies a non-response problem in survival analysis where the occurrence of missing data in the risk factor is related to mortality. In a study to determine the influence of blood pressure on survival in the very old (85+ years), blood pressure measurements are missing in about 12.5 per c

  3. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  4. Normalization effect of sports training on blood pressure in hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.

  5. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  6. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The a...

  7. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at stud

  8. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and

  9. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit;

    2006-01-01

    and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters......PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...

  10. Nutrition, physical activity, and blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, K T; Kubena, K S

    1989-01-01

    Forty noninstitutionalized elderly subjects, ages 65-86 years, were recruited for a study to determine relationships between nutritional status, physical activity, and blood pressure. A 24-hour recall of dietary intake and activities, health history, skinfolds, circumferences, height, weight, and blood pressure were obtained. Obesity was associated with hypertension in this group of elderly subjects. Truncal skinfolds (abdomen and subscapula) were positively correlated (P less than .05) with systolic blood pressure while body mass index, dietary magnesium and dietary calcium to magnesium ratio were directly related (P less than .05) to diastolic blood pressure. Physical activity and energy expenditure were not correlated (P greater than .05) with blood pressure in this study; however, the level of activity did not include strenuous exercise.

  11. SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE: BIOPHYSICAL, AGE AND GENDER FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Malinova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of systolic blood pressure features in the population of large industrial center. On the basis of measurement of blood pressure in adult population of three city regions there were revealed the following age-related changes in systolic blood pressure in men: three periods of rise and two periods of stabilization. The principal difference in women is the absence of the periods of rise and stabilization, lower level of blood pressure in young and middle aged people and authentically higher level of blood pressure - in elderly women. The increase of haemodynamical loading for one year of life in men of the middle (2 times and elder ages (3 times was revealed, that was not typical forwomen.

  12. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  13. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures......Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  14. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  15. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...

  16. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  17. Perinatal factors associated with blood pressure during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, E; Haelterman, E; Belizán, J; Villar, J; Carroli, G

    2000-03-15

    This study aims to determine whether variables reflecting an adverse intrauterine environment are associated with childhood blood pressure. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort of children born to healthy, nulliparous women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 518 children were traced in 1995-1996 from 614 eligible children born in a clinic in Rosario, Argentina. The outcome was systolic blood pressure at 5-9 years. Hemoglobin during pregnancy was positively associated with children's pressure. Other maternal characteristics during pregnancy (blood pressure, smoking, weight gain, weight at 20 weeks' gestation, and glycemia) and size at birth (birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference/length ratio, and small for gestational age) were not associated with children's pressure. Among children in the upper quartile of body mass index, there was a weak inverse correlation between birth weight and systolic pressure, and systolic pressure was 14.8 mmHg (95 percent confidence interval: 3.3, 26.4) higher in low birth weight children than in others. The main predictors of childhood pressure were childhood body mass index and maternal pressure outside pregnancy. In this healthy population, the authors found weak support for an association between variables reflecting an adverse fetal environment and childhood blood pressure. Low birth weight was a risk factor for high blood pressure only in overweight children. PMID:10733041

  18. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  19. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kalhornia Golkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The instrument for data collection included Cattel’s Anxiety Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life and a manometer. After assigning the sample into two groups, the experimental group received spiritual therapy in addition to pharmaceutical therapy, while control group only received drug treatment. Results: Analysis of covariance showed spiritual therapy reduced the systolic blood pressure and anxiety of patients. Also, it increased the patients’ quality of life, however, it did not have a significant effect on the diastolic blood pressure of patients. Conclusion: It is concluded that spiritual therapy as a useful method to improve the anxiety, quality of life and blood pressure of patients with high blood pressure.

  20. Harmonics tracking of intracranial and arterial blood pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Sima; McKelvey, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Considering cardiorespiratory interaction and heart rate variability, a new approach is proposed to decompose intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure to their different harmonics. The method is based on tracking the amplitudes of the harmonics by a Kalman filter based tracking algorithm. The algorithm takes benefit of combined frequency estimation technique which uses both Fast Fourier Transform and RR-interval detection. The result would be of use in intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure waveform analysis as well as other investigations which need to estimate contribution of specific harmonic in above mentioned signals such as Pressure-Volume Compensatory Reserve assessment.

  1. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring-Derived Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Andrea; Bernardi, Stella; Rebellato, Andrea; Fabris, Bruno; Bardelli, Moreno; Burrello, Jacopo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), either idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) or aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), in comparison with patients with essential hypertension (EH) and normotensive (NT) controls. Thirty patients with PA (16 with IHA and 14 with APA), 30 patients with EH, and 30 NT controls, matched for sex, age, body mass index, and antihypertensive therapy, were studied. The standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP; 24-hour weighted SD of BP; and 24-hour BP average real variability were not different between patients with PA and those with EH (P=not significant). All BPV indices were higher in patients with PA, either IHA or APA subtypes, and patients with EH, compared with NT controls (P<.001 to P<.05). ABPM-derived short-term BPV is increased in patients with PA, and it may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of aldosterone excess in BPV has to be clarified. PMID:25880017

  2. [Professional stress and blood pressure reactivity to stress do not predict blood pressure at 5 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Mpio, I; Quelin, P; Rigaud, J P; Laville, M; Ducher, M L

    2004-01-01

    High job strain has been reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Job strain could lead to hypertension if individual perception of stress or cardiovascular reactivity to stress are high. We report the results of the first five-year follow up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to a mental stress test on BP. A cohort of 292 healthy subjects (mean +/- SEM, 38 +/- 1 years) was followed for progression to hypertension outcome which was defined as an increase in SBP or DBP higher than 7 mmHg or a DBP higher than 95 mmHg during the follow-up. The high strain (HS) group representing 20.9% of the subjects was compared with the remaining subjects (NHS). Similarly the 20.9% subjects with the highest BP stress reactivity (HR) were compared with the remaining subjects (NHR). The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that neither high job strain, nor high stress reactivity, increased incidence of progression to hypertension. Age, alcohol, salt diet, BMI, and occupation did not interfere with our results. In conclusion, high stress cardiovascular reactivity and high job strain do not appear to be major risk markers for future high BP in healthy young adults. Stress could be associated with high BP at a short term and could explain high blood pressure in a long run only in stress-sensible subjects.

  3. Effect of citicoline on blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the results of their investigation dealing with citicoline therapy in patients with hypertension and cognitive impairments.Objective: to determine the efficiency of citicoline therapy on the level and variability of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP (SBP and DBP.Patients and methods. The investigation covered 60 patients with Stage II hypertension and a goal BP of < 140/90 mm Hg within ≥3 months before their inclusion. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 30 patients in the study group were assigned to receive a cycle of 10 injections of citicoline in a daily dose of 1000 mg dropwise intravenously, then 1000 mg/day orally for as long as 3 months. 30 patients comprised the control group.Results and discussion. 24-hour BP monitoring indicated that during 4-week citicoline therapy there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in average nocturnal SBP (by 4.1±2.24 mm Hg, average daytime (-1.5±0.39 mm Hg and average nighttime (-1.5±0.37 mm Hg BP variabilities; such changes were not found in the control group. In the study group, normal daytime SBP variability at baseline (≤15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 21 (70%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 14 (46.7% patients before and after 4-week therapy, respectively. In the study group, normal nocturnal SBP variability at baseline (≤ 15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 23 (76.7%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 16 (53.3% patients, respectively.Twenty-one (70% patients in each group had baseline normal daytime DBP variability (<14 mm Hg; following 4 weeks of treatment, the number of patients with normal daytime DBP variability remained unchanged in the control group and that increased by one patient (n = 22 (73.3% in the citicoline group. Normal nocturnal DBP variability at baseline (<12 mm Hg was observed in 19 (63.3% patients in each group

  4. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  5. Influence of genetic variance on sodium sensitivity of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, F C; Miller, J Z; Weinberger, M H; Grim, C E; Daugherty, S A; Christian, J C

    1987-02-01

    To examine the effect of genetic variance on blood pressure, sodium homeostasis, and its regulatory determinants, we studied 37 pairs of monozygotic twins and 18 pairs of dizygotic twins under conditions of volume expansion and contraction. We found that, in addition to blood pressure and body size, sodium excretion in response to provocative maneuvers, glomerular filtration rate, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system are influenced by genetic variance. To elucidate the interaction of genetic factors and an environmental influence, namely, salt intake, we restricted dietary sodium in 44 families of twin children. In addition to a modest decrease in blood pressure, we found heterogeneous responses in blood pressure indicative of sodium sensitivity and resistance which were normally distributed. Strong parent-offspring resemblances were found in baseline blood pressures which persisted when adjustments were made for age and weight. Further, mother-offspring resemblances were observed in the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction. We conclude that the control of sodium homeostasis is heritable and that the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction is familial as well. These data speak to the interaction between the genetic susceptibility to hypertension and environmental influences which may result in its expression. PMID:3553721

  6. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  7. Utilizing ambulatory blood pressure recordings to evaluate antihypertensive drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W B

    1992-04-30

    Until recently, the efficacy and pharmacodynamics of antihypertensive agents were assessed by resting blood pressure measurements in the doctor's office or a research clinic. The limitations of the office or clinic blood pressure measurement include the lack of representation (from recording only 1 point of time in the dosing schedule), the effects of the doctor's office on the patient's blood pressure, and, perhaps more relevant, observer bias. Ambulatory monitoring of the blood pressure has gained worldwide acceptance as an alternative method to assess antihypertensive drug efficacy and the time-effect relation of a drug. The ambulatory monitoring devices have been refined and are smaller, more precise, and more reliable than earlier recording models. Although there are no reference standards for analysis of ambulatory blood pressure data, international consensus groups are presently addressing this problem. Key roles for ambulatory blood pressure recordings in clinical trials of antihypertensive agents now include determination of the entry criteria for patients, improving the assessment of peak/trough pharmacodynamics in the patient's own environment (including nocturnal/sleep readings), and evaluating efficacy through calculation of the hypertensive burden, or blood pressure load. PMID:1575177

  8. Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body function and health? Circadian rhythms can influence sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, body temperature and other important bodily functions. They have been linked to various sleep disorders, such as insomnia. Abnormal circadian rhythms have also ...

  9. Specific Blood Pressure Targets for Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Nilsson, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a condition frequently detected in current clinical practice characterized by a very high cardiovascular risk profile. Blood pressure reduction via antihypertension drug treatment represents a therapeutic approach capable of exerting favorable effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and results of key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure goals of antihypertension treatment in these patients. The pros and cons of a less or a more intensive blood pressure goal in diabetic nephropathy will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and renal effects of each therapeutic strategy. PMID:27440837

  10. Proton-Pump Inhibitors Therapy and Blood Pressure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero; Pedro Joya-Vazquez; M Asunción Bacaicoa; Raul Velasco; Jose L. Chicón; Sara Trejo; M. Antonia Carrasco; N. Roberto Robles

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate  the potential impact of inhibitors of proton-pump in blood-pressure. .Methods: In a 24-hour-ambulatory-blood-pressure-monitoring (AMBP)-database we analyzed records of 462-hypertensive-patients according Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPI). 150(33%)-patients were regularly users of PPI, and 312(67%) nonusers of PPI. Ambulatory-blood-pressure was measured non-invasively for 24--hours by the Spacelab-devices programmed-to-measure every 20-minutes during-daytime and every 60-min...

  11. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  12. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  13. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed if you have high blood pressure or atrial fibrillation . Stroke prevention is often the focus of doctor-patient conversations in atrial fibrillation, Dr. Sacco said. But for people with high ...

  14. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  15. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Brewster; G. Mairuhu; N.R. Bindraban; R.P. Koopmans; J.F. Clark; G.A. van Montfrans

    2006-01-01

    Background - We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascula

  16. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley;

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity...

  17. Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure: physiotherapists’ theoretical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Morgana Vieira de Assis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure checking and its theoretical knowledge are crucial to obtain reliable data in clinical examination. Although it is considered a simple technique to be learned and applied, it is not fully dealt with at physiotherapy university courses. Therefore, a wide range of mistakes and misinterpretations are likely to threaten treatment quality. This work aims to evaluate the theory background of physiotherapists for blood pressure measurement. From June to October 2002, 55 physiotherapists answered a 20- question multiple-choice questionnaire on general knowledge related to concepts, anatomy and physiology, suitable equipment, indirect measurement, blood pressure values, mistakes and misinterpretation factors related to blood pressure measurement. The results disclose faulty theory concepts in the sample studied, indicating the need of deeper approach to this complex theme during course and ongoing updating of professionals.

  18. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure measurements (TBPM) is a new and promising supplement to diagnosis, control and treatment of hypertension. We wanted to compare the outcome of antihypertensive treatment based on TBPM and conventional monitoring of blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHOD....../181), p = 0.34. Blood pressure reduction in the TBPM group varied with the different practices. CONCLUSIONS: No further reduction in ABPM or number of patients reaching blood pressure targets was observed when electronic transmission of TBPM was applied in the treatment of hypertension by GPs. Thus......: Participants (n = 356) were recruited from a prevalence study among citizens aged 55-64 years in the municipality of Holstebro, Denmark. The study was a randomised, controlled, unblinded 3 months trial. In the intervention group, antihypertensive treatment was based on TBPM with transmission...

  19. New Approaches to Evaluating and Monitoring Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M; Levy, Phillip D

    2016-06-01

    Digital health innovations for hypertension include cuffless blood pressure sensors, wireless smartphone-enabled upper arm blood pressure monitors, mobile applications, and remote monitoring technologies. Wearable trackers have drawn interest from medical professionals and patients alike. They have the potential to improve hypertension control and medication adherence through easier logging of repeated blood pressure measurements, better connectivity with health-care providers, and medication reminder alerts. With increasing emphasis on home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm hypertension prior to treatment, such devices also can help improve the diagnostic landscape. However, privacy, accuracy, and cost concerns have prevented widespread clinical uptake. To foster implementation, device designers and clinical researchers should collaborate on development of rigorous clinical trials that test cardiovascular outcomes associated with emerging technologies. We review the current literature on mobile health technologies and novel diagnostic and management protocols and make recommendations on how to incorporate these innovations into practice. PMID:27137524

  20. More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly Latest findings from national trial show it lowers ... risk of heart disease -- even if they're elderly or have already had heart problems, new research ...

  1. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    OpenAIRE

    Jain B K; Jain S C

    1999-01-01

    Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  2. Optimizing blood pressure control through the use of fixed combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Düsing

    2010-01-01

    Rainer DüsingMedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik 1, Bonn, GermanyAbstract: The majority of hypertensive patients need ≥2 antihypertensive agents to reach goal blood pressure. As an estimate, one-third of unselected hypertensive patients may be successfully treated with monotherapy, one-third may require 2 and the remaining one-third of patients will need ≥3 antihypertensive agents for effective blood pressure control. However, doctors are often hesitant to expand therapy...

  3. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, D

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant re...

  4. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  5. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  6. Techniques for estimating blood pressure variation using video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Norihiro; Obara, Kazuma; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Homma, Noriyasu

    2015-08-01

    It is important to know about a sudden blood pressure change that occurs in everyday life and may pose a danger to human health. However, monitoring the blood pressure variation in daily life is difficult because a bulky and expensive sensor is needed to measure the blood pressure continuously. In this study, a new non-contact method is proposed to estimate the blood pressure variation using video images. In this method, the pulse propagation time difference or instantaneous phase difference is calculated between two pulse waves obtained from different parts of a subject's body captured by a video camera. The forehead, left cheek, and right hand are selected as regions to obtain pulse waves. Both the pulse propagation time difference and instantaneous phase difference were calculated from the video images of 20 healthy subjects performing the Valsalva maneuver. These indices are considered to have a negative correlation with the blood pressure variation because they approximate the pulse transit time obtained from a photoplethysmograph. However, the experimental results showed that the correlation coefficients between the blood pressure and the proposed indices were approximately 0.6 for the pulse wave obtained from the right hand. This result is considered to be due to the difference in the transmission depth into the skin between the green and infrared light used as light sources for the video image and conventional photoplethysmogram, respectively. In addition, the difference in the innervation of the face and hand may be related to the results. PMID:26737225

  7. Increase in circadian variation after continuous-flow ventricular assist device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Mark S; Ising, Michael S; Tamez, Daniel; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Voskoboynikov, Neil; Bartoli, Carlo R; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2010-06-01

    The circadian rhythm of varying blood pressure and heart rate is attenuated or absent in patients with severe heart failure. In 28 patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) for at least 30 days, a restoration of the circadian rhythm was demonstrated by a consistent nocturnal decrease, and then increase, of the LVAD flow while at a constant LVAD speed. The return of the circadian rhythm has implications for cardiac recovery, and the observation indicates that the continuous-flow LVAD has an intrinsic automatic response to physiologic demands. PMID:20207167

  8. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  9. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  10. Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... the time, you're at risk. Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (in mmHg, or millimeters of ...

  11. 10.5.Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920274 The effect of lowered pressure onthe diastolic ventricular function after anti-hypertension treatment.CAI Bohin (蔡伯林),etal.Ruijin Hosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,200025.Chin J Cardiol 1991;19(6):366-368.

  12. Childhood Blood Pressure Trends and Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure: The NHANES experience 1988–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Bernard; Cook, Nancy R.; Daniels, Stephen; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in children makes it plausible that prevalence rates of elevated blood pressure are increasing over time. Yet, previous literature is inconsistent due to small sample sizes. Also, it is unclear whether adjusting for risk factors can explain longitudinal trends in prevalence of elevated blood pressure. Thus, we analyzed a population-based sample of 3,248 children in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and 8,388 children in continuous N...

  13. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  14. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R.; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; K Rampersad; Reyes, D.; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any i...

  15. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R;

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter......-individual scatter was pronounced and unpredictable from the hypertensive organ damages. It is argued, that home readings should be used to greater extent in the evaluation of patients with hypertension....

  16. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  17. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurubhagavatula I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Barry Fields1, Indira Gurubhagavatula1–31Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Hypertension is the most significant risk factor for death worldwide. Approximately 30%–40% of affected individuals have coexisting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, a disorder resulting from the upper airway’s inability to remain patent during sleep. A causal relationship between OSA and hypertension has been demonstrated. Blunting or elimination of normal blood pressure (BP dipping during sleep is commonly seen in OSA patients, with corresponding increases in daytime BP. This dipping is clinically salient, because it is associated with the end-organ damage seen with chronic hypertension, such as cardiovascular, renal, and cerebrovascular disease. African-Americans are at greatest risk for non-dipping and end-organ damage. Rapidly fluctuating changes in sympathetic tone, intrathoracic pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and carbon dioxide levels are all thought to play a role in acute and chronic BP elevation. Individuals with preexisting hypertension are most susceptible to OSA’s BP-raising effects. First-line therapy for OSA includes continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP delivered via a mask interface. Patients who show the greatest BP declines while using CPAP are more likely to be those who have at least moderate OSA, adhere to therapy, have preexisting hypertension, and whose blood vessels retain reversibility in disease-related remodeling. Given the heavy burden OSA-related hypertension places on the healthcare system, prevention, early detection, and prompt intervention should be the goals for all affected individuals.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, hypertension, nocturnal dipping, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP

  18. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both Pblood pressure and heart rate rhythms between patients who achieved or did not achieve normotension and regression of left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness. It was concluded that abnormal cardiovascular rhythmicity persists in children with primary hypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  19. Verapamil buffering effect on the abrupt elevation in blood pressure, linkage with microcirculatory blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, J

    2008-01-01

    1 We studied the effects of verapamil on sudden elevation in blood pressure, microcirculation and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 2 Thirty experiments (10 controls and 20 with verapamil) were performed in rabbits sedated using pentobarbital infusion (5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). 3 BRS, mean femoral artery blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, estimated using microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG), were simultaneously measured during 30 min of verapamil infusion (20 mug kg(-1) min(-1)). BRS was assessed from HR and MAP responses to intravenous phenylephrine (Ph) and by power spectral analysis using transfer function (TF) from MAP to the HR (BRS(Ph,TF)). 4 Verapamil significantly increased microcirculatory blood flow, and decreased BRS(Ph,TF) and phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (MAP(AE)). 5 A significant inverse correlation was found between verapamil-induced changes in MAP(AE), BRS and in microcirculatory blood flow, measured before phenylephrine blood pressure ramps (DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaBRS(TF), r = -0.47, P < 0.036; DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaMPPG, r = -0.49, P < 0.025). 6 These results suggest involvement of the arterial baroreflex and vascular blood pressure-buffering mechanisms, their enhancement by verapamil, and thus a potential benefit of verapamil in cardiovascular conditions where patients present with abrupt high elevations in blood pressure. PMID:18598288

  20. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  1. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  2. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  3. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries. Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system. Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467

  4. Blood pressure control to prevent decline in cognition after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihle-Hansen H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hege Ihle-Hansen,1 Bente Thommessen,2 Morten W Fagerland,3 Anne R Øksengård,4 Torgeir B Wyller,5 Knut Engedal,6 Brynjar Fure7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 2Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway; 3Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Support Services, Oslo University Hospital, Norway; 4Department of Internal medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 6Norwegian Centre for Dementia Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 7Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway Background: Treatment of hypertension post-stroke preserves cognition through prevention of recurrent stroke, but it is not clear whether it prevents cognitive decline through other mechanisms. We aimed to describe changes in blood pressure from baseline to 1 year post-stroke and to evaluate the association between achieved blood pressure targets and cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia.Methods: We included patients with first-ever stroke, and defined achieved blood pressure goals as systolic blood pressure (SBP in the categories ≤125 mmHg, ≤140 mmHg, and ≤160 mmHg, SBP reduction of ≥10 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP reduction of ≥5 mmHg. The main outcome variables were cognitive assessments 1 year post stroke. Secondary outcomes were diagnoses of MCI or dementia.Results: Forty-one of 166 patients (25% reached SBP ≤125 mmHg after 1 year, 92/166 (55% reached SBP ≤140 mmHg, and 150/166 (90% reached SBP ≤160 mmHg. SBP was reduced by ≥10 mmHg in 44/150 (29% and DBP by ≥5 mmHg in 57/150 (38%. We did not find any statistically significant associations between cognitive test performances and different blood pressure goals (P=0.070–1.0. Nor was there any significant association

  5. Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.

  6. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  7. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: coming of age in nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, R R; Ford, V

    1996-11-01

    The number of patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the number of publications using this technique to evaluate the risks and effects of high blood pressure on target organs has been increasing, and dramatically so, in the last 5 years. Much of this growth has centered on the role of the blood pressure load (the percentage of systolic or diastolic readings above a preset value during a specific time period) and the changes in blood pressures levels that occur, with sleep. Although many studies are focused on the interaction between blood pressure (as assessed by ABPM) and the heart, interest is growing in the application of ABPM to the practice of nephrology. This paper discusses some of the technical aspects of ABPM, followed by a review of five areas of clinical research using ABPM, and which are relevant to renal medicine: microalbuminuria, renal function, renovascular hypertension, dialysis (hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), and transplantation. Despite a general lack of reimbursement for performance of the ABPM procedure, the growth in its usage and the willingness of clinicians to withhold or alter therapy on the basis of ABPM readings is testimony to its clinical value in the management of hypertension. PMID:8959618

  9. Alcohol intake and blood pressure: a systematic review implementing a Mendelian randomization approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Chen; George Davey Smith; Harbord, Roger M.; Lewis, Sarah J

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common medical condition that affects nearly a third of US and UK adults. Hypertension has no symptoms but can lead to heart attacks or strokes. It is diagnosed by measuring blood pressure—the force that blood moving around the body exerts on the inside of large blood vessels. Blood pressure is highest when the heart is pumping out blood (systolic pressure) and lowest when it is filling up with blood (diastolic pressure). No...

  10. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  11. Insufficient duration of action of antihypertensive drugs mediates high blood pressure in the morning in hypertensive population: the Ohasama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nagai, Kenichi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Matsubara, Mitsunobu; Suzuki, Michiko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Araki, Tsutomu; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hisamichi, Shigeru; Imai, Yutaka

    2002-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) usually peaks in the morning. The circadian variation of the onset of cardiovascular disease mimics this circadian BP variation. To examine the determinants of the BP difference between the self-recorded BP in the morning (home BP) and daytime average ambulatory BP a cross sectional study was done in the general population of Ohasama, Japan. 1207 subjects > or = 20 years measured both home (more than 14 times) and ambulatory BPs (326 treated for hypertension and 881 untreated subjects), The prevalence of subjects with the systolic BP difference (home BP in the morning - daytime ambulatory BP) of > or = 10 mmHg (high morning BP) was 5.6% in untreated normotensives, 2.9% in untreated hypertensives, and 25.8% in treated hypertensives. This trend was also observed for diastolic pressure. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age, male sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs were positively associated and day-night difference of BP was negatively associated with the high morning BP, respectively. These results suggest an insufficient duration of antihypertensive action of widely used antihypertensive drugs in Japan from the 1980s to 1990s. The amplitude of the day-night difference of ambulatory BP in subjects with a high morning BP was lower (non-dipping) than that without high morning BP. The high morning BP is not necessarily accompanied by hypertension but might be mediated, at least in part, by an insufficient duration of action of antihypertensive drugs. The high morning BP accompanies so-called non-dipper pattern of circadian BP variation. An insufficient duration of action of drugs may partly mediate non-dipping in subjects with antihypertensive medication.

  12. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea;

    2015-01-01

    included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy......BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate....

  13. Heritability of Blood Pressure in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saadat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that life styles and personal interests, aggregate within families suggests that shared environment in addition to shared bioligical factors could play a role in determining the phenotypic similarity of idividuals living in the same household. It is a major concern of cardiovascular epidemiologists to know how much of the familial aggregation of blood pressure is attributable to shared genes and/or shared family environment. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure was examined in a sample representative of the adult population of Shiraz, Fars province, south of Iran. The studied population was the 107 pairs of mother and dauther. Analysis of the data suggest that the genetic heritabilities were estimated to be 0.58,0.30, 0.60 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively.

  14. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We.......006-0.010). The absence of LF' oscillations was associated with a higher 30-day mortality [50 vs. 18%, hazard ratio, 3.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-9.8), P=0.01]. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated septic patients may be suppressed to lower frequencies than previously...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF...

  15. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect of redu...

  16. Algorithmic Summaries of Perioperative Blood Pressure Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddenroth, Dennis; Ganslandt, Thomas; Drescher, Caroline; Weith, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schuettler, Juergen; Muenster, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Automated perioperative measurements such as cardiovascular monitoring data are commonly compared to established upper and lower thresholds, but could also allow for more complex interpretations. Analyzing such time series in extensive electronic medical records for research purposes may itself require customized automation, so we developed a set of algorithms for quantifying different aspects of temporal fluctuations. We implemented conventional measures of dispersion, summaries of absolute gradients between successive values, and Poincaré plots. We aggregated the severity and duration of hypotensive episodes by calculating the average area under different mean arterial pressure (MAP) thresholds. We applied these methods to 30,452 de-identified MAP series, and analyzed the similarity between alternative indices via hierarchical clustering. To explore the potential utility of these propositional metrics, we computed their statistical association with presumed complications due to cardiovascular instability. We observed that hierarchical clustering reliably segregated features that had been designed to quantify dissimilar aspects. Summaries of temporary hypotension turned out to be significantly increased among patient subgroups with subsequent signs of a complicated recovery. These associations were even stronger for measures that were specifically geared to capturing short-term MAP variability. These observations suggest the potential capability of our proposed algorithms for quantifying heterogeneous aspects of short-term MAP fluctuations. Future research might also target a wider selection of outcomes and other attributes that may be subject to intraoperative variability. PMID:27577440

  17. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  18. Relationship between children’s and parents’ blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Aswira Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background A family history of hypertension is a risk factor for hypertension in children. Past studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children and hypertensive parents. Objective To assess for an association between blood pressure in children and that of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 children aged 6-18 years in Baringin Village, Panyabungan, from May to June 2010. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Classification of hypertension was based on Fourth Task Force Guidelines by measuring blood pressure, height, and weight. We used Student’s T-test to analyze numerical data. Simple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between blood pressures of children and their parents. Results Of the 90 participants recruited, 24 boys and 17 girls had hypertensive parents. The mean systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and arterial blood pressure (MABP were significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in children with normotensive parents [(SBP 116.7 (SD 7.07 vs. 87.1 (SD 13.57 mmHg; P=0.0001, (DBP 77.8 (SD 8.33 vs. 51.8 (SD 11.70 mmHg; P=0.0001, (MABP 90.7 (SD 7.41 vs. 63.6 (12.10 mmHg; P=0.0001]. There was a significant relationship between elevated SBP in boys and their fathers, as indicated by the correlation coefficient (r=0.806; P=0.0001. Conclusion The blood pressure is significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in those with normotensive parents. There is a correlation between SBP in boys and that of their fathers. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:202-5.].

  19. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...

  20. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sober, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjogren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, [No Value; Lehtimaki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Koettgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Graessler, Juergen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Ine S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stancakova, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Wurtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Doerr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  1. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J. Hua Zhao (Jing); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (Yongmei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  2. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. Effects of dietary fibre on blood pressure and blood lipid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, P G; Husbands, D R

    1980-04-01

    Rabbits were fed diets containing 200 g.kg-1 coconut oil, palm oil, or safflower oil. Some of the diets also contained 200 g.kg-1 cellulose. The blood pressure was measured daily by a non-invasive technique for the 2 month duration of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast at intervals during the experiment and analysed for lipids. Blood pressure was always increased by a fat-enriched diet. This effect was diminished and delayed by adding cellulose to the diets, though cellulose itself had no effect on the blood pressure in the absence of fat. There was a modest negative correlation between fasting serum triglyceride concentration and the blood pressure in animals fed fat enriched diets without added cellulose, but not in animals fed diets containing both fat and cellulose. These results coupled with those of Wright, Burstyn and Gibney may serve partly to explain the observation that vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores, the latter consuming diets which are relatively richer in fats and poorer in fibre than the former. PMID:6253068

  3. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...... in conjunction with a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow in patients with arterial disease.......A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for use...

  4. Relations of blood pressure and head injury to regional cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Allen, Allyssa J; Katzel, Leslie I; Wendell, Carrington R; Siegel, Eliot L; Lefkowitz, David; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults - 69% men, 90% white, mean age=66.9years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness ≤30min resulting from an injury to the head, and free of major medical (other than hypertension), neurological or psychiatric comorbidities. All engaged in clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Computerized coding of the SPECT images yielded relative ratios of blood flow in left and right cortical and select subcortical regions. Cerebellum served as the denominator. Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, race, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and depressive symptomatology, revealed significant interactions of blood pressure and head injury to cerebral blood flow in men only. Specifically, among men with a history of head injury, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left orbital (β=-3.21, p=0.024) and left dorsolateral (β=-2.61, p=0.042) prefrontal cortex, and left temporal cortex (β=-3.36, p=0.014); higher diastolic blood pressure was marginally associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (β=-2.79, p=0.051). Results indicate that men with a history of head injury may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of higher blood pressure on cerebral perfusion in left anterior cortical regions, thus potentially enhancing risk for adverse brain and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:27206865

  5. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  6. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie;

    2002-01-01

    Greenlanders have a lower rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than Danes, possibly due to lower blood pressure. However, 24-h blood pressure has never been measured in Greenlanders. The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h blood pressure of Greenlanders and Danes, and to analyse....... Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured. It was found that 24-h diastolic blood pressure was lower in Greenlanders than in Danes for the whole 24-h period and during both day and night-time, whereas systolic blood pressure was the same (mean 24-h blood pressure with 95% CI: Danes 123/75 mmHg (120......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...

  7. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  8. Dietary protein and blood pressure: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf, W.; Kuil, W.A. van der; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Veer, P. van't; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  9. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  10. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from crosssectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studie

  11. Blood Pressure-Lowering Diet May Help Treat Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure may also offer a non-drug treatment for gout -- a type of inflammatory arthritis, a new study ... risk for gout. A dietary approach to prevent gout should be considered first-line therapy," said study senior author Dr. Edgar Miller III. ...

  12. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  13. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  14. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  15. Dyslexia and familial high blood pressure: an observational pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    K. Taylor; Stein, J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental learning disability characterised by unexpectedly poor reading and unknown aetiology. One hypothesis proposes excessive platelet activating factor, a potent vasodilator, as a contributor, implying that there should be a negative association between dyslexia and high blood pressure (HBP). Since both conditions have a partial genetic basis, this association may be apparent at the familial level.

  16. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily sod

  17. Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Homan van der Heide, van der J.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maxi

  18. Pitfalls in blood pressure measurement in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, ST; Kleefstra, N; Lutgers, HL; Groenier, KH; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, HJG

    2006-01-01

    Background. Accurate blood pressure (BP) readings and correctly interpreting the obtained values are of great importance. However, there is considerable variation in the different BP measuring methods suggested in guidelines and used in hypertension trials. Objective. To compare the different method

  19. Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Howard, Philip J.; Mein, Charles A.; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tobin, Martin D.; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sober, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Hastie, Claire E.; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K.; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Bjoern; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Wells, George A.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G. M.; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V.; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Mans; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a besp

  20. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  1. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neurotransmitter release from sympathetic innervations. The circadian rhythmicity of body physiology is driven by central and peripheral biological clockworks and entrained by the geophysical light/dark cycle. Chronodisruption, defined as the mismatch between environmental-social cues and physiological-behavioral patterns, causes internal desynchronization of periodic functions, leading to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying degenerative, immune related, metabolic and neoplastic diseases. In this review we will address the genetic, molecular and anatomical elements that hardwire circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and subtend disarray of time-dependent changes in renal pathology. PMID:23901050

  2. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  3. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  4. Clitoral blood flow increases following vaginal pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Aloui, R; Schmidt, M H; Watrelot, A

    1995-02-01

    The vascular responses of clitoral arteries to vaginal pressure stimulation in 10 volunteer women were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Pressure stimulations (20-160 mm Hg) along the lower third of the vagina increased blood velocity and flow into clitoral arteries in 9 of the 10 women. The latency and duration of the Doppler responses ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 sec and from 3.2 to 9.5 sec, respectively, and the response was associated with a blood flow increase of 4 to 11 times the baseline prestimulation level. This response parallels that recorded in the cavernous arteries in men when a similar range of pressure stimulations are applied to the glans penis. Similar responses evoked in the male and female suggest a sexual synergy that may occur during intercourse in that such physiological responses and reflexes may be reciprocally reinforced.

  5. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  6. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  7. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang;

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions...... multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low-moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24-0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there...

  8. Low-Salt Diet and Circadian Dysfunction Synergize to Induce Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David J R; Bagi, Zsolt; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Kitchens, Julia; Cassis, Lisa A; Stepp, David W; Rudic, R Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure exhibits a robust circadian rhythm in health. In hypertension, sleep apnea, and even shift work, this balanced rhythm is perturbed via elevations in night-time blood pressure, inflicting silent damage to the vasculature and body organs. Herein, we examined the influence of circadian dysfunction during experimental hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry to measure ambulatory blood pressure and activity, the effects of angiotensin II administration were studied in wild-type (WT) and period isoform knockout (KO) mice (Per2-KO, Per2, 3-KO, and Per1, 2, 3-KO/Per triple KO [TKO] mice). On a normal diet, administration of angiotensin II caused nondipping blood pressure and exacerbated vascular hypertrophy in the Period isoform KO mice relative to WT mice. To study the endogenous effects of angiotensin II stimulation, we then administered a low-salt diet to the mice, which does stimulate endogenous angiotensin II in addition to lowering blood pressure. A low-salt diet decreased blood pressure in wild-type mice. In contrast, Period isoform KO mice lost their circadian rhythm in blood pressure on a low-salt diet, because of an increase in resting blood pressure, which was restorable to rhythmicity by the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. Chronic administration of low salt caused vascular hypertrophy in Period isoform KO mice, which also exhibited increased renin levels and altered angiotensin 1 receptor expression. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may act to inhibit or control renin/angiotensin signaling. Moreover, circadian disorders such as sleep apnea and shift work may alter the homeostatic responses to sodium restriction to potentially influence nocturnal hypertension.

  9. Non-Invasive Estimation of Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure Using Photoplethysmograph Components

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Incheol; Jun, Sukhwan; Um, Daeja; Oh, Joonghwan; Yoon, Hyungro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive optical technology that detects changes in blood volume in the vascular system. This study aimed to investigate the possibilities of monitoring the cardiovascular system status by using PPG. Materials and Methods Forced hemodynamic changes were induced using cardiac stimulants; dopamine and epinephrine, and PPG components were recorded by a noninvasive method at the peripheral blood vessels. The results were compared among 6 dogs. Endotrache...

  10. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    pressure (BP) declined. The fall in BP was caused by the reduction in cardiac output as the total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Finally, the decline in total blood volume was not significant. These findings together with a reduction in heart rate indicated that a reduced sympathetic tone via......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass...... and equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction...

  11. Synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reduction of blood pressure and blood pressure variability in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping HAN; Zheng-xu CHU; Fu-ming SHEN; He-hui XIE; Ding-feng SU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reducing both blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Seventy animals were randomly divided into seven groups. The doses were 5 and 10 nig/kg for nitrendipine, 10 and 20 mg/kg for hydrochlorothiazide and 10+5, 20+10 mg/kg, respectively, for the combination of these two drugs and 0.8% carboxym-ethylcellulose as control. The drugs were given via a catheter of gastric fistula. BP was then continuously recorded for 5 h from 1 h before drug administration to the end of 4th hour after drug administration, in conscious and freely moving rats. Results: The effects on both BP and BPV reduction of the combination of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine were greater than the single drug in SHR. The two drugs possessed an obvious synergism on both systolic blood pressure (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.23 with large dose) and systolic blood pressure variability reduction (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.39 with large dose) in SHR.Conclusion: The present work clearly demonstrated that there was a synergistic effect between hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine in lowering and stabilizing BP in SHR.

  12. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...

  13. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  14. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    /non-dipper status prospectively in a study on dosage of enalapril in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. METHODS: In 34 patients, 24-h ambulatory BP (A&D TM2421) was measured at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year or until the need for renal replacement therapy. For each BP recording patients...

  15. Effects of Restricted Fructose Access on Body Weight and Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Senador; Swapnil Shewale; Maria Claudia Irigoyen; Khalid M Elased; Mariana Morris

    2012-01-01

    High-fructose diet is known to produce cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The objective was to determine whether the timing of high fructose (10% liquid solution) intake affect the metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Male C57BL mice with radiotelemetric probes were divided into four groups: (1) 24 h water (control); (2) 24 h fructose (F24); (3) 12 h fructose during the light phase (F12L); (4) 12 h fructose during the dark phase (F12D). All fructose groups had higher fluid intake. Bo...

  16. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... extension experiment was identical to the peak pressure attained in the 40% MVC contraction. For the elbow flexors the terminal pressor response was slightly but significantly lower at 10% MVC [122.3 (SD 10.1) mmHg, 16.3 (SD 1.4) kPa] in comparison with 40% MVC [130.4 (SD 7.4) mmHg, 17.4 (SD 1.0) kPa]. When...

  17. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  18. [Pharmacological study on blood pressure in rats with bone disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto, T

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the elevation of blood pressure and altered bone metabolism, the changes of systolic blood pressure in six experimental models for bone disorders were investigated. Rats used were either parathyroidectomized, ovariectomized, fed with a calcium-deficient diet, fed with a vitamin D-deficient diet, treated with HEBP (1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate) or treated with streptozotocin. Hypertension developed in 5-week-old male rats fed with a calcium-deficient diet for 2 weeks, which evoked hypocalcemia and nutritional hyperparathyroidism. The blood pressure returned to normal when fed with a normal calcium diet. In parathyroidectomized rats receiving a normal calcium diet, the blood pressure did not rise, though the plasma calcium level decreased to an extent similar to the rats fed with the calcium-deficient diet. These findings seem to indicate that hyperparathyroidism, but not hypocalcemia, was involved in the elevation of blood pressure in rats fed with a calcium-deficient diet. Hypertension was not observed in rats fed with a vitamin D-deficient diet or treated with streptozotocin. These rats showed not only an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also a decrease in 1,25 (OH)2 D3. These results may suggest that the presence of 1,25 (OH)2D3 as well as the enhanced parathyroid function is necessary for the development of hypertension. The elevated blood pressure was reduced by a calcium antagonist, nifedipine, or by calcium supplementation, but not by an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme, captopril, or by calcitonin. This may indicate that hypertension due to nutritional hyperparathyroidism responds to the calcium antagonist nifedipine and to calcium supplementation, but does not depend on renin or salt. Furthermore, an acute hypotensive effect by human PTH (1-34) was not observed in the hypertension of calcium-deficient rats, suggesting the difference between acute and chronic effects of PTH. The hypertension

  19. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  20. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  1. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L.; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neu...

  2. Analysis of the redox oscillations in the circadian clockwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Nikolay B.; Rey, Guillaume; Valekunja, Utham K.; Edgar, Rachel S.; O’Neill, John S.; Reddy, Akhilesh B.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of tight coupling between the circadian system and redox homeostasis of the cell has been proposed to coincide roughly with the appearance of the first aerobic organisms, around 3 billion years ago. The rhythmic production of oxygen and its effect on core metabolism are thought to have exerted selective pressure for the temporal segregation of numerous metabolic pathways. Until recently, the only evidence for such coupling came from studies showing circadian cycles in the abundance of various redox metabolites, with many arguing that these oscillations are simply an output from the transcription/translation-feedback loop (TTFL). The recent discovery that the peroxiredoxin (PRX) proteins exhibit circadian cycles in their oxidation status, even in the absence of transcription, demonstrated the existence of autonomous oscillations in the redox status of the cell. The PRXs are a family of cellular thiol peroxidases whose abundance and high reaction rate make them the major cellular sink for cellular peroxides. Interestingly, as part of the normal catalytic cycle, PRXs become inactivated by their own substrate via over-oxidation of the catalytic residue, with the inactivated form of the enzyme displaying circadian accumulation. Here, we describe the biochemical properties of the PRX system, with particular emphasis on the features important for the experimental analysis of these enzymes. We will also present a detailed protocol for measuring PRX over-oxidation across circadian time in adherent cell cultures, red blood cells and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), providing practical suggestions for ensuring consistency and reproducibility of the results. PMID:25707278

  3. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Hilton, Michael F; Mantzoros, Christos S; Shea, Steven A

    2009-03-17

    There is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps the result of physiologic maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. To begin to understand underlying mechanisms, we determined the effects of such misalignment between behavioral cycles (fasting/feeding and sleep/wake cycles) and endogenous circadian cycles on metabolic, autonomic, and endocrine predictors of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. Ten adults (5 female) underwent a 10-day laboratory protocol, wherein subjects ate and slept at all phases of the circadian cycle-achieved by scheduling a recurring 28-h "day." Subjects ate 4 isocaloric meals each 28-h "day." For 8 days, plasma leptin, insulin, glucose, and cortisol were measured hourly, urinary catecholamines 2 hourly (totaling approximately 1,000 assays/subject), and blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac vagal modulation, oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and polysomnographic sleep daily. Core body temperature was recorded continuously for 10 days to assess circadian phase. Circadian misalignment, when subjects ate and slept approximately 12 h out of phase from their habitual times, systematically decreased leptin (-17%, P work. PMID:19255424

  4. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  5. Estimating blood pressure using Windkessel model on Photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Dutta; Banerjee, Rohan; Sinha, Aniruddha; Kundu, Shaswati

    2014-01-01

    Simple and non-invasive methods to estimate vital signs are very important for preventive healthcare. In this paper, we present a methodology to estimate Blood Pressure (BP) using Photoplethysmography (PPG). Instead of directly relating systolic and diastolic BP values with PPG features, our proposed methodology initially maps PPG features with some person specific intermediate latent parameters and later derives BP values from them. The 2-Element Windkessel model has been considered in the current context to estimate total peripheral resistance and arterial compliance of a person using PPG features, followed by linear regression for simulating arterial blood pressure. Experimental results, performed on a standard hospital dataset yielded absolute errors of 0.78±13.1 mmHg and 0.59 ± 10.23 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP values respectively. Results also indicate that the methodology is more robust than the standard methodologies that directly estimate BP values from PPG signal. PMID:25571008

  6. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane;

    2009-01-01

    . Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...... are depleted in the FP/Ldlr double KOs, this result reflects the reduction in lesion burden, as the FP is not expressed on macrophages and its deletion does not alter macrophage cytokine generation. Blockade of the FP offers an approach to the treatment of hypertension and its attendant systemic vascular......Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus...

  7. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217...... relative aerobic workload and ABP were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Because workers may have an elevated relative aerobic workload for several hours each working day, this relationship may elucidate a mechanism behind the increased risk for cardiovascular disease among workers exposed to high levels...

  8. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  9. Salt intake and blood pressure in rural and metropolitan Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castillo, C P; Solano, M L; Flores, J; Franklin, M F; Limón, N; Martínez del Cerro, V; Velázquez, C; Villa, A R; James, W P

    1996-01-01

    A selected group of 155 Mexican adults aged 20-64 years were studied to investigate the role of sodium (Na) intake in explaining blood pressure (BP) differences in a rural town and urban Mexico City. The subjects had their BP, height, weight and skinfolds measured and they collected 3 continuous 24 h urines. Adjusted for age differences, average BPs were significantly higher (p significant (p significance. Differences in the body mass index (BMI) accounted for 41% of the observed variance in BP.

  10. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W;

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...... of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 is recommended before applying it in daily clinical practice....

  11. Aggressive blood pressure control for chronic kidney disease unmasks moyamoya!

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, T. Keefe; Halabi, Carmen M.; Siefken, Philp; Karmarkar, Swati; Leonard, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive crises in children or adolescents are rare, but chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for occurrence. Vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and is associated with hypertension. Aggressive blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to delay progression of CKD and treatment is targeted for the 50th percentile for height when compared with a target below the 90th percentile for the general pediatric hypertensive patient. We pres...

  12. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  13. Brewer's Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hosseinzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer's yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer's yeast (1800 mg/day and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall, fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT, No.IRCT138807062513N1.Results: Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer's yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively. No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.Conclusion: Supplementation with Brewer's yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.

  14. Management of high blood pressure in peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is a promoter of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in association with other atherosclerotic risk factors factors. Systolic HTA is the most frequently noted form in such disease, secondary to marked increase in large artery siffness. The existence of PAD confers on the hypertensive patient a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, requiring an intensive global therapeutical approach. Treating HTA is one of such beneficial actions. The optimal blood pressure (BP) to...

  15. De-stiffening drug therapy and blood pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Safar, Michel E.

    2010-01-01

    Michel E SafarParis-Descartes University, Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, AP-HP, Diagnosis Center, Paris, FranceAbstract: In hypertensive subjects, cardiovascular risk reduction is critically related to the decrease of systolic blood pressure (SBP). De-stiffening therapy means that, in a controlled therapeutic trial of long duration, a selective reduction of SBP has been obtained in the studied group by comparison with the control group, and that this SBP reduction is due ...

  16. Predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure regimens in hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kauric-Klein Z

    2013-01-01

    Zorica Kauric-KleinCollege of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: Hypertension is very poorly controlled in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Demographic and psychosocial predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure (BP) regimens in HD have not been investigated. A study of 118 HD patients from six outpatient HD units was conducted to determine the relationship between demographic/psychosocial factors and adherence with BP-related regimens, ie, fluid restriction, BP me...

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF THE BLOOD CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMengcai; GuZhong; HangWenjing; ZhongQuan; TangFuyong

    1990-01-01

    Describe some new fully automatic instruments for the measurements of the blood capillary pressure (Pcap) and arterial elastic properties in human fingers using a photoelectric plethysmographic technique, With these instruments, the value of Pcap was in good agreement with those reported by other investigators, the arterial elastic properties in human fingers have been successfully measured. The measurements of Pcap and arterial elasticity are now required in clinics because they provide useful and important information for evaluating vascular haemodynamics.

  18. Blood pressure and blood flow variation during postural change from sitting to standing: model development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, M.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Tran, H.T.;

    2005-01-01

    Short-term cardiovascular responses to postural change from sitting to standing involve complex interactions between the autonomic nervous system, which regulates blood pressure, and cerebral autoregulation, which maintains cerebral perfusion. We present a mathematical model that can predict...... dynamic changes in beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during postural change from sitting to standing. Our cardiovascular model utilizes 11 compartments to describe blood pressure, blood flow, compliance, and resistance in the heart and systemic circulation....... To include dynamics due to the pulsatile nature of blood pressure and blood flow, resistances in the large systemic arteries are modeled using nonlinear functions of pressure. A physiologically based submodel is used to describe effects of gravity on venous blood pooling during postural change. Two types...

  19. Different effects of tocolytic medication on blood pressure and blood pressure amplification

    OpenAIRE

    FABRY, ISABELLE; Paepe, Peter; Kips, Jan; Vermeersch, Sebastian; van Bortel, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of tocolysis has been discussed extensively. Beta-2 adrenoceptor agonistic drugs like ritodrine have been the reference tocolytic drugs in most countries. Cardiovascular side-effects are frequent. Atosiban, a newer tocolytic drug, is a competitive antagonist of oxytocin and has fewer cardiovascular side effects. Although large studies exist, there is mainly subjective reporting of adverse reactions with a focus on blood ...

  20. Insulin as a potential factor influencing blood pressure in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H G; Yalow, R S; Schweitzer, P; Schwartz, E

    1986-09-01

    War-injured, bilateral above-knee amputees are known to be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. To evaluate possible risk factors, we compared blood pressures and plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered glucose in 19 above-knee amputees from the Vietnam War (mean age, 36 +/- 1 years) with those of 12 age-matched unilateral below-elbow amputees. Body composition by densitometry and maximal oxygen consumption during arm or leg exercise were also determined. Nine of 19 leg amputees were hypertensive compared with one of 12 arm amputees. Their 3-hour average insulin responses were markedly increased (260 +/- 60 microU/ml) compared with those of normotensive leg (125 +/- 24 microU/ml) and arm amputees (101 +/- 20 microU/ml), and their mean body fat content (37.2%) also was elevated compared with that in both of these groups (23.2 and 22.6%, respectively). A unique finding was that both insulin response and body fat content were strongly and independently correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01, and r = 0.62, p less than 0.01, respectively). We conclude that insulin may be a major factor in blood pressure regulation in the maturity-onset obesity that develops following traumatic leg amputation in young, healthy men.

  1. Ouabain induces cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing JIANG; Yan-ping REN; Zhuo-ren L(U)

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ouabain's effects on cardiac remodeling in rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was recorded weekly. After 4 and 6 weeks, echocardiography were performed,hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization,changes in cardiac ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, the collagen fraction of the left ventricle was assessed with Picrosirius red stain, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA level of myosin heavy chain-α and-β in the left ventricle. Results: Having been treated with ouabain for 4 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP of the two groups.However, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ultrastructure deterioration,and extracellular matrix remodeling were induced by ouabain treatment; meanwhile,cardiac systolic and diastolic performance were both worsened. Moreover, the cardiac MHC-β mRNA was upregulated by ouabain treatment, whereas MHC-αmRNA was downregulated. After 4 weeks, the mean SBP in the ouabain group began to increase and was significantly higher than that in control group after 6 weeks (P<0.01); the rats' cardiac structure and function were worsened.Conclusion: These results suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac structure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure. The results indicated that ouabain induced cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure.

  2. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal). PMID:27214089

  3. Blood Pressure Characteristics in Moderate to Severe Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyou Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients has been extensively studied, but few investigations have attempted to relate ABPM with CKD stages. The objectives of this article were to compare ABPM parameters for the diagnosis and treatment determination of CKD with daytime clinic blood pressure (BP measurements. We also investigated BP and renal injury in combined hypertension and CKD. We supposed ABPM was important in combined hypertension and CKD. Methods: We compared ABPM in hypertension patients, including 152 patients with combined hypertension and CKD. Patients with combined hypertension and CKD were grouped according to severity into stages 1 through 3 (Stage 1-3 and stages 4 and 5 (Stage 4-5. Results: In the Stage 4-5 group, systolic BP (SBP (daytime, nighttime and 24 h mean, diastolic BP (DBP, pulse pressure and SBP standard deviations (SD (daytime and 24 h were higher. SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher in the Stage 4-5 group. The nighttime load was higher than the daytime load. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was higher and heart rates (HR were faster in the Stage 4-5 group. Conclusions: BP load should be a component employed in ABPM to determine cardiovascular risk stratification. MAP and HR might be associated with risk to develop end-stage renal disease.

  4. Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Sug; Gu, Qiuping; Nwankwo, Tatiana; Wright, Jacqueline D; Hong, Yuling; Burt, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension; mean blood pressure; and the classification of blood pressure among US adults 2003 to 2012. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012, a total of 9255 adult participants aged ≥18 years were identified as having hypertension, defined as measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or taking prescription medication for hypertension. Awareness and treatment among hypertensive adults were ascertained via an interviewer administered questionnaire. Controlled hypertension among hypertensive adults was defined as systolic blood pressure blood pressure Blood pressure was categorized as optimal blood pressure, prehypertension, and stage I and stage II hypertension. Between 2003 and 2012, the percentage of adults with controlled hypertension increased (P-trend Hypertensive adults with optimal blood pressure and with prehypertension increased from 13% to 19% and 27% to 33%, respectively (P-trend hypertensive adults who were taking antihypertensive medication, uncontrolled hypertension decreased from 38% to 30% (P-trend blood pressure was observed (P-trend blood pressure remained unchanged. The trend in the control of blood pressure has improved among hypertensive adults resulting in a higher percentage with blood pressure at the optimal or prehypertension level and a lower percentage in stage I and stage II hypertension. Overall, mean systolic blood pressure decreased as did the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among the treated hypertensive population.

  5. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  6. Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

    2012-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3 mmHg to 30.0 mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5 mmHg to 25.0 mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6 mmHg to 33.1 mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6 mmHg to 24.6 mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

  7. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  8. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Women and Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table ... Vivica A. Fox. "The Heart Truth Campaign" Urges Women To Take Good Blood Pressure Seriously February is ...

  9. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-Blocker Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-blocker Drug Right for You? What are beta-blockers? Beta-blockers ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  10. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure: Is an ACE Inhibitor Drug Right for You? What are ACE inhibitors? ACE inhibitors, ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  11. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Calcium Channel Blocker Drug Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure: Is a Calcium Channel Blocker Drug Right for You? What are calcium channel blockers? Calcium ... talk with your doctor about which drugs are right for you. If your blood pressure is slightly ...

  12. Effects on blood pressure in patients with refractory angina pectoris after enhanced external counterpulsation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondesson, Susanne; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Børje Ola Mattias;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of angina pectoris. Little is known how EECP affects the blood pressure. METHODS: 153 patients with refractory angina were treated with either EECP or retained...... on their pharmacological treatment (reference group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured pre- and post-treatment and at 12 months follow-up. RESULTS: EECP treatment altered the blood pressure in patients with...... refractory angina pectoris. A decrease in the blood pressure was more common in the EECP group compared with the reference group. In the reference group, an increase in the blood pressure was more common. A correlation between a decrease in blood pressure after EECP treatment and a higher baseline MAP, SBP...

  13. Maternal smoking and blood pressure in 7.5 to 8 year old offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, R.; Leeson Payne, C; Lister, G.; Lucas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced fetal growth in babies born preterm may be associated with reduced later blood pressure, but in children born at term, higher blood pressure. It was hypothesised, therefore, that maternal smoking in pregnancy, associated with reduced fetal growth, programmes later blood pressure differentially according to length of gestation. Six hundred and eighteen children born preterm and now aged 7.5 to 8 years were studied prospectively. Systolic blood pressure in children from smoking compared...

  14. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  15. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  16. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. Fu....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  17. Home blood pressure measurement : reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.H.; Beltman, F.W.; Terpstra, W.F.; Smit, A.J.; May, J.F.; de Graeff, P.A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility and relationship with left ventricular mass index of home blood pressure in comparison with ambulatory and office blood pressures. METHODS: We measured home, ambulatory and office blood pressures of 84 previously untreated hypertensive patients, aged 60-74

  18. Nutritional interventions and blood pressure : role of specific micronutrients and other food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van L.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several physio

  19. Intraspecific scaling of arterial blood pressure in the Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Slay, Christopher; Abe, Augusto S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Interspecific allometric analyses indicate that mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases with body mass of snakes and mammals. In snakes, MAP increases in proportion to the increased distance between the heart and the head, when the heart-head vertical distance is expressed as ρgh (where ρ is the density of blood, G: is acceleration due to gravity and h is the vertical distance above the heart), and the rise in MAP is associated with a larger heart to normalize wall stress in the ventricular wall. Based on measurements of MAP in Burmese pythons ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m in length (0.20-27 kg), we demonstrate that although MAP increases with body mass, the rise in MAP is merely half of that predicted by heart-head distance. Scaling relationships within individual species, therefore, may not be accurately predicted by existing interspecific analyses.

  20. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  1. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  2. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pauline; Avadhany, Sandhya T.; K.N. Maruthy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it int...

  3. Azilsartan/chlorthalidone combination therapy for blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng JW

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Judy WM ChengMassachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Edarbyclor® is a combined angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB and thiazide-like diuretic (azilsartan and chlorthalidone, and was approved on December 20, 2011 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for hypertension management.Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, tolerability, and role of azilsartan plus chlorthalidone for hypertension management.Methods: Peer-reviewed clinical trials, review articles, and relevant treatment guidelines, were identified from the databases MEDLINE and Current Contents (both 1966 to February 15, 2013, inclusive using search terms “azilsartan”, “chlorthalidone”, “pharmacology”, “pharmacokinetics”, “pharmacodynamics”, “pharmacoeconomics”, and “cost-effectiveness”. The FDA website, as well as manufacturer prescribing information, was also reviewed to identify other relevant information.Results: Azilsartan is a new ARB with high affinity for the angiotensin 1 receptor, approved by the FDA for hypertension management. Unlike other ARBs, azilsartan has no clinical data supporting improvement in cardiovascular outcomes, and is not approved for indications other than hypertension, which a select few other ARBs may be used for (eg, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. Chlorthalidone is a longer acting thiazide-like diuretic that has been demonstrated to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Combination treatment with azilsartan/chlorthalidone is effective for reducing blood pressure. Compared to olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide and azilsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combinations, azilsartan/chlorthalidone appears to be more efficacious for reducing blood pressure.Conclusions: Azilsartan/chlorthalidone can be considered an antihypertensive therapy option in patients for whom combination therapy is required (blood pressure >20 mmHg systolic or

  4. Blood pressure change in Africa: case study from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J S; Owoaje, E E; Rotimi, C N; Cooper, R S

    1999-08-01

    Studies of migrants and comparisons of rural versus urban communities are potentially informative study designs because they allow examination of genetically similar population subgroups exposed to diverse environmental conditions. These designs have been underused in Africa, where recent urbanization has created many situations in which nearby communities of common ethnicity and culture live under different social and economic circumstances. The International Study of Hypertension in Blacks (ICSHIB) conducted several overlapping surveys in Nigeria starting in 1993. These surveys were based primarily in the rural village of Idere and the urban community of Idikan, both inhabited by people defined ethnically as Oyo Yoruba and sharing a common language and culture. Survey teams collected standardized blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and some study participants provided 24-hr urine samples and questionnaire data on psychosocial stress and social integration. Rural and urban groups differed substantially in blood pressure and related characteristics. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg) for participants aged 25 years and older was 7-8% in Idere and 24-27% in Idikan. The distributions of overweight, sodium/potassium ratio, perceived stress, and social integration scores all contributed to lower hypertension risk in Idere. The effects and interactions of these identified risk factors remain poorly understood, even among people who share a common genetic background, similar diet, and many other lifestyle features. Nonetheless, the rural-urban distinction is sufficiently salient to engender a nearly threefold difference in hypertension prevalence. This disparity in disease prevalence demonstrates the sensitivity of human beings to the environmental determinants of disease and provides a sobering example of the difficulty in identifying subtle genetic effects, which can be easily overwhelmed by small differences in

  5. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  6. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...... recommend measurements of aPWV for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. However, the availability of the method is limited. Intervention studies showing a reduction of aPWV and indices of central BP are independently associated with fewer cardiovascular events are required as normal reference values...

  7. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...... recommend measurements of aPWV for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. However, the availability of the method is limited. Intervention studies showing a reduction of aPWV and indices of central BP are independently associated with fewer cardiovascular events are required as normal reference values...

  8. Hypertension, Blood Pressure Variability, and Target Organ Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia; Dos Santos, Fernando; Dartora, Daniela R; Rodrigues, Bruno; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano

    2016-04-01

    Hypertensive patients have a higher risk of developing health complications, particularly cardiovascular (CV) events, than individuals with normal blood pressure (BP). Severity of complications depends on the magnitude of BP elevation and other CV risk factors associated with the target organ damage. Therefore, BP control and management of organ damage may contribute to reduce this risk. BP variability (BPV) has been considered a physiological marker of autonomic nervous system control and may be implicated in increased CV risk in hypertension. This review will present some evidence relating BPV and target organ damage in hypertension in clinical and experimental settings.

  9. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M;

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... was prolonged. Heart rate increased twice as much on day 5 compared with the other two occasions. Thoracic fluid index increased with cooling on day 5, suggesting an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. In conclusion, prolonged hypoxia seems to elicit an augmented pressor response to local cooling...... in the systemic and most likely also the pulmonary circulation....

  10. Pheochromocytoma supporting blood pressure in the setting of cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditkofsky, Noah; Workman, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven-year-old male presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreasing level of consciousness. He was tachycardic but not hypotensive. Computed tomography scan revealed a peripherally enhancing adrenal mass and evidence of low cardiac output state. He was admitted to the intensive care unit but expired within 12 h. Autopsy determined the cause of death as acute coronary insufficiency and identified the adrenal mass as a pheochromocytoma. The pheochromocytoma may have maintained blood pressure in the setting of cardiogenic shock and delayed diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  11. Superiority of home blood pressure measurements over office measurements for testing antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaur; Dubroca; Dutrey-Dupagne; Genès; Chatellier; Bouvier-d'Yvoire; Elkik; Ménard

    1998-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on office blood pressure and home blood pressure of placebo and active drug administration. DESIGN: After a 2-week wash-out period, patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension entered a 2-week single-blind placebo period and then a 4-week double-blind period. Patients were randomly assigned to be administered either 2 mg trandolapril once daily or its placebo in a 2:1 proportion. Office blood pressure was measured by a physician at the end of each period, using a mercury sphygmomanometer (mean of three consecutive measurements). Home blood pressure was measured during the last week of each period according to standard procedure carefully taught to each patient by the physician. Compliance was checked by using electronic pill boxes. RESULTS: Data for 34 of the 44 patients who entered the study were eligible for analysis. Baseline systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure were significantly (P = 0.0001/P = 0.0001) higher for office blood pressure (161/101 mmHg) than they were for home blood pressure (145/93 mmHg). There was no statistically significant difference between the placebo and active-treatment groups at baseline. During the single-blind period, blood pressures measured at the office and at home did not change significantly. Office blood pressure decreased by 2.7 +/- 10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.5 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure whereas home blood pressure increased by 0.8 +/- 6 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 0.7 +/- 4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. During the double-blind period, office blood pressure fell significantly with trandolapril treatment (systolic by 10.2 +/- 12 mmHg, diastolic by 8.3 +/- 6 mmHg; P = 0.0005/0.0001, versus single-blind placebo period) but this decrease was not significantly different (P = 0.45/0.92) from the fall in members of the placebo group (systolic by 6.9 +/- 9 mmHg, diastolic by 8.0 +/-6 mmHg; P = 0.04/0.002, versus single-blind placebo period

  12. Regulation of blood pressure in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, J L; Young, R E

    2006-01-01

    We examined the cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic changes in blood volume (BV) in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Acute reduction in BV caused an increase in activity in the dorsoventral muscles (DVMs) and to a lesser extent in the epimeral attractor muscles (EAMs). Contraction of the DVMs and EAMs will decrease the volume of the dorsal sinus and the thorax as a whole, respectively. BV reduction also caused bradycardia with frequent periods of cardiac arrest. There was a small drop in hemolymph pressure. BV expansion had the reciprocal effect on DVM and EAM activity but had no effect on heart rate (fH). After the cardioregulatory nerves were cut, acute hypovolemia had no effect on fH but still caused a moderate increase in DVM activity. After dehydration-induced BV reduction, DVM activity increased, whereas hemolymph pressure, fH, and EAM activity were maintained close to control levels.

  13. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  14. Blood pressure and blood viscosity are not correlated in normal healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Vázquez BY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez1,21Departamento de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, México D.F., México; 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The relationship between blood viscosity, hematocrit (Hct, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was studied in a healthy population of 91 men and 66 women with an average age of 30.6 ± 8.0 years, from the city of Victoria de Durango (1800 m elevation. In women and men, Hct values were 42.4% ± 2.9% and 47.2% ± 2.3%, blood viscosities were 4.5 ± 0.7 and 6.1 ± 1.0 cP, and MAP was 83.0 ± 6.8 and 88.0 ± 6.1 mmHg, respectively. The correlation between blood viscosity and Hct was linear and positive (r2 = 0.48 and identical to that of previous studies reported in the literature when men and women are taken as a single group. Separating the data by gender yielded positive, linear correlations (r2 = 0.18 and 0.10, respectively with identical slopes, however blood viscosity for men was 1.2 cP greater than in women (P = 0.02. MAP and blood viscosity (and Hct were not statistically associated when men and women were analyzed separately and were weakly positively correlated (r2 = 0.08, P < 0.02 when treated as a group. The present results suggest that studies that show a positive correlation between MAP and blood viscosity (and Hct do not differentiate data according to gender, or involve populations that do not compensate for increased blood viscosity and potentially increased shear stress.Keywords: blood pressure, blood viscosity, hematocrit, gender, endothelial dysfunction

  15. 2014 CRL Blood Pressure Study of Life Insurance Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Stout, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective .- Define the relative mortality risk by systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in a relatively healthy cohort split by age and sex with adjustment for smoking status, other findings and admitted heart disease history. Method .- Blood pressure (BP in mm Hg), build, laboratory studies and limited medical history are collected when people apply for individual life insurance. Information on 2,472,706 applicants tested by Clinical Reference Laboratory from 1993 to 2007 was utilized with follow-up for vital status using the September 2011 Social Security Death Master File identifying 31,033 deaths. Data was analyzed by SBP and DBP split by age and sex accounting for smoking and for BMI, urine protein/creatinine ratio and history of heart disease in a Cox multivariate survival analysis. Separate analysis by admitted hypertension history was also conducted. Results are presented by SBP and DBP for 4 age-sex groups with and without added covariates beyond age and smoking status. Results .- Relative mortality progressively increased by SBP level from the 90 to 119 band (down to 80 in younger women) upward with little additional impact by DBP. Addition of covariates beyond age and smoking resulted in a 5% to 10% reduction in relative risk. Although high DBP had limited impact, a pulse pressure/SBP ratio >½ identified 1% of applicants at high mortality risk, with little difference in risk for ratios ≤½. Hypertension history with current BP control was associated with a 10% to 25% increase in relative mortality risk as compared to those with similar BP but no such history. Conclusion .- Increasing SBP is closely associated with increasing relative mortality, starting from the lowest SBP. Increasing DBP has little additional impact, but a pulse pressure/SBP ratio >½ is a potent marker of increased risk as well. Accounting for build and other laboratory findings reduces risk modestly. A history of hypertension with current control increases risk.

  16. Transmitted ultrasound pressure variation in micro blood vessel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengping; Kruse, Dustin E; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2008-06-01

    Silica, cellulose and polymethylmethacrylate tubes with inner diameters of ten to a few hundred microns are commonly used as blood vessel phantoms in in vitro studies of microbubble or nanodroplet behavior during insonation. However, a detailed investigation of the ultrasonic fields within these micro-tubes has not yet been performed. This work provides a theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic fields within micro-tubes. Numerical results show that for the same tube material, the interaction between the micro-tube and megaHertz-frequency ultrasound may vary drastically with incident frequency, tube diameter and wall thickness. For 10 MHz ultrasonic insonation of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube with an inner diameter of 195 microm and an outer diameter of 260 microm, the peak pressure within the tube can be up to 300% of incident pressure amplitude. However, using 1 MHz ultrasound and a silica tube with an inner diameter of 12 microm and an outer diameter of 50 microm, the peak pressure within the tube is only 12% of the incident pressure amplitude and correspondingly, the spatial-average-time-average intensity within the tube is only 1% of the incident intensity. PMID:18395962

  17. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  18. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  19. Effect of melatonin on endogenous circadian rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Feng; WANG Min; ZANG Ling-he

    2008-01-01

    Objective To further authenticate the role of melatonin on endogenous biologic clock system. Methods Pinealectomized mice were used in the experiments, a series of circadian rhythm of physiology index, such as glucocorticoid, amino acid neurotransmitter, immune function, sensitivity of algesia and body temperature were measured. Results Effects of melatonin on endogenous circadian rhythm roughly appeared four forms: 1) The model of inherent rhythm was invariant, but midvalue was removed. 2) Pacing function: pinealectomy and melatonin administration changed amplitude of the circadian vibration of aspartate, peripheral blood WBC and serum hemolysin. 3) Phase of rhythm changed, such as the effects on percentage of lymphocyte and sensitivity of algesia. 4) No effect, the circadian rhythm of body temperature belong to this form Conclusions Melatonin has effects some circadian rhythm, and it can adjust endogenous inherent rhythm and make the rhythm keep step with environmental cycle. Melatonin may be a kind of Zeitgeber, Pineal gland might being a rhythm bearing organ to some circadian rhythm.

  20. Correlation Between Fasting Blood Sugar and Resting Blood Pressure in Teachers Residing in Shiraz, Iran 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aghasadeghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the major cause ofmorbidity and mortality. The knowledge about correlation between the differentrisk factors of CAD provides valuable information for prediction and preventionof the disease in a specific population.The aim of this study was to evaluatethe correlation between fasting blood sugar (FBS and resting blood pressure inteachers residing in Shiraz, IranMethods: A total of 3115 teachers from different educational centers ofShiraz, Iran were interviewed in this cross sectional study. The data obtainedcomprised demographic information including age, sex, and history ofhypertension (HTN, diabetes mellitus (DM, and current use of medications.Other parameters measured were height, weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS andresting blood pressure (BP as well as calculating the body mass index (BMI.Results: Out of all the cases studied, undiagnosed and/or untreated casesof diabetes and hypertension were 1.5% and 15.2% respectively. FBS was higher inthe elderly and in cases with higher BMI, but without any significant differencein relation to sex. The prevalence of HTN was higher in males, in older casesand in those with higher BMI. A significant relationship was observed betweenFBS and resting BP in hypertensive and prehypertensive groups (P < 0.001 ascompared to normotensive subjects.Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between FBS and restingBP in hypertensive and prehypertensive teachers residing in Shiraz,Iran. Theprevalence of neglected DM and HTN in this population was high enough to warrantregular screening.

  1. Take your blood pressure to heart! Screening programme 13-17 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The silent health threat, high blood pressure, can only be detected by regular blood pressure tests. In Switzerland, one in four people suffer from high blood pressure without being aware of it.  A screening programme will take place from 13 to 17 October 2014 at the Medical Service Infirmary, Building 57, from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from 1.30 to 4.30 p.m. Blood pressure tests, advice and general information on high blood pressure will be available to everyone working at CERN. Medical Service

  2. Assessing circadian rhythms in propofol PK and PD during prolonged infusion in ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Agnieszka; Kusza, Krzysztof; Wawrzyniak, Katarzyna; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Kokot, Zenon J; Matysiak, Jan; Grabowski, Tomasz; Wolc, Anna; Wiczling, Paweł; Regulski, Miłosz

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluates possible circadian rhythms during prolonged propofol infusion in patients in the intensive care unit. Eleven patients were sedated with a constant propofol infusion. The blood samples for the propofol assay were collected every hour during the second day, the third day, and after the termination of the propofol infusion. Values of electroencephalographic bispectral index (BIS), arterial blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation and body temperature were recorded every hour at the blood collection time points. A two-compartment model was used to describe propofol pharmacokinetics. Typical values of the central and peripheral volume of distribution and inter-compartmental clearance were V(C) = 27.7 l, V(T) = 801 l, and CL(D) = 2.73 l/min. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to influence the propofol metabolic clearance according to Cl (l/min) = 2.65 x (1-0.00714 x (SBP-135)). There was no significant circadian rhythm detected with respect to propofol pharmacokinetics. The BIS score was assessed as a direct effect model with EC(50) equal 1.98 mg/l. There was no significant circadian rhythm detected within the BIS scores. We concluded that the light-dark cycle did not influence propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in intensive care units patients. The lack of night-day differences was also noted for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and blood oxygenation. Circadian rhythms were detected for heart rate and body temperature, however they were severely disturbed from the pattern of healthy patients.

  3. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  4. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pechanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

  5. The Role of Metabolic Surgery on Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Carlos Aurelio; Drager, Luciano F; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Amodeo, Celso; Ikeoka, Dimas; Berwanger, Otávio; Cohen, Ricardo Vitor

    2016-08-01

    Obesity and hypertension are growing epidemics in the modern world. Lifestyle changes and medical treatment for obesity have disappointing long-term results and albeit drugs for hypertension are usually very effective, the necessity of multiple pills and frequent side effects make the adherence to treatment a huge challenge for healthcare systems. Bariatric/metabolic surgery is a very effective treatment and an exponential number of studies have been showing its positive impact beyond weight loss, mainly on type 2 diabetes. There is also growing evidence suggesting that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular events, but the impact on hypertension and other components of metabolic syndrome usually derive from trials' secondary end points. Taking this limitation in mind, bariatric/metabolic surgery action on blood pressure is reaching a significant proportion of hypertension resolution or improvement. In this review, we discussed the current evidence on the impact of bariatric/metabolic surgery on blood pressure control and pointed out perspectives in this research area. PMID:27324638

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Prasad, G V

    2012-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. To assist in their management, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become increasingly used in both clinical research settings and practice. ABPM has been used to better define post-transplant hypertension incidence and prevalence in different solid organ transplantation populations. ABPM provides additional information on cardiovascular risk beyond that obtained by clinic-based readings, based on its ability to assess 24-h blood pressure (BP) load, detect nocturnal non-dipping, and predict target organ damage. It has provided some assurance about the safety of living kidney donation. Information from ABPM can be used to guide living kidney donor selection, and because ABPM-related data has been correlated with clinically important kidney and heart transplant recipient outcomes, it may be a valuable adjunct in their management. Despite these advantages, barriers to wider use of ABPM include expense, clinical inertia in hypertension management, lack of prospective clinical trial data, and clinical problems that compete with hypertension for attention such as acute or chronic allograft dysfunction. The increasing amount of research and clinical use for ABPM may allow for closer assessment and intervention to help address the increased cardiovascular risk faced by many solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:22220828

  7. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2015-09-01

    Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and therefore pivotal in determining fluid balance. At the beginning of life, a positive sodium balance is needed to grow. Newborns and preterm infants tend to lose sodium via their kidneys and therefore need adequate sodium intake. Among older children and adults, however, excessive salt intake leads to volume expansion and arterial hypertension. Children who are overweight, born preterm, or small for gestational age and African American children are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure due to a high salt intake because they are more likely to be salt sensitive. In the developed world, salt intake is generally above the recommended intake also among children. Although a positive sodium balance is needed for growth during the first year of life, in older children, a sodium-poor diet seems to have the same cardiovascular protective effects as among adults. This is relevant, since: (1) a blood pressure tracking phenomenon was recognized; (2) the development of taste preferences is important during childhood; and (3) salt intake is often associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (predisposing children to weight gain). PMID:25127918

  8. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  9. Recurrence of lacunar stroke and blood pressure control. Kanagawa REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the background and status of recurrence realities of lacunar infarction (LI) is still limited. We investigated 856 patients started to treat from 1997 to 2000, in whom a diagnosis of first-ever symptomatic LI was detected by MRI were enrolled, excluding possible cardiogenic embolic stroke or branch atheromatous disease using medical records in 14 institutions in Kanagawa, retrospectively. Recurrent cerebrovascular events (CVEs) occurred in 96 patients (11%) and the annual incidence was 4.8%. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) just before recurrence of CVEs was significantly higher than the mean SBP at final follow-up in recurrence-free patients (P<0.001). As the result of multivariate analysis performed after adjusting for following risk factors, antiplatelet therapy, a high SBP just before the end of follow-up, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and a modified Rankin scale≥5 were independent prognostic factors related to recurrence of CVEs. The recurrence rates of CVEs or LI were decreased by lowering of the SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) just before the end of follow-up. Our analyses provide no evidence of a J-curve relationship between BP level and a recurrence after first-ever symptomatic LI. (author)

  10. Impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aaqib Habib; Akram, Yasir; Shetty, Suchith; Malik, Senada Senda; Yanchou Njike, Valentine

    2014-05-01

    The impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on blood pressure (BP) has been debated, with some evidence suggesting that their increased intake is related to higher risk of developing hypertension. We conducted a systematic review exploring the relation between consumption of SSB and BP. A comprehensive search in 5 electronic databases along with a bibliography search was performed. The keywords "sugar sweetened beverages," "sugary drinks," "added sugars," "blood pressure," and "hypertension" were indexed in all combinations. Studies were included that reported the effects of intake of SSBs on BP. We excluded studies with <100 subjects and those involving subjects aged <12 years. Of 605 potentially relevant studies, a total of 12 studies (409,707 participants) met our inclusion criteria; 6 were cross sectional studies, whereas the rest were prospective cohort studies. All 12 studies showed positive relation between increased SSB intake and hypertension; however, statistical significance was reported in 10 of these studies. Of the 12 studies, 5 reported an increase in mean BP whereas 7 reported an increase in the incidence of high BP. In conclusion, our systematic review shows that the consumption of SSBs is associated with higher BP, leading to increased incidence of hypertension. Restriction on SSB consumption should be incorporated in the recommendations of lifestyle modifications for the treatment of hypertension. Interventions to reduce intake of SSBs should be an integral part of public health strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension. PMID:24630785

  11. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...... stratification based on BP variability. The predictive accuracy of daytime and nighttime BP and the night-to-day BP ratio depended on the disease outcome under study and treatment status, and differed for fatal outcomes compared with the composite of fatal and nonfatal diseases. An exaggerated morning surge...

  12. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  13. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alinezhad-Namaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims and fasting in this month is the rule for any healthy matured person. Nutritional and behavioral changes occurred during Ramadan fasting may lead to several physiological change, such as blood pressure (2. Studies evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients, are scarce and reported inadequate results. In this paper a systematic review was performed to accumulate the results of published literature designed to evaluate blood pressure changes in hypertensive patients due to Ramadan fasting. All prospective, English studies which evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients and measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure twice at least ( before Ramadan and during last week of Ramadan or after Ramadan fasting were included in systematic review . Five studies reported the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in full text. Although significant reduction in systolic blood pressure during Ramadan fasting were seen in 3 studies (3-5, other 3 studies reported no significant difference between systolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan fasting (6, 7. Among 6 studies that reviewed in this paper, 4 studies reported no significant changes in diastolic blood pressure (4, 6, 7. While 2 other studies reported significant reduction in systolic blood pressure after Ramadan fasting (3, 5. This systematic review suggested that Ramadan fasting can be safe in treated essential hypertensive patients with continuation of previous medications. Also it can improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

  14. Which Measurement of Blood Pressure Is More Associated With Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Central Blood Pressure or Peripheral Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Muhei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Nakano, Koji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether central systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion (UAE) ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and, if so, whether the relationship of central SBP with albuminuria was stronger than that of peripheral SBP in patients with type 2 diabetes. The authors performed a cross-sectional study in 294 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. The relationship between peripheral SBP or central SBP and UAE using regression analysis was evaluated, and the odds ratios of peripheral SBP or central SBP were calculated to identify albuminuria using logistic regression model. Moreover, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of central SBP was compared with that of peripheral SBP to identify albuminuria. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that peripheral SBP (β=0.255, Pperipheral SBP (odds ratio, 1.029; 95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.043) or central SBP (odds ratio, 1.022; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.034) was associated with an increased odds of albuminuria. In addition, AUC of peripheral SBP was significantly greater than that of central SBP to identify albuminuria (P=0.035). Peripheral SBP is superior to central SBP in identifying albuminuria, although both peripheral and central SBP are associated with UAE in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Blood pressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F S; DoNascimento, C; Reaven, G M; Yip, J W; Ni, X P; Humphreys, M H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among various humoral factors thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure during high NaCl intake. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent sequential 5-day periods ingesting a low-sodium (25 mmol/d) or high-sodium (200 mmol/d) diet. Insulin resistance was assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 3-hour insulin suppression test. Insulin resistance correlated inversely with natriuresis (P=0.04) and directly with increase in weight (P=0.03). The increase in mean arterial pressure associated with the high-sodium diet correlated directly with the gain in weight (P<0.05) and inversely with the increase in urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.0001). In a multiple regression model, more than 2/3 of the variance in mean arterial pressure was accounted for by the gain in weight and change in urinary nitrate excretion. The steady-state plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the 2 diets were similar, indicating that insulin resistance was unaffected by sodium intake. During high sodium intake, plasma renin activity and aldosterone decreased and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased; these changes did not correlate with the change in mean arterial pressure, insulin resistance, or change in urinary nitrate excretion. To the extent that urinary nitrate excretion reflects activity of the endogenous nitric oxide system, these results suggest that the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure may be related to blunted generation of endogenous nitric oxide. The results also demonstrate that insulin-resistant individuals have an impaired natriuretic response to high sodium intake. PMID:10205239

  16. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  17. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  18. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned.

  19. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned. PMID:24998020

  20. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael;

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  1. Relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow during supine cycling: influence of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Keegan; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Hansen, Alex; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-03-01

    The cerebral pressure-flow relationship can be quantified as a high-pass filter, where slow oscillations are buffered (TFA) findings (altered phase or intact gain). This study aimed to determine whether these previous findings accurately represent this relationship. Both younger (20-30 yr; n = 10) and older (62-72 yr; n = 9) adults were examined. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, large oscillations in blood pressure (via oscillatory lower body negative pressure; OLBNP) were induced during steady-state moderate intensity supine exercise (∼45-50% of heart rate reserve). Beat-to-beat blood pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) range spontaneous data were quantified. Driven OLBNP point estimates were sampled at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. The OLBNP maneuvers augmented coherence to >0.97 at 0.05 Hz and >0.98 at 0.10 Hz in both age groups. The OLBNP protocol conclusively revealed the cerebrovascular system functions as a high-pass filter during exercise throughout aging. It was also discovered that the older adults had elevations (+71%) in normalized gain (+0.46 ± 0.36%/%: 0.05 Hz) and reductions (-34%) in phase (-0.24 ± 0.22 radian: 0.10 Hz). There were also age-related phase differences between resting and exercise conditions. It is speculated that these age-related changes in the TFA metrics are mediated by alterations in vasoactive factors, sympathetic tone, or the mechanical buffering of the compliance vessels. PMID:26586907

  2. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR.

  3. Molecular clock is involved in predictive circadian adjustment of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Annie Mercier; Centeno, Gabriel; Pradervand, Sylvain; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Maquelin, Lionel; Cardinaux, Léonard; Bonny, Olivier; Firsov, Dmitri

    2009-09-22

    Renal excretion of water and major electrolytes exhibits a significant circadian rhythm. This functional periodicity is believed to result, at least in part, from circadian changes in secretion/reabsorption capacities of the distal nephron and collecting ducts. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in the distal nephron segments, i.e., distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Temporal expression analysis performed on microdissected mouse DCT/CNT or CCD revealed a marked circadian rhythmicity in the expression of a large number of genes crucially involved in various homeostatic functions of the kidney. This analysis also revealed that both DCT/CNT and CCD possess an intrinsic circadian timing system characterized by robust oscillations in the expression of circadian core clock genes (clock, bma11, npas2, per, cry, nr1d1) and clock-controlled Par bZip transcriptional factors dbp, hlf, and tef. The clock knockout mice or mice devoid of dbp/hlf/tef (triple knockout) exhibit significant changes in renal expression of several key regulators of water or sodium balance (vasopressin V2 receptor, aquaporin-2, aquaporin-4, alphaENaC). Functionally, the loss of clock leads to a complex phenotype characterized by partial diabetes insipidus, dysregulation of sodium excretion rhythms, and a significant decrease in blood pressure. Collectively, this study uncovers a major role of molecular clock in renal function.

  4. Cost estimation of hypertension management based on home blood pressure monitoring alone or combined office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Karpettas, Nikos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kollias, Anastasios; Protogerou, Athanase D; Achimastos, Apostolos; Stergiou, George S

    2014-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the resources consumed and subsequent costs for hypertension management, using home blood pressure (BP) monitoring (HBPM) alone versus combined clinic measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (C/ABPM). One hundred sixteen untreated hypertensive subjects were randomized to use HBPM or C/ABPM for antihypertensive treatment initiation and titration. Health resources utilized within 12-months follow-up, their respective costs, and hypertension control were assessed. The total cost of the first year of hypertension management was lower in HBPM than C/ABPM arm (€1336.0 vs. €1473.5 per subject, respectively; P cost was identical in both arms. There was no difference in achieved BP control and drug expenditure (HBPM: €233.1 per subject; C/ABPM: €247.6 per subject; P = not significant), whereas the cost of BP measurements and/or visits was higher in C/ABPM arm (€393.9 vs. €516.9, per patient, respectively P cost for subsequent years (>1) was €348.9 and €440.2 per subject, respectively for HBPM and C/ABPM arm and €2731.4 versus €3234.3 per subject, respectively (P cost than C/ABPM, and the same trend is observed in 5-year projection. The results on the resources consumption can be used to make cost estimates for other health-care systems.

  5. Effects of music on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S.; Arora, Rohit; Shah, Parinda H.; Chandrasekar, Suraj; Molnar, Janos

    2012-01-01

    There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a metaanalysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, −2.629, confidence interval (CI), −3.914 to −1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, −1.112, CI, −1.692 to −0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, −3.422, CI, −5.032 to −1.812, P < 0.001). PMID:22664817

  6. Limb venous compliance responses to lower body negative pressure in humans with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulopoulou, S; Deruisseau, K C; Carhart, R; Kanaley, J A

    2012-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that limb venous responses to baroreceptor unloading are altered in individuals with high blood pressure (HBP) compared with normotensive (NT) controls. Calf venous compliance was assessed in 20 subjects with prehypertension and stage-1 hypertension (mean arterial pressure, MAP: 104±1 mm Hg) and 13 NT controls (MAP: 86±2 mm Hg) at baseline and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), using venous occlusion plethysmography. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was measured using the sequence technique and total peripheral resistance (TPR) was estimated from finger plethysmography. Baseline venous compliance was not different between groups, but the HBP group had lower baseline lnBRS (2.22±0.14 vs 2.7±0.18 ms mm Hg(-1)) and greater baseline TPR (3828±138 vs 3250±111 dyn sec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), Pcompliance was reduced in response to LBNP only in the NT group (Psec(-1) cm(-5) m(2), P<0.05). In conclusion, the early stages of hypertension are characterized by an attenuated venoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, which may compensate for an exaggerated vasoconstrictor response and protect against further increases in blood pressure. PMID:21471995

  7. Target Blood Pressure in Patients with Diabetes: Asian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungha; Kario, Kazuomi; Park, Chang Gyu; Huang, Qi Fang; Cheng, Hao Min; Hoshide, Satoshi; Wang, Ji Guang; Chen, Chen Huan

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) blood pressure (BP) trial enrolled 4733 participants with type 2 diabetes and randomized them to a target systolic blood pressure (SBP) of less than 120 mm Hg or 140 mm Hg. Despite the significant difference in the achieved SBP, there was no significant difference in the incidence of primary outcomes. Based on this evidence, the target SBP for diabetics has been revised in the majority of major guidelines. However, there is a steeper association between SBP and stroke in Asians than other ethnicities, with stroke being the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. This suggests that target BP in the Asian region should be tailored towards prevention of stroke. In the ACCORD study, the intensive BP treatment was associated with significant reductions in both total stroke and non-fatal stroke. The results from the ACCORD study are supported by a subgroup analysis from the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study, which showed that, in diabetic patients, the risk of stroke continues to decrease to a SBP value of 115 mm Hg with no evidence of J curve. As diabetes is highly associated with underlying coronary artery disease, there is a justified concern for adverse effects resulting from too much lowering of BP. In a post hoc analysis of 6400 diabetic subjects enrolled in the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril (INVEST) study, subjects with SBP of less than 110 mm Hg were associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality. In the ONTARGET study, at any levels of achieved SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) below 67 mm Hg was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. As such, a prudent approach would be to target a SBP of 130-140 mm Hg and DBP of above 60 mm Hg in diabetics with coronary artery disease. In conclusion, hypertension, in association with diabetes, has been found to be significantly correlated

  8. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. PMID:25278432

  9. The relation between prognosis and nocturnal blood pressure variation in hypertensive patients with lacunar infarct%夜间血液变化与高血压腔隙性脑梗死发后及预后的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张微微; 黄勇华; 李娟; 冯军

    2001-01-01

    Objective We conducted a study using MRI and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring(ABPM) to determine whether an inapporpriately low nocturnal blood pressure,or an excess fall in nocturnal blood pressure,might be responsible for lacunar infarct.Method ABPM and Casul blood pressure(CBP) were examined in 35 hypertentives with lacunar infarct( LI) and 33 hypertentives without lacunar infarct as control group.Results There is no significant difference of CBP between two groups.But the mean nighttime systolic blood pressure(nSBP) and diastolic blood pressure(nDBP) in patients with lacunar infarct were significantly smaller than in patients without lacunar infarct.The ratio of nSBP/dSBP and nDBP/dDBP in SI were smaller than in control group respectively.Conclusions The results indicate that an inappropriately low nocturnal blood pressure,or an excessive fall in nocturnal blood pressure,is associated with lacunar infarct.It is necessary not only to controlhigh blood pressure but also to pay attention to circadian changes of blood pressure during the course of anti-hypertensive treatment.

  10. Why some adult Canadians do not have blood pressure measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest; Campbell, Norman R C; Maxwell, Colleen; Onysko, Jay; Quan, Hude

    2007-12-01

    Regular blood pressure (BP) measurements are required to identify people with hypertension and to optimally manage their cardiovascular risk. Analyses of data from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey showed that most adult Canadians have had a BP assessment in the previous 2 years and few have never had one. Large numbers of persons without BP recordings were observed, however, among persons who were younger, were male, who did not have either a regular doctor or physician contact in the previous year, who were recent immigrants or visible minorities (nonwhite and non-Aboriginal), and who spoke neither French nor English. Common reasons reported for not having a BP assessment included believing it was not necessary and simply not getting around to it. Education programs targeting those at risk as well as more convenient BP screening may improve awareness and testing. PMID:18046100

  11. Barriers to and strategies for effective blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David

    2005-01-01

    There are major differences between the current knowledge of the treatment of cardiac conditions derived from evidence-based medicine and the widespread application of this knowledge. This is particularly true in the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular condition, affecting more than 50 million Americans and approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, many hypertensive patients are not receiving treatment, and of those that are, many are not adequately controlled. There is evidence that there are methods to improve blood pressure control and improve compliance with expert recommendations for the treatment of hypertension. These methods range from local initiatives such as academic detailing to national performance measures as have been developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. A challenge for the future will be to identify and broadly apply these and other programs to improve the quality and efficiency of hypertensive treatment. PMID:17319093

  12. Mechanisms and pharmacogenetic signals underlying thiazide diuretics blood pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Mohamed H; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-04-01

    Thiazide (TZD) diuretics are among the most commonly prescribed antihypertensives globally; however their chronic blood pressure (BP) lowering mechanism remains unclear. Herein we discuss the current evidence regarding specific mechanisms regulating the antihypertensive effects of TZDs, suggesting that TZDs act via multiple complex and interacting mechanisms, including natriuresis with short term use and direct vasodilatory effects chronically. Additionally, we review pharmacogenomics signals that have been associated with TZDs BP-response in several cohorts (i.e. NEDD4L, PRKCA, EDNRA-GNAS, and YEATS4) and discuss how these genes might be related to TZD BP-response mechanism. Understanding the association between these genes and TZD BP mechanism might facilitate the development of new drugs and therapeutic approaches based on a deeper understanding of the determinants of BP-response.

  13. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring – Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Mako

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.

  14. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP.

  15. A dramatic drop in blood pressure following prehospital GTN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm J

    2007-03-01

    A male in his sixties with no history of cardiac chest pain awoke with chest pain following an afternoon sleep. The patient did not self medicate. The patient's observations were within normal limits, he was administered oxygen via a face mask and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Several minutes after the GTN the patient experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate, this was rectified by atropine sulphate and a fluid challenge. There was no further deterioration in the patient's condition during transport to hospital. There are very few documented case like this in the prehospital scientific literature. The cause appears to be the Bezold-Jarish reflex, stimulation of the ventricular walls which in turn decreases sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor centre. Prehospital care providers who are managing any patient with a syncopal episode that fails to recover within a reasonable time frame should consider the Bezold-Jarisch reflex as the cause and manage the patient accordingly.

  16. Timing of blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Cheryl; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    Whether there are any benefits without harm from early lowering of blood pressure (BP) in the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been a longstanding controversy in medicine. Whilst most studies have consistently shown associations between elevated BP, particularly systolic BP, and poor outcome, some also report that very low BP (systolic <130 mmHg) and large reductions in systolic BP are associated with poor outcomes in AIS. However, despite these associations, the observed U- or J-shaped relationship between BP and outcome in these patients may not be causally related. Patients with more severe strokes may have a more prominent autonomic response and later lower BP as their condition worsens, often pre-terminally. Fortunately, substantial progress has been made in recent years with new evidence arising from well-conducted randomized trials. This review outlines new evidence and recommendations for clinical practice over BP management in AIS. PMID:26041479

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

  18. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM......-) microvascular complications, and in 16 nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity was lower in T2DM+ versus T2DM- and nondiabetic hypertensive patients (4.6±1.1 versus 6.0±1.6 [P

  19. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  20. Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Jackson, Rod; Turnbull, Fiona; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of blood pressure reduction in persons with grade 1 hypertension are unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate whether pharmacologic blood pressure reduction prevents cardiovascular events and deaths in persons with grade 1 hypertension. DATA SOURCES: Trials included in the BPLTTC (Blood

  1. Frequent ventricular premature beats increase blood pressure variability in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yu MIAO; Li-ping XU; Jian-guo LIU; He-hui XIE; Wen-jun YUAN; Ding-feng SU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia such as ventricular premature beats (VPB) is a contributing factor in the elevation of blood pressure variability (BPV). METHODS:Blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram were continuously recorded. The relation between VPB and BPV was observed under conscious state in chronic myocardial infarction (MI) rats one month after ligation of the left.coronary artery, and further verified under anesthetized state in rat model of ventricular arrhythmia produced by acute intravenous infusion of aconitine. RESULTS: MI rats exhibited a big difference in the count and pattern of VPB, and were divided into no VPB, occasional VPB, and frequent VPB groups. Among the three groups, there were no differences in BP, heart period (HP), and MI size. However, BPV was markedly higher in frequent not occasional VPB rats, and HP variability (HPV) was larger in both frequent and occasional VPB rats, when compared with no VPB rats. In the whole population of MI rats, BPV was positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP, HP and MI size. Infusion of aconitine had no effect on BP, HP, BPV, and HPV during the period without VPB.Frequent VPB after several minutes of aconitine infusion induced significant increase in BPV and HPV with no change in BP and HP. BPV was also positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP and HP. Hemodynamics in aconitine-evoked ventricular tachycardia was characterized as lower BP, higher BPV, and higher HPV.CONCLUSION: High BPV can be caused by frequent not occasional VPB in rats.

  2. Effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua Xiao; Li Yang; Rong-Ping Chen; Wei-Dong Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery and its feasibility.Methods:A total of 80 patients who were admitted in ENT department from June, 2012 to June, 2015 for nasal endoscope surgery were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 40 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were given nifedipine delayed-release tablets for advanced blood pressure control before operation, and were given routine blood pressure control during operation; while the patients in the control group were only given blood pressure control during operation. The changes of blood pressure, mean central arterial pressure, and heart rate before anesthesia (T0), after intubation (T1), during operation (T2), extubation when waking (T3), 30 min after extubation (T4), and 3 h after back to wards (T5) in the two groups were compared. The intraoperative situation and the surgical field quality in the two groups were compared.Results: SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T1-5 in the two groups were significantly lower than those at T0. SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T2 were significantly lower than those at other timing points, and were gradually recovered after operation, but were significantly lower than those at T0. The effect taking time of blood pressure reducing, intraoperative nitroglycerin dosage, and postoperative wound surface exudation amount in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The surgical field quality scores in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group.Conclusions:Advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets can stabilize the blood pressure during the perioperative period in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery, and enhance the surgical field qualities.

  3. Ankle blood pressure as a predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Heikki; Pääkkönen, Rauni; Salomaa, Veikko

    2008-01-01

    Background The ankle blood pressure is commonly used as a ratio to the brachial blood pressure, called ankle-brachial index (ABI). Very few studies have considered the independent value of the ankle blood pressure without indexing it to the brachial blood pressure. We examined the value of ankle blood pressure, together with the exercise blood pressure, as a predictor of cardiovascular (CVD) and total mortality. Methods A prospective follow-up study of 3,858 consecutive ambulatory patients (mean age 51 years, 65,9% male) referred to a symptom-limited exercise test between August 1989 and December 1995. The cohort was followed up for all-cause and CVD mortality until December 31, 2004, by record linkage with the National Causes-of-Death Register. The independent value of ankle blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular and total mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results The average follow-up time was 14 years, during which 346 persons died, 108 of them due to CVD. Persons with normal (<140 mmHg) resting brachial blood pressure, ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg and exercise blood pressure at moderate exercise level ≤215 mmHg at baseline investigation, had the best prognosis and were taken as the reference category. Among persons with elevated ankle blood pressure (≥175 mmHg) but normal or borderline resting brachial pressure and normal exercise blood pressure (≤215 mmHg) at moderate exercise level the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval) for CVD and total mortality were 2.70 (1.52 – 4.80) and 2.13 (1.58 – 2.85), respectively. Similar and equally significant HRs were observed in persons with both elevated ankle blood pressure and elevated exercise blood pressure, as well as in those persons with elevated exercise blood pressure but ankle blood pressure < 175 mmHg. Conclusion These results suggest that the ankle blood pressure has an independent value as a marker of arterial stiffness or

  4. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  5. A relation between blood pressure and stiffness of joints and skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, CSPM; Grobbee, DE; Sakkers, RJB; Helders, PJM; Bank, RA; Engelbert, RHH

    2003-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, is associated with arterial wall stiffness, but little is known about its relation to stiffness of other parts of the body. We examined the extent to which blood pressure levels in young healthy children are related to stiffness of various tis

  6. Expression of STK39 in peripheral blood of hypertension patients and the relationship between its genetic polymorphism and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the STK39 expression in peripheral blood of hypertension patients and the relation between its genetic polymorphism and blood pressure. The observation group comprised of 42 primary hypertension patients admitted to our hospital, and the control group comprised of 30 healthy individuals who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period. Fasting venous blood was collected from both groups in the morning to determine the STK39 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. STK39 gene SNP (rs6433027) was sequenced using PCR and its genetic variation was analyzed. The relationship between STK39 protein level, genetic variation, and diastolic and systolic blood pressure was also analyzed. The observation group showed increased STK39 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P blood pressure (P blood pressure (P hypertension patients with genetic variation, which is related to the blood pressure.

  7. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland–Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (RSpearman = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = −0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: −0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity

  8. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, M; Schmidt, E; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2010-09-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R(Spearman) = 0.92, p agreement: -0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity. PMID:20664157

  9. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  10. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-10-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring.

  11. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  12. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-ba...

  13. Experimental Feasibility Study of Estimation of the Normalized Central Blood Pressure Waveform from Radial Photoplethysmogram

    OpenAIRE

    Sohani, Vahid; Ali, M. A. Mohd.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Beng, Gan Kok

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel system to reliably estimate the normalized central blood pressure (CBPN) from the radial photoplethysmogram (PPG) is investigated. Right-wrist radial blood pressure and left-wrist PPG were simultaneously recorded in five different days. An industry-standard applanation tonometer was employed for recording radial blood pressure. The CBP waveform was amplitude-normalized to determine CBPN. A total of fifteen second-order autoregressive models with exogenous input were...

  14. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, L. J.; Thorpe, R. J.; Bower, K. M.; LaVeist, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contig...

  15. Take your blood pressure to heart! Screening programme 24-27 March

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, one person in four suffers from high blood pressure without knowing it. This silent killer can only be detected by carrying out regular blood pressure tests.     Following our last campaign in October 2014, 30% of participants were found to have previously undetected hypertension. This year, the nurses of the Medical Service are once again organising a blood pressure screening programme. See the flyer for more information. CERN Medical Service

  16. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  17. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  18. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls) were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher...

  19. Dietary zinc intake is inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in young obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    Zinc may participate in blood pressure regulation and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The study examined the relationship between zinc status and blood pressure in obese Korean women. Forty obese women (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) aged 19-28 years participated in this study. Zinc intake was estimated from one 24 hour recall and 2-day diet records. Serum and urinary zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastoli...

  20. The applicability of home blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: A review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Verberk, Willem J; Kroon, Abraham A.; Jongen-Vancraybex, Heidi A; Peter W de Leeuw

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on home blood pressure measurement (HBPM), to examine its validity and applicability for clinical practice and to provide recommendations regarding HBPM assessment. Findings HBPM can eliminate the white coat effect and offers the possibility to obtain multiple measurements under standardized conditions, which increases knowledge of overall blood pressure value. Although it is not entirely capable of replacing ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), HBPM ...

  1. Blood pressure and migration: a study of Bengali immigrants in East London.

    OpenAIRE

    Silman, A J; Evans, S J; Loysen, E

    1987-01-01

    The role of blood pressure in explaining the increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Bengali immigrants living in the East End of London was studied in a comparative population study. In addition the effect on blood pressure of age, body mass, and duration of stay in the UK was evaluated. The Bengalis had significantly lower mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures though these differences disappeared after adjustment for age and body mass. Both groups, however, showed similar r...

  2. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  3. Blood pressure 2 years after a chronic disease management intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon; Vincent, Lloyd; Wentworth, Joan; Hildebrandt, Denise; Kiss, Alexander; Perkins, Nancy; Hartman, Susan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hoppe, Jacquie; Hunter, Katie; Pylypchuk, George

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To follow blood pressure change over time in participants who had participated in a 1- year chronic disease management program focused on blood pressure reduction. The expectation was that blood pressure would return back to the baseline once the study was completed. Study design. Prospective, single-arm observational study. Methods. Study participants were Status Indians living on-reserve with type 2 diabetes and persistent hypertension who had participated in the DREAM3 study. B...

  4. Predictive value and rate of change of blood pressure throughout adolescence : a Belgian prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Remy, Annie; Rorive, Georges

    1991-01-01

    We performed a prospective study on the natural course of blood pressure throughout adolescence. The major goals were to assess the predictive value of a high blood pressure level at the age of 12 years and the feasibilty of developing a screening test for the early detection of young subjects at risk of developing chronic hypertension. By measuring the relationship between the initial level and subsequent changes in blood pressure, we looked for a phenomenon previously demonstrated in adults...

  5. Skin necrosis in a critically ill patient due to a blood pressure cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Devbhandari Mohan; Shariff Z; Duncan A

    2006-01-01

    The non-invasive method of blood pressure measurement is regarded as a safe procedure and the reports of any serious complications are rare. We report a unique case of extensive skin necrosis due to an intermittently inflating blood pressure cuff in a 65-year-old critically ill lady following a third time redo mitral valve surgery. A brief review of the literature on complications associated with noninvasive method of measurement of blood pressure is presented along with possible mechanisms o...

  6. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  7. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivaldo Gomes Cardoso Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a ubiquitous and serious disease. Regular exercise has been recommended as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of hypertension because of its effects in reducing clinical blood pressure; however, ambulatory blood pressure is a better predictor of target-organ damage than clinical blood pressure, and therefore studying the effects of exercise on ambulatory blood pressure is important as well. Moreover, different kinds of exercise might produce distinct effects that might differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. It has been conclusively shown that a single episode of aerobic exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Similarly, regular aerobic training also decreases ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. In contrast, data on the effects of resistance exercise is both scarce and controversial. Nevertheless, studies suggest that resistance exercise might acutely decrease ambulatory blood pressure after exercise, and that this effect seems to be greater after low-intensity exercise and in patients receiving anti-hypertensive drugs. On the other hand, only two studies investigating resistance training in hypertensive patients have been conducted, and neither has demonstrated any hypotensive effect. Thus, based on current knowledge, aerobic training should be recommended to decrease ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, while resistance exercise could be prescribed as a complementary strategy.

  8. A simple method of blood pressure measurement in the pig using a neonatal cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P K; Ng, T H; Heng, D; Mack, P O

    1999-01-01

    The pig is a commonly used large animal model in experimental studies. Few non-invasive techniques exist however for the measurement of blood pressure in the porcine model. This study evaluates the novel use of the easily available neonatal blood pressure cuff for measuring blood pressure in the pig. Six Yorkshire pigs were used for the study. Blood pressure measurements obtained by the application of neonatal blood pressure cuff (Hewlett Packard) around the base of the tail were compared with results obtained from intra-arterial measurements in the normotensive range as well as in experimentally created hypertensive (intravenous dopamine) and hypotensive (hypovolaemic shock) ranges. Results of the two techniques are closely correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95, 0.97, 0.90). Systematic bias was however detected at the extremes of hypertensive and hypotensive blood pressure. Analysis of the limits of agreement (method of Bland and Altman) showed that neonatal blood pressure cuff measurements fall within--2 to 2.5 mmHg of the readings obtained from the invasive technique (95% confidence interval). The neonatal blood pressure cuff technique is a good substitute for the standard invasive intra-arterial measurement of blood pressure in the pig model. PMID:10374020

  9. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system. PMID:27225558

  10. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and elevated blood pressure: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J; Bélanger, Stéphane; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Individuals with poor cardiorespiratory fitness have higher blood pressure than fit individuals. Individuals with low fitness levels also tend to be characterized by higher visceral adiposity compared with physically fit individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between low fitness and elevated blood pressure could be related, at least in part, to the higher level of visceral adipose tissue often found among unfit individuals. This study included 407 asymptomatic, nondiabetic participants. Visceral adipose tissue was assessed by computed tomography, and fitness was measured by a progressive submaximal physical working capacity test. Participants in the highest visceral adipose tissue tertile showed the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas participants in the highest fitness tertile had the lowest blood pressure values (Pfitness tertiles and then subdivided on the basis of visceral adipose tissue (high versus low), participants with a high visceral adipose tissue had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (P=0.01), independent of their fitness category. Linear regression analyses showed that age and visceral adipose tissue, but not fitness, predicted systolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.11 [Pvisceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.17 [Pvisceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively). Individuals with high visceral adipose tissue levels have higher blood pressure, independent of their fitness. Visceral adipose tissue may represent an important clinical target in the management of elevated blood pressure. PMID:19470873

  11. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Georg B; Munroe, Patricia B; Rice, Kenneth M; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D; Chasman, Daniel I; Smith, Albert V; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A; Jackson, Anne U; Peden, John F; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C; Fox, Ervin R; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D G; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Steinle, Nanette I; Grobbee, Diederick E; Arking, Dan E; Kardia, Sharon L; Morrison, Alanna C; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Beilby, John P; Lawrence, Robert W; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J Hunter; Bis, Joshua C; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette R; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R; Bornstein, Stefan R; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B; Hunt, Steven C; Sun, Yan V; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R; Soler Artigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K; Rudock, Megan E; Heckbert, Susan R; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Ikram, M Arfan; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R G; Wain, Louise V; Morken, Mario A; Swift, Amy J; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Gilst, Wiek H; Janipalli, Charles S; Mani, K Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Oostra, Ben A; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M V Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Casas, Juan P; Mohlke, Karen L; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K; Wong, Tien Y; Tai, E Shyong; Cooper, Richard S; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C; Harris, Tamara B; Morris, Richard W; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J; Johnson, Toby

    2011-10-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21909115

  12. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system.

  13. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Luciana Tavares; da Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira; Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; de Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chia supplementation (Salvia hispanica L.) on blood pressure (BP) and its associated cardiometabolic factors in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the hypertensive-drug treated (CHIA-MD, n = 10), hypertensive untreated (CHIA-NM, n = 9) and placebo (PLA-MD, n = 7) groups. The subjects consumed 35 g/day of either chia flour or a placebo for 12 weeks. The clinical and ambulatory BP, inflammation, oxidative stress and markers for nitric oxide were measured. While the PLA-MD group showed no changes in BP, there was a reduction in the mean clinical blood pressure (MBP) in the CHIA (111.5 ± 1.9 to 102.7 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and CHIA-MD (111.3 ± 2.2 to 100.1 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001) groups. The CHIA-NM group showed no reduction in the MBP but did show a decreased systolic BP (146.8 ± 3.8 to 137.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, p < 0.05). The clinical BP reduction was demonstrated by a 24 h ambulatory systolic reduction in all of the supplemented groups. However, the mean ambulatory BP was reduced only in the CHIA (98.1 ± 2.4 to 92.8 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) group, and there was no change in the diastolic component in either of the CHIA groups. The lipid peroxidation was reduced in the CHIA (p = 0.04) and CHIA-NM (p = 0.02) groups compared with the PLA-MD group. A reduction in the plasma nitrite levels was observed only in the CHIA group (p = 0.02). Chia flour has the ability to reduce ambulatory and clinical BP in both treated and untreated hypertensive individuals.

  14. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Five Decades of More Light and Less Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion Junior, Décio

    2016-01-01

    Casual blood pressure measurements have been extensively questioned over the last five decades. A significant percentage of patients have different blood pressure readings when examined in the office or outside it. For this reason, a change in the paradigm of the best manner to assess blood pressure has been observed. The method that has been most widely used is the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring - ABPM. The method allows recording blood pressure measures in 24 hours and evaluating various parameters such as mean BP, pressure loads, areas under the curve, variations between daytime and nighttime, pulse pressure variability etc. Blood pressure measurements obtained by ABPM are better correlated, for example, with the risks of hypertension. The main indications for ABPM are: suspected white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, evaluation of the efficacy of the antihypertensive therapy in 24 hours, and evaluation of symptoms. There is increasing evidence that the use of ABPM has contributed to the assessment of blood pressure behaviors, establishment of diagnoses, prognosis and the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy. There is no doubt that the study of 24-hour blood pressure behavior and its variations by ABPM has brought more light and less darkness to the field, which justifies the title of this review. PMID:27168473

  15. Augmented blood pressure measurement through the noninvasive estimation of physiological arterial pressure variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement methods, such as the oscillometric method, estimate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) at two random instants in time and do not take into account the natural variability in BP. The standard for automated BP devices sets a maximum allowable system error of ±5 mmHg, even though natural BP variability often exceeds these limits. This paper proposes a new approach using simultaneous recordings of the oscillometric and continuous arterial pulse waveforms to augment the conventional noninvasive measurement by providing (1) the mean SBP and DBP over the measurement interval and the associated confidence intervals of the mean, (2) the standard deviation of SBP and DBP over the measurement interval, which indicates the degree of fluctuation in BP and (3) an indicator as to whether or not the oscillometric reading is an outlier. Recordings with healthy subjects demonstrate the potential utility of this approach to characterize BP, to detect outlier measurements, and that it does not suffer from bias relative to the conventional oscillometric method. (paper)

  16. Relationship between blood pressure measurements recorded on patients' charts in family physicians' offices and subsequent 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birtwhistle Richard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most western countries 20% of adults have hypertension. Reports in the literature suggest that from 31 to 86% of treated patients are not at recommended target levels. However it is important to consider how we are determining whether targets are unmet and the degree to which they are unmet. Our underlying hypothesis is that white coat effect is partially responsible for the reported low rates of control of hypertension by primary care practitioners. Methods The study population consists of 1142 patients who are being assessed for enrolment in two community-based randomized controlled trials. Patients must have essential hypertension, be on antihypertensive medication, and must not have met their blood pressure targets. We are reporting on the proportion of patients who have not achieved target, and the degree to which they have not achieved their target. We also report on the mean daytime blood pressures on 24 hour ABPM and compare these to mean blood pressures found on the patients' charts. Results We identified 3284 patient charts of patients with hypertension. Of these, 1142 were determined to be "out of control" (did not achieve target and 436 agreed to undergo 24 hour ABPM for final determination of eligibility. Overwhelmingly (95.8% of the time it was the systolic blood pressure that was not under control. However, most of the patients who had not achieved target according to our criteria were within 10 mmHg of the recommended targets. Isolated systolic blood pressure was the best predictor of elevated mean daytime blood pressure on 24 hour ABPM. Conclusions At least 35% of patients had not achieved target blood pressure levels and this is primarily due to lack of control of systolic blood pressure. The best predictor of continuing hypertension on 24 hour ABPM was the mean systolic blood pressure on the patients chart. However, only 69% of patients who were uncontrolled according blood pressures recorded in the

  17. Survey of blood pressure in 226Ra- and 90Sr-treated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple blood pressure measurements on a total of 407 beagles with a non-invasive method showed the greatest frequency of mean pressures to be in the normal 101-120 mm Hg range. Another major group of dogs were hypertensive, with mean pressures of 120-140 mm Hg. Future correlation of canine blood pressures with diseases should prove useful in both veterinary and human medical research

  18. Impact of antihypertensive combination and monotreatments on blood pressure variability: assessment by old and new indices. Data from a large ambulatory blood pressure monitoring database.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    High 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) variability is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. We analysed a large ABP monitoring database containing data from hypertensive patients treated with telmisartan\\/amlodipine combination or various monotherapies with the aim of quantifying the 24-h distribution of blood pressure (BP) reduction by treatment through the smoothness index and of developing and testing a new treatment-on-variability index (TOVI) to quantify the effects of treatment on both mean BP and BP variability.

  19. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Geleijnse

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna M GeleijnseDivision of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The NetherlandsAbstract: This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP and risk of hypertension. Data from crosssectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1–12 weeks, have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (∼2/1 mmHg when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fi bre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension.

  20. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  1. Achieving blood pressure targets with the perindopril/amlodipine combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevar Veronika

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood pressure (BP is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality, and BP lowering is associated with reduction of coronary events. Despite this, less than one-third of hypertensive patients in Europe have adequate BP control. Improvement of the rates of adequate BP control and thereby a reduction of CV morbidity and mortality, currently represent a major challenge in the daily clinical practice. Many patients require two or more antihypertensives to achieve guideline-recommended BP targets. Findings from different studies have demonstrated that the fixed-dose combination (FDC perindopril/amlodipine is an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy, and in patients inadequately managed on another combination therapy. The perindopril/amlodipine FDC provides good rates of BP control in daily clinical practice. These good rates of BP control could be ex- plained by the synergistic mode of action of the two components, leading to enhanced BP lowering and reduced side effects, which may have a positive impact on treatment adherence. Krka’s perindopril/amlodipine FDC is available in the full range of doses, providing a flexible and effective treatment of hypertension.

  2. Salt and sugar: their effects on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-03-01

    Both dietary salt and sugar are related to blood pressure (BP). The evidence for salt is much stronger, and various types of studies have consistently shown that salt is a major cause of raised BP, and a reduction from the current intake of ≈ 9-12 g/day in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/day lowers BP in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, in men and women, in all age groups and in all ethnic groups. Countries such as Finland and the UK that have successfully reduced salt intake have demonstrated a reduction in population BP and cardiovascular mortality, with major cost savings to the health service. The mechanisms whereby salt raises BP are not fully understood. The traditional concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may play an important role. There are several other factors that also increase BP, one of which is added sugars. The current high intake of added sugars increases obesity which, in turn, raises BP. Recent studies also suggest that added sugars, particularly those in soft drinks, may have a direct effect on BP. However, the relationship between soft drink consumption and BP could be, at least partially, mediated by the effect of salt intake on increasing soft drink consumption. Actions to reduce salt and sugar intake across the whole population will have major beneficial effects on health along with major cost savings. PMID:25547872

  3. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR, improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability.

  4. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  5. The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Davidsen, Michael; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Inuit in Greenland have a high average consumption of marine species and are highly exposed to methylmercury, which in other studies has been related to hypertension. Data on the relation between methylmercury and hypertension is limited, especially in populations subjected to a high exposure...... of methylmercury. We examined the relation between whole blood mercury and blood pressure (BP) in Inuit in Greenland....

  6. Comparison of Blood Lipids, Blood Pressures and Left Ventricular Cavity Dimension between Soccer Players and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Ismail; Kurkcu, Recep; Cekin, Resul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare the investigate the effects of regular exercise on blood lipids, blood pressure and left ventricular cavity dimensions function between soccer players and non-athletes in football players. This study consisted included a total of 30 subjects, including an experimental group including 18 soccer players…

  7. 24 hr non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eStübner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s Disease (PD and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-parkinsonian drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT or an (active standing test (also known as Schellong test in the laboratory, but 24 hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary is followed. which will be discussed in this review. A 24hr ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e. ‘dipper’ vs. non-‘dipper’. The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24hr ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 hr ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 Hr ABPM.

  8. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  9. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. PMID:24924217

  10. Intensive blood pressure lowering increases cerebral blood flow in older subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryambake, Dinesh; He, Jiabao; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Blamire, Andrew M; Ford, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Intensive (blood pressure (BP) lowering in older people might give greater reduction in cardiovascular risk, but there are concerns that this might produce hypoperfusion which may precipitate falls and possibly stroke. We determined the effect of intensive compared with usual BP lowering on CBF in hypertensive older subjects. Individuals aged >70 years with a history of systolic hypertension on 1 or no BP lowering drugs were recruited from primary care (n=37; age, 75±4 years; systolic BP, >150 mm Hg) and randomized to receive intensive (target BP, treatment. Baseline BP (ambulatory or in clinic) and baseline gray matter CBF were not significantly different between the groups. After treatment, BP was reduced significantly in both groups but fell more in the intensive group (26/17 versus 15/5 mm Hg; Phypertension increases CBF, compared with BP lowering to usual target. These findings suggest hypertension in older people shifts the autoregulatory CBF curve rightward and downward and is reversible with BP lowering.

  11. Effects of genetic variation in H3K79 methylation regulatory genes on clinical blood pressure and blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Julio D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one-third of the United States adult population suffers from hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, one of the most commonly used medications to treat hypertension, has variable efficacy. The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC provides a mechanism for fine-tuning sodium excretion, and is a major regulator of blood pressure homeostasis. DOT1L, MLLT3, SIRT1, and SGK1 encode genes in a pathway that controls methylation of the histone H3 globular domain at lysine 79 (H3K79, thereby modulating expression of the ENaCα subunit. This study aimed to determine the role of variation in these regulatory genes on blood pressure response to HCTZ, and secondarily, untreated blood pressure. Methods We investigated associations between genetic variations in this candidate pathway and HCTZ blood pressure response in two separate hypertensive cohorts (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00246519 and NCT00005520. In a secondary, exploratory analysis, we measured associations between these same genetic variations and untreated blood pressure. Associations were measured by linear regression, with only associations with P ≤ 0.01 in one cohort and replication by P ≤ 0.05 in the other cohort considered significant. Results In one cohort, a polymorphism in DOT1L (rs2269879 was strongly associated with greater systolic (P = 0.0002 and diastolic (P = 0.0016 blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in Caucasians. However, this association was not replicated in the other cohort. When untreated blood pressure levels were analyzed, we found directionally similar associations between a polymorphism in MLLT3 (rs12350051 and greater untreated systolic (P P Conclusions Our data suggest polymorphisms in DOT1L, MLLT3, SIRT1, and SGK1 are not likely associated with blood pressure response to HCTZ. However, a possibility exists that rs2269879 in DOT1L could be associated with HCTZ response in Caucasians. Additionally, exploratory analyses suggest rs

  12. Chronobiological Analysis of Blood Pressure in a Patient with Atrial Fibrillation at the Development of Heart Failure and Its Therapeutic and Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chibisov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR was traced by automatic monitoring every 30 min uninterruptedly along several months in a patient suffering from combined atrial fibrillation and heart failure during the development of disease and its therapeutic and surgical treatment (pacemaker implanting and atrioventricular ablation. Analyses of spectral components as well as signal’s shape revealed instabilities in circadian and semicircadian parameters. A new approach for signal’s form description without using cosine approximation is suggested. The meaning that referring a patient as dipper, night peaker, or nondipper might be useful at choosing tactics of his treatment is impugned, because all these “types” can transform themselves in the same person in few days. Optimization timing of treatment provides better results if not the “types” of daily profile would be taken to account but the real form of the BP-signal and timing its first and second derivatives.

  13. Cocoa Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Mortality : the Zutphen eldery study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, G.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Small, short-term, intervention studies indicate that cocoa-containing foods improve endothelial function and reduce blood pressure. We studied whether habitual cocoa intake was cross-sectionally related to blood pressure and prospectively related with cardiovascular mortality. Methods:

  14. Increasing sleep duration to lower beat-to-beat blood pressure – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Monika; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Daniel; Simpson, Norah; Meier-Ewert, Hans; Mullington, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence has accumulated over the last several years, showing that low sleep quantity and/or quality plays an important role in the elevation of blood pressure. We hypothesized that increasing sleep duration serves as an effective behavioral strategy to reduce blood pressure in pre-hypertension or type 1 hypertension.

  15. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q-uyye ...

  16. Air pollution, blood pressure, and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Pierik, F.H.; Hofman, A.; Ratingen, S.W. van; Zandveld, P.Y.J.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. We assessed the associations of exposure to particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels with blood pressure measured in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hype

  17. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, ...

  18. A longitudinal study of blood pressure variability in African-American and European American youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Harshfield, Gregory A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    2010-01-01

    Objectives High blood pressure variability is increasingly used as a predictor of target-organ damage and cardiovascular events. However, little is known about blood pressure variability changes with age and its possible sociodemographic, anthropometric, and genetic moderators. Methods Twenty-four-h

  19. Relationship of blood pressure variability and angiotensinogen T235M polymorphism with Binswanger’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位慧芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the relationship of blood pressure variability(BPV) and angiotensinogen(AGT) T235M polymorphism with Binswanger’s disease(BD). Methods Totally 122 cases with BD and 108 cases with essential hypertension had been enrolled. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used to get the data

  20. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.