WorldWideScience

Sample records for cinclodes nigrofumosus furnariidae

  1. Seasonal changes in the use of marine food resources by Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves): carbon isotopes and osmoregulatory physiology Cambios estacionales en el uso de recursos alimenticios marinos en Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves): isótopos de carbono y fisiología osmoregulatoria

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Passerines lack functional salt glands and to a large extent avoid feeding on marine invertebrates. An exception is Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Previous studies reported that the contents of its gastrointestinal tract had a lower osmolality than seawater suggesting that birds were supplementing their marine invertebrate diet with terrestrial invertebrates and fresh water at certain periods of the year. We report seasonal changes in the diet of C. nigrofumosus at two contrasting coastal localities...

  2. Terrestrial birds living on marine environments: does dietary composition of Cinclodes nigrofumosus (Passeriformes: Furnariidae predict their osmotic load? Aves terrestres viviendo en ambientes marinos: ¿es la composición dietaria de Cinclodes nigrofumosus (Passeriformes: Furnariidae un buen predictor de su carga osmótica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on saline marine foods may be especially challenging for passerine birds that lack functional salt glands and have a limited ability to concentrate urine. To reduce the salt load imposed by consumption of marine food these birds may select food with low salt contents and/or increase their intake of freshwater. The genus Cinclodes is particular among passerines because it includes species that inhabit both inland and maritime shores. We analyzed the diet of Cinclodes nigrofumosus and explored the possible relationships between dietary composition and salt load at mesic and arid coastal sites of Chile. From a biogeographical perspective, we hypothesized that freshwater availability is critical to the relationship between diet composition and osmotic load of C. nigrofumosus. Our analysis of prey abundance and distribution indicated that the diet of C. nigrofumosus is composed mainly by marine prey, in spite of the availability of terrestrial insects at both sites. Stomach content osmolality was higher in the arid site, but it was not correlated with prey type, which suggests that Cinclodes nigrofumosus avoid a high osmotic load, drinking fresh water when available. Thus physiological constraints are modulating niche breath of CinclodesAlimentarse de presas marinas representa un desafío para aves paseriformes que no poseen glándula de la sal y tienen una habilidad limitada para concentrar orina. Para reducir la carga osmótica asociada al consumo de presas marinas estas aves podrían optar por incluir presas con bajas concentraciones salinas en su dieta y/o aumentar la ingestión de agua dulce. El género Cinclodes es particular entre los paseriformes debido a que incluye especies que habitan riberas de lagos, ríos y costas marinas. Analizamos la dieta de Cinclodes nigrofumosus y exploramos la posible relación entre la composición de ésta y la carga salina en dos sitios costeros de Chile, uno mésico y otro árido. En este estudio

  3. Seasonal changes in the use of marine food resources by Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves: carbon isotopes and osmoregulatory physiology Cambios estacionales en el uso de recursos alimenticios marinos en Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves: isótopos de carbono y fisiología osmoregulatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Passerines lack functional salt glands and to a large extent avoid feeding on marine invertebrates. An exception is Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Previous studies reported that the contents of its gastrointestinal tract had a lower osmolality than seawater suggesting that birds were supplementing their marine invertebrate diet with terrestrial invertebrates and fresh water at certain periods of the year. We report seasonal changes in the diet of C. nigrofumosus at two contrasting coastal localities in Central Chile and document the potential correlation between weather and feeding habits with osmoregulatory features in this species. We expected that C. nigrofumosus would increase its use of osmotically challenging marine dietary sources when fresh water is available. Animals were collected at El Quisco and Los Vilos from central Chile during the mist cool winter and during the hot and dry summer. Immediatly after capture several physiological and morphological variables were determined at the field. We used stable isotope analysis as a proxy variable to measure the relative contribution of marine and terrestrial sources to the diet of Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Our results support the notion that osmoregulatory factors constraint dietary selection: in both localities birds consumed more marine prey when environmental conditions were less stressing, i.e., when lower environment temperatures, higher humidity and more fresh water was available. Our results also indicate that osmoregulatory physiology does not respond in a similar fashion in both seasons and suggest that osmoregulatory physiology of birds is affected by environmental variables in a complex fashionLas aves paseriformes no poseen glándula de la sal funcional y en gran medida evitan el consumo de invertebrados marinos. Una excepción es Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Estudios previos han documentado que el contenido del tracto gastrointestinal posee una osmolalidad menor que el agua de mar, lo que

  4. Paraphyly of Cinclodes fuscus (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae): Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Camilo; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Maley, James M.; Lijtmaer, Dario A.; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Andes are a hotspot of global avian diversity, but studies on the historical diversification of Andean birds remain relatively scarce. Evolutionary studies on avian lineages with Andean–Patagonian distributions have focused on reconstructing species-level phylogenies, whereas no detailed phylogeographic studies on widespread species have been conducted. Here, we describe phylogeographic patterns in the Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus), a widespread and common species of ovenbird (Furnariidae) that breeds from Tierra del Fuego to the northern Andes. Traditionally, C. fuscus has been considered a single species composed of nine subspecies, but its long and narrow range suggests the possibility of considerable genetic variation among populations. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes revealed three discrete and geographically coherent groups of C. fuscus, occupying the southern, central, and northern Andes. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these groups were more closely related to other species of Cinclodes than to each other. Relationships of the southern and northern C. fuscus clades to other species of Cinclodes were straightforward; in combination with available information on plumage, behavioral, and vocal variation, this suggests that each should be recognized as a distinct biological species. The central Andean group was paraphyletic with respect to C. oustaleti, and relationships among these taxa and C. olrogi were poorly resolved. We suggest that the central Andean C. fuscus should also be considered a different species, pending new information to clarify species limits in this group. These new phylogenetic data, along with recently developed methods, allowed us to review the biogeography of the genus, confirming southern South America and the central Andes as important areas for the diversification of these birds.

  5. Water economy of three Cinclodes (Furnariidae species inhabiting marine and freshwater ecosystems Economía hídrica en tres especies de Cinclodes (Furnariidae que habitan ecosistemas marinos y de agua dulce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds living in desert environments have been the preferred models for the study of physiological adaptations to water scarcity. Passerine birds living in marine coastal habitats face similar problems, yet physiological adaptations to water conservation in such species have been poorly documented. We measured total evaporative water loss (TEWL and rates of oxygen consumption (VO2 in three species of passerine birds dwelling in marine and fresh water habitats. Mass specific total evaporative water loss was significantly lower in the marine species, Cinclodes nigrofumosus, than in species inhabiting areas near freshwater sources. We found a positive relationship between TEWL and VO2. The ratio of TEWL to VO2 (relative evaporative water loss, RTEWL showed significant variation among Cinclodes species, and was highest for the fresh-water living species, C. oustaleti and C. fuscus. The variation in TEWL found in Cinclodes is likely a consequence of differential exploitation of marine prey with high osmotic loads, which, in turn, may impose the need for water conservationLas aves que habitan ambientes desérticos han sido modelos de estudio preferidos para el estudio de adaptaciones fisiológicas a la escasez de agua. Las aves paseriformes que habitan hábitat costeros enfrentan problemas similares, aunque las posibles adaptaciones fisiológicas para la conservación de agua en dichas especies han sido pobremente documentadas. En este estudio se determinó la pérdida total de agua por evaporación (TEWL y la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (VO2 en tres especies de aves paseriformes que habitan ambientes marinos y de agua dulce. La pérdida total de agua por evaporación masa-específica fue significativamente menor en la especie marina, Cinclodes nigrofumosus, que en especies que habitan áreas cercanas a fuentes de agua dulce. Se encontró una relación positiva y significativa entre TEWL y VO2. La razón entre TEWL y el VO2 (pérdida relativa de agua

  6. Intestinal Disaccharidases and Aminopeptidase-N in two species of Cinclodes (Passerine: Furnaridae Disacaridasas y aminopeptidasa-N en dos especies de Cinclodes (Paserine: Furnaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that both digestive capacity and intestinal biochemical features are correlated to dietary habits in birds. Therefore, it would be expected to find biochemical constraint to hydrolyze sugars in those species, which predate exclusively on marine invertebrates. In vitro intestinal activities of these enzymes were studied in Cinclodes nigrofumosus (d' Orbigny and Cinclodes patagonicus (Gmelling. Due to differences in dietary habits between species I predicted the lack of sucrase activity in C. nigrofumosus but not in C. patagonicus. Also, low activities of maltase would be expected in both species. On the other hand due to the considerable amount of proteins and trehalose present in preys, high activities of both trehalase and aminopeptidase-N were also expected. Contrary to previous reports in birds, significant activity of trehalase was found. Also lack of sucrase and small amounts of maltase were observed as well as a significant aminopeptidase-N activity in both species. Although the digestive enzyme activities of C. nigrofumosus and C. patagonicus appear to be correlated with their natural diet, the similarities between species in all enzymes activities suggest an strong effect of phylogenetic inertiaSe ha postulado que en las aves tanto la capacidad digestiva como las características bioquímicas del intestino están correlacionadas con los hábitos dietarios. Por esto, es probable que aquellas especies que se alimentan exclusivamente de invertebrados, posean una restricción bioquímica para hidrolizar azúcares. La actividad intestinal in vitro de esas enzimas se estudió en Cinclodes nigrofumosus (d' Orbigny y Cinclodes patagonicus (Gmelling.Debido a diferencias en los habitos entre las especies, se predice que sacarasa estará ausente en C. nigrofumosus, pero no en C. patagonicus. Además, se debiera encontrar una actividad maltásica baja en ambas especies. Por otro lado, debido a las considerables cantidades de

  7. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  8. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  9. Niche evolution and diversification in a Neotropical radiation of birds (Aves: Furnariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeholzer, Glenn F; Claramunt, Santiago; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-03-01

    Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution. Although both are clearly important, univariate regression and multivariate model averaging more consistently supported the climatic-niche as the best predictor of lineage diversification. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence, suggesting that climatic-niche divergence may be an important driver of rapid diversification in addition to ecomorphological evolution. However, this pattern may depend on the phylogenetic scale at which rate heterogeneity is examined.

  10. Reporte de albinismo en Podiceps major, Pelecanus thagus y Cinclodes fuscus y revisión de aves silvestres albinas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos observaciones de individuos albinos en tres especies de aves peruanas, el Zambullidor Grande (Podiceps major, el Pelícano peruano (Pelecanus thagus y el Churrete cordillerano (Cinclodes fuscus. Los individuos eran albinos parciales casi totalmente blancos, aparentemente adultos, que mostraron un comportamiento normal entre sus conespecíficos. La supervivencia después de varios meses pudo ser comprobada para el Pelícano peruano y el Churrete cordillerano. Debido a que la información publicada sobre albinismo en aves peruanas es muy escasa, se realizó una revisión y se recopilaron registros para otras nueve especies que son también presentados.

  11. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: The neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R. Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of diversification in species-rich clades provide insight into the processes that generate biological diversity. We tested different models of lineage and phenotypic diversification in an exceptional continental radiation, the ovenbird family Furnariidae, using the most complete species-level phylogenetic hypothesis produced to date for a major avian clade (97% of 293 species). We found that the Furnariidae exhibit nearly constant rates of lineage accumulation but show evidence of constrained morphological evolution. This pattern of sustained high rates of speciation despite limitations on phenotypic evolution contrasts with the results of most previous studies of evolutionary radiations, which have found a pattern of decelerating diversity-dependent lineage accumulation coupled with decelerating or constrained phenotypic evolution. Our results suggest that lineage accumulation in tropical continental radiations may not be as limited by ecological opportunities as in temperate or island radiations. More studies examining patterns of both lineage and phenotypic diversification are needed to understand the often complex tempo and mode of evolutionary radiations on continents.

  12. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among Synallaxini spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae) reveal a new biogeographic pattern across the Amazon and Paraná river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-09-01

    Relationships among genera in the tribe Synallaxini have proved difficult to resolve. In this study, I investigate relationships among Synallaxis, Certhiaxis and Schoeniophylax using DNA sequences from the mitochondrion and three nuclear regions. I implemented novel primers and protocols for amplifying and sequencing autosomal and sex-linked introns in Furnariidae that resolved basal relationships in the Synallaxini with strong support. Synallaxis propinqua is sister to Schoeniophylax phryganophilus, and together they form a clade with Certhiaxis. The results are robust to analytical approaches when all genomic regions are analyzed jointly (parsimony, maximum likelihood, and species-tree analysis) and the same basal relationships are recovered by most genomic regions when analyzed separately. A sister relationship between S. propinqua, an Amazonian river island specialist, and S. phryganophilus, from the Paraná River basin region, reveals a new biogeographic pattern shared by at least other four pairs of taxa with similar distributions and ecologies. Estimates of divergence times for these five pairs span from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene. Identification of the historical events that produced this pattern is difficult and further advances will require additional studies of the taxa involved and a better understanding of the recent environmental history of South America. A new classification is proposed for the Synallaxini, including the description of a new genus for S. propinqua.

  14. Systematics and biogeography of the Automolus infuscatus complex (Aves; Furnariidae): Cryptic diversity reveals western Amazonia as the origin of a transcontinental radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eduardo D; Burney, Curtis W; Brumfield, Robb T; Polo, Erico M; Cracraft, Joel; Ribas, Camila C

    2017-02-01

    A revision of the avian Neotropical genus Automolus and the Furnariidae family points to the paraphyly of A. infuscatus and reveals a species complex comprising A. infuscatus, A. ochrolaemus, A. paraensis, A. leucophthalmus, A. lammi and A. subulatus, the latter historically classified in the genus Hyloctistes. Detailed knowledge of the taxonomy, geographic distribution, phylogenetic relationship and divergence times of a taxon allows exploration of its evolutionary history and the testing of different scenarios of diversification. In this context, we studied the A. infuscatus complex using molecular data in order to unveil its cryptic diversity and reveal its evolutionary history. For that we sequenced two mitochondrial (ND2 and cytb) and three nuclear markers (G3PDH, ACO, Fib7) for 302 individuals belonging to all species in the complex and most described subspecies. Our analysis supports the paraphyly of A. infuscatus, indicating the existence of at least two distinct clades not closely related. The remaining species were all recovered as monophyletic. Notwithstanding, a well-structured intraspecific diversity was found with 19 lineages suggesting substantial cryptic diversity within the described species. A. subulatus was recovered within the complex, corroborating its position inside the genus. In spite of the high congruence between distributions of different lineages, with several sister lineages currently separated by the same barriers, the temporal incongruence between divergences over the same barriers reveals a complex evolutionary history. While older events might be related to the emergence of barriers such as the Andes and major Amazonian rivers, younger events suggest dispersal after the consolidation of those barriers. Our analysis suggests that the complex had its origin around 6million years (Ma) and inhabited Western Amazonia in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Considering the riparian habit of species in its sister clade, the rise and early

  15. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  16. Estrutura de populações de Rhodnius neglectus Lent e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg (Hemiptera, Reduviidae em ninhos de pássaros (Furnariidae presentes na palmeira Mauritia flexuosa no Distrito Federal, Brasil Population structure of Rhodnius neglectus Lent and Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg (Hemiptera, Reduviidae in bird nests (Furnariidae on Mauritia flexuosa palm trees in Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 {Rn}e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 {Pt} são triatomíneos que ocorrem em ninhos de aves, principalmente da família Furnariidae. O ciclo biológico dessas espécies é conhecido em condições de laboratório, sendo poucos estudos em ecótopos silvestres. Para analisar a infestação e estrutura de populações de Rn e Pt em ninhos de aves presentes na palmeira Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus, em duas estações climáticas do Brasil Central, foram amostradas 41 palmeiras com evidências de nidificação de Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 (22 na estação chuvosa e 19 na estação seca em quatro áreas do Distrito Federal. Os insetos foram capturados usando-se coleta manual na copa da palmeira, identificados morfologicamente, separados por sexo e estádio ninfal. Fezes e glândulas salivares de Rn foram examinadas para verificar infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 e/ou T. rangeli Tejera, 1920. Trinta e cinco palmeiras com ninhos de P. ruber estavam infestadas por Rn (85% e 22 por Pt (53%. 442 indivíduos foram coletados na estação seca (200 Rn e 242 Pt e 267 na estação chuvosa (136 Rn e 131 Pt. O único fator relacionado significativamente com a densidade de triatomíneos nas palmeiras foi a área. A estrutura etária das populações mostrou: a maior abundância de adultos nas populações de Pt, b maior abundância de machos em ambas as espécies e c presença de fêmeas ovipondo em ambas as estações. Nenhum dos 177 triatomíneos examinados estava infectado por T. cruzi ou T. rangeli. A estrutura etária das populações de Rn e Pt não diferiu significativamente entre as estações amostradas, indicando ausência de marcada sazonalidade para essas espécies.Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 {Rn}and Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 {Pt} are triatomines that occur in bird nests, mainly furnarid nests. Their biological cycles are known in laboratory conditions and few studies were

  17. Deposição diária e sazonal de gordura subcutânea em Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae Daily and seasonal deposition of subcutaneous fat in Phacellodomus rufifrons, a Neotropical ovenbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aves que habitam regiões temperadas acumulam gordura a fim de sobreviver às condições extremas da noite. Níveis de deposição de gordura nessas aves aumentam ao longo do dia e atingem um pico no entardecer e diminuem ao longo da noite, quando a alimentação não é possível. Aliado a isso, existe o aumento estacional dos depósitos de lipídeos assim que o inverno se aproxima, e permite que a ave sobreviva naquela estação. Pouco se conhece sobre esses padrões em aves tropicais. O presente trabalho verifica a dinâmica de deposição de gordura de Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821, um furnarídeo (Passeriformes, Furnariidae endêmico da região Neotropical, em um ambiente tropical bastante sazonal, o cerrado do sudeste do Brasil. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, município de Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais. Os dados de gordura subcutânea foram classificados visualmente em aves capturadas. Foram estabelecidas quatro categorias para a variação da gordura subcutânea depositada na cavidade da fúrcula. Foi encontrado um aumento significativo nos níveis de gordura ao longo do dia, como para espécies de regiões temperadas, mas não ouve variação ao longo das estações do ano. A massa corporal média não variou ao longo do ano e nem ao longo do dia. Os resultados mostram que variações diárias no cerrado podem atuar como fator de estresse que pode desencadear a adaptações fisiológicas para atravessar a noite. Por outro lado, variações estacionais podem ser balanceadas pelo habito dos indivíduos de P. rufifrons pernoitarem durante todo o ano dentro do ninho, um comportamento relativamente raro entre os Passeriformes.It is known that birds inhabiting temperate regions accumulate fat in order to survive a night of extreme conditions. Levels of fat depots arise as the day goes by, reaching its pick at dusk and decreasing along the night hours when no

  18. Range distribution extension of Asthenes sclateri (Aves: Furnariidae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace P. Servat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We extent the distribution range in Peru of Asthenes sclateri, Cabanis (“Puna Canastero”, a species reported only for the Puno Department. The observations of many individuals of the species (documented with pictures and specimens were made in high Andean pastures nearby Polylepis woodlands in the Arequipa Department.

  19. Biologia reprodutiva do fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris (Aves: Furnariidae Breeding biology of the Henna-capped Foliage-gleaner Hylocryptus rectirostris(Aves: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene C. P. Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied, 1831 é descrita pela primeira vez. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período de abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005, no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. Os indivíduos foram marcados com anilhas coloridas e acompanhados ao longo de duas estações reprodutivas. Ovos, ninhegos e jovens foram descritos. O sucesso reprodutivo foi avaliado em cinco categorias: construção de ninhos, ovos, ninhegos, casais e ninhos. Casos de competição por cavidades e predação também foram registrados. A atividade reprodutiva é altamente sincrônica tanto entre os casais quanto entre as estações. Foram encontrados 20 ninhos, todos construídos em barrancos localizados nas margens de rios. O período de incubação é de 17 dias e o período de ninhego varia entre 21 a 25 dias. O casal se reveza na construção do ninho, incubação e alimentação da prole, sendo que a fêmea apresenta maior desenvolvimento da placa incubatória. A porcentagem de ninhos que produziram um ou mais filhotes foi de 33% (n = 9 na estação de 2004 e 18% (n = 11 na estação de 2005. As causas dos fracassos ocorridos ao longo da atividade reprodutiva foram principalmente destruição do ninho por desabamento ou enchente do rio. Este estudo fornece conhecimentos a respeito da biologia básica de H. rectirostris e pode contribuir para futuras medidas de conservação e manejo desta espécie.Here, we provide the first description of the breeding biology of the Henna-browed Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied, 1831. The foliage-gleaner was studied at the Serra do Cipó Nationa Park (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Birds were marked with color bands and monitored through two reproductive seasons from April 2004 to November 2005. Eggs, nestlings and young are described. Breeding success was calculated for five categories: nest construction, eggs, fledglings, pairs and nests. Nest predation and competition for cavities were also observed. Breeding activity is very synchronous for breeding pairs and in the two reproductive seasons. Twenty nests were found in cavities excavated in steep river banks. Incubation lasts 17 days and nestlings remain in the nest another 21-25 days. Both adults build the nest, incubate the eggs and feed the nestlings, but females develop a larger brood patch. In 2004, nesting success (one or more offspring that fledged was 33% (n = 9 and in 2005 was 18% (n = 11. Landslides or flooding caused the most nest failures. This study can contribute to future measures for the conservation of this species.

  20. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  1. Biologia reprodutiva de Synallaxis albilora (aves: Furnariidae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Colombo Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Synallaxis albilora (joão-do-pantanal é um furnarídeo Neotropical restrito a áreas alagáveis do Pantanal da América do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma descrição detalhada de sua biologia reprodutiva (ninhos, ovos e ninhegos na região do Pirizal, município de Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil. São também abordados outros aspectos da sua história natural, tais como: tamanho da ninhada; duração dos períodos de incubação e cuidado com os filhotes; ocupação dos ninhos por outras espécies; interações agonísticas e sítio de nidificação. Para o estudo do sítio de nidificação obteve-se fotografias hemisféricas da vegetação onde os ninhos foram construídos e ao norte destes. As fotos foram analisadas para estimar a abertura da vegetação. O uso deste método é considerado inédito em estudos ornitológicos. Foram monitorados 60 ninhos durante os anos de 2001, 2002, 2005 e 2006. O ninho de S. albilora é semelhante a uma retorta, sendo construído com gravetos e forrado com folhas. O seu exterior é constituído de gravetos maiores e espinhos. A construção do ninho é realizada pelo casal. Os ovos possuem formato piriforme, são esbranquiçados e apresentam superfície opaca (média de 20,5 x 16,4 mm, 2,8 g. O tamanho da ninhada foi de 3,35 ± 0,4 ovos (n = 20. Os jovens são semelhantes aos adultos. A incubação é realizada exclusivamente por um indivíduo, sendo estimada em 15,3 ± 0,7 dias, os filhotes permanecem no ninho por 13,6 ± 1,1 dias. A abertura da vegetação nos ninhos (16,4% foi menor do que a cinco metros ao norte destes (20,3% (n = 18; p = 0,036. Estes dados sugerem que a probabilidade de encontrar ninhos de S. albilora está associada à abertura da vegetação. Diversos grupos foram observados utilizando ninhos antigos. Interações agonísticas foram registradas durante a estação reprodutiva. A estação reprodutiva se estende de agosto a dezembro.Synallaxis albilora (White-lored Spinetail is a Neotropical ovenbird restricted to flooded areas in the Pantanal wetlands, central portion of South America. The aim of this work is to present a detailed description of its breeding biology (nests, eggs and nestlings in the locality of Pirizal, Municipality of Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Pantanal of Poconé, at Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Several other aspects of its natural history are also described such as brood size, incubation period, parental care, nest further use by other species, agonistic interactions and nest-site. In order to study nest site, hemispherical photographs of vegetation above and north of each nest were taken. The photos were analyzed to estimate the canopy openness. The use of this method is considered unpublished in ornithological studies. Sixty nests were found and monitored during the years 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2006. The nest of S. albilora is similar to a retort, being built with pieces of kindling and lined with leaves. Its exterior consists of larger pieces of kindling and thorns. Both sexes were observed engaged in nest construction. The eggs are pyriform, whitish and present opaque surface (average of 20.5 x 16.4 mm, 2.8 g. Brood size was 3.35 ± 0.4 eggs (n = 20. The youngs are similar to the adults. A single individual was recorded engaged in incubation. Incubation time was 15.3 ± 0.7 days and the fledging time was of 13.6 ± 1.1 days. Canopy openness above nests was less than at five meters north of nests (16.4 and 20.3%, respectively; p = 0.036, n = 18. These data suggest that S. albilora might exhibit a preference for more open canopy cover sites. Several groups were observed using old nests. Agonistic interactions were registered during the reproductive station. The reproductive period of this species extends from August to December.

  2. Presencia de Psitticimex uritui (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de caserote Pseudoseisura lophotes (Passeriformes: Furnariidae en la provincia de Entre Ríos Presence of Psitticimex uritui (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of brown cacholote Pseudoseisura lophotes (Passeriformes: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. Aramburú

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Psitticimex uritui (Lent & Abalos, la chinche típica de la"cotorra" Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert, fue registrada por primera vez en los nidos del "caserote" Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach en la provincia de Entre Ríos. La interacción entre las poblaciones de estas aves dada por el comportamiento de adopción de nidos, presente en las "cotorras" puede explicar la presencia de la misma especie de cimícido en los nidos de ambos. La baja población de chinches en nidos de caserote indica que las cotorras son los huéspedes originarios.Psitticimex uritui (Lent & Abalos, a typical bug parasite of "monk parakeets" Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert is recorded for the first time in nests of "brown cacholote" Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach at Entre Ríos Province. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with nest adoption behavior by "monk parakeets", may explain the presence of the same cimicid species in both their nests. The low population of bugs in"brown cacholote" nests indicates that the "monk parakeets" are the original hosts.

  3. Rallicola deckeri n. sp. (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from Ruddy Woodcreepers Dendrocincla homochroa (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) collected in Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R J

    2001-02-01

    A new species of Rallicola Johnston and Harrison (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) is described from lice collected from a series of Ruddy Woodcreepers Dendrocincla homochroa (Aves: Dendrocolaptinae) in Campeche, Mexico. Rallicola deckeri is easily recognized by the unique shape of the mesosome in the male and by the pattern of divided sternites on the female.

  4. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  5. Evaluación de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Martínez; Manuel Olivera; Carmen Quiroga; Isabel Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Desde el año 1996 al 2003, mediante métodos de observación directa, caminatas y capturas con redes niebla, realizamos un inventario y obtuvimos datos sobre la historia natural, gremios tróficos y patrones de migración de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz (Bolivia). Registramos 136 especies de aves en 30 localidades de estudio. Las familias más representativas fueron Tyrannidae, Emberizidae y Furnariidae con 19, 16 y 15 especies, re- spectivamente. Registramos 18 especies de aves acuáticas y ...

  6. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul"

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatella,Roberto; Basmadjián,Yester; Rosa,Raquel; Martínez, María; Mendaro,Gabriela; Civila,Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae), especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul) en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Passeriformes, Furnariidae) donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.

  7. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  8. Aberraciones cromáticas en aves de la colección ornitológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” Chromatic aberrations in birds of the ornithological collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ricardo Urcola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinan las aberraciones cromáticas que afectan el plumaje de las aves en la colección ornitológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. Estas alteraciones se deben a exceso o defecto en la producción y/o deposición del pigmento melanina, las familias afectadas pertenecen a Tinamidae, Spheniscidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Falconidae, Rallidae, Charadriidae, Columbidae, Strigidae, Momotidae, Furnariidae, Mimidae, Motacillidae, Emberizidae e Icteridae. Dentro de las aberraciones propuestas el leucismo parcial (40,5 % es la más numerosa, seguida por la dilución pastel (23,8 %, albinismo (14,3 % y finalmente los plumajes brown, ino y eumelanismo parcial (7,1 % cada una.The paper makes out a strong case for determine chromatic aberrations that affect the coloring of the birds in the ornithological collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. These alterations are due to excess or deficiency in the production and/or deposition of melanin pigment, the affect families belong to Tinamidae, Spheniscidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Falconidae, Rallidae, Charadriidae, Columbidae, Strigidae, Momotidae, Furnariidae, Mimidae, Motacillidae, Emberizidae and Icteridae. Within the proposed changes, the partial leucism (40,5 % is the most numerous, followed by pastel dilution (23,8 %, albinism (14,3 % and finally brown aberrations, ino and partial eumelanism, each one of then had (7,1 %.

  9. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  10. A replacement name for Asthenes wyatti perijanus Phelps 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry

    2016-01-01

    A recent near-complete phylogeny of the avian family Furnariidae (Derryberry et al. 2011) found a number of discrepancies between the phylogeny and the then-current taxonomy of the group, and several changes were proposed to reconcile the taxonomy of the family with the phylogeny. Among these was the merging of the genus Schizoeaca Cabanis 1873 into Asthenes Reichenbach 1853 (Derryberry et al. 2010). This change has now been generally adopted. The Committee on Classification and Nomenclature (South America) of the American Ornithologists’ Union (Remsen et al. 2015) passed a proposal to merge the genera in 2010, and recent global reference works (e.g., Dickinson & Christidis 2014) have likewise adopted the lumping of these genera.

  11. Evaluación de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 1996 al 2003, mediante métodos de observación directa, caminatas y capturas con redes niebla, realizamos un inventario y obtuvimos datos sobre la historia natural, gremios tróficos y patrones de migración de la avifauna de la ciudad de La Paz (Bolivia. Registramos 136 especies de aves en 30 localidades de estudio. Las familias más representativas fueron Tyrannidae, Emberizidae y Furnariidae con 19, 16 y 15 especies, re- spectivamente. Registramos 18 especies de aves acuáticas y dos especies (Tachuris rubrigastra y Phleocryptes melanops de passeriformes especialistas de totorales. Dos especies de furnáridos (Cranioleuca henricae y Upucerthia harterti fueron endémicas bolivianas. Detectamos 57 especies en alguna categoría de migración. Movimientos altitudinales inusuales fueron observados para cinco especies (e.g. Pitangus sulphuratus, Pyro- cephalus rubinus. Diecinueve especies fueron consideradas raras (e.g. Lesbia nuna, Poospiza boliviana. Los insectívoros y frugi-granívoros son los gremios tróficos mas representativos entre comunidades. El valle de la ciudad de La Paz es una ruta obligatoria para muchas aves migrantes latitudinales (boreales y australes y altitudinales, que provienen del Altiplano por el oeste y las especies de Yungas por el este.

  12. A review of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena; Spicer, Greg S

    2016-05-19

    The fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) is comprehensively revised. All of 78 known species, which are grouped into 11 genera, are examined and diagnosed or redescribed. Data on picobiine hosts and distribution are summarized, including new host and locality records. The following new species are described: Charadriineopicobia apricaria sp. nov. ex Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from France, Neopicobia pari sp. nov. ex Periparus venustulus Swinhoe (type host) (Passeriformes: Paridae) from China, Parus major Linnaeus (Paridae) from Macedonia and Finland, and Poecile varius Temminck and Schlegel (Paridae) from Japan, Picobia magellani sp. nov. ex Scytalopus magellanicus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from Colombia, Picobia lonchura sp. nov. ex Lonchura leucogastra (Blyth) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) from Indonesia, Picobia makoli sp. nov. ex Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Lesson) (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from Colombia. The species Picobia polonica Skoracki, Magowski and Dabert, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of C. khulkhaskhani Kivganov and Sharafat, 1995. The following new combinations are proposed: Neopicobia ictericus (Skoracki and Glowska, 2010) comb. nov., Rafapicobia brotogeris (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov., and Rafapicobia ramphastos (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov. Keys to the all picobiine genera and species are presented, along with a check-list of picobiine species and their hosts.

  13. Additional information about tick parasitism in Passeriformes birds in an Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R

    2015-11-01

    The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations.

  14. Distribuição espacial de populações de triatomíneos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae em palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa no Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar e analisar a distribuição espacial de populações silvestres de triatomíneos no Distrito Federal, Brasil, foram amostradas 150 palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa em seis veredas de diferentes paisagens (silvestre, rural e periurbana na estação chuvosa. Os triatomíneos foram identificados morfologicamente, separados por sexo e estadio ninfal e examinados para verificar infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma rangeli. Vinte e oito (18,6% palmeiras estavam infestadas por Rhodnius neglectus e 14 (9,5% por Psammolestes tertius. A freqüência dessas espécies em palmeiras com e sem ninhos foi significativamente diferente, sendo superior nas palmeiras com ninhos de aves e mamíferos na copa. O maior número médio de insetos/palmeira foi observado nas áreas rurais, com estimativas de até 838 insetos/hectare. A composição etária das espécies apresentou um padrão diferente, Rhodnius neglectus com predomínio de ninfas e Psammolestes tertius com predomínio de adultos, sendo que muitos ovos de Rhodnius neglectus foram coletados indicando um evento reprodutivo em fevereiro de 2003. Entre os ninhos encontrados nas palmeiras, o do pássaro Phacellodomus ruber (Furnariidae apresentou as maiores abundâncias de triatomíneos, ocorrendo em 42% das palmeiras. A abundância relativa de Rhodnius neglectus e Psammolestes tertius foi maior em áreas rurais que possuíram maior número de ninhos nas palmeiras e menor densidade de palmeiras por hectare. Nenhum dos 96 triatomíneos examinados estava infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi ou Trypanosoma rangeli, apesar de encontrarmos infecção de Rhodnius neglectus por esses parasitas em estudos anteriores.

  15. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves do Vale do alto Rio Cipó durante o período de maio de 1998 a novembro de 2002. A região está totalmente inserida em uma das unidades de conservação mais importantes do sudeste do Brasil, o Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, em Minas Gerais. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. A riqueza de espécies foi estimada usando-se o método de 'jackknife'. Foram registradas 226 espécies de aves pertencentes a 43 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 27% das 837 espécies já registradas para o bioma do Cerrado. Foram capturados 2.249 indivíduos num total de 4.486,82 horas-rede, onde foram amostradas 119 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias. A riqueza foi estimada em 239 ± 5 espécies. Constam nesta lista seis espécies endêmicas do Cerrado: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, e Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Ocorrem também três espécies quase-ameaçadas de extinção: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 e Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. O Vale do Rio Cipó abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna do Cerrado. Alguns dos habitat encontrados no Vale estão se tornando cada vez mais raros na região do Cerrado de todo o Brasil, como as matas ciliares e o sistema de lagoas temporárias ao longo dos rios. Mesmo as cachoeiras, habitat importante para várias espécies, vêm desaparecendo em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a região do Vale do Rio Cipó dentro Parque consolida um dos seus objetivos que é a conservação da biodiversidade.It is