Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A
Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) foll...
Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A
Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) following intravenous injection; CNTF fever was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. The fever induced by CNTF was not due to contaminating endotoxins. Increasing doses of CNTF resulted in prolongation of the fever, suggesting the subsequent induction of additional endogenous pyrogenic activity. After passive transfer of plasma obtained during CNTF-induced fever, endogenous pyrogen activity was not present in the circulation; CNTF also did not induce the endogenous pyrogens interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin 6 in vitro. Nevertheless, a second endogenous pyrogen may originate within the central nervous system following the systemic injection of CNTF. Of the four endogenous pyrogens described to date (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin 6), CNTF, like interleukin 6, utilizes the cell-surface gp 130 signal-transduction apparatus.
Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv......Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described...... it was withdrawn. After cessation of CNTF treatment, inflammation and symptoms returned to control levels. However, slight but significantly higher numbers of oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells, axons, and neurons were observed in mice that had been treated with high concentrations of CNTF. Our results show...
Barbon, Silvia; Stocco, Elena; Negro, Alessandro; Dalzoppo, Daniele; Borgio, Luca; Rajendran, Senthilkumar; Grandi, Francesca; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele
In regenerative neurobiology, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is raising high interest as a multifunctional neurocytokine, playing a key role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Despite its promising trophic and regulatory activity, its clinical application is limited by the onset of severe side effects, due to the lack of efficient intracellular trafficking after administration. In this study, recombinant CNTF linked to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) was investigated in vitro and found to be an optimized fusion protein which preserves neurotrophic activity, besides enhancing cellular uptake for therapeutic advantage. Moreover, a compelling protein delivery method was defined, in the future perspective of improving nerve regeneration strategies. Following determination of TAT-CNTF molecular weight and concentration, its specific effect on neural SH-SY5Y and PC12 cultures was assessed. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the fusion protein triggers PC12 cell growth within 6 h of stimulation. At the same time, the activation of signal transduction pathway and enhancement of cellular trafficking were found to be accomplished in both neural cell lines after specific treatment with TAT-CNTF. Finally, the recombinant growth factor was successfully loaded on oxidized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds, and more efficiently released when polymer oxidation rate increased. Taken together, our results highlight that the TAT domain addiction to the protein sequence preserves CNTF specific neurotrophic activity in vitro, besides improving cellular uptake. Moreover, oxidized PVA could represent an ideal biomaterial for the development of nerve conduits loaded with the fusion protein to be delivered to the site of nerve injury. - Highlights: • TAT-CNTF is an optimized fusion protein that preserves neurotrophic activity. • In neural cell lines, TAT-CNTF triggers the activation of signal transduction. • Fast cellular uptake of TAT-CNTF was
Barbon, Silvia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Foundation for Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Signaling (TES) ONLUS, Via De Sanctis 10, Caselle di Selvazzano Dentro, 35030 Padua (Italy); Stocco, Elena, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Foundation for Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Signaling (TES) ONLUS, Via De Sanctis 10, Caselle di Selvazzano Dentro, 35030 Padua (Italy); Negro, Alessandro, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Colombo 3, 35121 Padua (Italy); Dalzoppo, Daniele, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Borgio, Luca, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Rajendran, Senthilkumar, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Grandi, Francesca, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Pediatric Surgery, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35121 Padua (Italy); Porzionato, Andrea, E-mail: email@example.com [Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Gabelli 65, 35121 Padua (Italy); Macchi, Veronica, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Gabelli 65, 35121 Padua (Italy); De Caro, Raffaele, E-mail: email@example.com [Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Gabelli 65, 35121 Padua (Italy); and others
In regenerative neurobiology, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is raising high interest as a multifunctional neurocytokine, playing a key role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Despite its promising trophic and regulatory activity, its clinical application is limited by the onset of severe side effects, due to the lack of efficient intracellular trafficking after administration. In this study, recombinant CNTF linked to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) was investigated in vitro and found to be an optimized fusion protein which preserves neurotrophic activity, besides enhancing cellular uptake for therapeutic advantage. Moreover, a compelling protein delivery method was defined, in the future perspective of improving nerve regeneration strategies. Following determination of TAT-CNTF molecular weight and concentration, its specific effect on neural SH-SY5Y and PC12 cultures was assessed. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the fusion protein triggers PC12 cell growth within 6 h of stimulation. At the same time, the activation of signal transduction pathway and enhancement of cellular trafficking were found to be accomplished in both neural cell lines after specific treatment with TAT-CNTF. Finally, the recombinant growth factor was successfully loaded on oxidized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds, and more efficiently released when polymer oxidation rate increased. Taken together, our results highlight that the TAT domain addiction to the protein sequence preserves CNTF specific neurotrophic activity in vitro, besides improving cellular uptake. Moreover, oxidized PVA could represent an ideal biomaterial for the development of nerve conduits loaded with the fusion protein to be delivered to the site of nerve injury. - Highlights: • TAT-CNTF is an optimized fusion protein that preserves neurotrophic activity. • In neural cell lines, TAT-CNTF triggers the activation of signal transduction. • Fast cellular uptake of TAT-CNTF was
Modi, Khushbu K.; Sendtner, Michael; Pahan, Kalipada
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), but not NF-κB, by aspirin, the abrogation of aspirin-induced expression of CNTF by siRNA knockdown of CREB, the presence of a consensus cAMP-response element in the promoter of CNTF, and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by aspirin suggest that aspirin increases the expression of the Cntf gene via the activation of CREB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that aspirin-induced astroglial CNTF was also functionally active and that supernatants of aspirin-treated astrocytes of wild type, but not Cntf null, mice increased myelin-associated proteins in oligodendrocytes and protected oligodendrocytes from TNF-α insult. These results highlight a new and novel myelinogenic property of aspirin, which may be of benefit for multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:23653362
Huang, Shun-Ping; Lin, Po-Kang; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Khor, Chin-Ni; Lee, Yih-Jing
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is known as an important factor in the regulation of retinal cell growth. We used both recombinant CNTF and an adenovirus carrying the CNTF gene to regulate retinal photoreceptor expression in a retinal degenerative animal, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae from recombinant-CNTF-treated, adenoviral-CNTF-treated, saline-operated, and contralateral untreated preparations were examined for those exhibiting CNTF photoreceptor protective effects. Cell apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae was also detected. It was found that CNTF had a potent effect on delaying the photoreceptor degeneration process in RCS rats. Furthermore, adenovirus CNTF gene transfer was proven to be better at rescuing photoreceptors than that when using recombinant CNTF, since adenoviral CNTF prolonged the photoreceptor protection effect. The function of the photoreceptors was also examined by taking electroretinograms of different animals. Adenoviral-CNTF-treated eyes showed better retinal function than did the contralateral control eyes. This study indicates that adenoviral CNTF effectively rescues degenerating photoreceptors in RCS rats. Copyright 2004 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel
Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep
It has been shown that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has trophic and maintenance effects on several types of peripheral and central neurons, glia, and cells outside the nervous system. Both CNTF and its receptor, CNTF-Rα, are expressed in the muscle. We use confocal immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic cytokine and its receptor are present in the pre- and post-synaptic sites of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Applied CNTF (7.5-200 ng/ml, 60 min-3 h) does not acutely affect spontaneous potentials (size or frequency) or quantal content of the evoked acetylcholine release from post-natal (in weak or strong axonal inputs on dually innervated end plates or in the most mature singly innervated synapses at P6) or adult (P30) NMJ of Levator auris longus muscle of the mice. However, CNTF reduces roughly 50% the depression produced by repetitive stimulation (40 Hz, 2 min) on the adult NMJs. Our findings indicate that, unlike neurotrophins, exogenous CNTF does not acutely modulate transmitter release locally at the mammalian neuromuscular synapse but can protect mature end plates from activity-induced synaptic depression. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Birch, David G.; Bennett, Lea D.; Duncan, Jacque L.; Weleber, Richard G.; Pennesi, Mark E.
Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered via an intraocular encapsulated cell implant for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Design Long-term follow up of a multicenter, sham-controlled study. Methods Thirty-six patients at three CNTF4 sites were randomly assigned to receive a high- or low- dose implant in one eye and sham surgery in the fellow eye. The primary endpoint (change in visual field sensitivity at 12 months) has been reported previously.1 Here we report long-term visual acuity, visual field and optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes in 24 patients either retaining or explanting the device at 24 months relative to sham-treated eyes. Results Eyes retaining the implant showed significantly greater visual field loss from baseline than either explanted eyes or sham eyes through 42 months. By 60 months and continuing through 96 months, visual field loss was comparable among sham-treated eyes, eyes retaining the implant and explanted eyes, as was visual acuity and OCT macular volume. Conclusions Over the short term, ciliary neurotrophic factor released continuously from an intra-vitreal implant lead to loss of total visual field sensitivity that was greater than the natural progression in the sham-treated eye. This additional loss of sensitivity related to the active implant was reversible when the implant was removed. Over the long term (60 – 96 months), there was no evidence of efficacy for visual acuity, visual field sensitivity or OCT measures of retinal structure. PMID:27457255
Evans, Andrew J.; Mabie, Peter C.; Kessler, Jack A.; Vikram, Bhadrasain
Purpose/Objective: Radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system in the from of myelopathy is a dose-limiting complication in the treatment of tumors situated in or close to the spinal cord. The target cell for this damage is not definitively identified, but demyelination due to oligodendrocyte damage is strongly implicated. Multiple neurotrophic factors have recently been identified which demonstrate a survival effect on oligodendrocytes. We investigated the effect of Ciliary Derived Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) on the radiosensitivity of oligodendrocytes in vitro to determine if this may ameliorate radiation damage, as a model for reducing myelopathy in vivo. Materials and Methods: Mature oligodendrocytes were cultured from the cortex of newborn Sprague-Dawley white rats and maintained on poly-d-lysine plates. The experimental arm was exposed to CNTF (0.01-100ng/ml), NGF (100ng/ml) or NT-3 (20ng/ml) for 24 hours prior to radiation, and control and experimental arms radiated using a cobalt 60 irradiator at a dose rate of .87 Gy/min with doses from 2 Gy to 10 Gy. Oligodendrocytes were identified using an O4 antibody, assessed for viability at 5 days using an MTT assay and counted using a phase contrast microscope. Combination studies of CNTF and NT-3 were also performed. BrdU studies were performed to determine if the various neurotrophins induced proliferation, with BrdU added for the 24 hour period prior to radiation only, for the 5 day period following radiation only, or for both periods combined. Results: The proportion of mature oligodendrocytes surviving 5 days after irradiation was not significantly increased by NGF, and was only modestly increased by NT-3. However, CNTF significantly increased the surviving proportion at all doses The addition of NT-3 to CNTF did not further increase the proportion of oligodendrocytes surviving. CNTF dose escalation studies confirmed 20ng/ml as an optimal dose. Brd
Dong, Feng; Ford, Stephen P.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun
Intrauterine nutrition status is reported to correlate with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Either under- or over-nutrition during early to mid gestation contributes to altered fetal growth and ventricular geometry. This study was designed to examine myocardial expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CTNFRα) and its down-stream mediator signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on maternal under- or over-nutrition-induced changes in fetal heart weight. Multiparous ewes were fed with 50% (nutrient-restricted, NR), 100% (control) or 150% (overfed, OF) of NRC requirements from 28 to 78 days of gestation (dG; Term 148 dG). Ewes were euthanized on day 78, and the gravid uteri and fetuses recovered. Ventricular protein expression of CTNFRα, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were quantitated using western blot. Plasma cortisol levels were higher in both NR and OF fetuses whereas plasma IGF-1 levels were lower and higher, in NR and OF fetuses. Fetal weights were reduced by 29.9% in NR ewes and were increased by 22.2% in fetuses from OF ewes compared to control group. Nutrient restriction did not affect fetal heart or ventricular weights whereas overfeeding increased heart and ventricular weights. Protein expression of CTNFRα in fetal ventricular tissue was reduced in OF group whereas STAT3 and pSTAT3 levels were reduced in both NR and OF groups. Expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP3 was unaffected in either NR or OF group. These data suggested that compared with maternal undernutrition, intrauterine overfeeding during early to mid gestation is associated with increases fetal blood concentrations of cortisol and IGF-1 in association with ventricular hypertrophy where reduced expression of CNTFRα and STAT3 may play a role. PMID:17869083
Lambert, P D; Anderson, K D; Sleeman, M W; Wong, V; Tan, J; Hijarunguru, A; Corcoran, T L; Murray, J D; Thabet, K E; Yancopoulos, G D; Wiegand, S J
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain.
Demitri, M T; Benigni, F; Meazza, C; Zinetti, M; Fratelli, M; Villa, P; Acheson, A; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibits the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice and protects against LPS lethality when coadministered with its soluble receptor (sCNTFR alpha). Both of these activities are abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. LPS-induced pulmonary polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and nitric oxide (NO) production were also inhibited by CNTF + sCNTFR alpha but not by CNTF alone. sCNTFR alpha did not alter the clearance or tissue distribution of CNTF. Furthermore, CNTF variants coadministered with sCNTFR alpha protected against LPS toxicity in a manner related to their affinity for the beta components of CNTFR. Thus, inhibition of TNF production and protection against LPS lethality by CNTF/sCNTFR alpha require an intact hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and may be mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids. This protective effect is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of PMN infiltration and NO production, and appears to be mediated by cells displaying only beta-receptor subtypes.
Panayotatos, N; Radziejewska, E; Acheson, A; Somogyi, R; Thadani, A; Hendrickson, W A; McDonald, N Q
By rational mutagenesis, receptor-specific functional analysis, and visualization of complex formation in solution, we identified individual amino acid side chains involved specifically in the interaction of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) with CNTFR alpha and not with the beta-components, gp130 and LIFR. In the crystal structure, the side chains of these residues, which are located in helix A, the AB loop, helix B, and helix D, are surface accessible and are clustered in space, thus constituting an epitope for CNTFR alpha. By the same analysis, a partial epitope for gp130 was also identified on the surface of helix A that faces away from the alpha-epitope. Superposition of the CNTF and growth hormone structures showed that the location of these epitopes on CNTF is analogous to the location of the first and second receptor epitopes on the surface of growth hormone. Further comparison with proposed binding sites for alpha- and beta-receptors on interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor indicated that this epitope topology is conserved among helical cytokines. In each case, epitope I is utilized by the specificity-conferring component, whereas epitopes II and III are used by accessory components. Thus, in addition to a common fold, helical cytokines share a conserved order of receptor epitopes that is function related.
Wolf, N; Krohn, K; Bieger, S
by the neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, which also express the transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II. In contrast to the developmentally related sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells continue to proliferate throughout postnatal life. Using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse labeling and tyrosine hydroxylase...... immunocytochemistry as a marker for young postnatal rat chromaffin cells, we show that treatment with fibroblast growth factor-2 (1 nM) and insulin-like growth factor-II (10 nM) increased the fraction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled nuclei from 1% to about 40% of the cells in the absence of serum. In the presence...... of fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor-II, transforming growth factor-beta1 (0.08 nM) reduced 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling by about 50%, without interfering with chromaffin cell survival or death. Doses lower and higher than 0.08 nM were less effective. Similar effects were seen...
Benigni, F; Villa, P; Demitri, M T; Sacco, S; Sipe, J D; Lagunowich, L; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P
The receptor of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) contains the signal transduction protein gp130, which is also a component of the receptors of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), IL-11, and oncostatin M. This suggests that these cytokines might share common signaling pathways. We previously reported that CNTF augments the levels of corticosterone (CS) and of IL-6 induced by IL-1 and induces the production of the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the elevation of serum CS is an important feedback mechanism to limit the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF), we have investigated the effect of CNTF on both TNF production and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxicity. To induce serum TNF levels, LPS was administered to mice at 30 mg/kg i.p. and CNTF was administered as a single dose of 10 micrograms/mouse i.v., either alone or in combination with its soluble receptor sCNTFR alpha at 20 micrograms/mouse. Serum TNF levels were the measured by cytotoxicity on L929 cells. In order to measure the effects of CNTF on LPS-induced TNF production in the brain, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 2.5 micrograms/kg LPS. Mouse spleen cells cultured for 4 hr with 1 microgram LPS/ml, with or without 10 micrograms CNTF/ml, were also analyzed for TNF production. CNTF, administered either alone or in combination with its soluble receptor, inhibited the induction of serum TNF levels by LPS. This inhibition was also observed in the brain when CNTF and LPS were administered centrally. In vitro, CNTF only marginally affected TNF production by LPS-stimulated mouse splenocytes, but it acted synergistically with dexamethasone (DEX) in inhibiting TNF production. Most importantly, CNTF administered together with sCNTFR alpha protected mice against LPS-induced mortality. These data suggest that CNTF might act as a protective cytokine against TNF-mediated pathologies both in the brain and
Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin
Full Text Available Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the upper extremities comprised 3 sets at 75%–85% intensity per 1 repetition maximum, 3 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. We measured isokinetic muscle function of the elbow joint with regard to strength (60°/s and endurance (180°/s by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis muscles were studied using surface electromyography with spike-triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP area. After resistance training, the SMUP of the BB increased significantly at 60°/s (p < 0.05, but no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. The SMUP of the BB at 180°/s increased significantly in the GG/AA genotype group compared with that in the GA genotype group (p < 0.05. The average power of the elbow flexor at 180°/s increased significantly after resistance training (p < 0.05, but again, no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. Thus, improvements in muscle strength and endurance may have resulted directly from resistance training rather than from genetic factors related to nerves in muscle tissue.
Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Fangxia; Li, Zenglan; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo
In this paper, we reported a novel strategy for the site-specific attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) of proteins using elevated hydrostatic pressure. The process was similar to the conventional one except the reactor was under elevated hydrostatic pressure. The model protein was recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF), and the reagent was monomethoxy-polyethylene glycol-maleimide (mPEG-MAL). PEGylation with mPEG (40 kDa)-MAL at pH 7.0 under normal pressure for 5 h achieved a less than 5% yield. In comparison, when the pressure was elevated, the PEGylation yield was increased dramatically, reaching nearly 90% at 250 MPa. Furthermore, the following phenomena were observed: (1) high-hydrostatic-pressure PEGylation (HHPP) could operate at a low reactant ratio of 1:1.2 (rhCNTF to mPEG-MAL), while the conventional process needs a much-higher ratio. (2) Short and long chains of PEG gave a similar yield of 90% in HHPP, while the conventional yield for the short chain of the PEG was higher than that of the long chain. (3) The reaction pH in the range of 7.0 to 8.0 had almost no influence upon the yield of HHPP, while the PEGylation yield was significantly increased by a factor of three from pH 7.0 to 8.0 at normal pressure. Surface accessibility analysis was performed using GRASP2 software, and we found that Cys17 of rhCNTF was located at the concave patches, which may have steric hindrance for the PEG to approach. The speculated benefit of HHPP was the facilitation of target-site exposure, reducing the steric hindrance and making the reaction much easier. Structure and activity analysis demonstrated that the HHPP product was comparable to the PEGylated rhCNTF prepared through a conventional method. Overall, this work demonstrated that HHPP, as we proposed, may have application potentials in various conjugations of biomacromolecules.
Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...
Spoletini, Marialuisa; Taurone, Samanta; Tombolini, Mario; Minni, Antonio; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Wierzbicki, Venceslao; Giangaspero, Felice; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Artico, Marco; Bardella, Lia; Agostinelli, Enzo; Pastore, Francesco Saverio
The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that trophic and neurotrophic factors may be involved in pituitary function, thus suggesting a possible role of the trophic and neurotrophic factors in the normal development of pituitary gland and in the progression of pituitary adenomas. Additional studies might be necessary to better explain the biological role of these molecules in the development and progression of this type of tumor. In this review, in light of the available literature, data on the following neurotrophic factors are discussed: ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), transforming growth factors β (TGF‑β), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) which influence the proliferation and growth of pituitary adenomas.
Full Text Available Animal studies have evidenced protection of the auditory nerve by exogenous neurotrophic factors. In order to assess clinical applicability of neurotrophic treatment of the auditory nerve, the safety and efficacy of neurotrophic therapies in various human disorders were systematically reviewed. Outcomes of our literature search included disorder, neurotrophic factor, administration route, therapeutic outcome, and adverse event. From 2103 articles retrieved, 20 randomized controlled trials including 3974 patients were selected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (53% was the most frequently reported indication for neurotrophic therapy followed by diabetic polyneuropathy (28%. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (50%, nerve growth factor (24% and insulin-like growth factor (21% were most often used. Injection site reaction was a frequently occurring adverse event (61% followed by asthenia (24% and gastrointestinal disturbances (20%. Eighteen out of 20 trials deemed neurotrophic therapy to be safe, and six out of 17 studies concluded the neurotrophic therapy to be effective. Positive outcomes were generally small or contradicted by other studies. Most non-neurodegenerative diseases treated by targeted deliveries of neurotrophic factors were considered safe and effective. Hence, since local delivery to the cochlea is feasible, translation from animal studies to human trials in treating auditory nerve degeneration seems promising.
Maternal nutrition is one of the major determinants of pregnancy outcome. It has been suggested that reduced intakes or lack of specific nutrients during pregnancy influences the length of gestation, proper placental and fetal growth during pregnancy. Maternal nutrition, particularly micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B 12 , and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are the major determinants of the one carbon cycle and are suggested to be at the heart of intrauterine programming of diseases in adult life. LCPUFA play a key role in the normal feto-placental development, as well as in the development and functional maturation of the brain and central nervous system and also regulate the levels of neurotrophic factors. These neurotrophic factors are known to regulate the development of the placenta at the materno-fetal interface and act in a paracrine and endocrine manner. Neurotrophic factors like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor are proteins involved in angiogenesis and potentiate the placental development. This chapter mainly focuses on micronutrients since they play a main physiological role during pregnancy. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF...
Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj
Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezing...... (18.6+/-1.3 ng/ml versus 16.5+/-1.4 ng/ml), and showed a right-skewed BDNF concentration distribution. No association between whole blood BDNF concentrations and thrombocyte count, age, or BDNF genotype was found. In conclusion, the BDNF ELISA assay determines whole blood BDNF accurately and with high...
Simonato, Michele; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Kokaia, Merab
Several lines of evidence indicate that neurotrophic factors (NTFs) could be key causal mediators in the development of acquired epileptic syndromes. Yet the trophic properties of NTFs indicate that they might be used to treat epilepsy-associated damage. Accordingly, different NTFs, or even the same NTF, could produce functionally contrasting effects in the context of epilepsy. Recent experimental evidence begins to shed light on the mechanisms underlying these contrasting effects. Understanding these mechanisms will be instrumental for the development of effective therapies, which must be based on a careful consideration of the biological properties of NTFs. Here, we critically evaluate new information emerging in this area and discuss its implications for clinical treatment.
Bezdjian, Aren; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Thomeer, Hans G X M; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko
Animal studies have evidenced protection of the auditory nerve by exogenous neurotrophic factors. In order to assess clinical applicability of neurotrophic treatment of the auditory nerve, the safety and efficacy of neurotrophic therapies in various human disorders were systematically reviewed.
Widenfalk, J; Lundströmer, K; Jubran, M; Brene, S; Olson, L
Delivery of neurotrophic factors to the injured spinal cord has been shown to stimulate neuronal survival and regeneration. This indicates that a lack of sufficient trophic support is one factor contributing to the absence of spontaneous regeneration in the mammalian spinal cord. Regulation of the expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors after spinal cord injury has not been studied in detail. We investigated levels of mRNA-encoding neurotrophins, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family members and related receptors, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and c-fos in normal and injured spinal cord. Injuries in adult rats included weight-drop, transection, and excitotoxic kainic acid delivery; in newborn rats, partial transection was performed. The regulation of expression patterns in the adult spinal cord was compared with that in the PNS and the neonate spinal cord. After mechanical injury of the adult rat spinal cord, upregulations of NGF and GDNF mRNA occurred in meningeal cells adjacent to the lesion. BDNF and p75 mRNA increased in neurons, GDNF mRNA increased in astrocytes close to the lesion, and GFRalpha-1 and truncated TrkB mRNA increased in astrocytes of degenerating white matter. The relatively limited upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord contrasted with the response of affected nerve roots, in which marked increases of NGF and GDNF mRNA levels were observed in Schwann cells. The difference between the ability of the PNS and CNS to provide trophic support correlates with their different abilities to regenerate. Kainic acid delivery led to only weak upregulations of BDNF and CNTF mRNA. Compared with several brain regions, the overall response of the spinal cord tissue to kainic acid was weak. The relative sparseness of upregulations of endogenous neurotrophic factors after injury strengthens the hypothesis that lack of regeneration in the spinal cord is attributable at least partly to lack of trophic support.
This review considers the 2 sources of neurotrophic factors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the neurons and the nonneuronal cells in the denervated distal nerve stumps, and their role in axon regeneration. Morphological assessment of regenerative success in response to administration of exogenous growth factors after nerve injury and repair has indicated a role of the endogenous neurotrophic factors from Schwann cells in the distal nerve stump. However, the increased number of axons may reflect more neurons regenerating their axons and/or increased numbers of axon sprouts from the same number of neurons. Using fluorescent dyes to count neurons that regenerated their axons across a suture site and into distal nerve stumps, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were found not to increase the number of neurons that regenerated their axons after immediate nerve repair. Nevertheless, the factors did reverse the deleterious effect of delayed nerve repair, indicating that the axons that regenerate into the distal nerve stump normally have access to sufficient levels of endogenous neurotrophic factors to sustain their regeneration, while neurons that do not have access to these factors require exogenous factors to sustain axon regeneration. Neurons upregulate neurotrophic factors after axotomy. The upregulation is normally slow, beginning after 7 days and occurring in association with a protracted period of axonal regeneration in which axons grow out from the proximal nerve stump across a suture site over a period of 1 month in rodents. This staggered axon regeneration across the suture site is accelerated by a 1-hour period of low-frequency electrical stimulation that simultaneously accelerates the expression of BDNF and its trkB receptor in the neurons. Elevation of the level of BDNF after 2 days to > 3 times that found in unstimulated neurons was accompanied by elevation of the level of cAMP and followed by
Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. J. W. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of growth factors and affects the survival and plasticity of neurons in the adult central nervous system. The high correlation between cortical and serum BDNF levels has led to many human studies on BDNF levels
Oct 24, 2016 ... The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and ... forms are produced by splicing individual non-coding ..... VII and. IX m. RNA. ↑. mBDNF. ↓. (MS). 5. BDNF expression was unch;.
Simi, Anastasia; Ibáñez, Carlos F
Neurotrophic factors play important roles in the development and function of both neuronal and glial elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Their functional diversity is in part based on their ability to interact with alternative complexes of receptor molecules. This review focuses on our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern the assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes. The realization that many, if not the majority, of these complexes exist in a preassembled form at the plasma membrane has forced the revision of classical ligand-mediated oligomerization models, and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of receptor activation and generation of signaling diversity which are likely to be shared by many different classes of receptors.
Halum, Stacey L.; McRae, Bryan; Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Khadijeh; Hiatt, Kelly
Objectives To determine if the spontaneous reinnervation that characteristically ensues after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury could be selectively promoted and directed to certain laryngeal muscles with the use of neurotrophic factor (NF)-secreting muscle stem cell (MSC) vectors while antagonistic reinnervation is inhibited with vincristine (VNC). Study Design Basic science investigations involving primary cell cultures, gene cloning/transfer, and animal experiments. Methods (i.) MSC survival assays were used to test multiple individual NFs in vitro. (ii.) Motoneuron outgrowth assays assessed the trophic effects of identified NF on cranial nerve X-derived (CNX) motoneurons in vitro. (iii.) Therapeutic NF was cloned into a lentiviral vector, and MSCs were tranduced to secrete NF. 60 rats underwent left RLN transection injury, and at 3 weeks received injections of either MSCs (n=24), MSCs secreting NF (n=24), or saline (n=12) into the left thyroarytenoid muscle complex (TA); half of the animals in the MSC groups simultaneously received left posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) injections of vincristine (VNC) while half the animals received saline. Results (i.) Ciliary-derived neurotrophic factor (CNTF) had the greatest survival-promoting effect on MSCs in culture. (ii.) Addition of CNTF (50 ng/mL) to CN X motoneuron cultures resulted in enhanced neurite outgrowth and branching. (iii.) In the animal model, the injected MSCs fused with the denervated myofibers, immunohistochemistry demonstrated enhanced reinnervation based on motor endplate to nerve contact, and RT-PCR confirmed stable CNTF expression at longest follow-up (4 months) in the CNTF-secreting MSC treated groups. Conclusions MSC therapy may have a future role in selectively promoting and directing laryngeal reinnervation after RLN injury. Level of evidence: NA PMID:22965802
Abdallah, Morsi; Mortensen, E L; Greaves-Lord, K
To examine levels of 3 neurotrophic factors (NTFs): Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in dried blood spot samples of neonates diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) later in life and frequency-matched controls....
Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V
Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent...... investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control...... subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974...
Krabbe, K. S.; Nielsen, A. R.; Krogh-Madsen, R.
Aims/hypothesis Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin resistance. We therefore...... explored whether BDNF plays a role in human glucose metabolism. Subjects and methods We included (Study 1) 233 humans divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and presence or absence of obesity; and (Study 2) seven healthy volunteers who underwent both a hyperglycaemic...... and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Results Plasma levels of BDNF in Study 1 were decreased in humans with type 2 diabetes independently of obesity. Plasma BDNF was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, but not with insulin. No association was found between the BDNF G196A (Val66Met) polymorphism...
Full Text Available Yogesh DwivediPsychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Depression and suicidal behavior have recently been shown to be associated with disturbances in structural and synaptic plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, one of the major neurotrophic factors, plays an important role in the maintenance and survival of neurons and in synaptic plasticity. Several lines of evidence suggest that BDNF is involved in depression, such that the expression of BDNF is decreased in depressed patients. In addition, antidepressants up-regulate the expression of BDNF. This has led to the proposal of the “neurotrophin hypothesis of depression”. Increasing evidence demonstrates that suicidal behavior is also associated with lower expression of BDNF, which may be independent from depression. Recent genetic studies also support a link of BDNF to depression/suicidal behavior. Not only BDNF, but abnormalities in its cognate receptor tropomycin receptor kinase B (TrkB and its splice variant (TrkB.T1 have also been reported in depressed/suicidal patients. It has been suggested that epigenetic modulation of the Bdnf and Trkb genes may contribute to their altered expression and functioning. More recently, impairment in the functioning of pan75 neurotrophin receptor has been reported in suicide brain specimens. pan75 neurotrophin receptor is a low-affinity neurotrophin receptor that, when expressed in conjunction with low availability of neurotropins/Trks, induces apoptosis. Overall, these studies suggest the possibility that BDNF and its mediated signaling may participate in the pathophysiology of depression and suicidal behavior. This review focuses on the critical evidence demonstrating the involvement of BDNF in depression and suicide.Keywords: BDNF, neurotrophins, p75NTR, Trk receptor, depression, antidepressants, suicide, genetics, epigenetics
Kent, Tiffany L; Glybina, Inna V; Abrams, Gary W; Iezzi, Raymond
To determine whether the sustained intravitreous delivery of CNTF modulates cortical response thresholds to electrical retinal stimulation in the RCS rat model of retinal degeneration. Animals were assigned to four groups: untreated, nonsurgical control and infusion groups of 10 ng/d CNTF, 1 ng/d CNTF, and PBS vehicle control. Thresholds for electrically evoked cortical potentials (EECPs) were recorded in response to transcorneal electrical stimulation of the retina at p30 and again at p60, after a three-week infusion. As the retina degenerated over time, EECP thresholds in response to electrical retinal stimulation increased. Eyes treated with 10 ng/d CNTF demonstrated significantly greater retinal sensitivity to electrical stimulation when compared with all other groups. In addition, eyes treated with 1 ng/d CNTF demonstrated significantly greater retinal sensitivity than both PBS-treated and untreated control groups. Retinal sensitivity to electrical stimulation was preserved in animals treated with chronic intravitreous infusion of CNTF. These data suggest that CNTF-mediated retinal neuroprotection may be a novel therapy that can lower stimulus thresholds in patients about to undergo retinal prosthesis implantation. Furthermore, it may maintain the long-term efficacy of these devices in patients.
Full Text Available Paola Tirassa,1 Adele Quartini,2 Angela Iannitelli2–4 1National Research Council (CNR, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology (IBCN, 2Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine – "Sapienza" University of Rome, 3Italian Psychoanalytical Society (SPI, Rome, Italy; 4International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA, London, UKAbstract: The light information pathways and their relationship with the body rhythms have generated a new insight into the neurobiology and the neurobehavioral sciences, as well as into the clinical approaches to human diseases associated with disruption of circadian cycles. Light-based strategies and/or drugs acting on the circadian rhythms have widely been used in psychiatric patients characterized by mood-related disorders, but the timing and dosage use of the various treatments, although based on international guidelines, are mainly dependent on the psychiatric experiences. Further, many efforts have been made to identify biomarkers able to disclose the circadian-related aspect of diseases, and therefore serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools in clinic to assess the different mood-related symptoms, including pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, loss of interest or pleasure, appetite, psychomotor changes, and cognitive impairments. Among the endogenous factors suggested to be involved in mood regulation, the neurotrophins, nerve growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor show anatomical and functional link with the circadian system and mediate some of light-induced effects in brain. In addition, in humans, both nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor have showed a daily rhythm, which correlate with the morningness–eveningness dimensions, and are influenced by light, suggesting their potential role as biomarkers for chronotypes and/or chronotherapy. The evidences of the relationship between the diverse mood-related disorders
Full Text Available Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored.To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05. Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk.S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraflagellar transport (IFT genes, which are critical for the development and function of cilia and flagella in metazoans, are tightly regulated by the Regulatory Factor X (RFX transcription factors (TFs. However, how and when their evolutionary relationship was established remains unknown. Results We have identified evidence suggesting that RFX TFs and IFT genes evolved independently and their evolution converged before the first appearance of metazoans. Both ciliary genes and RFX TFs exist in all metazoans as well as some unicellular eukaryotes. However, while RFX TFs and IFT genes are found simultaneously in all sequenced metazoan genomes, RFX TFs do not co-exist with IFT genes in most pre-metazoans and thus do not regulate them in these organisms. For example, neither the budding yeast nor the fission yeast possesses cilia although both have well-defined RFX TFs. Conversely, most unicellular eukaryotes, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, have typical cilia and well conserved IFT genes but lack RFX TFs. Outside of metazoans, RFX TFs and IFT genes co-exist only in choanoflagellates including M. brevicollis, and only one fungus Allomyces macrogynus of the 51 sequenced fungus genomes. M. brevicollis has two putative RFX genes and a full complement of ciliary genes. Conclusions The evolution of RFX TFs and IFT genes were independent in pre-metazoans. We propose that their convergence in evolution, or the acquired transcriptional regulation of IFT genes by RFX TFs, played a pivotal role in the establishment of metazoan.
Castillo, Diana V; Figueroa-Guzmán, Yazmín; Escobar, Martha L
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has recently emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators of not only central synaptic plasticity, but also behavioral interactions between an organism and its environment. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the IC, previous to CTA training, enhances the retention of this task. Recently, we found that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy in the Bla-IC projection of adult rats in vivo. In this work, we present experimental data showing that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF previous to CTA training enhances the retention of this task. These findings support the concept that BDNF may contribute to memory-related functions performed by a neocortical area, playing a critical role in long-term synaptic plasticity.
Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the immune-modulating effects of the neurotrophic factor N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP on median nerve regeneration in rats. We used male Wistar rats (120-140 days of age, weighing 250-332 g and compared the results of three different techniques of nerve repair: 1 epineural neurorrhaphy using sutures alone (group S - 10 rats, 2 epineural neurorrhaphy using sutures plus fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA; group SF - 20 rats, and 3 sutures plus FTA, with MDP added to the FTA (group SFM - 20 rats. Functional assessments using the grasp test were performed weekly for 12 weeks to identify recovery of flexor muscle function in the fingers secondary to median nerve regeneration. Histological analysis was also utilized. The total number and diameter of myelinated fibers were determined in each proximal and distal nerve segment. Two indices, reported as percentage, were calculated from these parameters, namely, the regeneration index and the diameter change index. By the 8th week, superiority of group SFM over group S became apparent in the grasping test (P = 0.005. By the 12th week, rats that had received MDP were superior in the grasping test compared to both group S (P < 0.001 and group SF (P = 0.001. Moreover, group SF was better in the grasping test than group S (P = 0.014. However, no significant differences between groups were identified by histological analysis. In the present study, rats that had received MDP obtained better function, in the absence of any significant histological differences.
Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M
This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)
Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Işık, Ümit; Kılınç, İbrahim
It has been suggested that neurotrophins are involved in the etiopathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NTF3) levels between children with ADHD and healthy controls. A total of 110 treatment-naive children with the combined presentation of ADHD and 44 healthy controls aged 8-18 years were enrolled in this study. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised Short. The severity of depression and anxiety symptoms of the children were evaluated by the self-report inventories. Serum levels of neurotrophins were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed a significant main effect of groups in the levels of serum neurotrophins, an effect that was independent of age, sex, and the severity of the depression and anxiety. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the mean serum GDNF and NTF3 levels of ADHD patients were significantly higher than that of controls. However, serum BDNF and NGF levels did not show any significant differences between groups. No correlations between the levels of serum neurotrophins and the severity of ADHD were observed. These results suggest that elevated serum GDNF and NTF3 levels may be related to ADHD in children.
Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret
This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.
Sally K. da Silva
Full Text Available Objective: To correlate neurotrophic factors – brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF – and severity of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, participants were selected by convenience and received 16 sessions of CBT. The outcomes of interest were severity of depressive symptoms and changes in neurotrophic factor levels after CBT. The differences between variables before and after treatment (deltas were analyzed. Results: Patients had significant changes in symptom severity after treatment. No significant associations were found between Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II scores and any independent variable. No correlations were observed between BDNF or GDNF levels and BDI scores before or after treatment, although there was a trend toward significant differences in beta-NGF levels. Conclusion: BDNF, beta-NGF, and GDNF were not influenced by the effects of CBT on depressive symptoms.
van Velzen, Laura S.; Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...
In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...
Barker, J.M.; Taylor, J.R.; de Vries, T.J.; Peters, J.
Many abused drugs lead to changes in endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in neural circuits responsible for addictive behaviors. BDNF is a known molecular mediator of memory consolidation processes, evident at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels. Specific neural
Krabbe, K.S.; Mortensen, E.L.; Avlund, K.
OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that low circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secretory member of the neurotrophin family that has a protective role in neurodegeneration and stress responses and a regulatory role in metabolism, predicts risk of all-cause mortality in 85-year...
Full Text Available Chronic pain is a common disability influencing quality of life. Results of previous studies showed that acupuncture has a cumulative analgesic effect, but the relationship with spinal cytokines neurotrophic factors released by astrocytes remains unknown. The present study was designed to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA treatment on spinal cytokines neurotrophic factors in chronic neuropathic pain rats. The chronic neuropathic pain was established by chronic constrictive injury (CCI. EA treatment was applied at Zusanli (ST36 and Yanglingquan (GB34 (both bilateral once a day, for 30 min. IL-1β mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, and IL-1 mRNA were detected by quantitative real-time PCR, and the proteins of BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 were detected by Western blot. The expression levels of cytokines such as IL-1β mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, and neurotrophic factors such as BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 in the spinal cord were increased significantly after CCI. The astrocytes released more IL-1β and BDNF after CCI. Repeated EA treatment could suppress the elevated expression of IL-1β mRNA, TNFα mRNA, and BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 but had no effect on IL-6 mRNA. It is suggested that cytokines and neurotrophic factors which may be closely associated with astrocytes participated in the process of EA relieving chronic pain.
Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B
Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....
Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei
Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal
Full Text Available Local delivery of neurotrophic factors is a pillar of neural repair strategies in the peripheral nervous system. The main disadvantage of the free growth factors is their short half-life of few minutes. In order to prolong their activity, we have conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles three neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor (βNGF, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2. Comparative stability studies of free versus conjugated factors revealed that the conjugated neurotrophic factors were significantly more stable in tissue cultures and in medium at 37°C. The biological effects of free versus conjugated neurotrophic factors were examined on organotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG cultures performed in NVR-Gel, composed mainly of hyaluronic acid and laminin. Results revealed that the conjugated neurotrophic factors enhanced early nerve fiber sprouting compared to the corresponding free factors. The most meaningful result was that conjugated-GDNF, accelerated the onset and progression of myelin significantly earlier than the free GDNF and the other free and conjugated factors. This is probably due to the beneficial and long-acting effect that the stabilized conjugated-GDNF had on neurons and Schwann cells. These conclusive results make NVR-Gel enriched with conjugated-GDNF, a desirable scaffold for the reconstruction of severed peripheral nerve.
Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Li, Chia-Ling; Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Po See; Chen, Shih-Heng; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly comorbid with substance use disorders (SUDs). We hypothesize that chronic neuroinflammation and the loss of neurotrophic factors prompts the pathogenesis of both disorders. We used ELISA to measure plasma levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], C-reactive protein [CRP]) and anti-inflammatory factors (transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1] and interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male patients with ASPD (n=74), SUDs (n=168), ASPD comorbid with SUDs (ASPD+SUDs) (n=438), and Healthy Controls (HCs) (n=81). A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlled for possible confounders was used to compare cytokines and BDNF levels between groups. The results of MANCOVA adjusted for age showed a significant (pdisorder (OUD) and other SUDs groups showed that the IL-10 levels were specifically higher in OUD and ASPD±OUD groups than other SUDs (P≤0.001). We conclude that uncontrolled inflammation and losing neurotrophic factors, with or without comorbid SUDs, underlies ASPD. IL-10 expression might be more specifically associated with OUD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: to determine the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the formation and forecasting of psycho-vegetative syndrome in patients with cerebral mild to moderate injury. Material and Methods. There have been 150 patients with contusion of the brain, examined. Indicators of neurological, psycho-vegetative status, quantitative content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the serum were studied. Results. At patients with brain contusion neurological, psycho-vegetative disturbances and decrease neurotrophic factors are determined. It was found to depend of the content of BDNF and psycho-vegetative indicators. Conclusion. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum (less than 300 pg/ml is a predictor of psycho-vegetative syndrome in the long term of the brain injury.
Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3......, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (pdifference in BDNF levels...
Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M
The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... studies suggested an inverse relationship between the peripheral BDNF level and habitual physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to confirm the findings from the observational studies....
Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo
Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the gr...
Yoneda, Mitsugu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Katakura, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Tanigami, Hayate; Yachie, Akihiro; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako; Shido, Osamu
Theobromine, which is a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. Theobromine works as a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP activates the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), which is involved in a large variety of brain processes, including the induction of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF supports cell survival and neuronal functions, including learning and m...
Szuhany, Kristin L.; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W.
Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1,111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three e...
Lanni, C; Stanga, S; Racchi, M; Govoni, S
Multiple molecular, cellular, structural and functional changes occur in the brain during aging. Neural cells may respond to these changes adaptively by employing multiple mechanisms in order to maintain the integrity of nerve cell circuits and to facilitate responses to environmental demands. Otherwise, they may succumb to neurodegenerative cascades that result in disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. An important role in this balancement is played by neurotrophic factors, which are central to many aspects of nervous system function since they regulate the development, maintenance and survival of neurons and neuron-supporting cells such as glia and oligodendrocytes. A vast amount of evidence indicates that alterations in levels of neurotrophic factors or their receptors can lead to neuronal death and contribute to aging as well as to the pathogenesis of diseases of abnormal trophic support (such as neurodegenerative diseases and depression) and diseases of abnormal excitability (such as epilepsy and central pain sensitization). Cellular and molecular mechanisms by which neurotrophic factors may influence cell survival and excitability are also critically examined to provide novel concepts and targets for the treatment of physiological changes bearing detrimental functional alterations and of different diseases affecting the central nervous system during aging.
Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not
Tunca, Zeliha; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Ceylan, Deniz; Yalçın, Yaprak; Can, Güneş; Resmi, Halil; Akan, Pınar; Ergör, Gül; Aydemir, Omer; Cengisiz, Cengiz; Kerim, Doyuran
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been consistently reported to be decreased in mania or depression in bipolar disorders. Evidence suggests that Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Whether GDNF and BDNF act in the same way across different episodes in bipolar disorders is unclear. BDNF and GDNF serum levels were measured simultaneously by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 96 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV (37 euthymic, 33 manic, 26 depressed) in comparison to 61 healthy volunteers. SCID- I and SCID-non patient version were used for clinical evaluation of the patients and healthy volunteers respectively. Correlations between the two trophic factor levels, and medication dose, duration and serum levels of lithium or valproate were studied across different episodes of illness. Patients had significantly lower BDNF levels during mania and depression compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. GDNF levels were not distinctive. However GDNF/BDNF ratio was higher in manic state compared to euthymia and healthy controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between BDNF and GDNF levels in euthymic patients. While BDNF levels correlated positively, GDNF levels correlated negatively with lithium levels. Regression analysis confirmed that lithium levels predicted only GDNF levels positively in mania, and negatively in euthymia. Small sample size in different episodes and drug-free patients was the limitation of thestudy. Current data suggests that lithium exerts its therapeutic action by an inverse effect on BDNF and GDNF levels, possibly by up-regulating BDNF and down-regulating GDNF to achieve euthymia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M
Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.
Dong, Dong; Mao, Yu; Huang, Cui; Jiao, Qian; Pan, Hui; Ma, Lei; Wang, Rui
Rhizoma Anemarrhena , a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been shown to have neuroprotective effect. Sarsasapogenin-AA13 (AA13) is a novel synthetic derivative of Sarsasapogenin, which is extracted from Rhizoma Anemarrhena . The aim of this study is to investigate the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of AA13 and underlying mechanisms. In vitro , cell viability of rat primary astrocytes treated with AA13 and neurons cultured with conditioned medium of AA13-treated rat primary astrocytes was tested by MTT assays. In vivo , a pharmacological model of cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine was employed and spatial memory of the mice was assessed by Morris water maze. This study found that AA13 increased cell viability of primary astrocytes and AA13-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium enhanced the survival rate of primary neurons. Interestingly, AA13 markedly enhanced the level of BDNF in astrocytes. Furthermore, AA13 (6 mg/kg) improved the cognitive deficits in animal models (p<0.05) and BDNF and PSD95 levels were increased in brain. Therefore, we hypothesize that AA13 exerts nootropic and neurotrophic activities through astrocytes mediated upregulation of BDNF secretion. The results suggest that AA13 could be a potential compound for cognitive impairment after further research.
Mansur, Rodrigo B; Santos, Camila M; Rizzo, Lucas B
OBJECTIVES: The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in bipolar disorder (BD). However, current evidence is limited and results have been highly heterogeneous. This study aimed to assess the moderating effect of impaired glucose metabolism......, alcohol use, and IGM (P=.046). There was no effect of IGM (P=.860) and no interaction between BD diagnosis and IGM (P=.893). Peripheral BDNF levels were positively correlated with lifetime depressive episodes (Psuicide attempts (P=.021). IGM moderated...... the association between BDNF and the number of previous mood episodes (P
Pinheiro, Vera Lúcia Margarido
Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Celular e Molecular apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra A especificidade espacial e temporal subjacente à diversidade de processos de plasticidade sináptica que ocorrem no sistema nervoso central está profundamente relacionada com a disponibilidade da proteína brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) em domínios sub-celulares distintos, especialmente na área pós-sinápti...
Li Yunchun; Li Lin; Wang Quanlin; Yang Xiaochuan; He Gang; Gao Bingqing; Lin Daicheng; Liang Chuanyu
The transport information of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in facial nerve is studied using 125 I-BDNF or 131 I-BDNF. After one lateral facial nerve trunk of adult rabbit is transected, a silicone chamber is inserted between the stumps, and labelled compounds are administered into the chamber. Bilateral facial nerve trunk and facial nerve motor neurone of brain-stem of rabbits are collected and counted respectively, and imaged at coronary position of head in live rabbit. The results show that BDNF has a retrograde transport in facial nerve, and the transport of 131 I-BDNF is marked restrained by BDNF in facial nerve
Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers may reflect key pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder in relation to disease activity and neuroprogression. AIMS: To investigate whether neutrophins and inflammatory marker vary with mood...... overall compared with healthy control subjects. However, in adjusted models, no statistically significant differences were found in any measure between patients and control individuals. Levels of hsCRP in depressive states were decreased with 40% (95% CI: 5-62%, p=0.029) compared with euthymia and with 48...
Maggio, R; Riva, M; Vaglini, F; Fornai, F; Racagni, G; Corsini, G U
The repeated finding of an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of Parkinson's disease is one of the few consistent results in the epidemiology of this disorder. Among the innumerous substances that originate from tobacco smoke, nicotine is by far the most widely studied, and the most likely candidate for a protective effect against neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Nicotine is a natural alkaloid that has considerable stimulatory effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Its effects on the CNS are mediated by the activation of neuronal heteromeric acetylcholine-gated ion channel receptors (nAChR, also termed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). In the present study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of (-)nicotine in two animal models of parkinsonism: the diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC)-induced enhancement of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity in mice, and the methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in rats and mice. In parallel experiments, we found that (-)nicotine induces the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat striatum. As FGF-2 and BDNF have been reported to be neuroprotective for dopaminergic cells, our data indicate that the increase in neurotrophic factors is a possible mechanism by which (-)nicotine protects from experimental parkinsonisms. Moreover, they suggest that nAChR agonists could be of potential benefit in the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Martin, Jean Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Allaman, Igor
There is growing evidence that astrocytes are involved in the neuropathology of major depression. In particular, decreases in glial cell density observed in the cerebral cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder are accompanied by a reduction of several astrocytic markers suggesting that astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depression. In rodents, glial loss in the prefrontal cortex is sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors and antidepressant treatment prevents the stress-induced reduction of astrocyte number in the hippocampus. Collectively, these data support the existence of a link between astrocyte loss or dysfunction, depressive-like behavior and antidepressant treatment. Astrocytes are increasingly recognized to play important roles in neuronal development, neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and maintenance of brain homeostasis. It is also well established that astrocytes provide trophic, structural, and metabolic support to neurons. In this article, we review evidence that antidepressants regulate energy metabolism and neurotrophic factor expression with particular emphasis on studies in astrocytes. These observations support a role for astrocytes as new targets for antidepressants. The contribution of changes in astrocyte glucose metabolism and neurotrophic factor expression to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants remains to be established. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Poletti, S; Aggio, V; Hoogenboezem, T A; Ambrée, O; de Wit, H; Wijkhuijs, A J M; Locatelli, C; Colombo, C; Arolt, V; Drexhage, H A; Benedetti, F
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition characterized by grey matter (GM) volumes reduction. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested to play a role in the neuroprogressive changes during the illness course. In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. The aim of our study was to investigate if serum levels of BDNF are associated with GM volumes in BD patients and healthy controls (HC). We studied 36 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD type I and 17 HC. Analysis of variance was performed to investigate the effect of diagnosis on GM volumes in the whole brain. Threshold for significance was PBDNF levels compared with HC. Reduced GM volumes in BD patients compared to HC were observed in several brain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis between BDNF levels and diagnosis showed a significant effect in the middle frontal gyrus. HC reported higher BDNF levels associated with higher GM volumes, whereas no association between BDNF and GM volumes was observed in BD. Our study seems to suggest that although the production of BDNF is increased in BD possibly to prevent and repair neural damage, its effects could be hampered by underlying neuroinflammatory processes interfering with the neurodevelopmental role of BDNF. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mitsuhiro Enomoto1,21Department of Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate School, 2Hyperbaric Medical Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Neurotrophic factors (NFs play important roles in regenerative medicine approaches to mitigate primary and secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI because their receptors are still present in the injured spinal cord even though the expression of the NFs themselves is decreased. Several reports have shown that NF administration increases regenerative signaling after SCI, particularly by stimulating axonal growth. However, few NFs cross the blood–brain barrier, and most of them show low stability and limited diffusion within the central nervous system. To overcome this problem, transplantation strategies using genetically modified NF-secreting Schwann cells, neural and glial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have been applied to animal models of SCI. In particular, multifunctional NFs that bind to TrkB, TrkC, and p75NTR receptors have been discovered in the last decade and utilized in preclinical cell therapies for spinal cord repair. To achieve functional recovery after SCI, it is important to consider the different effects of each NF on axonal regeneration, and strategies should be established to specifically harness the multifunctional properties of NFs. This review provides an overview of multifunctional NFs combined with cell therapy in experimental SCI models and a proposal to implement their use as a clinically viable therapy.Keywords: spinal cord injury, neurotrophic factor, multineurotrophin, regeneration, cell transplantation
Martin, Jean Luc
There is growing evidence that astrocytes are involved in the neuropathology of major depression. In particular, decreases in glial cell density observed in the cerebral cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder are accompanied by a reduction of several astrocytic markers suggesting that astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depression. In rodents, glial loss in the prefrontal cortex is sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors and antidepressant treatment prevents the stress-induced reduction of astrocyte number in the hippocampus. Collectively, these data support the existence of a link between astrocyte loss or dysfunction, depressive-like behavior and antidepressant treatment. Astrocytes are increasingly recognized to play important roles in neuronal development, neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and maintenance of brain homeostasis. It is also well established that astrocytes provide trophic, structural, and metabolic support to neurons. In this article, we review evidence that antidepressants regulate energy metabolism and neurotrophic factor expression with particular emphasis on studies in astrocytes. These observations support a role for astrocytes as new targets for antidepressants. The contribution of changes in astrocyte glucose metabolism and neurotrophic factor expression to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants remains to be established. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Toma, Claudio; Hervás, Amaia; Balmaña, Noemí; Salgado, Marta; Maristany, Marta; Vilella, Elisabet; Aguilera, Francisco; Orejuela, Carmen; Cuscó, Ivon; Gallastegui, Fátima; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; Diego-Otero, Yolanda de; Guzmán-Alvarez, Guadalupe; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Ribasés, Marta; Bayés, Mònica; Cormand, Bru
Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors can be considered strong candidates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in neurotransmission, brain maturation and cortical organization, while neurotrophic factors (NTFs) participate in neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and synapses formation. We aimed to test the contribution of these candidate pathways to autism through a case-control association study of genes selected both for their role in central nervous system functions and for pathophysiological evidences. The study sample consisted of 326 unrelated autistic patients and 350 gender-matched controls from Spain. We genotyped 369 tagSNPs to perform a case-control association study of 37 candidate genes. A significant association was obtained between the DDC gene and autism in the single-marker analysis (rs6592961, P = 0.00047). Haplotype-based analysis pinpointed a four-marker combination in this gene associated with the disorder (rs2329340C-rs2044859T-rs6592961A-rs11761683T, P = 4.988e-05). No significant results were obtained for the remaining genes after applying multiple testing corrections. However, the rs167771 marker in DRD3, associated with ASD in a previous study, displayed a nominal association in our analysis (P = 0.023). Our data suggest that common allelic variants in the DDC gene may be involved in autism susceptibility.
Pedersen, Bente K; Pedersen, Maria; Krabbe, Karen S
identifies BDNF as a player not only in central metabolism, but also in regulating energy metabolism in peripheral organs. Low levels of BDNF are found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression. In addition, BDNF levels are low in obesity...... and independently so in patients with type 2 diabetes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in non-neurogenic tissues, including skeletal muscle, and exercise increases BDNF levels not only in the brain and in plasma, but in skeletal muscle as well. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein...... diabetes may explain the clustering of these diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is likely to mediate some of the beneficial effects of exercise with regard to protection against dementia and type 2 diabetes....
May, Florian; Buchner, Alexander; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Arndt, Christian; Stief, Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Matiasek, Kaspar
To evaluate the time-course of functional recovery after cavernous nerve injury using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes. Sections of the cavernous nerves were excised bilaterally (5 mm), followed by immediate bilateral surgical repair. A total of 20 study nerves per group were reconstructed by interposition of empty silicon tubes and silicon tubes seeded with either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein-expressing Schwann cells. Control groups were either sham-operated or received bilateral nerve transection without nerve reconstruction. Erectile function was evaluated by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The animals underwent re-exploration only once, and were killed afterwards. The nerve grafts were investigated for the maturation state of regenerating nerve fibers and the fascular composition. Recovery of erectile function took at least 4 weeks in the current model. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than green fluorescent protein-transduced controls and unseeded conduits. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts promoted an intact erectile response (4/4) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks that was overall significantly superior to negative controls (P cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts compared with negative controls (P = 0.018) and unseeded tubes (P = 0.034). Return of function was associated with the electron microscopic evidence of preganglionic myelinated nerve fibers and postganglionic unmyelinated axons. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor presents a viable approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.
Full Text Available To investigate the serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma with a wide spectrum of disease severity compared to healthy controls and to explore their relationship with morphological and functional glaucoma parameters.45 patients affected by glaucoma at different stages and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent visual field testing, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and blood collection for both neurotrophins detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis and association between biostrumental and biochemical data were investigated.Serum levels of BDNF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy controls (261.2±75.0 pg/ml vs 313.6±79.6 pg/ml, p = 0.03. Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in early (253.8±40.7 pg/ml, p = 0.019 and moderate glaucoma (231.3±54.3 pg/ml, p = 0.04 but not in advanced glaucoma (296.2±103.1 pg/ml, p = 0.06 compared to healthy controls. Serum levels of NGF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in the healthy controls (4.1±1 pg/mL vs 5.5±1.2 pg/mL, p = 0.01. Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in early (3.5±0.9 pg/mL, p = 0.0008 and moderate glaucoma (3.8±0.7 pg/ml, p<0.0001 but not in advanced glaucoma (5.0±0.7 pg/ml, p = 0.32 compared to healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were not related to age, visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fibre layer thickness either in glaucoma or in controls while NGF levels were significantly related to visual field mean deviation in the glaucoma group (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.004.BDNF and NGF serum levels are reduced in the early and moderate glaucoma stages, suggesting the possibility that both factors could be further investigated
Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine
in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...
Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C; Sullivan, Aideen M
The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on neurones. In an attempt to establish an useful model to study the direct neuronal influence of GDF5, we have characterised the effects of GDF5 on a human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that GDF5 has the capability to promote neuronal but not dopaminergic differentiation. We also show that it promotes neuronal survival in vitro following a 6-hydroxydopamine insult. Our results show that application of GDF5 to SH-SY5Y cultures induces the SMAD pathway which could potentially be implicated in the intracellular transmission of GDF5's neurotrophic effects. Overall, our study shows that the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line provides an excellent neuronal model to study the neurotrophic effects of GDF5.
Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions. However, in diabetic retinopathy (a neuromicrovascular disorder involving immense neuronal degeneration), BDNF fails to provide enough neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced retinal neuronal apoptosis. This review describes the prime reasons for the downregulation of BDNF-mediated neuroprotective actions during hyperglycemia, which renders retinal neurons vulnerable to damaging stimuli, leading to diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.
Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice; Adser, Helle
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has an important role in regulating maintenance, growth and survival of neurons. However, the main source of circulating BDNF in response to exercise is unknown. To identify whether the brain is a source of BDNF during exercise, eight volunteers rowed for 4...... h while simultaneous blood samples were obtained from the radial artery and the internal jugular vein. To further identify putative cerebral region(s) responsible for BDNF release, mouse brains were dissected and analysed for BDNF mRNA expression following treadmill exercise. In humans, a BDNF...... release from the brain was observed at rest (P BDNF, while that contribution decreased following 1 h of recovery. In mice, exercise induced a three...
Levada, O A; Cherednichenko, N V
In this review current publications about neurobiology and marker value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neuropsychiatry are analyzed. It is shown that BDNF is an important member of the family of neurotrophins which widely represented in various structures of the CNS. In prenatal period BDNF is involved in all stages of neuronal networks formation, and in the postnatal period its main role is maintaining the normal brain architectonics, involvement in the processes of neurogenesis and realization of neuroprotective functions. BDNF plays an important role in learning and memory organization, food and motor behavior. BDNF brain expression decreases with age, as well as in degenerative and vascular dementias, affective, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. The reducing of BDNF serum, level reflects the decreasing of its cerebral expression and could be used as a neurobiological marker of these pathological processes but the rising of its concentration could indicate the therapy effectiveness.
Full Text Available Cytokines are key regulatory mediators involved in the host response to immunological challenges, but also play a critical role in the communication between the immune and the central nervous system. For this, their expression in both systems is under a tight regulatory control. However, pathological conditions may lead to an overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may have a detrimental impact on central nervous system. In particular, they may damage neuronal structure and function leading to deficits of neuroplasticity, the ability of nervous system to perceive, respond and adapt to external or internal stimuli.In search of the mechanisms by which pro-inflammatory cytokines may affect this crucial brain capability, we will discuss one of the most interesting hypotheses: the involvement of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which represents one of the major mediators of neuroplasticity.
Halepoto, D. M.; Bashir, S.; AL-Ayadhi, L.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays a vital role in the growth, development, maintenance, and function of several neuronal systems. The purpose of this review is to document the support for the involvement of this molecule in the maintenance of normal cognitive, emotional functioning, and to outline recent developments in the content of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current and future treatment development can be guided by developing understanding of this molecules actions in the brain and the ways the expression of BDNF can be planned. Over the years, research findings suggested a critical role played by BDNF in the development of autism including increased serum concentrations of BDNF in children with autism and identification of different forms of BDNF in families of autistic individuals. (author)
Halepoto, D. M.; Bashir, S.; AL-Ayadhi, L. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physiology
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays a vital role in the growth, development, maintenance, and function of several neuronal systems. The purpose of this review is to document the support for the involvement of this molecule in the maintenance of normal cognitive, emotional functioning, and to outline recent developments in the content of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current and future treatment development can be guided by developing understanding of this molecules actions in the brain and the ways the expression of BDNF can be planned. Over the years, research findings suggested a critical role played by BDNF in the development of autism including increased serum concentrations of BDNF in children with autism and identification of different forms of BDNF in families of autistic individuals. (author)
Meng, X.; de rooij, D. G.; Westerdahl, K.; Saarma, M.; Sariola, H.
We show with transgenic mice that targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in undifferentiated spermatogonia promotes malignant testicular tumors, which express germ-cell markers. The tumors are invasive and contain aneuploid cells, but no distant metastases have
Full Text Available Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10 6 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, maximum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These findings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, improve biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury.
Bus, B.A.A.; Molendijk, M.L.; Tendolkar, I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B.M.; Voshaar, R.C.O.
One of the leading neurobiological hypotheses on depression states that decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to depression. This is supported by consistent findings of low serum BDNF levels in depressed patients compared with non-depressed controls. Whereas it
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...
Conclusion: HJ11 improves depressive-like behaviors in the stress-induced mouse model of depression, and the results indicate that the neuroprotective effect of HJ11, identified by brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression, may play a critical role in its antidepressant effect.
Eisch, A.J.; Bolanos, C.A.; de Wit, J.; Simonak, R.D.; Pudiak, C.M.; Barrot, M.; Verhaagen, J.; Nestler, E.J.
Background: Previous work has shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), are involved in appetitive behavior. Here we show that BDNF in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens (VTA-NAc) pathway is also involved in the development of
Bryn, V; Halvorsen, B; Ueland, T; Isaksen, J; Kolkova, K; Ravn, K; Skjeldal, O H
Neurotrophic factors are essential regulators of neuronal maturation including synaptic synthesis. Among those, Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been in particular focus in the understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of our study was to investigate whether BNDF could be used as diagnostic/biological marker for ASD. For this purpose we examined the plasma levels of BDNF and the precursors pro- BDNF in patients with ASD and compared it with non-autistic controls; determined whether there was a correlation between the BDNF and proBDNF levels and clinical severity. We also investigated the coding region of BDNF identify for well-variations which could be associated to ASD. The 65 ASD patients (51 boys) were enrolled from a recent completed epidemiological survey covering two counties (Oppland and Hedmark) in Norway. The mean age of the total number of children who participated in this study was 11,7 years. 30 non-autistic children were included as controls, 14 boys and 16 girls. The mean age was 11.3 years. Exclusion criteria for control group were individuals suffering from either neurological, endocrine, or immune insuffiency. Patients with ASD were characterized by moderately but significantly elevated plasma levels of BDNF compared to matched controls. No differences were observed in the proBDNF level between patients and controls. Within the ASD group, children with intellectual disability demonstrated increased BDNF, but not proBDNF levels, while the presence of ADHD had no impact on circulating proBDNF or BDNF. No further associations between plasma proBDNF or BDNF and other clinical demographics were observed. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reynolds, A.J.; Bartlett, S.E.; Hendry, I.A.
Full text: Soluble neurotrophic factors such as NGF promote the survival of sympathetic and sensory neuronal populations by binding to receptors present on the nerve terminal and transported to the cell body. This study aimed to establish the molecular mechanisms regulating this process by identifying potential signalling molecules that may be involved using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Adult Balb/c or CBA mice were anaesthetized using 88 μg/g ketamine and 16 μg/g rompun (i.p.) and 1 μl containing 4 μCi of 125 I-labelled NT-3 (37 ng) or pNGF (22 ng) was co-injected with inhibitors into the anterior eye chamber. After 20 hours the accumulated radioactivity was measured in the superior cervical and trigeminal ganglia. The PI3-kinase inhibitor Wortmannin inhibited 125 I-NT-3 transport in the range of 0.1-1 nmol/eye as previously shown with 125 I-βOeGF. The cPLA 2 inhibitor AACOCF3 did not significantly affect the retrograde transport of either 125 I-NT-3 or 125 I-βNGF suggesting that Wortmannin is not influencing the transport of these neurotrophins by inhibiting cPLA 2 activity. The dynein ATPase inhibitor erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)]adenine (1 mM) also selectively reduced 125 I-βNGF transport. Non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not have a significant effect. These results further suggest that PI3-kinase might regulate the intracellular transport of neurotrophic factors, and that retrograde axonal transport of these proteins relies on the dynein motor protein in vivo. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society
Bakos, J; Hlavacova, N; Rajman, M; Ondicova, K; Koros, C; Kitraki, E; Steinbusch, H W M; Jezova, D
The present study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that an enriched environment (EE) induces sex-dependent changes in stress hormone release and in markers of increased brain plasticity. The focus was on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, plasma levels of stress hormones, gene expression of glutamate receptor subunits and concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in selected brain regions. Rats exposed to EE were housed in groups of 12 in large cages with various objects, which were frequently changed, for 6 weeks. Control animals were housed four per cage under standard conditions. In females the EE-induced rise in hippocampal BDNF, a neurotrophic factor associated with increased neural plasticity, was more pronounced than in males. Similar sex-specific changes were observed in BDNF concentrations in the hypothalamus. EE also significantly attenuated oxytocin and aldosterone levels only in female but not male rats. Plasma testosterone positively correlated with hippocampal BDNF in female but not male rats housed in EE. In male rats housing in EE led to enhanced levels of testosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), this was not seen in females. Hippocampal glucocorticoid but not mineralocorticoid receptor levels decreased in rats housed in EE irrespective of sex. Housing conditions failed to modify mRNA levels of glutamate receptor type 1 (Glur1) and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlur5) subunits of glutamate receptors in the forebrain. Moreover, a negative association between corticosterone and BDNF was observed in both sexes. The results demonstrate that the association between hormones and changes in brain plasticity is sex related. In particular, testosterone seems to be involved in the regulatory processes related to neuroplasticity in females.
Hung, Pi-Lien; Huang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Tu, Dom-Gene; Chang, Ying-Chao
Low level of thyroid hormone is a strong independent risk factor for white matter (WM) injury, a major cause of cerebral palsy, in preterm infants. Thyroxin upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor during development. We hypothesized that thyroxin protected against preoligodendrocyte apoptosis and WM injury in the immature brain via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Postpartum (P) day-7 male rat pups were exposed to hypoxic ischemia (HI) and intraperitoneally injected with thyroxin (T4; 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or normal saline immediately after HI at P9 and P11. WM damage was analyzed for myelin formation, axonal injury, astrogliosis, and preoligodendrocyte apoptosis. Neurotrophic factor expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Neuromotor functions were measured using open-field locomotion (P11 and P21), inclined plane climbing (P11), and beam walking (P21). Intracerebroventricular injection of TrkB-Fc or systemic administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was performed. On P11, the HI group had significantly lower blood T4 levels than the controls. The HI group showed ventriculomegaly and marked reduction of myelin basic protein immunoreactivities in the WM. T4 (1 mg/kg) treatment after HI markedly attenuated axonal injury, astrocytosis, and microgliosis, and increased preoligodendrocyte survival. In addition, T4 treatment significantly increased myelination and selectively upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the WM, and improved neuromotor deficits after HI. The protective effect of T4 on WM myelination and neuromotor performance after HI was significantly attenuated by TrkB-Fc. Systemic 7,8-dihydroxyflavone treatment ameliorated hypomyelination after HI injury. T4 protects against WM injury at both pathological and functional levels via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling in the immature brain.
Luo, Beier; Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing; Li, Ming
Regulating the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for their application in traumatic nerve injury, neurodegenerative disorders, and demyelination disease in both central and peripheral nervous systems. The present study investigated the possibility of using electrical stimulation (ES) to activate SCs to release BDNF. We found that short-term ES was capable of promoting BDNF production from SCs, and the maximal BDNF release was achieved by ES at 6 V (3 Hz, 30 min). We further examined the involvement of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) in the ES-induced BDNF production in SCs by pharmacological studies. We found that the ES-induced BDNF release required calcium influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) and calcium mobilization from internal calcium stores, including inositol triphosphate-sensitive stores and caffeine/ryanodine-sensitive stores. In addition, calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were found to play important roles in the ES-induced BDNF release from SCs. In conclusion, ES is capable of activating SCs to secrete BDNF, which requires the involvement of calcium influx through T-type VGCC and calcium mobilization from internal calcium stores. In addition, activation of CaMK IV, MAPK, and CREB were also involved in the ES-induced BDNF release. The findings indicate that ES can improve the neurotrophic ability in SCs and raise the possibility of developing electrically stimulated SCs as a source of cell therapy for nerve injury in both peripheral and central nervous systems. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A
Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum BDNF concentrations.
Full Text Available Edaravone, a clinical drug used to treat strokes, protects against neuronal cell death and memory loss in the ischemic brains of animal models through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we subcutaneously administrated edaravone to mice (3 mg/kg/day for three days immediately after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, and revealed through an immunohistochemical analysis that edaravone (1 accelerated increases in the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus; (2 increased the number of doublecortin-positive neuronal precursor cells in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone; and (3 suppressed the ischemia-induced inactivation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the hippocampus. We also revealed through a Western blotting analysis that edaravone (4 induced the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB, a transcription factor that regulates BDNF gene expression; and (5 induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, an upstream signal factor of CREB. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of edaravone following brain ischemia were mediated not only by the elimination of oxidative stress, but also by the induction of BDNF production.
Wittstein, Kathrin; Rascher, Monique; Rupcic, Zeljka; Löwen, Eduard; Winter, Barbara; Köster, Reinhard W; Stadler, Marc
Three new natural products, corallocins A-C (1-3), along with two known compounds were isolated from the mushroom Hericium coralloides. Their benzofuranone and isoindolinone structures were elucidated by spectral methods. All corallocins induced nerve growth factor and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in human 1321N1 astrocytes. Furthermore, corallocin B showed antiproliferative activity against HUVEC and human cancer cell lines MCF-7 and KB-3-1.
Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian
INTRODUCTION: Members of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well...
Koven, Nancy S; Collins, Larisa R
Neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are vital for neuronal survival and adaptive plasticity. With high BDNF gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, BDNF is a potential regulatory factor for building and maintaining cognitive reserves. Recent studies suggest that individual differences in executive functioning, a broad cognitive domain reliant upon frontal lobe structure and function, are governed in part by variance in BDNF polymorphisms. However, as neurogenetic data are not necessarily indicative of in vivo neurochemistry, this study examines the relationship between executive functioning and the neurotransmitter by measuring peripheral BDNF levels. Fifty-two healthy young adults completed a battery of standardized executive function tests. BDNF levels, adjusted for creatinine, were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of urine samples taken at the time of testing. BDNF concentration was positively associated with cognitive flexibility but had no relationship with working memory, abstract reasoning/planning, self-monitoring/response inhibition, or fluency. These results individuate cognitive flexibility as the specific facet of executive functioning associated with in vivo BDNF levels. This study also validates urinary BDNF as a peripheral biomarker of cognition in healthy adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600
Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Saruta, Juri
The nerve growth factor (NGF) family comprises NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophins (NTs)-3, -4/5, -6 and -7, all of which are collectively referred to as neurotrophins. However, the expression of neurotrophins other than NGF in the salivary gland has not been described in detail. Through interaction with the TrkB receptor, BDNF plays an important role in long-term potentiation. We found that BDNF expression increased within submandibular gland tissue in response to stress, suggesting that the salivary glands are sensitive to stress. In addition, stress caused increases in plasma BDNF derived from the submandibular gland and in TrkB receptor mRNA in the adrenal medulla. Plasma BDNF might activate TrkB receptors in the adrenal medulla during acute stress. The salivary glands are likely to influence not only oral health, but also systemic organs. This review addressed the relationship between hormone-like effects and stress-related BDNF expression in the rat submandibular gland
Safari, Hassan; Khanlarkhani, Neda; Sobhani, Aligholi; Najafi, Atefeh; Amidi, Fardin
The neurotrophin family of proteins and their receptors act as important proliferative and pro-survival factors in differentiation of nerve cells and are thought to play key roles in the development of reproductive tissues and normal function of spermatozoa. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) on the sperm viability and motility, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial activity and concentration of leptin, nitric oxide (NO) and insulin in normozoospermic men. Semen samples from 20 normozoospermic men were divided into three groups: (i) control, (ii) BDNF and (iii) BDNF + K252a. BDNF and K252a were added in the dose of 0.133 and 0.1 nM, respectively. Viability was assessed by eosin-nigrosin staining technique, and motility was observed by microscopy. NO concentration and mitochondrial activity were measured with flow cytometry, and LPO was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results showed that exogenous BDNF at 0.133 nM could significantly (p < 0.05) influence viability, motility, NO concentration, mitochondrial activity and LPO content. Secretions of insulin and leptin by human sperm were increased in cells exposed to the exogenous BDNF, whereas viability, mitochondrial activity and insulin and leptin secretions were decreased in cells exposed to the K252.
Yuan, Bing; Yang, Rui-an; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Yan-yan; Dan, Qi-qin; Zhang, Yun-hui
To investigate expressional changes of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the trachea of rats with acrolein inhalation. Twenty two SD rats were divided into 2 groups: the rats in experimental group were subjected to acrolein inhalation for the induce of trachea inflammatory injury, while the rats with saline (NS) inhalation were as control. All the rats were sacrificed in 1,3,6 weeks after acrolein (n = 11 at each time point) or saline inhalation (n = 11 at each time point), the samples of trachea epithelium were harvested. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization was performed to detect the location of BDNF protein and mRNA in trachea. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the trachea tissues were determined by RT-PCR. There are positive cells in epithelium of trachea for BDNF protein and mRNA, with cytoplasm staining. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the trachea was increased at 1 week after acrolein inhalation (P 0.05). The inflammatory injury in trachea induced by acrolein exposure could be associated with the increased expression of BDNF. BDNF may be one of the crucial inflammatory factors in the process of inflammatory reaction in trachea with acrolein stimulation.
The mechanisms causing improved cognition following acute exercise are poorly understood. This article proposes that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main factor contributing to improved cognition following exercise. Additionally, it argues that cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxidative stress explain the release of BDNF from cerebral endothelial cells. One way to test these hypotheses is to block endothelial function and measure the effect on BDNF levels and cognitive performance. The CBF and oxidative stress can also be examined in relationship to BDNF using a multiple linear regression. If these hypotheses are true, there would be a linear relationship between CBF+oxidative stress and BDNF levels as well as between BDNF levels and cognitive performance. The novelty of these hypotheses comes from the emphasis on the cerebral endothelium and the interplay between BDNF, CBF, and oxidative stress. If found to be valid, these hypotheses would draw attention to the cerebral endothelium and provide direction for future research regarding methods to optimize BDNF release and enhance cognition. Elucidating these mechanisms would provide direction for expediting recovery in clinical populations, such as stroke, and maintaining quality of life in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generaal, Ellen; Milaneschi, Yuri; Jansen, Rick; Elzinga, Bernet M; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) disturbances and life stress, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to induce chronic pain. We examined whether (a) the BDNF pathway (val(66)met genotype, gene expression, and serum levels), (b) early and recent life stress, and (c) their interaction are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Cross-sectional data are from 1646 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain were determined using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) questionnaire. The BDNF val(66)met polymorphism, BDNF gene expression, and BDNF serum levels were measured. Early life stress before the age of 16 was assessed by calculating a childhood trauma index using the Childhood Trauma Interview. Recent life stress was assessed as the number of recent adverse life events using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. Compared to val(66)val, BDNF met carriers more often had chronic pain, whereas no differences were found for BDNF gene expression and serum levels. Higher levels of early and recent stress were both associated with the presence and severity of chronic pain (p stress in the associations with chronic pain presence and severity. This study suggests that the BDNF gene marks vulnerability for chronic pain. Although life stress did not alter the impact of BDNF on chronic pain, it seems an independent factor in the onset and persistence of chronic pain. © The Author(s) 2016.
Olcese, C.; Patel, M.P.; Shoemark, A.; Kiviluoto, S.; Legendre, M.; Williams, H.J.; Vaughan, C.K.; Hayward, J.; Goldenberg, A.; Emes, R.D.; Munye, M.M.; Dyer, L.; Cahill, T.; Bevillard, J.; Gehrig, C.; Guipponi, M.; Chantot, S.; Duquesnoy, P.; Thomas, L.; Jeanson, L.; Copin, B.; Tamalet, A.; Thauvin-Robinet, C.; Papon, J.F.; Garin, A.; Pin, I.; Vera, G.; Aurora, P.; Fassad, M.R.; Jenkins, L.; Boustred, C.; Cullup, T.; Dixon, M.; Onoufriadis, A.; Bush, A.; Chung, E.M.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Loebinger, M.R.; Wilson, R.; Armengot, M.; Escudier, E.; Hogg, C.; Amselem, S.; Sun, Z.; Bartoloni, L.; Blouin, J.L.; Mitchison, H.M.; Schmidts, M.; et al.,
By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of
Wood, Matthew D; MacEwan, Matthew R; French, Alexander R; Moore, Amy M; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E; Moran, Daniel W; Borschel, Gregory H; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E
Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have both been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration following injury and target different neuronal populations. The delivery of either growth factor at the site of injury may, therefore, result in quantitative differences in motor nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In this study we evaluated the effect of affinity-based delivery of GDNF or NGF from fibrin-filled nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) on motor nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a 13 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Seven experimental groups were evaluated consisting of GDNF or NGF and the affinity-based delivery system (DS) within NGCs, control groups excluding the DS and/or growth factor, and nerve isografts. Groups with growth factor in the conduit demonstrated equivalent or superior performance in behavioral tests and relative muscle mass measurements compared to isografts at 12 weeks. Additionally, groups with GDNF demonstrated greater specific twitch and tetanic force production in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle than the isograft control, while groups with NGF produced demonstrated similar force production compared to the isograft control. Assessment of motor axon regeneration by retrograde labeling further revealed that the number of ventral horn neurons regenerating across NGCs containing GDNF and NGF DS was similar to the isograft group and these counts were greater than the groups without growth factor. Overall, the GDNF DS group demonstrated superior functional recovery and equivalent motor nerve regeneration compared to the isograft control, suggesting it has potential as a treatment for motor nerve injury.
I. Yu. Torshin
Full Text Available Higher anxiety results in the decreased levels of various neurotrophic factors and enkephalins and in impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines. The anxiolytic etifoxine is used to treat anxiety states and adjustment disorders. Etifoxine modulates the GABAergic transmission and metabolism of neurosteroids. The latter determines the unique neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of the drug, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, regeneration of nerve fibers, and preservation and regeneration of myelin sheaths. Other important pharmacological effects of an etifoxine molecule have been also discovered; these are to relieve allodynia related to 3α-steroids and GABA receptors and to effectively treat cerebral edema, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and excessive nervous excitability in the presence of alcohol withdrawal. In addition, the chemoreactome simulation of the molecule of etifoxine has established that its attenuated side effects are due to its lower interaction with serotonin, acetylcholine, adrenergic and other neurotransmitter receptors than is shown by benzodiazepines. Etifoxine has been also found to have anti-inflammatory (due to antihistamine and antileukotriene effects and antitumor activities and an ability to affect hemodynamics and vessel walls.The paper presents a systematic analysis of the results of trials of the neurotrophic properties of etifoxine. It considers how the drug stimulates the expression of neurotrophic factors, accelerates the maturation and regeneration of nerve fibers, and regenerates myelin sheaths.The neurotrophic effects of etifoxine along with its anxiolytic activity will accelerate the recovery of patients with different neurological diseases and enhance the quality of their neurorehabilitation.
Géral, Claire; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health problem, but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. The therapeutic use of neurotrophins has been restrained by their instability and rapid degradation in biological medium. A variety of strategies has been proposed for the administration of these leading therapeutic candidates, which are essential for the development, survival and function of human neurons. In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most abundant neurotrophin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Biomimetic peptides of BDNF have emerged as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders. Polymer-based carriers have provided sustained neurotrophin delivery, whereas lipid-based particles have contributed also to potentiation of the BDNF action. Nanotechnology offers new possibilities for the design of vehicles for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Recent developments in nanoscale carriers for encapsulation and transport of BDNF are highlighted. PMID:24300402
Roh, Hee-Tae; So, Wi-Young
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is reported to aid in relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety, though the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and levels of neurotrophic factors, as well as changes in mood state, in patients undergoing CES therapy. Fifty healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to either a Sham CES group (n = 25) or an Active CES group (n = 25). CES treatment was conducted in 20-minute sessions, three times per week for 8 weeks, using a micro current cranial electrotherapy stimulator. Blood samples were collected prior to and following the 8-week treatment period for measurement of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. Changes in mood state were also examined at the time of blood collection using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). No significant differences in cortisol, ACTH, BDNF, or NGF were observed between the two participant groups (p > 0.05) following the treatment period. However, those in the Active CES group exhibited significantly decreased Tension-Anxiety and Depression-Dejection scores on the POMS relative to pre-treatment scores (p 0.05). These results suggest that 8 weeks of CES treatment does not induce changes in blood levels of neurotrophic factors or HPA-axis-related hormones, though such treatment may be effective in treating symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Full Text Available Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP and oxidized LDL (oxLDL, in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years and 17 young males (20-24 years participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001. In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL, hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.
Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Min Hyeop; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon
Ketamine shows promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of depression. The increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine, but the mechanism of BDNF induction is not well understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that the treatment of rats with ketamine results in the dose-dependent rapid upregulation of Bdnf promoter IV activity and expression of Bdnf exon IV mRNAs in rat hippocampal neurons. Transfection of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) into rat hippocampal neurons similarly induces Bdnf mRNA expression in response to ketamine, whereas transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259 and Ser498 replaced by Ala259 and Ala498), results in the suppression of ketamine-mediated BDNF promoter IV transcriptional activity. Viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 induces Bdnf mRNA and protein expression, and blocks the enhancing effects of ketamine on BDNF expression in both unstressed and stressed rats, and thereby providing evidence for the role of HDAC5 in the regulation of Bdnf expression. Taken together, our findings implicate HDAC5 in the ketamine-induced transcriptional regulation of Bdnf, and suggest that the phosphorylation of HDAC5 regulates the therapeutic actions of ketamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, Keiko; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sugiyama, Hayato; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko
With the aim of elucidating the neural mechanisms of early learning, we studied the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in visual imprinting in birds. The telencephalic neural circuit connecting the visual Wulst and intermediate medial mesopallium is critical for imprinting, and the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), situated at the center of this circuit, has a key role in regulating the activity of the circuit. We found that the number of BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo was elevated during the critical period, particularly at its onset, on the day of hatching (P0). After imprinting training on P1, BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo increased in number, and tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkB was observed. BDNF infusion into the HDCo at P1 induced imprinting, even with a weak training protocol that does not normally induce imprinting. In contrast, K252a, an antagonist of Trk, inhibited imprinting. Injection of BDNF at P7, after the critical period, did not elicit imprinting. These results suggest that BDNF promotes the induction of imprinting through TrkB exclusively during the critical period. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L
Nowadays, it is known that brain derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in regulating long-term memory related mechanisms. Previous studies from our group in the insular cortex (IC), a brain structure of the temporal lobe implicated in acquisition, consolidation and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), demonstrated that BDNF is essential for CTA consolidation. Recent studies show that BDNF-TrkB signaling is able to mediate the enhancement of memory. However, whether BDNF into neocortex is able to enhance aversive memories remains unexplored. In the present work, we administrated BDNF in a concentration capable of inducing in vivo neocortical LTP, into the IC immediately after CTA acquisition in two different conditions: a "strong-CTA" induced by 0.2M lithium chloride i.p. as unconditioned stimulus, and a "weak-CTA" induced by 0.1M lithium chloride i.p. Our results show that infusion of BDNF into the IC converts a weak CTA into a strong one, in a TrkB receptor-dependent manner. The present data suggest that BDNF into the adult insular cortex is sufficient to increase an aversive memory-trace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Diane D.; Cole, Nelson B.; Segal, Menahem
Dendritic spines are of major importance in information processing and memory formation in central neurons. Estradiol has been shown to induce an increase of dendritic spine density on hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) recently has been implicated in neuronal maturation, plasticity, and regulation of GABAergic interneurons. We now demonstrate that estradiol down-regulates BDNF in cultured hippocampal neurons to 40% of control values within 24 hr of exposure. This, in turn, decreases inhibition and increases excitatory tone in pyramidal neurons, leading to a 2-fold increase in dendritic spine density. Exogenous BDNF blocks the effects of estradiol on spine formation, and BDNF depletion with a selective antisense oligonucleotide mimics the effects of estradiol. Addition of BDNF antibodies also increases spine density, and diazepam, which facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission, blocks estradiol-induced spine formation. These observations demonstrate a functional link between estradiol, BDNF as a potent regulator of GABAergic interneurons, and activity-dependent formation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. PMID:9736750
Genzer, Yoni; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays crucial roles in the development, maintenance, plasticity and homeostasis of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Perturbing BDNF signaling in mouse brain results in hyperphagia, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Currently, little is known whether BDNF affects liver tissue directly. Our aim was to determine the metabolic signaling pathways activated after BDNF treatment in hepatocytes. Unlike its effect in the brain, BDNF did not lead to activation of the liver AKT pathway. However, AMP protein activated kinase (AMPK) was ∼3 times more active and fatty acid synthase (FAS) ∼2-fold less active, suggesting increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced fatty acid synthesis. In addition, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was ∼3.5-fold less active together with its output the gluconeogenic transcript phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), suggesting reduced gluconeogenesis. The levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3b (GSK3b) was ∼3-fold higher suggesting increased glycogen synthesis. In parallel, the expression levels of the clock genes Bmal1 and Cry1, whose protein products play also a metabolic role, were ∼2-fold increased and decreased, respectively. In conclusion, BDNF binding to hepatocytes leads to activation of catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation. In parallel gluconeogenesis is inhibited, while glycogen storage is triggered. This metabolic state mimics that of after breakfast, in which the liver continues to oxidize fat, stops gluconeogenesis and replenishes glycogen stores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Etnier, Jennifer L; Wideman, Laurie; Labban, Jeffrey D; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Pendleton, Daniel M; Dvorak, Kelly K; Becofsky, Katie
Acute exercise benefits cognition, and some evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in this effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between exercise intensity, memory, and BDNF. Young adults completed 3 exercise sessions at different intensities relative to ventilator threshold (Vt) (VO 2max , Vt - 20%, Vt + 20%). For each session, participants exercised for approximately 30 min. Following exercise, they performed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess short-term memory, learning, and long-term memory recall. Twenty-four hours later, they completed the RAVLT recognition trial, which provided another measure of long-term memory. Blood was drawn before exercise, immediately postexercise, and after the 30-min recall test. Results indicated that long-term memory as assessed after the 24-hr delay differed as a function of exercise intensity with the largest benefits observed following maximal intensity exercise. BDNF data showed a significant increase in response to exercise; however, there were no differences relative to exercise intensity and there were no significant associations between BDNF and memory. Future research is warranted so that we can better understand how to use exercise to benefit cognitive performance.
Katsu-Jiménez, Yurika; Loría, Frida; Corona, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Nido, Javier
Friedreich's ataxia is a predominantly neurodegenerative disease caused by recessive mutations that produce a deficiency of frataxin (FXN). Here, we have used a herpesviral amplicon vector carrying a gene encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to drive its overexpression in neuronal cells and test for its effect on FXN-deficient neurons both in culture and in the mouse cerebellum in vivo. Gene transfer of BDNF to primary cultures of mouse neurons prevents the apoptosis which is triggered by the knockdown of FXN gene expression. This neuroprotective effect of BDNF is also observed in vivo in a viral vector-based knockdown mouse cerebellar model. The injection of a lentiviral vector carrying a minigene encoding for a FXN-specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) into the mouse cerebellar cortex triggers a FXN deficit which is accompanied by significant apoptosis of granule neurons as well as loss of calbindin in Purkinje cells. These pathological changes are accompanied by a loss of motor coordination of mice as assayed by the rota-rod test. Coinjection of a herpesviral vector encoding for BDNF efficiently prevents both the development of cerebellar neuropathology and the ataxic phenotype. These data demonstrate the potential therapeutic usefulness of neurotrophins like BDNF to protect FXN-deficient neurons from degeneration.
Ozer, A B; Demirel, I; Erhan, O L; Firdolas, F; Ustundag, B
Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are associated with neurotransmission and cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia on BDNF levels. It was also to reveal whether this effect had a relationship with the surgical stress response or not. The study included 50 male patients, age 20-40, who were scheduled to have inguinoscrotal surgery, and who were in the ASA I-II risk group. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia techniques used: general (GA) and spinal (SA). In order to measure serum BDNF, cortisol, insulin and glucose levels, blood samples were taken at four different times: before and after anesthesia, end of the surgery, and before transferal from the recovery room. Serum BDNF levels were significantly low (p BDNF and the stress hormones. Our findings suggested that general anesthetics had an effect on serum BDNF levels independent of the stress response. In future, BDNF could be used as biochemical parameters of anesthesia levels, but studies with a greater scope should be carried out to present the relationship between anesthesia and neurotrophins.
Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Czyzyk, Adam; Filipowicz, Dorota; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Ptas, Paula; Piestrzynska, Malgorzata; Smolarczyk, Roman; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a cessation of function of ovaries in women younger than 40 years old. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in neuronal growth and metabolism. BDNF also has been shown to be important regulator of oocyte maturation. Recent data show that BDNF can be potentially involved in POI pathology. The aim of the study was to assess the BDNF plasma concentrations in patients diagnosed with idiopathic POI. 23 women diagnosed with POI (age 31 ± 7 years) and 18 (age 31 ± 3) controls were included to the study, matched according to age and body mass index. The BDNF concentrations were measured using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured in all individuals, in controls in late follicular phase. The POI group demonstrated lower mean plasma concentrations of BDNF (429.25 ± 65.52 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (479.75 ± 34.75 pg/ml, p = 0.0345). The BDNF plasma concentration correlated negatively (R = -0.79, p BDNF and progesterone in controls. In conclusion, POI patients show significantly lower BDNF plasma concentration and it correlates with the duration of amenorrhea. This observation brings important potential insights to the pathology of POI.
Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Xian-Zhang
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates neuronal survival, growth differentiation, and synapse formation, is known to be associated with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the molecular mechanism for those mental disorders remains unknown. Studies have shown that BDNF is associated with PTSD risk and exaggerated startle reaction (a major arousal manifestation of PTSD) in United States military service members who were deployed during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The frequency of the Met/Met in BDNF gene was greater among those with PTSD than those without PTSD. Among individuals who experienced fewer lifetime stressful events, the Met carriers have significantly higher total and startle scores on the PTSD Checklist than the Val/Val carriers. In addition, subjects with PTSD showed higher levels of BDNF in their peripheral blood plasma than the non-probable-PTSD controls. Increased BDNF levels and startle response were observed in both blood plasma and brain hippocampus by inescapable tail shock in rats. In this paper, we reviewed these data to discuss BDNF as a potential biomarker for PTSD risk and its possible roles in the onset of PTSD. PMID:27014593
Kunugi, Hiroshi; Hori, Hiroaki; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro
Although the pathophysiology of depressive disorder remains elusive, two hypothetical frameworks seem to be promising: the involvement of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments. In this review, we focused on research based on these two frameworks in relation to depression and related conditions and tried to formulate an integrated theory of the disorder. Hormonal challenge tests, such as the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test, have revealed elevated HPA activity (hypercortisolism) in at least a portion of patients with depression, although growing evidence has suggested that abnormally low HPA axis (hypocortisolism) has also been implicated in a variety of stress-related conditions. Several lines of evidence from postmortem studies, animal studies, blood levels, and genetic studies have suggested that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanism of action of biological treatments for depression. Considerable evidence has suggested that stress reduces the expression of BDNF and that antidepressant treatments increase it. Moreover, the glucocorticoid receptor interacts with the specific receptor of BDNF, TrkB, and excessive glucocorticoid interferes with BDNF signaling. Altered BDNF function is involved in the structural changes and possibly impaired neurogenesis in the brain of depressed patients. Based on these findings, an integrated schema of the pathological and recovery processes of depression is illustrated. © 2010 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2010 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Taliaz, Dekel; Loya, Assaf; Gersner, Roman; Haramati, Sharon; Chen, Alon; Zangen, Abraham
Chronic stress is a trigger for several psychiatric disorders, including depression; however, critical individual differences in resilience to both the behavioral and the neurochemical effects of stress have been reported. A prominent mechanism by which the brain reacts to acute and chronic stress is activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is inhibited by the hippocampus via a polysynaptic circuit. Alterations in secretion of stress hormones and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were implicated in depression and the effects of antidepressant medications. However, the potential role of hippocampal BDNF in behavioral resilience to chronic stress and in the regulation of the HPA axis has not been evaluated. In the present study, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) to induce depressive-like behaviors after lentiviral vectors were used to induce localized BDNF overexpression or knockdown in the hippocampus. The behavioral outcome was measured during 3 weeks after the CMS procedure, then plasma samples were taken for measurements of corticosterone levels, and finally hippocampal tissue was taken for BDNF measurements. We found that hippocampal BDNF expression plays a critical role in resilience to chronic stress and that reduction of hippocampal BDNF expression in young, but not adult, rats induces prolonged elevations in corticosterone secretion. The present study describes a mechanism for individual differences in responses to chronic stress and implicates hippocampal BDNF in the development of neural circuits that control adequate stress adaptations.
Full Text Available Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7 and heavy smokers (n=7. Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01, whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm than the control group (P=0.02 and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002. In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.
Neves, C D C; Lacerda, A C R; Lima, L P; Lage, V K S; Balthazar, C H; Leite, H R; Mendonça, V A
Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7). Anthropometric parameters and age were paired between the groups, and plasma BDNF and salivary cortisol levels were measured. Saliva samples were collected on awakening, 30 min after awakening, at 10:00 and 12:00 am, 5:00 and 10:00 pm. Additionally, cotinine serum levels were measured in smokers. Heavy smokers had higher mean values of BDNF compared to the control group (P=0.01), whereas no difference was observed in light smokers. Moreover, heavy smokers presented lower cortisol levels in the last collection (10:00 pm) than the control group (P=0.02) and presented statically higher values of cotinine than the light smokers (P=0.002). In conclusion, changes in BDNF and cortisol levels (10:00 pm) appear to be dependent on heavy cigarette smoking and can be involved in activation and in the relationship between the mesolimbic system and the HPA axis.
Full Text Available Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD, 91 by vascular dementia (VAD, 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P<0.001 and a higher BDNF concentration in patients affected by PD (P=0.045. Analyses of effects of pharmacological treatments suggested significantly higher BDNF serum levels in patients taking mood stabilizers/antiepileptics (P=0.009 and L-DOPA (P<0.001 and significant reductions in patients taking benzodiazepines (P=0.020. In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects.
Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo
Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the groups. The right medial orbitofrontal, right lingual, right lateral occipital, left lateral orbitofrontal, left pars triangularis, and left lingual cortices were thinner in patients with MDD than in healthy controls. Among the MDD group, right pericalcarine, right medical orbitofrontal, right rostral middle frontal, right postcentral, right inferior temporal, right cuneus, right precuneus, left frontal pole, left superior frontal, left superior temporal, left rostral middle frontal and left lingual cortices had inverse correlations with methylation of BDNF promoters. Higher levels of BDNF promoter methylation may be closely associated with the reduced cortical thickness among patients with MDD. Serum BDNF levels were significantly lower in MDD, and showed an inverse relationship with BDNF methylation only in healthy controls. Particularly the prefrontal and occipital cortices seem to indicate key regions in which BDNF methylation has a significant effect on structure.
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Śmigielski, Michał; Majerczak, Joanna; Nowak, Łukasz R; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Smoleński, Olgierd; Kulpa, Jan; Duda, Krzysztof; Drzewińska, Joanna; Bartosz, Grzegorz
In the present study we have evaluated the effect of a single hemodialysis session on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in plasma [BDNF](pl) and in serum [BDNF](s) as well as on the plasma isoprostanes concentration [F(2) isoprostanes](pl), plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and plasma cortisol levels in chronic kidney disease patients. Twenty male patients (age 69.8 ± 2.9 years (mean ± SE)) with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis on regular dialysis treatment for 15-71 months participated in this study. A single hemodialysis session, lasting 4.2 ± 0.1 h, resulted in a decrease (P = 0.014) in [BDNF](s) by ~42 % (2,574 ± 322 vs. 1,492 ± 327 pg ml(-1)). This was accompanied by an increase (P 0.05) in [BDNF](pl) and the platelets count were observed after a single dialysis session. Furthermore, basal [BDNF](s) in the chronic kidney disease patients was significantly lower (P = 0.03) when compared to the age-matched control group (n = 23). We have concluded that the observed decrease in serum BDNF level after hemodialysis accompanied by elevated [F(2)-Isoprostanes](pl) and decreased plasma TAC might be caused by enhanced oxidative stress induced by hemodialysis.
Jessica K. Miller
Full Text Available The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF. We propose that quantifying the impact of BDNF on trauma and spatial processing is critical and may well explain individual differences in clinical trauma treatment outcomes and in navigation performance. Research has already shown that the BDNF gene influences PTSD severity and prevalence as well as navigation behaviour. However, more data are required to demonstrate the precise hippocampal dependent processing mechanisms behind these influences in different populations and environmental conditions. This paper provides insight from recent studies and calls for further research into the relationship between allocentric processing, trauma processing and BDNF. We argue that research into these neural mechanisms could transform PTSD clinical practice and professional support for individuals in trauma-exposing occupations such as emergency response, law enforcement and the military.
Miller, Jessica K; McDougall, Siné; Thomas, Sarah; Wiener, Jan
The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF. We propose that quantifying the impact of BDNF on trauma and spatial processing is critical and may well explain individual differences in clinical trauma treatment outcomes and in navigation performance. Research has already shown that the BDNF gene influences PTSD severity and prevalence as well as navigation behaviour. However, more data are required to demonstrate the precise hippocampal dependent processing mechanisms behind these influences in different populations and environmental conditions. This paper provides insight from recent studies and calls for further research into the relationship between allocentric processing, trauma processing and BDNF. We argue that research into these neural mechanisms could transform PTSD clinical practice and professional support for individuals in trauma-exposing occupations such as emergency response, law enforcement and the military.
Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; New, Antonia S; Goldstein, Kim E; Rosell, Daniel; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A
A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 57 subjects (19 BPD patients, 18 patients with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD] and 20 healthy controls [HC]) during a task involving viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, each presented twice to measure habituation. Amygdala responses across genotypes (Val66Met SNP Met allele-carriers vs. Non-Met carriers) and diagnoses (HC, BPD, SPD) were examined with ANOVA. The BDNF 66Met allele was significantly associated with a deficit in amygdala habituation, particularly for emotional pictures. The association of the 66Met allele with a deficit in habituation to unpleasant emotional pictures remained significant in the subsample of BPD patients. Using imaging-genetics, we found preliminary evidence that deficient amygdala habituation may be modulated by BDNF genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ni, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hao; Gu, Qiu-Yan; Wang, Fei-Ying; Wang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Jin-Liang; Jiang, Bo
Major depressive disorder has become one of the most serious neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide. However, currently available antidepressants used in clinical practice are ineffective for a substantial proportion of patients and always have side effects. Besides being a lipid-regulating agent, gemfibrozil is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We investigated the antidepressant effects of gemfibrozil on C57BL/6J mice using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), as well as the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. The changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling cascade in the brain after CUMS and gemfibrozil treatment were further assessed. Pharmacological inhibitors and lentivirus-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were also used to clarify the antidepressant mechanisms of gemfibrozil. Gemfibrozil exhibited significant antidepressant actions in the FST and TST without affecting the locomotor activity of mice. Chronic gemfibrozil administration fully reversed CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors in the FST, TST and sucrose preference test. Gemfibrozil treatment also restored CUMS-induced inhibition of the hippocampal BDNF signaling pathway. Blocking PPAR-α and BDNF but not the serotonergic system abolished the antidepressant effects of gemfibrozil on mice. Gemfibrozil produced antidepressant effects in mice by promoting the hippocampal BDNF system.
Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Casarosa, Elena; Bucci, Fiorella; Piccinino, Manuela; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Polyzos, Nicholas; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Pluchino, Nicola
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is strongly related to hormonal networks and is modulated by hypothalamic activity. To evaluate plasma BDNF concentration in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), with reference to the BDNF circadian rhythm and its relation with the cortisol (F) rhythm, and to assess whether the duration of amenorrhea might influence the BDNF:F ratio in FHA. This was an observational study evaluating 36 amenorrheic and 30 eumenorrheic women. Basal values of BDNF and hormones were examined in blood samples collected from 7:00 to 9:00 h in all the women. Basal BDNF and F levels were determined in blood samples collected in 12 subjects from each group at 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 24:00 h. BDNF plasma levels are significantly lower in amenorrheic women (p 0.05), sex steroids, and F in FHA. Low plasma BDNF levels in FHA are not significantly correlated with duration of amenorrhea. The 24-hour variation of BDNF in amenorrheic women is significantly lower when compared to the control group, and normal daily variations of BDNF disappeared in FHA patients. F preserved its circadian rhythm in both groups. Interactions between BDNF, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and sex steroids might be critical in clinical conditions of modified homeostasis/adaptation, such as FHA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Szuhany, Kristin L; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W
Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three exercise paradigms: (1) a single session of exercise, (2) a session of exercise following a program of regular exercise, and (3) resting BDNF levels following a program of regular exercise. Moderators of this effect were also examined. Results demonstrated a moderate effect size for increases in BDNF following a single session of exercise (Hedges' g = 0.46, p exercise intensified the effect of a session of exercise on BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.59, p = 0.02). Finally, results indicated a small effect of regular exercise on resting BDNF levels (Hedges' g = 0.27, p = 0.005). When analyzing results across paradigms, sex significantly moderated the effect of exercise on BDNF levels, such that studies with more women showed less BDNF change resulting from exercise. Effect size analysis supports the role of exercise as a strategy for enhancing BDNF activity in humans, but indicates that the magnitude of these effects may be lower in females relative to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye
Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001 and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05. We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype.
Objective To explore the association between brainderived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)and suicidal behavior through analyzing and detecting the alteration of plasma BDNF level in depressive patients with suicide attempt.Methods Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis(ELISA)to test the plasma level of BDNF in 27suicidal depressed patients,33 non-suicidal depressed patients and 30 normal controls.Meanwhile,the Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD)and Beck
Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto; Need, Anna C.; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Goldstein, David B.; LaBar, Kevin S.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which has been shown to regulate cell survival and proliferation, as well as synaptic growth and hippocampal long-term potentiation. A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism in the human BDNF gene (val66met) has been associated with altered intercellular trafficking and regulated secretion of BDNF in met compared to val carriers. Additionally, previous studies have found a relationship between the BDNF val66met genotype an...
Goekint, Maaike; Bos, Inge; Heyman, Elsa; Meeusen, Romain; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie
Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein is increased with exercise in rats. Monoamines seem to play a role in the regulation of BDNF, and monoamine neurotransmission is known to increase with exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acute exercise on monoaminergic neurotransmission and BDNF protein concentrations. Hippocampal microdialysis was performed in rats that were subjected to 60 min of treadmill running at 20 m/min or rest. Two hours pos...
Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.
Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a severe psychiatric illness with a consistent genetic influence, involving complex interactions between numerous genes and environmental factors. Immediate early genes (IEGs are activated in the brain in response to environmental stimuli, such as stress. The potential to translate environmental stimuli into long-term changes in brain has led to increased interest in a potential role for these genes influencing risk for psychiatric disorders. Our recent finding using network-based approach has shown that the regulatory unit of early growth response gene 3 (EGR3 of IEGs family was robustly repressed in postmortem prefrontal cortex of BD patients. As a central transcription factor, EGR3 regulates an array of target genes that mediate critical neurobiological processes such as synaptic plasticity, memory and cognition. Considering that EGR3 expression is induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF that has been consistently related to BD pathophysiology, we suggest a link between BDNF and EGR3 and their potential role in BD. A growing body of data from our group and others has shown that peripheral BDNF levels are reduced during mood episodes and also with illness progression. In this same vein, BDNF has been proposed as an important growth factor in the impaired cellular resilience related to BD. Taken together with the fact that EGR3 regulates the expression of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR and may also indirectly induce BDNF expression, here we propose a feed-forward gene regulatory network involving EGR3 and BDNF and its potential role in BD.
Molendijk, M.L.; Bus, B.A.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; Elzinga, B.M.
Recent evidence supports 'the neurotrophin hypothesis of depression' in its prediction that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in depression. However, some key questions remain unanswered, including whether abnormalities in BDNF persist beyond the clinical state of depression,
Conclusion: These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant–antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.
Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.
Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.
Saligan, L N; Lukkahatai, N; Holder, G; Walitt, B; Machado-Vieira, R
Fatigue during cancer treatment is associated with depression. Neurotrophic factors play a major role in depression and stress and might provide insight into mechanisms of fatigue. This study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of three neurotrophic factors (BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDNF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor; and SNAPIN, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion attachment receptor-associated protein) and initial fatigue intensification during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in euthymic non-metastatic prostate cancer men. Fatigue, as measured by the 13-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), and plasma neurotrophic factors were collected at baseline (prior to EBRT) and mid-EBRT. Subjects were categorized into fatigue and no fatigue groups using a > 3-point change in FACT-F scores between the two time points. Multiple linear regressions analysed the associations between fatigue and neurotrophic factors. FACT-F scores of 47 subjects decreased from baseline (43.95 ± 1.3) to mid-EBRT (38.36 ± 1.5, P fatigue. SNAPIN levels were associated with fatigue scores (r s = 0.43, P = 0.005) at baseline. A significant decrease of BDNF concentration (P = 0.008) was found in fatigued subjects during EBRT (n = 39). Baseline SNAPIN and decreasing BDNF levels may influence worsening fatigue during EBRT. Further investigations are warranted to confirm their role in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of fatigue.
Tripp, Adam; Oh, Hyunjung; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Martinowich, Keri; Lewis, David A; Sibille, Etienne
The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the pathology and treatment response of major depressive disorder. Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduced markers for GABA function, including in the amygdala, are reported in major depression, but their contribution to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction is not known. Using polymerase chain reaction, we first assessed the degree to which BDNF controls mRNA expression (defined as BDNF dependency) of 15 genes relating to GABA and neuropeptide functions in the cingulate cortex of mice with reduced BDNF function (BDNF-heterozygous [Bdnf(+/-)] mice and BDNF exon-IV knockout [Bdnf(KIV)] mice). Gene expression was then quantified in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex of 51 postmortem subjects with major depressive disorder and comparison subjects (total subjects, N=102; 49% were women) and compared with previous amygdala results. Based on the results in Bdnf(+/-) and Bdnf(KIV) mice, genes were sorted into high, intermediate, and no BDNF dependency sets. In postmortem human subjects with major depression, BDNF receptor (TRKB) expression, but not BDNF, was reduced. Postmortem depressed subjects exhibited down-regulation in genes with high and intermediate BDNF dependency, including markers of dendritic targeting interneurons (SST, NPY, and CORT) and a GABA synthesizing enzyme (GAD2). Changes extended to BDNF-independent genes (PVALB and GAD1). Changes were greater in men (potentially because of low baseline expression in women), displayed notable differences from prior amygdala results, and were not explained by demographic or clinical factors other than sex. These parallel human/mouse analyses provide direct (low TRKB) and indirect (low expression of BDNF-dependent genes) evidence in support of decreased BDNF signaling in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in individuals with major depressive disorder, implicate dendritic targeting GABA neurons and GABA synthesis
Nubukpo, Philippe; Ramoz, Nicolas; Girard, Murielle; Malauzat, Dominique; Gorwood, Philip
Blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of 6 months, for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs. The Beck Depression Inventory and information on current tobacco and alcohol use, suicidal ideation, body mass index, age, gender, and psychotropic treatments were also collected. Serum BDNF (ELISA) and 2 genetic polymorphisms of the BDNF gene (Val33Met and rs962369) were analyzed. The presence of the Met allele, 2 markers of the history of alcohol dependence (gamma glutamyl transferase and the number of past treatments in detoxification programs), and the presence of a depressive episode (but not depressive score) were significantly associated with the 2 blood levels of BDNF at baseline and after 6 months. After controlling for baseline BDNF levels, the presence of the Met allele and an ongoing depressive episode were the only variables associated with changes in BNDF levels after 6 months. Low serum BDNF levels are associated with characteristics related to alcohol consumption and mood disorders, and variants of the BDNF gene in alcohol use disorder patients. The factors that most strongly influenced changes in serum BDNF levels following treatment in an alcohol detoxification program were variants of the BDNF gene and ongoing depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Flöck, A; Weber, S K; Ferrari, N; Fietz, C; Graf, C; Fimmers, R; Gembruch, U; Merz, W M
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in brain development; additionally, it is involved in various aspects of cerebral function, including neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Involvement of BDNF in parturition has not been investigated. The aim of our study was to analyze determinants of umbilical cord BDNF (UC-BDNF) concentrations of healthy, term newborns and their respective mothers. This cross-sectional prospective study was performed at a tertiary referral center. Maternal venous blood samples were taken on admission to labor ward; newborn venous blood samples were drawn from the umbilical cord (UC), before delivery of the placenta. Analysis was performed with a commercially available immunoassay. Univariate analyses and stepwise multivariate regression models were applied. 120 patients were recruited. UC-BDNF levels were lower than maternal serum concentrations (median 641 ng/mL, IQR 506 vs. median 780 ng/mL, IQR 602). Correlation between UC- and maternal BDNF was low (R=0.251, p=0.01). In univariate analysis, mode of delivery (MoD), gestational age (GA), body mass index at delivery, and gestational diabetes were determinants of UC-BDNF (MoD and smoking for maternal BDNF, respectively). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed a model with MoD and GA as determinants for UC-BDNF (MoD for maternal BDNF). MoD and GA at delivery are determinants of circulating BDNF in the mother and newborn. We hypothesize that BDNF, like other neuroendocrine factors, is involved in the neuroendocrine cascade of delivery. Timing and mode of delivery may exert BDNF-induced effects on the cerebral function of newborns and their mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promotes the development and differentiation of neurons and synapses, as well as neuronal survival, by acting on specific neuronal groups in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, the direct effect of BDNF on apoptosis in peripheral tissues is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between BDNF and apoptosis, and the density and distribution of BDNF receptors in liver and kidney tissues by histological and immunehistochemical methods. Methods: Seven wild-type and 7 BDNF heterozygous (reduced BDNF levels male mice were used in the study. Caspase-3 and TUNEL immunehistochemical stainings were performed in order to investigate the presence of apoptosis in the liver and kidney tissues of the studied groups. Apoptosis-entering cells were counted and the groups were compared. Concentration and distribution of BDNF receptors, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB and nerve growth factor receptor p75 (NGFR p75, in liver and kidney tissues were also examined by immunehistochemical analyzes. Results: As a result of Caspase-3 and TUNEL immune histochemical staining, more cells were counted to enter the apoptotic process in sections of BDNF heterozygous group compared to control group (p<0.0001. In both groups TrkB and NGFR p75 receptors in liver and kidney tissues were determined in trace amounts, but there was no difference in intensity and distribution between the studied groups. Conclusion: According to our histological and immune histochemical stainings and statistical analysis of cell count between groups, it was found that BDNF is protect ive against apoptosis in liver and kidney. The lack of difference between the studied groups in terms of intensity and distribution of BDNF receptors, suggests that BDNF receptor distribution in the liver and kidney tissues may be different from the nervous system or that BDNF may differ in affinity for these receptors.
Full Text Available Pao-Yen Lin1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 2Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Evidence has supported the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in antidepressant effect. The precursor of BDNF (proBDNF often exerts opposing biological effects on mature BDNF (mBDNF. Hence, the balance between proBDNF and mBDNF might be critical in total neurotrophic effects, leading to susceptibility to or recovery from depression. In the current study, we measured the protein expression levels of proBDNF, and its proteolytic products, truncated BDNF, and mBDNF, in human SH-SY5Y cells treated with different antidepressants. We found that the treatment significantly increased the production of mBDNF, but decreased the production of truncated BDNF and proBDNF. These results support that antidepressants can promote proBDNF cleavage. Further studies are needed to clarify whether proBDNF cleavage plays a role in antidepressant mechanisms. Keywords: antidepressant, mature BDNF, neurotrophic effect, proBDNF cleavage
Yoneda, Mitsugu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Katakura, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Tanigami, Hayate; Yachie, Akihiro; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako; Shido, Osamu
Theobromine, which is a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. Theobromine works as a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP activates the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), which is involved in a large variety of brain processes, including the induction of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF supports cell survival and neuronal functions, including learning and memory. Thus, cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways play an important role in learning and memory. Here, we investigated whether orally administered theobromine could act as a PDE inhibitor centrally and affect cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways and learning behavior in mice. The mice were divided into two groups. The control group (CN) was fed a normal diet, whereas the theobromine group (TB) was fed a diet supplemented with 0.05% theobromine for 30 days. We measured the levels of theobromine, phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP), phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), and BDNF in the brain. p-VASP was used as an index of cAMP increases. Moreover, we analyzed the performance of the mice on a three-lever motor learning task. Theobromine was detectable in the brains of TB mice. The brain levels of p-VASP, p-CREB, and BDNF were higher in the TB mice compared with those in the CN mice. In addition, the TB mice performed better on the three-lever task than the CN mice did. These results strongly suggested that orally administered theobromine acted as a PDE inhibitor in the brain, and it augmented the cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways and motor learning in mice. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fox, E A; Biddinger, J E; Jones, K R; McAdams, J; Worman, A
Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KOs) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from the gut to the brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun
To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P BDNF was positively associated with placental BDNF relative expression (r s = 0.245, P = 0.02) in the total group. Higher cord blood BDNF levels were independently associated with protection against nondiabetic macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.
Angart, Phillip A; Carlson, Rebecca J; Thorwall, Sarah; Patrick Walton, S
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family critical for neuronal cell survival and differentiation, with therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurological disorders and spinal cord injuries. The production of recombinant, bioactive BDNF is not practical in most traditional microbial expression systems because of the inability of the host to correctly form the characteristic cystine-knot fold of BDNF. Here, we investigated Brevibacillus choshinensis as a suitable expression host for bioactive BDNF expression, evaluating the effects of medium type (2SY and TM), temperature (25 and 30 °C), and culture time (48-120 h). Maximal BDNF bioactivity (per unit mass) was observed in cultures grown in 2SY medium at extended times (96 h at 30 °C or >72 h at 25 °C), with resulting bioactivity comparable to that of a commercially available BDNF. For cultures grown in 2SY medium at 25 °C for 72 h, the condition that led to the greatest quantity of biologically active protein in the shortest culture time, we recovered 264 μg/L of BDNF. As with other microbial expression systems, BDNF aggregates did form in all culture conditions, indicating that while we were able to recover biologically active BDNF, further optimization of the expression system could yield still greater quantities of bioactive protein. This study provides confirmation that B. choshinensis is capable of producing biologically active BDNF and that further optimization of culture conditions could prove valuable in increasing BDNF yields.
Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Grau, James W
Noxious stimulation can induce a lasting increase in neural excitability within the spinal cord (central sensitization) that can promote pain and disrupt adaptive function (maladaptive plasticity). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate the development of plasticity and has been shown to impact the development of spinally-mediated central sensitization. The latter effect has been linked to an alteration in GABA-dependent inhibition. Prior studies have shown that, in spinally transected rats, exposure to regular (fixed spaced) stimulation can counter the development of maladaptive plasticity and have linked this effect to an up-regulation of BDNF. Here it is shown that application of the irritant capsaicin to one hind paw induces enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR) after spinal cord injury (SCI) and that the induction of this effect is blocked by pretreatment with fixed spaced shock. This protective effect was eliminated if rats were pretreated with the BDNF sequestering antibody TrkB-IgG. Intrathecal (i.t.) application of BDNF prevented, but did not reverse, capsaicin-induced EMR. BDNF also attenuated cellular indices (ERK and pERK expression) of central sensitization after SCI. In uninjured rats, i.t. BDNF enhanced, rather than attenuated, capsaicin-induced EMR and ERK/pERK expression. These opposing effects were related to a transformation in GABA function. In uninjured rats, BDNF reduced membrane-bound KCC2 and the inhibitory effect of the GABA A agonist muscimol. After SCI, BDNF increased KCC2 expression, which would help restore GABAergic inhibition. The results suggest that SCI transforms how BDNF affects GABA function and imply that the clinical usefulness of BDNF will depend upon the extent of fiber sparing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenwood, B N; Strong, P V; Foley, T E; Thompson, R S; Fleshner, M
Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus have been implicated in human affective disorders and behavioral stress responses. The current studies examined the role of BDNF in the behavioral consequences of inescapable stress, or learned helplessness. Inescapable stress decreased BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of sedentary rats. Rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for either 3 or 6 weeks prior to exposure to stress were protected against stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF protein. The observed prevention of stress-induced deceases in BDNF, however, occurred in a time course inconsistent with the prevention of learned helplessness by wheel running, which is evident following 6 weeks, but not 3 weeks, of wheel running. BDNF suppression in physically active rats was produced by administering a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) just prior to stress. Despite reduced levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA following stress, physically active rats given the combination of fluoxetine and stress remained resistant against learned helplessness. Sedentary rats given both fluoxetine and stress still demonstrated typical learned helplessness behaviors. Fluoxetine by itself reduced BDNF mRNA in sedentary rats only, but did not affect freezing or escape learning 24 h later. Finally, bilateral injections of BDNF (1 mug) into the dentate gyrus prior to stress prevented stress-induced reductions of hippocampal BDNF but did not prevent learned helplessness in sedentary rats. These data indicate that learned helplessness behaviors are independent of the presence or absence of hippocampal BDNF because blocking inescapable stress-induced BDNF suppression does not always prevent learned helplessness, and learned helplessness does not always occur in the presence of reduced BDNF. Results also suggest that the prevention of stress-induced hippocampal BDNF suppression is not
Gomez-Pinilla, F; Zhuang, Y; Feng, J; Ying, Z; Fan, G
We have evaluated the possibility that the action of voluntary exercise on the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule important for rat hippocampal learning, could involve mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. We focused the studies on the Bdnf promoter IV, as this region is highly responsive to neuronal activity. We have found that exercise stimulates DNA demethylation in Bdnf promoter IV, and elevates levels of activated methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, as well as BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that exercise increases acetylation of histone H3, and protein assessment showed that exercise elevates the ratio of acetylated :total for histone H3 but had no effects on histone H4 levels. Exercise also reduces levels of the histone deacetylase 5 mRNA and protein implicated in the regulation of the Bdnf gene [N.M. Tsankova et al. (2006)Nat. Neurosci., 9, 519-525], but did not affect histone deacetylase 9. Exercise elevated the phosphorylated forms of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cAMP response element binding protein, implicated in the pathways by which neural activity influences the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, i.e. Bdnf. These results showing the influence of exercise on the remodeling of chromatin containing the Bdnf gene emphasize the importance of exercise on the control of gene transcription in the context of brain function and plasticity. Reported information about the impact of a behavior, inherently involved in the daily human routine, on the epigenome opens exciting new directions and therapeutic opportunities in the war against neurological and psychiatric disorders. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Naert, G; Zussy, C; Tran Van Ba, C; Chevallier, N; Tang, Y-P; Maurice, T; Givalois, L
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be highly involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation during adulthood, playing an important role in homeostasis maintenance. The present study aimed to determine the involvement of BDNF in HPA axis activity under basal and stress conditions via partial inhibition of this endogenous neurotrophin. Experiments were conducted in rats and mice with two complementary approaches: (i) BDNF knockdown with stereotaxic delivery of BDNF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the lateral ventricle of adult male rats and (ii) genetically induced knockdown (KD) of BDNF expression specifically in the central nervous system during the first ontogenesis in mice (KD mice). Delivery of siRNA in the rat brain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus (-31%) and hypothalamus (-35%) but not in the amygdala, frontal cortex and pituitary. In addition, siRNA induced no change of the basal HPA axis activity. BDNF siRNA rats exhibited decreased BDNF levels and concomitant altered adrenocortoctrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress, suggesting the involvement of BDNF in the HPA axis adaptive response to stress. In KD mice, BDNF levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus were decreased by 20% in heterozygous and by 60% in homozygous animals compared to wild-type littermates. Although, in heterozygous KD mice, no significant change was observed in the basal levels of plasma ACTH and corticosterone, both hormones were significantly increased in homozygous KD mice, demonstrating that robust cerebral BDNF inhibition (60%) is necessary to affect basal HPA axis activity. All of these results in both rats and mice demonstrate the involvement and importance of a robust endogenous pool of BDNF in basal HPA axis regulation and the pivotal function of de novo BDNF synthesis in the establishment of an adapted response to stress. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.
Harb, H; González-de-la-Vara, M; Thalheimer, L; Klein, U; Renz, H; Rose, M; Kruse, J; Potaczek, D P; Peters, E M J
To study pathogenic stress-effects in health and disease, it is paramount to define easy access parameters for non-invasive analysis of biological change in response to stress. Hair samples successfully provide this access for the study of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) changes. In this study, we assess the hair expression and corresponding epigenetic changes of a neurotrophin essential for autonomic nervous system function and mental health: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In three independent studies in healthy academic volunteers (study I: German students, N=36; study II, German academic population sample, N=28; study III: Mexican students, N=115), BDNF protein expression or BDNF gene (BDNF) histone acetylation was determined. Simultaneously, mental distress and distress-associated somatic complaints were assessed by self-report. In study I, we found a negative correlation between hair-BDNF protein level and hair-cortisol as well as between hair-BDNF and somatic complaints, while hair-cortisol correlated positively with mental distress. In study II, we found a negative correlation between H4 histone acetylation at the BDNF gene P4-promoter and somatic complaints. Regression analysis confirmed confounder stability of associations in both studies. In study III, we confirmed study I and found lower hair-BDNF protein level in volunteers with high somatic complaints, who also reported higher mental distress during the end of term exams. The results indicate that BDNF protein levels can be detected in clipped hair and are associated with somatic complaints and stress in life. In addition, we concluded that plucked hair can provide material for the study of epigenetic changes in stress-affected tissues. These tools can prove valuable for future studies on distress, both under experimental and field conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit
Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.
Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Michele; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, Blazej; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a non organic, secondary amenorrhea related to gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile secretion impairment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays an important role in the growth, development, maintenance and function of several neuronal systems. The aim of the study was the evaluation of plasma BDNF concentrations in patients with the diagnosis of FHA. We studied 85 subjects diagnosed with FHA who were compared with 10 healthy, eumenorrheic controls with normal body mass index. Plasma BDNF and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by immunoenzymatic method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Significantly lower concentration of plasma BDNF was found in FHA patients (196.31 ± 35.26 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (407.20 ± 25.71 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). In the control group, there was a strong positive correlation between plasma BDNF and serum E2 concentrations (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) but in FHA group it was not found. Role of BDNF in FHA is not yet fully understood. There could be found studies concerning plasma BDNF concentrations in humans and animals in the literature. However, our study is one of the first projects which describes decreased plasma BDNF concentration in patients with diagnosed FHA. Therefore, further studies on BDNF in FHA should clarify the role of this peptide.
Xu, Danfeng; Lian, Di; Wu, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Mingjie; Sun, Jiaming; He, Dake; Li, Ling
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis is a serious inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The inflammatory processes initiated by recognition of bacterial components contribute to apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has long been recommended for the treatment of CNS diseases due to its powerful neuro-survival properties, as well as its recently reported anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDNF-related signaling on the inflammatory response and hippocampal apoptosis in experimental models of pneumococcal meningitis. Pretreatment with exogenous BDNF or the tropomyosin-receptor kinase B (TrkB) inhibitor k252a was performed to assess the activation or inhibition of the BDNF/TrkB-signaling axis prior to intracisternal infection with live S. pneumoniae. At 24 h post-infection, rats were assessed for clinical severity and sacrificed to harvest the brains. Paraffin-embedded brain sections underwent hematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate pathological severity, and cytokine and chemokine levels in the hippocampus and cortex were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, apoptotic neurons were detected in the hippocampal dentate gyrus by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-nick-end labeling, key molecules associated with the related signaling pathway were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Rats administered BDNF exhibited reduced clinical impairment, pathological severity, and hippocampal apoptosis. Furthermore, BDNF pretreatment suppressed the expression of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and increased the expression of the anti
Subedi, Lochan; Huang, Hong; Pant, Amrita; Westgate, Philip M; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J; Sithisarn, Thitinart
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS. To compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS. This is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS. 67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p = 0.028). Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group ( p = 0.04). There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p = 0.47). There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay ( p = 0.68) among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p = 0.045). Plasma BDNF level was significantly increased in NAS infants
Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio
It has been reported that music may have physiological effects on blood pressure, cardiac heartbeat, respiration, and improve mood state in people affected by anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, the physiological bases of these phenomena are not clear. Hypothalamus is a brain region involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression through the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic functions are also influenced by the presence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music exposure in mice on hypothalamic levels of BDNF and NGF. We exposed young adult mice to slow rhythm music (6h per day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 dB) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment mice were sacrificed and BDNF and NGF levels in the hypothalamus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that music exposure significantly enhanced BDNF levels in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we observed that music-exposed mice had decreased NGF hypothalamic levels. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music in mice can influence neurotrophin production in the hypothalamus. Our findings also suggest that physiological effects of music might be in part mediated by modulation of neurotrophins.
Irina Vladimirovna Gatskikh
Full Text Available One of the heavy progressive vascular complications of type 2 diabetes is a central nervous system, manifesting cognitive dysfunction due to metabolic changes. Goal. Defining the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The study involved 83 patients with type 2 diabetes at the age of 40 - 70 years. Complex examination included clinical and laboratory examination, neuropsychological testing. To screen for cognitive impairment used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOS test. To identify early markers of cognitive impairment was determined the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Results. The study found a negative correlation between the level of BDNF and the HbA1c (r = - 0,494, p = 0.01, fasting glucose (r = - 0,499, p = 0.01, and a positive relationship between the level of BDNF and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. In patients with type 2 diabetes revealed cognitive dysfunction in the form of reduced memory, attention, optical-dimensional activity that correlated with chronic hyperglycemia. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the complex diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. With an increase in HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes reduces the level of BDNF in the blood plasma, and a decline in cognitive function. Recommended use of BDNF as an additional marker of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of fluid ingestion during exercise in different environments on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognition among athletes. Ten collegiate male athletes (soccer, n = 5; rugby, n = 5 were enrolled, and they completed running tests in the following four conditions (60 min each: 1 thermoneutral temperature at 18°C (group 18; 2 high ambient temperature at 32°C without fluid ingestion (group 32; 3 high ambient temperature at 32°C with water ingestion (group 32+W; and 4 high ambient temperature at 32°C with sports drink ingestion (group 32+S. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels significantly increased in group 18 immediately after exercise when compared with those at rest and were significantly higher than those in group 32 immediately and 60 min after exercise (p < 0.05. In the Stroop Color and Word Test, significantly increased Word, Color, and Color-Word scores were observed in group 18 immediately after exercise compared to those at rest (p < 0.05. However, the Color-Word score appeared to be significantly lower in group 32 immediately after exercise compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 and at 60 min post-exercise compared to group 18 (p < 0.05. We found that the exercise performed in a thermoneutral environment improved cognitive function, but the exercise performed in a hot environment did not. The differences according to the exercise environment would be largely affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and fluid ingestion regardless of the type of drink (water or sports beverage was assumed to have contributed to the improvement in cognitive function caused by exercising in a hot environment.
Barras, Florian M; Kuntzer, Thierry; Zurn, Anne D; Pasche, Philippe
Facial nerve regeneration is limited in some clinical situations: in long grafts, by aged patients, and when the delay between nerve lesion and repair is prolonged. This deficient regeneration is due to the limited number of regenerating nerve fibers, their immaturity and the unresponsiveness of Schwann cells after a long period of denervation. This study proposes to apply glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on facial nerve grafts via nerve guidance channels to improve the regeneration. Two situations were evaluated: immediate and delayed grafts (repair 7 months after the lesion). Each group contained three subgroups: a) graft without channel, b) graft with a channel without neurotrophic factor; and c) graft with a GDNF-releasing channel. A functional analysis was performed with clinical observation of facial nerve function, and nerve conduction study at 6 weeks. Histological analysis was performed with the count of number of myelinated fibers within the graft, and distally to the graft. Central evaluation was assessed with Fluoro-Ruby retrograde labeling and Nissl staining. This study showed that GDNF allowed an increase in the number and the maturation of nerve fibers, as well as the number of retrogradely labeled neurons in delayed anastomoses. On the contrary, after immediate repair, the regenerated nerves in the presence of GDNF showed inferior results compared to the other groups. GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor to improve facial nerve regeneration in grafts performed several months after the nerve lesion. However, GDNF should not be used for immediate repair, as it possibly inhibits the nerve regeneration.
Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul
of improving this issue, the single and combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on oocyte developmental competence were investigated. Porcine cumulus–oocyte cell complexes (COCs) were matured in serum-free medium supplemented with EGF (0, 10...... with the combination of EGF and GDNF was shown to significantly improve oocyte competence in terms of blastocyst formation, blastocyst cell number and blastocyst hatching rate (P
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II
Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenic
KIM, JIN HEE
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains demonstrate decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increased levels of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), which is neurotoxic. The present study assessed the impact of BDNF on the toxic effects of Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis and the effects on BDNF-mediated signaling using the MTT assay, western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Aβ25–35 was found to induce an apoptosis, dose-dependent effect on SH-SY5Y neuro...
Das, Undurti N
Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and catecholamines and cytokines are altered. Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are needed for the normal metabolism of neurotrophic factors, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitters, supporting reports of their alterations in autism. But, the exact relationship among these factors and their interaction with genes and proteins concerned with brain development and growth is not clear. It is suggested that maternal infections and inflammation and adverse events during intrauterine growth of the fetus could lead to alterations in the gene expression profile and proteomics that results in dysfunction of the neuronal function and neurotransmitters, alteration(s) in the metabolism of PUFAs and their metabolites resulting in excess production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids that ultimately results in the development of autism. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that selective delivery of BDNF and methods designed to augment the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and PUFAs may prevent, arrest, or reverse the autism disease process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lutiana R. Simões
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF expression in the hippocampus and on memory in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The mood-stabilizer lithium is known as a neuroprotective agent with many effects on the brain. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 109 CFU/mL. Eighteen hours after induction, all animals received ceftriaxone. The animals received saline or lithium (47.5 mg/kg or tamoxifen (1 mg/kg as adjuvant treatment, and they were separated into six groups: control/saline, control/lithium, control/tamoxifen, meningitis/saline, meningitis/lithium, and meningitis/tamoxifen. Ten days after meningitis induction, animals were subjected to open-field habituation and the step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. Immediately after these tasks, the animals were killed and their hippocampus was removed to evaluate the expression of BDNF, NGF, and GDNF. In the meningitis group, treatment with lithium and tamoxifen resulted in improvement in memory. Meningitis group showed decreased expression of BDNF and GDNF in the hippocampus while lithium reestablished the neurotrophin expression. Lithium was able to prevent memory impairment and reestablishes hippocampal neurotrophin expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
Full Text Available BackgroundBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS.ObjectiveTo compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS.MethodsThis is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS.Results67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p = 0.028. Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group (p = 0.04. There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p = 0.47. There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay (p = 0.68 among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p = 0.045.ConclusionPlasma BDNF
Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A; Majerczak, J; Grandys, M; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Duda, K
It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of
Ooi, Cara L; Kennedy, James L; Levitan, Robert D
Increased food intake is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic in all age groups. Elucidating brain systems that drive overeating and that might serve as targets for novel prevention and treatment interventions is thus a high priority for obesity research. The authors consider 2 major pathways by which decreased activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may confer vulnerability to overeating and weight gain in an obesogenic environment. The first "direct" pathway focuses on the specific role of BDNF as a mediator of food intake control at brain areas rich in BDNF receptors, including the hypothalamus and hindbrain. It is proposed that low BDNF activity limited to this direct pathway may best explain overeating and obesity outside the context of major neuropsychiatric disturbance. A second "indirect" pathway considers the broad neurotrophic effects of BDNF on key monoamine systems that mediate mood dysregulation, impulsivity, and executive dysfunction as well as feeding behavior per se. Disruption in this pathway may best explain overeating and obesity in the context of various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorders, attention-deficit disorder, and/or binge eating disorders. An integrative model that considers these potential roles of BDNF in promoting obesity is presented. The implications of this model for the early prevention and treatment of obesity are also considered.
Schüle, Cornelius; Zill, Peter; Baghai, Thomas C; Eser, Daniela; Zwanzger, Peter; Wenig, Nadine; Rupprecht, Rainer; Bondy, Brigitta
Data suggest that both neurotrophic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) systems are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the non-conservative brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has an impact on HPA axis activity in depressed patients. At admission, the dexamethasone/CRH (DEX/CRH) test was performed in 187 drug-free in-patients suffering from major depression or depressed state of bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Moreover, genotyping of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was carried out using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method (FRET). Homozygous carriers of the Met/Met genotype showed a significantly higher HPA axis activity during the DEX/CRH test than patients carrying the Val/Val or Val/Met genotype (ACTH, cortisol). Our results further contribute to the hypothesized association between HPA axis dysregulation and reduced neuroplasticity in depression and are consistent with the assumption that BDNF is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying HPA axis activity.
Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.
Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate neurotrophins expression and neurotrophic effect change in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs under different types of stimulation. METHODS: Rats were exposed in 10,000 lux white light to develop light-induced retinal injury. Supernatants of homogenized retina (SHR, either from normal or light-injured retina, were used to stimulate MSCs. Quantitative real time for polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were conducted for analysis the expression change in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF in MSCs after stimulation. Conditioned medium from SHR-stimulated MSCs and control MSCs were collected for evaluation their effect on retinal explants. RESULTS: Supernatants of homogenized retina from light-injured rats significantly promoted neurotrophins secretion from MSCs (p<0.01. Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells stimulated by light-injured SHR significantly reduced DNA fragmentation (p<0.01, up-regulated bcl-2 (p<0.01 and down-regulated bax (p<0.01 in retinal explants, displaying enhanced protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: Light-induced retinal injury is able to enhance neurotrophins secretion from mesenchymal stem cells and promote the neurotrophic effect of mesenchymal stem cells.
Roh, Hee-Tae; Cho, Su-Youn; Yoon, Hyung-Gi; So, Wi-Young
We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise intensity on oxidative-nitrosative stress, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Fifteen healthy men performed treadmill running under low-intensity (LI), moderate-intensity (MI), and high-intensity (HI) conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before exercise (IBE), immediately after exercise (IAE), and 60 min after exercise (60MAE) to examine oxidative-nitrosative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]; nitric oxide [NO]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]; nerve growth factor [NGF]), and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (S-100β; neuron-specific enolase). ROS concentration significantly increased IAE and following HI (4.9 ± 1.7 mM) compared with that after LI (2.8 ± 1.4 mM) exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p .05). Moderate- and/or high-intensity exercise may induce higher oxidative-nitrosative stress than may low-intensity exercise, which can increase peripheral neurotrophic factor levels by increasing BBB permeability.
Karina Soares de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anxiety and obsessive-compulsive related disorders are highly prevalent and disabling disorders for which there are still treatment gaps to be explored. Fear is a core symptom of these disorders and its learning is highly dependent on the activity of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Should BDNF-mediated fear learning be considered a target for the development of novel treatments for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive related disorders? We review the evidence that suggests that BDNF expression is necessary for the acquisition of conditioned fear, as well as for the recall of its extinction. We describe the findings related to fear learning and genetic/epigenetic manipulation of Bdnf expression in animals and BDNF allelic variants in humans. Later, we discuss how manipulation of BDNF levels represents a promising potential treatment target that may increase the benefits of therapies that extinguish previously conditioned fear.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin, which plays an important role in the central nervous system, and systemic or peripheral inflammatory conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. BDNF is also expressed in several nonneuronal tissues, and platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. Here, we reviewed the potential role of BDNF in platelet reactivity in T2DM and its association with selected inflammatory and platelet activation mediators. Besides that, we focused on adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin which are considered to take part in inflammation and both lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients as previous studies showed the relation between adipocytokines and BDNF. We also reviewed the evidences of the antidiabetic effect of BDNF and the association with circulating inflammatory cytokines in T2DM.
Ericksen Mielle Borba
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]. Methods: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results: MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion: The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.
Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes
Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.
Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob
.035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls....... standardized procedures. RESULTS: With adjustment for age, pubertal status and body mass index, mean physical activity (counts per minute) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.013). Similarly, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow...
Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku
Some clinical studies have reported reduced peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) level in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We verified whether a reduction in plasma GDNF level was associated with MDD. Plasma GDNF level was measured in 23 healthy control subjects and 23 MDD patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma GDNF level in MDD patients at baseline did not differ from that in healthy controls. Plasma GDNF in MDD patients did not differ significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. GDNF level was significantly lower in recurrent-episode MDD patients than in first-episode patients before and after treatment. Our findings revealed significantly lower plasma GDNF level in recurrent-episode MDD patients, although plasma GDNF levels in MDD patients and healthy controls did not differ significantly. The discrepancy between our study and previous studies might arise from differences in the recurrence of depression or the ages of the MDD patients.
Montero, Sergio; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Lemus, Mónica; Avalos, Reyes; Ramírez, Gladys; de Álvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces
Neuronal systems, which regulate energy intake, energy expenditure and endogenous glucose production, sense and respond to input from hormonal related signals that convey information from body energy availability. Carotid chemoreceptors (CChr) function as sensors for circulating glucose levels and contribute to glycemic counterregulatory responses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that plays an important role in the endocrine system to regulate glucose metabolism could play a role in hyperglycemic glucose reflex with brain glucose retention (BGR) evoked by anoxic CChr stimulation. Infusing BDNF into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) before CChr stimulation, showed that this neurotrophin increased arterial glucose and BGR. In contrast, BDNF receptor (TrkB) antagonist (K252a) infusions in NTS resulted in a decrease in both glucose variables.
Elzinga, Bernet M.; Molendijk, Marc L.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Prickaerts, Jos; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.
Recent findings show lowered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD). Exposure to stressful life events may (partly) underlie these BDNF reductions, but little is known about the effects of early or recent life stress on BDNF levels. Moreover, the effects
Elzinga, B.M.; Molendijk, M.L.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; Bus, B.A.A.; Prickaerts, J.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Rationale: Recent findings show lowered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD). Exposure to stressful life events may (partly) underlie these BDNF reductions, but little is known about the effects of early or recent life stress on BDNF levels. Moreover,
Elzinga, B.M.; Molendijk, M.L.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Bus, B.A.A.; Prickaerts, J.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.J.
RATIONALE: Recent findings show lowered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD). Exposure to stressful life events may (partly) underlie these BDNF reductions, but little is known about the effects of early or recent life stress on BDNF levels. Moreover,
Creemers, L. B.; Meng, X.; den Ouden, K.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Izadyar, F.; Santoro, M.; Sariola, H.; de rooij, D. G.
With a novel method of eliminating spermatogenesis in host animals, male germ cells isolated from mice with targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted to evaluate their ability to reproduce the phenotype previously found in the transgenic animals.
El-Sayed, Mona; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Jens D
The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA levels in primary neuronal cultures of rat frontal cortex was characterized pharmacologically and compared to the effect on expression of c-fos, bdnf, neuritin, cox-2 as examples...
Noble, Emily E; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Little, Morgan R; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng
Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. To test the effects of exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory, we compared cognitive scores of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised by voluntary running wheel (RW) access or forced treadmill (TM) to sedentary (Sed) animals. Memory was tested by two-way active avoidance test (TWAA), in which animals are exposed to a brief shock in a specific chamber area. When an animal avoids, escapes or has reduced latency to do either, this is considered a measure of memory. In a second experiment, rats were fed either a high-fat diet or control diet for 16 weeks, then randomly assigned to running wheel access or sedentary condition, and TWAA memory was tested once a week for 7 weeks of exercise intervention. Both groups of exercised animals had improved memory as indicated by reduced latency to avoid and escape shock, and increased avoid and escape episodes (pdiet resulted in poor performance during both the acquisition and retrieval phases of the memory test as compared to controls. Exercise reversed high-fat diet-induced memory impairment, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region. These data suggest that exercise improves memory retrieval, particularly with respect to avoiding aversive stimuli, and may be beneficial in protecting against diet induced cognitive decline, likely via elevated BDNF in neurons of the CA3 region. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene polymorphisms are associated with abnormalities in regulation of BDNF secretion. Studies also linked BDNF polymorphisms with changes in brainstem auditory-evoked response test results. Furthermore, BDNF levels are reduced in tinnitus, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysthymic disorder that may be associated with stress, conversion disorder, and suicide attempts due to crises of life. For this purpose, we investigated whether there is any role of BDNF changes in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the possible effects of BDNF variants in individuals diagnosed with tinnitus for more than 3 months. Fifty-two tinnitus subjects between the ages of 18 and 55, and 42 years healthy control subjects in the same age group, who were free of any otorhinolaryngology and systemic disease, were selected for examination. The intensity of tinnitus and depression was measured using the tinnitus handicap inventory, and the differential diagnosis of psychiatric diagnoses made using the Structured Clinical Interview for Fourth Edition of Mental Disorders. BDNF gene polymorphism was analyzed in the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA samples extracted from the venous blood, and the serum levels of BDNF were measured. One-way analysis of variance and Chi-squared tests were applied. Results: Serum BDNF level was found lower in the tinnitus patients than controls, and it appeared that there is no correlation between BDNF gene polymorphism and tinnitus. Conclusions: This study suggests neurotrophic factors such as BDNF may have a role in tinnitus etiology. Future studies with larger sample size may be required to further confirm our results.
Coskunoglu, Aysun; Orenay-Boyacioglu, Seda; Deveci, Artuner; Bayam, Mustafa; Onur, Ece; Onan, Arzu; Cam, Fethi S
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms are associated with abnormalities in regulation of BDNF secretion. Studies also linked BDNF polymorphisms with changes in brainstem auditory-evoked response test results. Furthermore, BDNF levels are reduced in tinnitus, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysthymic disorder that may be associated with stress, conversion disorder, and suicide attempts due to crises of life. For this purpose, we investigated whether there is any role of BDNF changes in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. In this study, we examined the possible effects of BDNF variants in individuals diagnosed with tinnitus for more than 3 months. Fifty-two tinnitus subjects between the ages of 18 and 55, and 42 years healthy control subjects in the same age group, who were free of any otorhinolaryngology and systemic disease, were selected for examination. The intensity of tinnitus and depression was measured using the tinnitus handicap inventory, and the differential diagnosis of psychiatric diagnoses made using the Structured Clinical Interview for Fourth Edition of Mental Disorders. BDNF gene polymorphism was analyzed in the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples extracted from the venous blood, and the serum levels of BDNF were measured. One-way analysis of variance and Chi-squared tests were applied. Serum BDNF level was found lower in the tinnitus patients than controls, and it appeared that there is no correlation between BDNF gene polymorphism and tinnitus. This study suggests neurotrophic factors such as BDNF may have a role in tinnitus etiology. Future studies with larger sample size may be required to further confirm our results.
Full Text Available Eugene Lin1,7, Po See Chen2,6,7, Lung-Cheng Huang3,4, Sen-Yen Hsu51Vita Genomics, Inc., Wugu Shiang, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital and College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Taiwan; 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychiatry, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Dou-liou Branch, Yunlin, Taiwan; 7These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can be used in clinical association studies to determine the contribution of genes to drug efficacy. A common SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, a methionine (Met substitution for valine (Val at codon 66 (Val66Met, is a candidate SNP for influencing antidepressant treatment outcome. In this study, our goal was to determine the relationship between the Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene and the rapid antidepressant response to venlafaxine in a Taiwanese population with MDD. Overall, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was found not to be associated with short-term venlafaxine treatment outcome. However, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism showed a trend to be associated with rapid venlafaxine treatment response in female patients. Future research with independent replication in large sample sizes is needed to confirm the role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism identified in this study.Keywords: antidepressant response, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, major depressive disorder, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, single nucleotide polymorphisms
Perets, Nisim; Segal-Gavish, Hadar; Gothelf, Yael; Barzilay, Ran; Barhum, Yael; Abramov, Natalie; Hertz, Stav; Morozov, Darya; London, Michael; Offen, Daniel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disabilities characterized by severe impairment in social communication skills and restricted, repetitive behaviors. We have previously shown that a single transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of BTBR autistic-like mice resulted in an improvement across all diagnostic criteria of ASD. We suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein which supports the survival and regeneration of neurons secreted by MSC, largely contributed to the beneficial behavioral effect. In this study, we investigated the behavioral effects of transplanted MSC induced to secrete higher amounts of neurotrophic factors (NurOwn ® ), on various ASD-related behavioral domains using the BTBR mouse model of ASD. We demonstrate that NurOwn ® transplantation had significant advantages over MSC transplantation in terms of improving communication skills, one and six months following treatment, as compared to sham-treated BTBR mice. Furthermore, NurOwn ® transplantation resulted in reduced stereotypic behavior for as long as six months post treatment, compared to the one month improvement observed in the MSC treated mice. Notably, NurOwn ® treatment resulted in improved cognitive flexibility, an improvement that was not observed by MSC treatment. Both MSC and NurOwn ® transplantation induced an improvement in social behavior that lasted for six months. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that a single transplantation of MSC or NurOwn ® have long-lasting benefits, while NurOwn ® may be superior to MSC treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of budesonide combined with cetirizine hydrochloride on neurotrophic factor, airway function and chemokines CCL17 and CCL12 in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods: A total of 123 patients with Allergic Rhinitis were randomly divided into three groups, A group treated with budesonide nasal spray, B group treated with cetirizine hydrochloride, C group treated with budesonide combined with cetirizine hydrochloride, then the Neurotrophic factors, airway function indexes and chemokines CCL17 and CCL12 levels in three groups were compared. Results: Before the treatments, the three groups of patients in neurotrophic factor, airway function index and chemokines CCL17, CCL22 have no differences, Compared with before the treatments, after receiving different treatments, the three groups of patients in all indicators were Showed significant differences. In the indexes of neurotrophic factor (NGF, BDNF, NT-3mRNA expression, there was no significant difference between group A and group B, and group C was lower than group A and B. In airway function indexes (FVC, FEV1 and PEF, A group was significantly higher than B group, C group was significantly higher than A group; In the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 indicators, C group was lower than A group, A group was lower than B group, the difference was significant. Conclusions: Budesonide combined with cetirizine hydrochloride in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis, can effectively control the patients' neurotrophic factor, pulmonary ventilation and chemokine CC17, CCL22 indicators, the effect is better than Budesonide alone or Cetirizine hydrochloride.
Marusiak, Jarosław; Żeligowska, Ewa; Mencel, Joanna; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Jaskólski, Artur; Jaskólska, Anna
To examine the effects of cycloergometric interval training on parkinsonian rigidity, relaxed biceps brachii muscle tone in affected upper extremities, and serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Case series, repeated-measures design, pilot study. Eleven patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (Hoehn & Yahr scale 2.3 ± 0.72), recruited from a neurological clinic, underwent cycle training and were tested along with non-trained, healthy control subjects (n = 11) in a motor control laboratory. Patients underwent 8 weeks of interval training (3 × 1-h sessions weekly, consisting of a 10-min warm-up, 40 min of interval exercise, and 10-min cool-down) on a stationary cycloergometer. Parkinsonian rigidity (Unified Parkinson's Disease-Rating-Scale) in the upper extremity, resting biceps brachii muscle tone (myometric stiffness and frequency), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor level were measured 1-3 days before interval training cycle started and 6-10 days after the last training session. Training resulted in a decrease in rigidity (p = 0.048) and biceps brachii myometric muscle stiffness (p = 0.030) and frequency (p = 0.006), and an increase in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (p = 0.035) relative to pre-training values. The increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor level correlated with improvements in parkinsonian rigidity (p = 0.025), biceps brachii myometric stiffness (p = 0.001) and frequency (p = 0.002). Training-induced alleviation of parkinsonian rigidity and muscle tone decrease may be associated with neuroplastic changes caused by a training-induced increase in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
Lim, Whasun; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family binds to two transmembrane receptors; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2) with high affinity and p75 with low affinity. Although BDNF-NTRK2 signaling in the central nervous system is known, signaling in the female reproductive system is unknown. Therefore, we determined effects of BDNF on porcine endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells isolated from Day 12 of pregnancy, as well as expression of BDNF and NTRK2 in endometria of cyclic and pregnant pigs. BDNF-NTRK2 genes were expressed in uterine glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia during early pregnancy. In addition, their expression in uterine GE and LE decreased with increasing parity of sows. Recombinant BDNF increased proliferation in pLE cells in a dose-dependent, as well as expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in nuclei of pLE cells. BDNF also activated phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38 proteins in pLE cells. In addition, cell death resulting from tunicamycin-induced ER stress was prevented when pLE cells were treated with the combination of tunicamycin and BDNF which also decreased cells in the Sub-G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response genes were mostly down-regulated to the basal levels as compared to non-treated pLE cells. Our finding suggests that BDNF acts via NTRK2 to induce development of pLE cells for maintenance of implantation and pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by inhibiting ER stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fernandes, Brisa S; Molendijk, Marc L; Köhler, Cristiano A; Soares, Jair C; Leite, Cláudio Manuel G S; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Thamara L; Silva, Jéssica C; Sales, Paulo M G; Quevedo, João; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana; Berk, Michael; Carvalho, André F
The neurotrophic hypothesis postulates that mood disorders such as bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with a lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, its role in peripheral blood as a biomarker of disease activity and of stage for BD, transcending pathophysiology, is still disputed. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical studies assessing BDNF in serum and plasma have been published. Therefore, it is now possible to analyse the association between BDNF levels and the severity of affective symptoms in BD as well as the effects of acute drug treatment of mood episodes on BDNF levels. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies on serum and plasma BDNF levels in bipolar disorder. Through a series of meta-analyses including a total of 52 studies with 6,481 participants, we show that, compared to healthy controls, peripheral BDNF levels are reduced to the same extent in manic (Hedges' g = -0.57, P = 0.010) and depressive (Hedges' g = -0.93, P = 0.001) episodes, while BDNF levels are not significantly altered in euthymia. In meta-regression analyses, BDNF levels additionally negatively correlate with the severity of both manic and depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for a significant impact of illness duration on BDNF levels. In addition, in plasma, but not serum, peripheral BDNF levels increase after the successful treatment of an acute mania episode, but not of a depressive one. In summary, our data suggest that peripheral BDNF levels, more clearly in plasma than in serum, is a potential biomarker of disease activity in BD, but not a biomarker of stage. We suggest that peripheral BDNF may, in future, be used as a part of a blood protein composite measure to assess disease activity in BD.
Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Zack, Donald J; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Klein, Ronald L; Hauswirth, William W
To develop a modified adenoassociated viral (AAV) vector capable of efficient transfection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to test the hypothesis that use of this vector to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be protective in experimental glaucoma. Ninety-three rats received one unilateral, intravitreal injection of either normal saline (n = 30), AAV-BDNF-woodchuck hepatitis posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE; n = 30), or AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-WPRE (n = 33). Two weeks later, experimental glaucoma was induced in the injected eye by laser application to the trabecular meshwork. Survival of RGCs was estimated by counting axons in optic nerve cross sections after 4 weeks of glaucoma. Transgene expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and direct visualization of GFP. The density of GFP-positive cells in retinal wholemounts was 1,828 +/- 299 cells/mm(2) (72,273 +/- 11,814 cells/retina). Exposure to elevated intraocular pressure was similar in all groups. Four weeks after initial laser treatment, axon loss was 52.3% +/- 27.1% in the saline-treated group (n = 25) and 52.3% +/- 24.2% in the AAV-GFP-WPRE group (n = 30), but only 32.3% +/- 23.0% in the AAV-BDNF-WPRE group (n = 27). Survival in AAV-BDNF-WPRE animals increased markedly and the difference was significant compared with those receiving either AAV-GFP-WPRE (P = 0.002, t-test) or saline (P = 0.006, t-test). Overexpression of the BDNF gene protects RGC as estimated by axon counts in a rat glaucoma model, further supporting the potential feasibility of neurotrophic therapy as a complement to the lowering of IOP in the treatment of glaucoma.
Azeredo, Lucas A de; De Nardi, Tatiana; Levandowski, Mateus L; Tractenberg, Saulo G; Kommers-Molina, Julia; Wieck, Andrea; Irigaray, Tatiana Q; Silva, Irênio G da; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on memory performance in a sample of elderly adults. Eighty-seven subjects aged > 55 years were recruited using a community-based convenience sampling strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The logical memory subset of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was used to assess immediate verbal recall (IVR), delayed verbal recall (DVR), and memory retention rate. BDNF Met allele carriers had lower DVR scores (p = 0.004) and a decline in memory retention (p = 0.017) when compared to Val/Val homozygotes. However, we found no significant differences in IVR between the two groups (p = 0.088). These results support the hypothesis of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a risk factor associated with cognitive impairment, corroborating previous findings in young and older adults.
Sada, Aiko; Hasegawa, Kazuteru; Pin, Pui Han; Saga, Yumiko
Stem cells are maintained by both stem cell-extrinsic niche signals and stem cell-intrinsic factors. During murine spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signal emanated from Sertoli cells and germ cell-intrinsic factor NANOS2 represent key regulators for the maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. However, it remains unclear how these factors intersect in stem cells to control their cellular state. Here, we show that GDNF signaling is essential to maintain NANOS2 expression, and overexpression of Nanos2 can alleviate the stem cell loss phenotype caused by the depletion of Gfra1, a receptor for GDNF. By using an inducible Cre-loxP system, we show that NANOS2 expression is downregulated upon the conditional knockout (cKO) of Gfra1, while ectopic expression of Nanos2 in GFRA1-negative spermatogonia does not induce de novo GFRA1 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Nanos2 in the Gfra1-cKO testes prevents precocious differentiation of the Gfra1-knockout stem cells and partially rescues the stem cell loss phenotypes of Gfra1-deficient mice, indicating that the stem cell differentiation can be suppressed by NANOS2 even in the absence of GDNF signaling. Taken together, we suggest that NANOS2 acts downstream of GDNF signaling to maintain undifferentiated state of spermatogonial stem cells. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.
Lucas A. de Azeredo
Full Text Available Objective: Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on memory performance in a sample of elderly adults. Methods: Eighty-seven subjects aged > 55 years were recruited using a community-based convenience sampling strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The logical memory subset of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was used to assess immediate verbal recall (IVR, delayed verbal recall (DVR, and memory retention rate. Results: BDNF Met allele carriers had lower DVR scores (p = 0.004 and a decline in memory retention (p = 0.017 when compared to Val/Val homozygotes. However, we found no significant differences in IVR between the two groups (p = 0.088. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a risk factor associated with cognitive impairment, corroborating previous findings in young and older adults.
I. V. Ostrova
Full Text Available A search for substances that are able to protect brain cells from the damaging effect of hypoxia remains one of the most relevant issues in modern neurobiology and medicine. Whether neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein in particular, can be used to treat neurological diseases is the subject of wide speculation in the literature now. However, how the expression of this protein in the brain neurons changes after systemic circulatory arrest in the postresuscitation period remains uncertain.Objective: to estimate the level of BDNF expression in the highly ischemia-sensitive neuronal population of cerebellar Purkinje cells and the value of BDNF in the resistance of neurons to ischemia-reperfusion.Materials and methods. In mature outbred male albino rats (n=11, the heart was stopped under ether anesthesia at 12 minutes via intrathoracic ligation of the vascular fascicle, followed by revivification. A control group included pseudo-operated animals (n=11. On days 7 after revivification, a morphometric analysis of Nissl-stained paraffin sections 5—6 μm thick was used to determine the total number of Purkinje cells per 1 mm of their layer length. The expression of BDNF protein in the Purkinje cells was immunohistochemically examined by an indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase test using primary polyclonal antibodies against BDNF. The count of Purkinje cells with different immune responses to BDNF protein was calculated. The intensity of BDNF expression was estimated from the mean optical density. Results. 12-minute systemic circulatory arrest in the rats resulted in a 12.5% reduction in the number of Purkinje cells. The immunohistochemical examination revealed a lower numbers of BDNF– neurons in the resuscitated rats. In this case, the count of BDNF+ and BDNF++ neurons corresponded to their reference level. Consequently, only BDNF-negative neurons, i.e. those that failed to express BDNF protein, died. Analysis of the
Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Liu, Shan-Chi; Chen, Po-Chun; Tang, Chih-Hsin
Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues showed significant expression of BDNF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage and primary chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased the migration and expression of β5 integrin in human chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, knockdown of BDNF expression markedly inhibited migratory activity. BDNF-mediated migration and β5 integrin up-regulation were attenuated by antibody, inhibitor, or siRNA against the TrkB receptor. Pretreatment of chondrosarcoma cells with PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors or mutants also abolished BDNF-promoted migration and integrin expression. The PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway was activated after BDNF treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing β5 integrin expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23874483
Amadio, Patrizia; Baldassarre, Damiano; Sandrini, Leonardo; Weksler, Babette B; Tremoli, Elena; Barbieri, Silvia S
Cigarette smoke (CS) activates platelets, promotes vascular dysfunction, and enhances Tissue Factor (TF) expression in blood monocytes favoring pro-thrombotic states. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the family of neurotrophins involved in survival, growth, and maturation of neurons, is released by activated platelets (APLTs) and plays a role in the cardiovascular system. The effect of CS on circulating levels of BDNF is controversial and the function of circulating BDNF in atherothrombosis is not fully understood. Here, we have shown that human platelets, treated with an aqueous extract of CS (CSE), released BDNF in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, incubation of human monocytes with BDNF or with the supernatant of platelets activated with CSE increased TF activity by a Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-dependent mechanism. Finally, comparing serum and plasma samples of 12 male never smokers (NS) and 29 male active smokers (AS) we observed a significant increase in microparticle-associated TF activity (MP-TF) as well as BDNF in AS, while in serum, BDNF behaved oppositely. Taken together these findings suggest that platelet-derived BDNF is involved in the regulation of TF activity and that CS plays a role in this pathway by favoring a pro-atherothrombotic state.
Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E
Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ignácio, Z M; Réus, G Z; Abelaira, H M; Quevedo, J
Epidemiological studies have shown significant results in the interaction between the functions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT in mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The latest research has provided convincing evidence that gene transcription of these molecules is a target for epigenetic changes, triggered by stressful stimuli that starts in early childhood and continues throughout life, which are subsequently translated into structural and functional phenotypes culminating in depressive disorders. The short variants of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF-Met are seen as forms which are predisposed to epigenetic aberrations, which leads individuals to a susceptibility to environmental adversities, especially when subjected to stress in early life. Moreover, the polymorphic variants also feature epistatic interactions in directing the functional mechanisms elicited by stress and underlying the onset of depressive disorders. Also emphasized are works which show some mediators between stress and epigenetic changes of the 5-HTT and BDNF genes, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which is a cellular transcription factor. Both the HPA axis and CREB are also involved in epistatic interactions between polymorphic variants of 5-HTTLPR and Val66Met. This review highlights some research studying changes in the epigenetic patterns intrinsic to genes of 5-HTT and BDNF, which are related to lifelong environmental adversities, which in turn increases the risks of developing MDD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J
It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.
Francis, K; Dougali, A; Sideri, K; Kroupis, C; Vasdekis, V; Dima, K; Douzenis, A
Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls. BDNF serum levels in the parents of the ASD subjects were compared to normal controls. BDNF serum levels in the ASD subjects were followed up for 3 years and correlated with adaptive functioning changes. BDNF serum levels were measured to be lower in children with ASD and independent of all the major baseline characteristics of the subjects. Having a child with ASD raises the BDNF levels in parents comparing to controls. Prospectively, no correlation between the change of BDNF variables in time and the change of the Vineland scores was found. Our results contradict those from recent published meta-analyses with the age, the presence of ID and allergies being possible contributing factors. The parents' data indeed point to a role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of ASD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weiliang Zhao; Dezhi Kang; Yuanxiang Lin
BACKGROUND: Learning and memory damage is one of the most permanent and the severest symptoms of traumatic brain injury; it can seriously influence the normal life and work of patients. Some research has demonstrated that cognitive disorder is closely related to nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the cognitive disorder and changes in nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor following brain injury. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: A computer-based online search was conducted in PUBMED for English language publications containing the key words "brain injured, cognitive handicap, acetylcholine, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, brain-derived neurotrophic factor" from January 2000 to December 2007. There were 44 papers in total. Inclusion criteria: ① articles about changes in nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor following brain injury; ② articles in the same researching circle published in authoritative journals or recently published. Exclusion criteria: duplicated articles.LITERATURE EVALUATION: References were mainly derived from research on changes in these four factors following brain injury. The 20 included papers were clinical or basic experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: After craniocerebral injury, changes in these four factors in brain were similar to those during recovery from cognitive disorder, to a certain degree. Some data have indicated that activation of nicotine cholinergic receptors, N-methyl-D aspartate receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor could greatly improve cognitive disorder following brain injury. However, there are still a lot of questions remaining; for example, how do these
Halepoto, Dost Muhammad; Bashir, Shahid; Zeina, Rana; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y
To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). An observational, comparative study. Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age-matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient 'r' was determined. The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p autism.
Rodríguez-Serrano, Luis M; Ramírez-León, Betsabee; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators not only for synaptic plasticity, but also for the behavioral organism-environment interactions. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related with acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection and enhances the retention of CTA memory of adult rats in vivo. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether acute BDNF-infusion in the IC modifies the extinction of CTA. Accordingly, animals were trained in the CTA task and received bilateral IC microinfusions of BDNF before extinction training. Our results showed that taste aversion was significantly reduced in BDNF rats from the first extinction trial. Additionally, we found that the effect of BDNF on taste aversion did not require extinction training. Finally we showed that the BDNF effect does not degrade the original taste aversion memory trace. These results emphasize that BDNF activity underlies memory extinction in neocortical areas and support the idea that BDNF is a key regulator and mediator of long-term synaptic modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotential cells with capability to form colonies in vitro and differentiate into distinctive end-stage cell types. Although MSCs secrete many cytokines, the efficacy can be improved through combination with neurotrophic factors (NTFs. Moreover, MSCs are excellent opportunities for local delivery of NTFs into injured tissues. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effects of overexpressing NTFs on proliferation and differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs had no effect on cell proliferation. Overexpressing NT-3, BDNF, and NGF also had no significant effect on the differentiation of HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs all promoted the neurite outgrowth of embryonic chick E9 dorsal root ganglion (DRG. The gene expression profiles of the control and NT-3- and BDNF-modified HUMSCs were compared using RNA sequencing and biological processes and activities were revealed. This study provides novel information about the effects of overexpressing NTFs on HUMSCs and insight into the choice of optimal NTFs for combined cell and gene therapy.
Shpak, Alexander A; Guekht, Alla B; Druzhkova, Tatiana A; Kozlova, Ksenia I; Gulyaeva, Natalia V
To study brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in aqueous humor (AH), lacrimal fluid (LF), and blood serum (BS) in patients with age-related cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). BDNF was studied in 57 patients with age-related cataract, 55 patients with POAG combined with cataract, and 29 healthy controls (one eye in each person). AH was sampled during cataract surgery. The levels of BDNF in LF and BS did not differ in cataract patients and controls. The concentration of BDNF (pg/mL) in patients with POAG and cataract was lower than in cataract patients in AH (35.2 ± 14.2 vs. 54.6 ± 29.6, P early POAG and relatively increased in the next stages of the disease, inversely correlating with visual field index (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = -0.404, P = 0.002) and average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (r = -0.322, P = 0.018). BDNF contents in LF and BS were also the lowest in early POAG. BDNF in AH strongly correlated with its content in LF (r = 0.66, P early POAG and relative increase in the next stages of the disease. A strong correlation exists between BDNF contents in AH and LF.
Johnson, R A; Rhodes, J S; Jeffrey, S L; Garland, T; Mitchell, G S
Voluntary wheel running in rats increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, a neurochemical important for neuronal survival, differentiation, connectivity and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report the effects of wheel running on BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) protein levels in normal control mice, and in mice selectively bred (25 generations) for increased voluntary wheel running. We hypothesized that increased voluntary wheel running in selected (S) mice would increase CNS BDNF and NT-3 protein levels more than in control (C) mice. Baseline hippocampal BDNF levels (mice housed without running wheels) were similar in S and C mice. Following seven nights of running, hippocampal BDNF increased significantly more in S versus C mice, and levels were correlated with distance run (considering C and S mice together). Spinal and cerebellar BDNF and hippocampal NT-3 levels were not significantly affected by wheel running in any group, but there was a small, positive correlation between spinal C3-C6 BDNF levels and distance run (considering C and S mice together). This is the first study to demonstrate that mice which choose to run more have greater elevations in hippocampal BDNF, suggesting enhanced potential for exercise-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity.
Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.
de Azua Sonia Ruiz
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairments are seen in first psychotic episode (FEP patients. The neurobiological underpinnings that might underlie these changes remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels are associated with cognitive impairment in FEP patients compared with healthy controls. Methods 45 FEP patients and 45 healthy controls matched by age, gender and educational level were selected from the Basque Country area of Spain. Plasma BDNF levels were assessed in healthy controls and in patients. A battery of cognitive tests was applied to both groups, with the patients being assessed at 6 months after the acute episode and only in those with a clinical response to treatment. Results Plasma BDNF levels were altered in patients compared with the control group. In FEP patients, we observed a positive association between BDNF levels at six months and five cognitive domains (learning ability, immediate and delayed memory, abstract thinking and processing speed which persisted after controlling for medications prescribed, drug use, intelligence quotient (IQ and negative symptoms. In the healthy control group, BDNF levels were not associated with cognitive test scores. Conclusion Our results suggest that BDNF is associated with the cognitive impairment seen after a FEP. Further investigations of the role of this neurotrophin in the symptoms associated with psychosis onset are warranted.
Verbickas, Vaidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Brazaitis, Marius; Satkunskiene, Danguole; Unikauskas, Alvydas; Skurvydas, Albertas
The aim of this study was to follow circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in response to severe muscle-damaging exercise. Young healthy men (N = 10) performed a bout of mechanically demanding stretch-shortening cycle exercise consisting of 200 drop jumps. Voluntary and electrically induced knee extension torque, serum BDNF levels, and IL-6 levels were measured before and for up to 7 days after exercise. Muscle force decreased by up to 40% and did not recover by 24 hours after exercise. Serum BDNF was decreased 1 hour and 24 hours after exercise, whereas IL-6 increased immediately and 1 hour after but recovered to baseline by 24 hours after exercise. IL-6 and 100-Hz stimulation torque were correlated (r = -0.64, P exercise. In response to acute, severe muscle-damaging exercise, serum BDNF levels decrease, whereas IL-6 levels increase and are associated with peripheral fatigue. Muscle Nerve 57: E46-E51, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro; Niwa, Minae; Matsumoto, Yurie; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nitta, Atsumi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Furukawa, Shoei; Iwamura, Tatsunori; Nabeshima, Toshitaka
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is known to induce dependence and psychosis in humans. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the synaptic plasticity and neurotrophy in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This study aimed to investigate the role of BDNF in MDMA-induced dependence and psychosis. A single dose of MDMA (10mg/kg) induced BDNF mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, but not in the striatum or the hippocampus. However, repeated MDMA administration for 7 days induced BDNF mRNA expression in the striatum and hippocampus. Both precursor and mature BDNF protein expression increased in the nucleus accumbens, mainly in the neurons. Additionally, rapidly increased extracellular serotonin levels and gradually and modestly increased extracellular dopamine levels were noted within the nucleus accumbens of mice after repeated MDMA administration. Dopamine receptor antagonists attenuated the effect of repeated MDMA administration on BDNF mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. To examine the role of endogenous BDNF in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA, we used mice with heterozygous deletions of the BDNF gene. MDMA-induced place preference, behavioral sensitization, and an increase in the levels of extracellular serotonin and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, were attenuated in BDNF heterozygous knockout mice. These results suggest that BDNF is implicated in MDMA-induced dependence and psychosis by activating the midbrain serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its precursor (proBDNF) and BDNF mRNA levels were studied in the brain of wild rats selectively bred for more than 70 generations for either high level or for the lack of affective aggressiveness towards man. Significant increase of BDNF mRNA level in the frontal cortex and increase of BDNF level in the hippocampus of aggressive rats was revealed. In the midbrain and hippocampus of aggressive rats proBDNF level was increased, whereas BDNF/proBDNF ratio was reduced suggesting the prevalence and increased influence of proBDNF in highly aggressive rats. In the frontal cortex, proBDNF level in aggressive rats was decreased. Thus, considerable structure-specific differences in BDNF and proBDNF levels as well as in BDNF gene expression between highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats were shown. The data suggested the implication of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF in the mechanism of aggressiveness and in the creation of either aggressive or nonaggressive phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Rong; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Siegler, Ilene C; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Williams, Redford B
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with cortisol responses to stress with gender differences reported, although the findings are not entirely consistent. To evaluate the role of Val66Met genotype and gender on cortisol responses to stress, we conducted a 45-min mental stress protocol including four tasks and four rest periods. Blood cortisol was collected for assay immediately before and after each task and rest period. A significant two-way interaction of Val66Met genotype×gender (P=0.022) was observed on the total area under the curve (AUC), a total cortisol response over time, such that the Val/Val genotype was associated with a larger cortisol response to stress as compared to the Met group in women but not in men. Further contrast analyses between the Val/Val and Met group for each stress task showed a similar increased cortisol pattern among women Val/Val genotype but not among men. The present findings indicate the gender differences in the effect of Val66Met genotype on the cortisol responses to stress protocol, and extend the evidence for the importance of gender and the role of Val66Met in the modulation of stress reactivity and subsequent depression prevalence. Further studies and the underlying mechanism need to be investigated, which may provide an insight for prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that target those at high risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, X; Zhu, J; Zhang, K; Liu, T; Zhang, Z
This study was aimed at investigating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified with recombinant lentivirus bearing BDNF gene. Lentivirus vectors bearing BDNF gene were constructed. MSCs were isolated from rats and cultured. The lentiviral vectors containing BDNF gene were transfected into the MSCs, and BDNF gene and protein expressions were monitored with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure gene and protein expressions, respectibvely in MSCs, MSCs-EGFP and MSCs-EGFP-BDNF groups. Green fluorescence assay confirmed successful transfection of BDNF gene recombinant lentivirus into MSCs. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that BDNF gene and protein expressions in the MSCs-EGFP-BDNF group were significantly higher than that in MSCs group and MSCs-EGFP group. There were no statistically signiﬁcant differences in gene expression between MSCs and MSCs-EGFP groups. MSCs can over-express BDNF when transfected with recombinant lentivirus bearing BDNF gene.
Saruta, Juri; Fujino, Kazuhiro; To, Masahiro; Tsukinoki, Keiichi
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes cell survival and differentiation in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that BDNF is produced by salivary glands under acute immobilization stress in rats. However, expression of BDNF is poorly understood in humans, although salivary gland localization of BDNF in rodents has been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the expression and localization of BDNF in the human submandibular gland (HSG) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA. BDNF was consistently localized in HSG serous and ductal cells, as detected by ISH and IHC, with reactivity being stronger in serous cells. In addition, immunoreactivity for BDNF was observed in the saliva matrix of ductal cavities. Western blotting detected one significant immunoreactive 14 kDa band in the HSG and saliva. Immunoreactivities for salivary BDNF measured by ELISA in humans were 40.76±4.83 pg/mL and 52.64±8.42 pg/mL, in men and women, respectively. Although salivary BDNF concentrations in females tended to be higher than in males, the concentrations were not significantly different. In conclusion, human salivary BDNF may originate from salivary glands, as the HSG appears to produce BDNF
Comini-Frota, E.R.; Rodrigues, D.H.; Miranda, E.C.; Brum, D.G.; Kaimen-Maciel, D.R.; Donadi, E.A.; Teixeira, A.L.
The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the number of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the study of MS. However, MRI has limitations and the use of other biomarkers such as BDNF may be useful for the clinical assessment and the study of the disease. Serum was obtained from 28 MS patients, 18-50 years old (median 38), 21 women, 0.5-10 years (median 5) of disease duration, EDSS 1-4 (median 1.5) and 28 healthy controls, 19-49 years old (median 33), 19 women. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. T1, T2/FLAIR and gadolinium-enhanced lesions were measured by a trained radiologist. BDNF was reduced in MS patients (median [range] pg/mL; 1160 [352.6-2640]) compared to healthy controls (1640 [632.4-4268]; P = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test) and was negatively correlated (Spearman correlation test, r = -0.41; P = 0.02) with T2/FLAIR (11-81 lesions, median 42). We found that serum BDNF levels were inversely correlated with the number of T2/FLAIR lesions in patients with MS. BDNF may be a promising biomarker of MS
Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxidative stress may play a role in patients with heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels and activities of BDNF and oxidative stress markers, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in heroin-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). 60 heroin-dependent male MMT patients and 30 healthy males were recruited for this study. The serum BDNF and oxidative stress markers of these subjects were measured with assay kits. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) with age and body mass index adjustments indicated that the serum levels of BDNF in the MMT patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (F=5.169; p=0.026). However, there were no significant differences between the heroin-dependent patients and the healthy controls in the serum levels or activities of oxidative stress markers (p>0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that MMT increases BDNF levels in heroin-dependent patients, and that patients undergoing MMT might be in a balanced state of reduced oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Roncero, Carlos; Daigre, Constanza; Grau-Lopez, Lara; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Lopez, Maria Victoria; Ribases, Marta; Casas, Miguel
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in cocaine craving in humans and drug seeking in rodents. Based on this, the aim of this study was to explore the possible role of serum BDNF in cocaine relapse in abstinent addicts. Forty cocaine dependent subjects (DSM-IV criteria) were included in an inpatient 2 weeks abstinence program. Organic and psychiatric co-morbidities were excluded. Two serum samples were collected for each subject at baseline and at after 14 abstinence days. After discharge, all cocaine addicts underwent a 22 weeks follow-up, after which they were classified into early relapsers (ER) (resumed during the first 14 days after discharge,) or late relapsers (LR) (resumed beyond 14 days after discharge). The only clinical differences between groups were the number of consumption days during the last month before detoxification. Serum BDNF levels increased significantly across the 12 days of abstinence in the LR group (p=0.02), whereas in the ER group BDNF remained unchanged. In the ER group, the change of serum BDNF during abstinence negatively correlated with the improvement in depressive symptoms (p=0.02). These results suggest that BDNF has a role in relapse to cocaine consumption in abstinent addicts, although the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a role in the maintenance and function of neurons. Although persons with Alzheimer's disease have lower cortical levels of BDNF, evidence regarding the association between circulating BDNF and cognitive function is conflicting. We sought to determine the correlates of BDNF level and whether BDNF level was prospectively associated with cognitive decline in healthy older adults. We measured serum BDNF near baseline in 912 individuals. Cognitive status was assessed repeatedly with the modified Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Digit Symbol Substitution test over the next 10 years. We evaluated the association between BDNF and cognitive decline with longitudinal models. We also assessed the association between BDNF level and demographics, comorbidities and health behaviors. We found an association between serum BDNF and several characteristics that are also associated with dementia (race and depression, suggesting that future studies should control for these potential confounders. We did not find evidence of a longitudinal association between serum BDNF and subsequent cognitive test trajectories in older adults, although we did identify a potential trend toward a cross-sectional association. Our results suggest that serum BDNF may have limited utility as a biomarker of prospective cognitive decline.
Limongi, Tania; Rocchi, A.; Cesca, F.; Tan, H.; Miele, E.; Giugni, Andrea; Orlando, M.; Perrone Donnorso, M.; Perozziello, G.; Benfenati, Fabio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.
Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.
Islam, Farhana; Mulsant, Benoit H; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K
Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population. An overall decrease is observed in BDNF expression in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and in older individuals compared to a younger cohort. There is a marked decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal regions and in the periphery among older individuals and those with schizophrenia; however, data for BDNF expression in the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices and the hippocampus is inconclusive. Accelerated aging hypothesis is supported based on frontal regions and peripheral studies; however, further studies are needed in other brain regions.
Maiko A. Schneider
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Transsexualism (ICD-10 is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent dissociation with one's assigned gender. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS and hormone therapy provide a means of allowing transsexual individuals to feel more congruent with their gender and have played a major role in treatment over the past 70 years. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF appears to play a key role in recovery from acute surgical trauma and environmentally mediated vulnerability to psychopathology. We hypothesize that BDNF may be a biomarker of alleviation of gender incongruence suffering. Objectives: To measure preoperative and postoperative serum BDNF levels in transsexual individuals as a biomarker of alleviation of stress related to gender incongruence after SRS. Methods: Thirty-two male-to-female transsexual people who underwent both surgery and hormonal treatment were selected from our initial sample. BDNF serum levels were assessed before and after SRS with sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The time elapsed between the pre-SRS and post-SRS blood collections was also measured. Results: No significant difference was found in pre-SRS or post-SRS BDNF levels or with relation to the time elapsed after SRS when BDNF levels were measured. Conclusion: Alleviation of the suffering related to gender incongruence after SRS cannot be assessed by BDNF alone. Surgical solutions may not provide a quick fix for psychological distress associated with transsexualism and SRS may serve as one step toward, rather than as the conclusion of, construction of a person's gender identity.
Huang, Fei; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Hao; Chang, Jun; Ma, Guangwen; Yin, Zongsheng
This study aimed to examine the effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from collagen gel on rat neural stem cells (NSCs). With three groups of collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel as controls, BDNF and NT-3 were tested in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group at different time points. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that BDNF and NT-3 were steadily released from collagen gels for 10 days. The cell viability test and the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay showed that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel supported the survival and proliferation of NSCs. The results also showed that the length of processes was markedly longer and differentiation percentage from NSCs into neurons was much higher in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group than those in the collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel groups. These findings suggest that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel could significantly improve the ability of NSCs proliferation and differentiation.
Hasebe, Kyoko; Gray, Laura; Bortolasci, Chiara; Panizzutti, Bruna; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Kidnapillai, Srisaiyini; Spolding, Briana; Walder, Ken; Berk, Michael; Malhi, Gin; Dodd, Seetal; Dean, Olivia M
This study aimed to explore effects of adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment on inflammatory and neurogenesis markers in unipolar depression. We embarked on a 12-week clinical trial of NAC (2000 mg/day compared with placebo) as an adjunctive treatment for unipolar depression. A follow-up visit was conducted 4 weeks following the completion of treatment. We collected serum samples at baseline and the end of the treatment phase (week 12) to determine changes in interleukin-6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) following NAC treatment. NAC treatment significantly improved depressive symptoms on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) over 16 weeks of the trial. Serum levels of IL6 were associated with reductions of MADRS scores independent of treatment response. However, we found no significant changes in IL6, CRP and BDNF levels following NAC treatment. Overall, this suggests that our results failed to support the hypothesis that IL6, CRP and BDNF are directly involved in the therapeutic mechanism of NAC in depression. IL6 may be a useful marker for future exploration of treatment response.
Full Text Available Evidence suggests that flavonoid-rich foods are capable of inducing improvements in memory and cognition in animals and humans. However, there is a lack of clarity concerning whether flavonoids are the causal agents in inducing such behavioral responses. Here we show that supplementation with pure anthocyanins or pure flavanols for 6 weeks, at levels similar to that found in blueberry (2% w/w, results in an enhancement of spatial memory in 18 month old rats. Pure flavanols and pure anthocyanins were observed to induce significant improvements in spatial working memory (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006 respectively, to a similar extent to that following blueberry supplementation (p = 0.002. These behavioral changes were paralleled by increases in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (R = 0.46, p<0.01, suggesting a common mechanism for the enhancement of memory. However, unlike protein levels of BDNF, the regional enhancement of BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus appeared to be predominantly enhanced by anthocyanins. Our data support the claim that flavonoids are likely causal agents in mediating the cognitive effects of flavonoid-rich foods.
Full Text Available The mechanisms through which physical activity supports healthy brain function remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mediates some cognitive and mood benefits. This meta-analysis sought to determine the effect of exercise training on resting concentrations of BDNF in peripheral blood.MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, and CINAHL databases were searched for original, peer-reviewed reports of peripheral blood BDNF concentrations before and after exercise interventions ≥ 2 weeks. Risk of bias was assessed using standardized criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs were generated from random effects models. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses.In 29 studies that met inclusion criteria, resting concentrations of peripheral blood BDNF were higher after intervention (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.60, p < 0.001. Subgroup analyses suggested a significant effect in aerobic (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99, p < 0.001 but not resistance training (SMD = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.15-0.30, p = 0.52 interventions. No significant difference in effect was observed between males and females, nor in serum vs plasma.Aerobic but not resistance training interventions increased resting BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood.
Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Winkel, Per; Kessing, Lars V
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the course of depression including the response to antidepressants in patients with depression. We aimed to study the effect of an antidepressant intervention on peripheral BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression. We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. We found no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels in the escitalopram-treated group. The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals.
Dalwadi, Dhwanil A; Kim, Seongcheol; Schetz, John A
Glial cells play a critical role in neuronal support which includes the production and release of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Activation of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been shown to attenuate inflammatory stress-mediated brain injuries, and there is emerging evidence that this may involve a BDNF-dependent mechanism. In this report we studied S1R-mediated BDNF release from human astrocytic glial cells. Astrocytes express the S1R, which mediates BDNF release when stimulated with the prototypical S1R agonists 4-PPBP and (+)-SKF10047. This effect could be antagonized by a selective concentration of the S1R antagonist BD1063. Haloperidol is known to have high affinity interactions with the S1R, yet it was unable to facilitate BDNF release. Remarkably, however, two metabolites of haloperidol, haloperidol I and haloperidol II (reduced haloperidol), were discovered to facilitate BDNF secretion and this effect was antagonized by BD1063. Neither 4-PPBP, nor either of the haloperidol metabolites affected the level of BDNF mRNA as assessed by qPCR. These results demonstrate for the first time that haloperidol metabolites I and II facilitate the secretion of BDNF from astrocytes by acting as functionally selective S1R agonists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schnydrig, Sabine; Korner, Lukas; Landweer, Svenja; Ernst, Beat; Walker, Gaby; Otten, Uwe; Kunz, Dieter
Peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to cause functional impairments in the brain affecting memory and learning. One of mechanisms may be the interference with neurotrophin (NT) expression and function. In the current study we administered a single, high dose of LPS (3mg/kg, i.p.) into mice and investigated changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression within 1-6 days after LPS injection. Crude synaptosomes were isolated from brain tissue and subjected to Western-blot analyses. We found transient reductions in synaptosomal proBDNF- and BDNF protein expression, with a maximal decrease at day 3 as compared to saline injected controls. The time course of reduction of BDNF mRNA in whole brain extracts parallels the decrease in protein levels in synaptosomes. LPS effects in the central nervous system (CNS) are known to crucially involve the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We analysed the time course of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)- and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression. As observed for BDNF-, CRH- and POMC mRNA levels are also significantly reduced on day 3 indicating a comparable time course. These results suggest that peripheral inflammation causes a reduction of trophic supply in the brain, including BDNF at synaptic sites. The mechanisms involved could be a negative feedback of the activated HPA axis.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major health problem worldwide. Following primary mechanical insults, a cascade of secondary injuries often leads to further neural tissue loss. Thus far there is no cure to rescue the damaged neural tissue. Current therapeutic strategies primarily target the secondary injuries focusing on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has significant effect in both aspects, promoting neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently, the flavonoid 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, a small TrkB agonist that mimics BDNF function, has shown similar effects as BDNF in promoting neuronal survival and regeneration following TBI. Compared to BDNF, 7,8-DHF has a longer half-life and much smaller molecular size, capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, which makes it possible for non-invasive clinical application. In this review, we summarize functions of the BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and studies examining the potential of BDNF and 7,8-DHF as a therapy for TBI.
Wurzelmann, Mary; Romeika, Jennifer; Sun, Dong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide. Following primary mechanical insults, a cascade of secondary injuries often leads to further neural tissue loss. Thus far there is no cure to rescue the damaged neural tissue. Current therapeutic strategies primarily target the secondary injuries focusing on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has significant effect in both aspects, promoting neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently, the flavonoid 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a small TrkB agonist that mimics BDNF function, has shown similar effects as BDNF in promoting neuronal survival and regeneration following TBI. Compared to BDNF, 7,8-DHF has a longer half-life and much smaller molecular size, capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, which makes it possible for non-invasive clinical application. In this review, we summarize functions of the BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and studies examining the potential of BDNF and 7,8-DHF as a therapy for TBI.
Comini-Frota, E.R. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rodrigues, D.H. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Miranda, E.C. [Ecoar Diagnostic Center, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brum, D.G. [Hospital das Clínicas,Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto,Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Kaimen-Maciel, D.R. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Donadi, E.A. [Hospital das Clínicas,Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto,Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, A.L. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the number of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the study of MS. However, MRI has limitations and the use of other biomarkers such as BDNF may be useful for the clinical assessment and the study of the disease. Serum was obtained from 28 MS patients, 18-50 years old (median 38), 21 women, 0.5-10 years (median 5) of disease duration, EDSS 1-4 (median 1.5) and 28 healthy controls, 19-49 years old (median 33), 19 women. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. T1, T2/FLAIR and gadolinium-enhanced lesions were measured by a trained radiologist. BDNF was reduced in MS patients (median [range] pg/mL; 1160 [352.6-2640]) compared to healthy controls (1640 [632.4-4268]; P = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test) and was negatively correlated (Spearman correlation test, r = -0.41; P = 0.02) with T2/FLAIR (11-81 lesions, median 42). We found that serum BDNF levels were inversely correlated with the number of T2/FLAIR lesions in patients with MS. BDNF may be a promising biomarker of MS.
Harris, S E; Fox, H; Wright, A F; Hayward, C; Starr, J M; Whalley, L J; Deary, I J
A polymorphism (Val66Met) in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has previously been associated with impaired hippocampal function and scores on the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Despite its widespread expression in the brain, there have been few studies examining the role of BDNF on cognitive domains, other than memory. We examined the association between BDNF Val66Met genotype and non-verbal reasoning, as measured by Raven's standard progressive matrices (Raven), in two cohorts of relatively healthy older people, one aged 79 (LBC1921) and the other aged 64 (ABC1936) years. LBC1921 and ABC1936 subjects had reasoning measured at age 11 years, using the Moray House Test (MHT), in the Scottish Mental Surveys of 1932 and 1947, respectively. BDNF genotype was significantly associated with later life Raven scores, controlling for sex, age 11 MHT score and cohort (P = 0.001). MHT, Verbal Fluency and Logical Memory scores were available, in later life, for LBC1921 only. BDNF genotype was significantly associated with age 79 MHT score, controlling for sex and age 11 MHT score (P = 0.016). In both significant associations, Met homozygotes scored significantly higher than heterozygotes and Val homozygotes. This study indicates that BDNF genotype contributes to age-related changes in reasoning skills, which are closely related to general intelligence.
Jabbari, Masoumeh; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad
We aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of ghrelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with MetS and its components in premenopausal women. 43 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Participants' body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, BDNF and ghrelin determined. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Participants in MetS group had higher waist-to-hip ratios, elevated SBP and DBP, and higher serum levels of TG, FBS and insulin when compared with the control group. Serum ghrelin and BDNF levels were significantly lower in participants with MetS than in the healthier control subjects. There was a strong, positive correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF levels. Both proteins negatively correlated with TG, FBS, HOMA-IR and positively with HDL-C. Furthermore, serum BDNF levels negatively associated with insulin levels. The findings indicate that variations occur in the circulating level of ghrelin and BDNF proteins in MetS patients. A strong correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF suggests that production, release or practice of these 2 proteins might be related mechanically.
Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow-up of the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (the CHAMPS-study DK). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry monitors. Serum BDNF levels were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthropometrics and pubertal status were measured using standardized procedures. With adjustment for age, pubertal status and body mass index, mean physical activity (counts per minute) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.013). Similarly, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tatiana Lauxen Peruzzolo
Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder. We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD.
Full Text Available The neurodegenerative processes that underlie Alzheimer's disease are mediated, in part, by soluble oligomeric amyloid β, a neurotoxic protein that inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation, disrupts synaptic plasticity, and induces the production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptor (S1PR agonist fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P-a new oral drug for multiple sclerosis-protects neurons against oligomeric amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity. We confirmed that primary mouse cortical neurons express all of the S1P receptor subtypes and FTY720-P directly affects the neurons. Treatment with FTY720-P enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neurons. Moreover, blocking BDNF-TrkB signaling with a BDNF scavenger, TrkB inhibitor, or ERK1/2 inhibitor almost completely ablated these neuroprotective effects. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of FTY720-P are mediated by upregulated neuronal BDNF levels. Therefore, FTY720-P may be a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Valiollah Dabidi Roshan
Full Text Available For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training and/or curcumin on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1 lead acetate, 2 curcumin, 3 endurance training, 4 training curcumin, and 5 sham. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running consisting of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. All groups except sham received lead acetate (20 mg/kg, whereas the sham group received curcumin solvent. In addition, the curcumin and training curcumin groups received curcumin solution (30mg/kg intra peritoneally. Chronically administration of lead acetate resulted in a significantly increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma, but not in hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels, as compared to sham group. Treadmill running, curcumin supplementation, or both resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and significantly increased BDNF and TAC levels, as compared to lead acetate group. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of curcumin and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity.
Lee, I-Te; Chen, Chen-Huan; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng
Arterial stiffening blunts postprandial vasodilatation. We hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may modulate postprandial central pulse pressure, a surrogate marker for arterial stiffening. A total of 82 non-diabetic subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after overnight fasting. Serum BDNF concentrations were determined at 0, 30, and 120min to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Brachial and central blood pressures were measured using a noninvasive central blood pressure monitor before blood withdrawals at 0 and 120min. With the median AUC of BDNF of 45(ng/ml)∗h as the cutoff value, the central pulse pressure after glucose intake was significantly higher in the subjects with a low BDNF than in those with a high BDNF (63±16 vs. 53±11mmHg, P=0.003), while the brachial pulse pressure was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.099). In a multivariate linear regression model, a lower AUC of BDNF was an independent predictor of a higher central pulse pressure after oral glucose intake (linear regression coefficient-0.202, 95% confidence interval-0.340 to -0.065, P=0.004). After oral glucose challenge, a lower serum BDNF response is significantly associated with a higher central pulse pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Halepoto, D.M.; Bashir, S.
To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study Design: An observational, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient-r was determined. Results: The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant relationships among the serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF and the CARS score, age or gender. Conclusion: The findings support a correlation between SHH, IHH and BDNF in autistic children, suggesting their pathological role in autism. (author)
Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016, decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03, appetite (p = 0.006, and fatigue (p = 0.011. The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042. The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.
Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D.
A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels. PMID:26075212
Full Text Available Major depression, because of its recurring and life-threatening nature, is one of the top 10 diseases for global disease burden. Major depression is still diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms in patients. The search for specific biological markers is of great importance to advance the method of diagnosis for depression. We examined the methylation profile of 2 CpG islands (I and IV at the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, which is well known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We analyzed genomic DNA from peripheral blood of 20 Japanese patients with major depression and 18 healthy controls to identify an appropriate epigenetic biomarker to aid in the establishment of an objective system for the diagnosis of depression. Methylation rates at each CpG unit was measured using a MassArray® system (SEQUENOM, and 2-dimensional hierarchical clustering analyses were undertaken to determine the validity of these methylation profiles as a diagnostic biomarker. Analyses of the dendrogram from methylation profiles of CpG I, but not IV, demonstrated that classification of healthy controls and patients at the first branch completely matched the clinical diagnosis. Despite the small number of subjects, our results indicate that classification based on the DNA methylation profiles of CpG I of the BDNF gene may be a valuable diagnostic biomarker for major depression.
Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.
Aron K Barbey
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promotes survival and synaptic plasticity in the human brain. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene interferes with intracellular trafficking, packaging, and regulated secretion of this neurotrophin. The human prefrontal cortex (PFC shows lifelong neuroplastic adaption implicating the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism in the recovery of higher-order executive functions after traumatic brain injury (TBI. In this study, we examined the effect of this BDNF polymorphism on the preservation of general intelligence following TBI. We genotyped a sample of male Vietnam combat veterans (n = 156 consisting of a frontal lobe lesion group with focal penetrating head injuries for the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism. Val/Met did not differ from Val/Val genotypes in general cognitive ability before TBI. However, we found substantial average differences between these groups in general intelligence (≈ half a standard deviation or 8 IQ points, verbal comprehension (6 IQ points, perceptual organization (6 IQ points, working memory (8 IQ points, and processing speed (8 IQ points after TBI. These results support the conclusion that Val/Met genotypes preserve general cognitive functioning, whereas Val/Val genotypes are largely susceptible to TBI.
Yuan, Lilai; Li, Jiasu; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been detected at high concentrations in various environmental and biotic samples, but little is known about their toxicity. In this study, the potential neurotoxicity of three OPFRs (TCEP, TDCPP, and TPP) and Chlorpyrifos (CPF, an organophosphate pesticide) were compared in Chinese rare minnow using an acute toxicity test and a 21-day fish assay. The acute test demonstrated significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by CPF. Although significant AChE inhibition at high concentration of TPP was also observed, none of the OPFRs had effects similar to CPF on these enzymes, indicating that their acute toxicities to Chinese rare minnow may be unrelated to cholinesterase inhibition. In addition, the 21-day fish assay with TDCPP demonstrated no significant effects on cholinesterase activities or neurotransmitter levels. Nonetheless, this OPFR exhibited widespread effects on the neurotrophic factors and their receptors (e.g., ntf3, ntrk1, ntrk2, ngfr, and fgf2, fgf11, fgf22, fgfr4), indicating that TDCPP or other OPFRs may elicit neurological effects by targeting neurotrophic factors and their receptors in Chinese rare minnow. - Highlights: • Significant inhibition of AChE and BChE activities by CPF was observed. • None of the OPFRs had similar effects on the cholinesterase like the CPF. • TDCPP showed significant effects on the neurotrophic factor genes in rare minnow. - Although none of the tested OPFRs showed any significant effects on cholinesterase activities and neurotransmitter levels, TDCPP did elicit widespread effects on neurotrophic factor genes.
Kalayci, Fatma; Ozdemir, Armagan; Saribas, Suat; Yuksel, Pelin; Ergin, Sevgi; Mert Kuskucu, Ali; Aksoy Poyraz, Cana; Balcioglu, Ibrahim; Alpay, Nihat; Kurt, Aykut; Sezgin, Zeynep; Tufan Kocak, Banu; Sucu Icel, Rana; Can, Gunay; Bahar Tokman, Hrisi
Several pathogens have been suspected of playing a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Chronic inflammation has been proposed to occur as a result of persistent infection caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae cells that reside in brain endothelial cells for many years. It was recently hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) may play prominent roles in the development of schizophrenia. NT-3 and BDNF levels have been suggested to change in respon...
Full Text Available SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-2 (PTPN11 or Shp2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a key regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation and growth factor (GF signaling. This enzyme is well expressed in various retinal neurons and has emerged as an important player in regulating survival signaling networks in the neuronal tissues. The non-receptor phosphatase can translocate to lipid rafts in the membrane and has been implicated to regulate several signaling modules including PI3K/Akt, JAK-STAT and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways in a wide range of biochemical processes in healthy and diseased states. This review focuses on the roles of Shp2 phosphatase in regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF neurotrophin signaling pathways and discusses its cross-talk with various GF and downstream signaling pathways in the retina.
Gupta, Rachna; Gupta, Keshav; Tripathi, A K; Bhatia, M S; Gupta, Lalit K
This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of mirtazapine and its effect on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in patients of major-depressive disorder (MDD) with severe depression. Patients (aged 18-60) with MDD diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥25 were included (n = 30). Mirtazapine was given in the doses of 30 mg/day. All patients were followed up for 12 weeks for the evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety along with serum BDNF and TNF-α levels. HAM-D score at the start of treatment was 30.1 ± 1.92, which significantly (p depressed patients and treatment response is associated with an increase in serum BDNF and a decrease in serum TNF-α levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Sung, Dong Kyung; Sung, Se In; Ahn, Jee-Yin; Park, Won Soon
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation protects against neonatal severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)-induced brain injury by a paracrine rather than regenerative mechanism; however, the paracrine factors involved and their roles have not yet been delineated. This study aimed to identify the paracrine mediator(s) and to determine their role in mediating the therapeutic effects of MSCs in severe IVH. We first identified significant upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MSCs compared with fibroblasts, in both DNA and antibody microarrays, after thrombin exposure. We then knocked down BDNF in MSCs by transfection with small interfering (si)RNA specific for human BDNF. The therapeutic effects of MSCs with or without BDNF knockdown were evaluated in vitro in rat neuronal cells challenged with thrombin, and in vivo in newborn Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 200 μl of blood on postnatal day 4 (P4), and transplanting MSCs (1 × 105 cells) intraventricularly on P6. siRNA-induced BDNF knockdown abolished the in vitro benefits of MSCs on thrombin-induced neuronal cell death. BDNF knockdown also abolished the in vivo protective effects against severe IVH-induced brain injuries such as the attenuation of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, impaired behavioral test performance, increased astrogliosis, increased number of TUNEL cells, ED-1+ cells, and inflammatory cytokines, and reduced myelin basic protein expression. Our data indicate that BDNF secreted by transplanted MSCs is one of the critical paracrine factors that play a seminal role in attenuating severe IVH-induced brain injuries in newborn rats.
Wang, Rikang; Yan, Fengxia; Liao, Rifang; Wan, Pei; Little, Peter J; Zheng, Wenhua
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are neurotrophic factors involved in the growth, survival and functioning of neurons. In addition, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has recently been proposed. Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous peptide ligand for the GPR7 and GPR8 and a stress mediator in the hypothalamus. It activates the HPA axis by working on hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). No information is available about the interrelationships between neurotrophines like NGF/BDNF and NPW. We studied the effect and underlying mechanisms of NGF/BDNF on the production of NPW in PC12 cells and hypothalamus. NGF time- and concentration-dependently stimulated the expression of NPW in PC12 cells. The effect of NGF was blocked by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signal pathway with specific inhibitors for PI3K or AktsiRNA for Akt while inhibition of ERK pathway had no effect. Moreover, BDNF concentration-dependently induced the expression of NPW mRNA and decreased the expression of NPY mRNA in primary cultured hypothalamic neurons which was also blocked by a PI3K kinase inhibitor. Finally, in vivo study showed that exogenous BDNF injected icv increased NPW production in the hypothalamus and this effect was reversed by a PI3 kinase inhibitor. These results and the fact that BDNF was able to stimulate the expression of CRH demonstrated that neurotrophines can modulate the expression of NPW in neuronal cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway and suggest that BDNF might be involved in functions of the HPA axis, at least in part by modulating the expression of NPW/NPY and CRH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is characterized by severe hyperphagia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and leptin are reciprocally involved in energy homeostasis.To analyze the role of BDNF and leptin in satiety in genetic subtypes of PWS.Experimental study.University hospital.90 adults: 30 PWS patients; 30 age-sex-BMI-matched obese controls; and 30 age-sex-matched lean controls.Subjects ingested a liquid meal after fasting ≥10 hours.Leptin and BDNF levels in plasma extracted before ingestion and 30', 60', and 120' after ingestion. Hunger, measured on a 100-point visual analogue scale before ingestion and 60' and 120' after ingestion.Fasting BDNF levels were lower in PWS than in controls (p = 0.05. Postprandially, PWS patients showed only a truncated early peak in BDNF, and their BDNF levels at 60' and 120' were lower compared with lean controls (p<0.05. Leptin was higher in PWS patients than in controls at all time points (p<0.001. PWS patients were hungrier than controls before and after eating. The probability of being hungry was associated with baseline BDNF levels: every 50-unit increment in BDNF decreased the odds of being hungry by 22% (OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.94. In uniparental disomy, the odds of being hungry decreased by 66% (OR: 0.34, 90%CI: 0.13-0.9. Postprandial leptin patterns did no differ among genetic subtypes.Low baseline BDNF levels and lack of postprandial peak may contribute to persistent hunger after meals. Uniparental disomy is the genetic subtype of PWS least affected by these factors.
Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations.
Christian, Lisa M; Mitchell, Amanda M; Gillespie, Shannon L; Palettas, Marilly
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated as a causal factor in major depression and is critical to placental development during pregnancy. Longitudinal data on BDNF across the perinatal period are lacking. These data are of interest given the potential implications for maternal mood and fetal growth, particularly among Black women who show ∼2-fold greater risk for delivering low birth weight infants. Serum BDNF, serum cortisol, and depressive symptoms (per CES-D) were assessed during each trimester and 4-11 weeks postpartum among 139 women (77 Black, 62 White). Low birth weight (BDNF declined considerably from 1st through 3rd trimesters (ps≤0.008) and subsequently increased at postpartum (pBDNF during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester, and postpartum (ps≤0.032) as well as lower serum cortisol during the 2nd and 3rd trimester (ps≤0.01). Higher serum cortisol was concurrently associated with lower serum BDNF in the 2nd trimester only (pBDNF at both the 2nd and 3rd trimester was negatively associated with 3rd trimester depressive symptoms (ps≤0.02). In addition, women delivering low versus healthy weight infants showed significantly lower serum BDNF in the 3rd trimester (p=0.004). Women delivering low versus healthy weight infants did not differ in depressive symptoms at any time point during pregnancy (ps≥0.34). Serum BDNF declines considerably across pregnancy in Black and White women, with overall higher levels in Blacks. Lower serum BDNF in late pregnancy corresponds with higher depressive symptoms and risk for low birth weight in Black and White women. However, the predictive value of serum BDNF in pregnancy is specific to within-race comparisons. Potential links between racial differences in serum BDNF and differential pregnancy-related cortisol adaptation require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations
Diniz, Breno Satler; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Dew, Mary Amanda; Anderson, Stewart J.; Lotrich, Francis; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar; Aizenstein, Howard; Sibille, Etienne L.; Butters, Meryl A.
Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD+MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD+NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD+NCD, 55 LLD+MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD+MCI, LLD+NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD+MCI vs. LLD+NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p=0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD+MCI (p=0.004) and controls (p=0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. PMID:24290367
Rössing, K; Novak, N; Mommert, S; Pfab, F; Gehring, M; Wedi, B; Kapp, A; Raap, U
Chronic spontaneous urticaria is triggered by many direct and indirect aggravating factors including autoreactive/autoimmune mechanisms, infections, non-allergic and pseudoallergic intolerance reactions. However, the role of neuroimmune mechanisms in chronic spontaneous urticaria so far is unclear. Thus, we wanted to address the regulation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and inflammatory skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to subjects with healthy skin. Fifty adult patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and 23 skin-healthy subjects were studied. Chronic spontaneous urticaria was defined as recurrent weals for more than 6 weeks. Autologous serum skin test was performed in all patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and BDNF serum levels were analysed by enzyme immunoassay in all subjects. Furthermore, skin biopsies were taken from weals of eight patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria as well as from healthy skin of eight controls to evaluate the expression of BDNF and its receptors including tyrosine kinase (trk) B and pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) by immunohistochemistry. BDNF serum levels were detectable in all subjects studied. However, BDNF levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria compared to non-atopic skin-healthy controls (Pchronic spontaneous urticaria compared with controls (Pchronic spontaneous urticaria and controls and no difference in BDNF serum levels between autologous serum skin test-positive (n=23) and -negative (n=27) patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. This study shows that BDNF is increased in serum and diseased skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, suggesting a role for neurotrophins in the pathophysiology of this chronic inflammatory skin disease. Further studies are needed to address the functional role of BDNF on key target effector cells in chronic spontaneous urticaria to establish new
Full Text Available B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b is a transcription factor showing predominant expression in the striatum. To date, there are no known gene targets of Bcl11b in the nervous system. Here, we define targets for Bcl11b in striatal cells by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq in combination with genome-wide expression profiling. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that 694 genes were significantly altered in striatal cells over-expressing Bcl11b, including genes showing striatal-enriched expression similar to Bcl11b. ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that Bcl11b bound a mixture of coding and non-coding sequences that were within 10 kb of the transcription start site of an annotated gene. Integrating all ChIP-seq hits with the microarray expression data, 248 direct targets of Bcl11b were identified. Functional analysis on the integrated gene target list identified several zinc-finger encoding genes as Bcl11b targets, and further revealed a significant association of Bcl11b to brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin signaling. Analysis of ChIP-seq binding regions revealed significant consensus DNA binding motifs for Bcl11b. These data implicate Bcl11b as a novel regulator of the BDNF signaling pathway, which is disrupted in many neurological disorders. Specific targeting of the Bcl11b-DNA interaction could represent a novel therapeutic approach to lowering BDNF signaling specifically in striatal cells.
Newton, Dwight F; Naiberg, Melanie R; Andreazza, Ana C; Scola, Gustavo; Dickstein, Daniel P; Goldstein, Benjamin I
Executive dysfunction is common and impairing in youth bipolar disorder (BD), and oxidative stress (OS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in executive deficits of adult BD. This study aimed to determine the association between OS and executive dysfunction in BD adolescents and the influence of BDNF on this association. Serum levels of lipid hydroperoxides (LPH) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and BDNF levels were measured in 29 BD and 25 control adolescents. The intra-extra-dimensional (IED) set-shifting task assessed executive function. Lower IED scores indicated better performance. High and low BDNF subgroups were defined by median split. IED Z-scores were impaired in the BD group compared to controls, whereas biomarker levels were not significantly different between groups. LPH-BDNF correlations were significantly different between BD and controls (Z = 2.046, p = 0.041). In high BDNF BD subjects, LPH was significantly positively correlated with IED completed stage trials (ρ = 0.755, p = 0.001) and pre-extra-dimensional shift errors (ρ = 0.588, p = 0.017). Correlations were opposite in controls. In a linear model, LPH, BDNF, and the LPH-BDNF interaction each significantly explained variance of IED total trials (adjusted) (model r 2 = 0.187, F = 2.811, p = 0.035). There is a negative association between LPH and executive function in BD adolescents, which may be modulated by BDNF. LPH and BDNF may be useful biomarkers of executive function in BD. These findings highlight the importance of examining multiple peripheral biomarkers in relation to cognitive functions in BD adolescents. Future studies should explore these factors in longitudinal designs to determine the directionality of observed associations.
Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila Boque; Müller, Liz Girardi; Viana, Alice Fialho; Hertzfeldt, Vivian; Lunardi, Paula Santana; Zanotto, Caroline; Nardin, Patrícia; Ravazzolo, Ana Paula; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto
Glutamate perturbations and altered neurotrophin levels have been strongly associated with the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Environmental stress is a risk factor for mood disorders, disrupting glutamatergic activity in astrocytes in addition to cognitive behaviours. Despite the negative impact of stress-induced neuropsychiatric disorders on public health, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the brain to stress has yet to be fully elucidated. Exposure to repeated swimming has proven useful for evaluating the loss of cognitive function after pharmacological and behavioural interventions, but its effect on glutamate function has yet to be fully explored. In the present study, rats previously exposed to repeated forced swimming were evaluated using the novel object recognition test, object location test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. In addition, quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression and protein levels, glutamate uptake, glutathione, S100B, GluN1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and calmodulin were evaluated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after various swimming time points. We found that swimming stress selectively impaired PPI but did not affect memory recognition. Swimming stress altered the frontal cortical and hippocampal BDNF expression and the activity of hippocampal astrocytes by reducing hippocampal glutamate uptake and enhancing glutathione content in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, these data support the assumption that astrocytes may regulate the activity of brain structures related to cognition in a manner that alters complex behaviours. Moreover, they provide new insight regarding the dynamics immediately after an aversive experience, such as after behavioural despair induction, and suggest that forced swimming can be employed to study altered glutamatergic activity and PPI disruption in rodents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Avinun, Reut; Knafo-Noam, Ariel
Parental warmth has been associated with various child behaviors, from effortful control to callous-unemotional traits. Factors that have been shown to affect parental warmth include heritability and child behavior. However, there is limited knowledge about which specific genes are involved, how they interact with child behavior, how they affect differential parenting, and how they affect fathers. We examined what affects paternal and maternal warmth by focusing on the child's prosocial behavior and parents' genotype, specifically a Valine to Methionine substitution at codon 66 in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Data was available from a sample of 6.5 year-old twins, consisting of 369 mothers and 663 children and 255 fathers and 458 children. Self-reports were used to assess mothers' and fathers' warmth. Child prosociality was assessed with the other-parent report and experimental assessments. Mothers' warmth was not affected by their BDNF genotype, neither as a main effect nor in an interaction with child prosociality. Fathers with the Met allele scored higher on warmth. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between fathers' BDNF genotype and child prosociality. For fathers with the Met allele there was a positive association between warmth and child prosociality. Conversely, for fathers with the Val/Val genotype there was no association between warmth and child prosociality. Results were repeated longitudinally in a subsample with data on age 8-9 years. A direct within family analysis showed that fathers with the Met allele were more likely than Val/Val carriers to exhibit differential parenting toward twins who differed in their prosocial behavior. The same pattern of findings was found with mother-rated and experimentally assessed prosociality. These results shed light on the genetic and environmental underpinnings of paternal behavior and differential parenting.
Damon L Swift
Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples.Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005.Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.
Kunová Bosáková, M.; Vařecha, M.; Hampl, Marek; Duran, I.; Nita, A.; Buchtová, Marcela; Dosedělová, Hana; Machat, R.; Xie, Y.; Ni, Z.; Martin, J. H.; Chen, L.; Jansen, G.; Krakow, D.; Krejčí, P.
Roč. 27, č. 6 (2018), s. 1093-1105 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : achondroplasia * thanatophoric dysplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2016
Full Text Available Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir 4.1 channels in astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability by mediating spatial potassium buffering. Although dysfunction of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels is implicated in the development of epileptic seizures, the functional mechanisms of Kir4.1 channels in modulating epileptogenesis remain unknown. We herein evaluated the effects of Kir4.1 inhibition (blockade and knockdown on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a key modulator of epileptogenesis, in the primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. For blockade of Kir4.1 channels, we tested several antidepressant agents which reportedly bound to and blocked Kir4.1 channels in a subunit-specific manner. Treatment of astrocytes with fluoxetine enhanced BDNF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the BDNF protein level. Other antidepressants (e.g., sertraline and imipramine also increased the expression of BDNF mRNA with relative potencies similar to those for inhibition of Kir4.1 channels. In addition, suppression of Kir4.1 expression by the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting Kir4.1 significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF. The BDNF induction by Kir4.1 siRNA transfection was suppressed by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. The present results demonstrated that inhibition of Kir4.1 channels facilitates BDNF expression in astrocytes primarily by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which may be linked to the development of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Wang, X M; Terman, J R; Martin, G F
Many rubrospinal neurons die in developing opossums when their axon is cut at thoracic levels of the spinal cord and in the present study we asked whether they can be rescued by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Bilateral injections of Fast Blue (FB) were made into the rostral lumbar cord to prelabel rubrospinal neurons and 5 days later the rubrospinal tract was cut unilaterally by hemisecting the thoracic cord. Immediately after hemisection, BDNF-soaked gelfoam was placed into the lesion cavity. Since pilot data indicated that one application of BDNF was not sufficient to produce a rescue effect, a second application was made 7 days later. Seven days after the second application the pups were killed by an overdose of anesthetic so that the red nucleus contralateral and ipsilateral to the lesion site could be examined for labeled neurons. The rubrospinal tract is almost entirely crossed, so the red nucleus contralateral to the lesion contained many axotomized neurons, whereas the red nucleus ipsilateral to it did not. Age-matched controls were subjected to the same procedures, but the gelfoam applied to the lesion site in the experimental animals was soaked only in the vehicle used to deliver BDNF. In all cases, labeled neurons were fewer in number in the red nucleus contralateral to the lesion than ipsilateral to it. It was of particular interest, however, that labeled neurons contralateral to the lesion were more numerous in the animals treated with BDNF than in the controls. We conclude that BDNF rescues at least some rubrospinal neurons from axotomy-induced cell death in developing opossums suggesting that loss of access to BDNF, and perhaps other neurotrophins, contributes to failure of rubrospinal neurons to survive axotomy.
Aili, Abudunaibi; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Hongqi
MicroRNAs (miRs) can lead to mRNA degradation or inhibit protein translation through directly binding to the 3'‑untranslational region (UTR) of their target mRNAs. Deregulation of miR‑10b has been reported to be associated with chondrosarcoma. However, the role of miR‑10b in chondrosarcoma cell migration and invasion, as well as the underlying mechanisms, has not been investigated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR‑10b was notably downregulated in the JJ012 and SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell lines compared with the TC28a2 normal chondrocyte line. Treatment with DNA demethylating agent 5‑aza‑2'‑deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor 4‑phenylbutyric acid, or transfection with miR‑10b mimics promoted the expression of miR‑10b, which further suppressed the migratory and invasive capacities of JJ012 chondrosarcoma cells. Moreover, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was identified as a novel target of miR‑10b, and its protein expression level was negatively regulated by miR‑10b in JJ012 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of BDNF reversed the inhibitory effect of miR‑10b upregulation on the migration and invasion of JJ012 cells. In addition, the data suggest that matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) may be involved in the miR‑10b/BDNF‑mediated chondrosarcoma cell migration and invasion in JJ012 cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that miR‑10b/BDNF may serve as a potential therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma.
Full Text Available Neurite outgrowth is an essential process for the establishment of the nervous system. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF binds to its receptor TrkB and regulates axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons through signal transduction and gene expression. SH2B1 is a signaling adaptor protein that regulates cellular signaling in various physiological processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of SH2B1 in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we show that knocking down SH2B1 reduces neurite formation of cortical neurons whereas overexpression of SH2B1β promotes the development of hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth and signaling using the established PC12 cells stably expressing TrkB, SH2B1β or SH2B1β mutants. Our data indicate that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances BDNF-induced MEK-ERK1/2, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. Inhibition of MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways by specific inhibitors suggest that these two pathways are required for SH2B1β-promoted BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, SH2B1β enhances BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 at serine 727. Finally, our data indicate that the SH2 domain and tyrosine phosphorylation of SH2B1β contribute to BDNF-induced signaling pathways and neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth through enhancing pathways involved MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT.
Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan
The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Resident cardiac progenitor cells show homing properties when injected into the injured but not to the healthy myocardium. The molecular background behind this difference in behavior needs to be studied to elucidate how adult progenitor cells can restore cardiac function of the damaged myocardium. Since the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF moderates cardioprotection in injured hearts, we focused on delineating its regulatory role in the damaged myocardium.Comparative gene expression profiling of freshly isolated undifferentiated Sca-1 progenitor cells derived either from heart failure transgenic αMHC-CyclinT1/Gαq overexpressing mice or wildtype littermates revealed transcriptional variations. Bdnf expression was up regulated 5-fold during heart failure which was verified by qRT-PCR and confirmed at protein level. The migratory capacity of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts was improved by 15% in the presence of 25 ng/ml BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-mediated effects on Sca-1 cells were studied via pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Cell Culture (pSILAC proteomics approach. After BDNF treatment significant differences between newly synthesized proteins in Sca-1 cells from control and transgenic hearts were observed for CDK1, SRRT, HDGF, and MAP2K3 which are known to regulate cell cycle, survival and differentiation. Moreover BDNF repressed the proliferation of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts.Comparative profiling of resident Sca-1 cells revealed elevated BDNF levels in the failing heart. Exogenous BDNF (i stimulated migration, which might improve the homing ability of Sca-1 cells derived from the failing heart and (ii repressed the cell cycle progression suggesting its potency to ameliorate heart failure.
Prince, Calais S; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie
Obesity is a major clinical problem in obstetrics being associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal programming. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a validated miR-210 target, is necessary for placental development, fetal growth, glucose metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Plasma BDNF levels are reduced in obese individuals; however, placental BDNF has yet to be studied in the context of maternal obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal obesity and sexual dimorphism on placental BDNF signaling. BDNF signaling was measured in placentas from lean (pre-pregnancy BMI 30) women at term without medical complications that delivered via cesarean section without labor. MiRNA-210, BDNF mRNA, proBDNF, and mature BDNF were measured by RT - PCR, ELISA, and Western blot. Downstream signaling via TRKB (BDNF receptor) was measured using Western blot. Maternal obesity was associated with increased miRNA-210 and decreased BDNF mRNA in placentas from female fetuses, and decreased proBDNF in placentas from male fetuses. We also identified decreased mature BDNF in placentas from male fetuses when compared to female fetuses. Mir-210 expression was negatively correlated with mature BDNF protein. TRKB phosphorylated at tyrosine 817, not tyrosine 515, was increased in placentas from obese women. Maternal obesity was associated with increased phosphorylation of MAPK p38 in placentas from male fetuses, but not phosphorylation of ERK p42/44. BDNF regulation is complex and highly regulated. Pre-pregnancy/early maternal obesity adversely affects BDNF/TRKB signaling in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner. These data collectively suggest that induction of placental TRKB signaling could ameliorate the placental OB phenotype, thus improving perinatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, Peng; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Quek, Jia Min; Lee, Bernett; Au, Bijin; Sio, Yang Yie; Irwanto, Astrid; Schurmann, Claudia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Suri, Bani Kaur; Matta, Sri Anusha; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Esko, Tonu; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen; Larbi, Anis; Xu, Xin; Poidinger, Michael; Liu, Jianjun; Chew, Fook Tim; Rotzschke, Olaf; Shi, Li; Wang, De Yun
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secretory protein that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic asthma, and eczema, but it is currently unknown whether BDNF polymorphisms influence susceptibility to moderate-to-severe AR. We sought to identify disease associations and the functional effect of BDNF genetic variants in patients with moderate-to-severe AR. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the BDNF gene were selected from the human HapMap Han Chinese from Beijing (CHB) data set, and associations with moderate-to-severe AR were assessed in 2 independent cohorts of Chinese patients (2216 from Shandong province and 1239 living in Singapore). The functional effects of the BDNF genetic variants were determined by using both in vitro and ex vivo assays. The tagging SNP rs10767664 was significantly associated with the risk of moderate-to-severe AR in both Singapore Chinese (P = .0017; odds ratio, 1.324) and Shandong Chinese populations (P = .039; odds ratio, 1.180). The coding nonsynonymous SNP rs6265 was in perfect linkage with rs10767664 and conferred increased BDNF protein secretion by a human cell line in vitro. Subjects bearing the AA genotype of rs10767664 exhibited increased risk of moderate-to-severe AR and displayed increased BDNF protein and total IgE levels in plasma. Using a large-scale expression quantitative trait locus study, we demonstrated that BDNF SNPs are significantly associated with altered BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood. A common genetic variant of the BDNF gene is associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe AR, and the AA genotype is associated with increased BDNF mRNA levels in peripheral blood. Together, these data indicate that functional BDNF gene variants increase the risk of moderate-to-severe AR. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are neurotrophins-proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons. Their role in the development of schizophrenia and mood disorders is widely studied. This study was aimed to determine whether depression affects levels of BDNF and NT-3 in patients with schizophrenia. Data for 53 Caucasian adult hospitalized patients with chronic paranoid schizophrenia was compared with 27 healthy subjects. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and positive, negative and general sub-scores, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI). Patients were defined as depressed (SHZ-DEP) with scores CDSS > 6 and HDRS > 7, otherwise they were included into the non-depressed group (SHZ-nonDEP). In total, 17 patients (32.1%) with schizophrenia met criteria for depression. SHZ-DEP patients had higher scores in HDRS, CDSS, PANSS total, PANSS negative, PANSS general and CGI (p BDNF or NT-3 levels between patients with schizophrenia and controls. BDNF levels were lower in SHZ-DEP compared to SHZ-nonDEP: 18.82 ± 5.95 versus 22.10 ± 5.31 ng/mL, p = 0.045. NT-3 levels were higher in SHZ-DEP compared to SHZ-nonDEP: 133.31 ± 222.19 versus 56.04 ± 201.28 pg/mL, p = 0.033. There were no differences in neurotrophin levels between patients with schizophrenia and controls. We found lower BDNF and higher NT-3 serum levels in depressed patients with schizophrenia.
Freire, Thiago Fernando Vasconcelos; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; da Rocha, Neusa Sica
Research on the association between electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels has produced conflicting result. There have been few studies which have evaluated BDNF levels in clinical contexts where there was remission following treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate whether remission of depression following ECT is associated with changes in BDNF levels. Adult inpatients in a psychiatric unit were invited to participate in this naturalistic study. Diagnoses were made using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptoms were evaluated at admission and discharge using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS-17). Thirty-one patients who received a diagnosis of depression and were subjected to ECT were included retrospectively. Clinical remission was defined as a score of less than eight on the HDRS-17 at discharge. Serum BDNF levels were measured in blood samples collected at admission and discharge with a commercial kit used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Subjects HDRS-17 scores improved following ECT (t = 13.29; p = 0.00). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed a remission × time interaction with BDNF levels as a dependent variable in a Wald chi-square test [Wald χ(2) = 5.98; p = 0.01]. A post hoc Bonferroni test revealed that non-remitters had lower BDNF levels at admission than remitters (p = 0.03), but there was no difference at discharge (p = 0.16). ECT remitters had higher serum BDNF levels at admission and the level did not vary during treatment. ECT non-remitters had lower serum BDNF levels at admission, but levels increased during treatment and were similar to those of ECT remitters at discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Failla, Michelle D.; Conley, Yvette P.; Wagner, Amy K.
Background Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) were protective in acute mortality. Post-acutely, these genotypes carried lower mortality risk in older adults, and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Objective Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Methods CSF and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n=203), and in controls (n=10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. Results CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (p=0.061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (p=0.042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (pBDNF serum and gene*age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (p=0.07). Conclusions BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene*age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. PMID:25979196
Wang, Long-Wang; Li, Jian-Long; Yu, Yi; Xiao, Rui-Hai; Huang, Hong-Wei; Kuang, Ren-Rui; Hai, Bo
Urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an ubiquitous neurotrophin, was found to rise in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We hypothesized that the urinary level of BDNF could be a potential biomarker for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH. Totally, 76 patients with BPH-caused LUTS and 32 male control subjects without BPH were enrolled. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was applied to assess the symptom severity of LUTS. Urodynamic tests were performed for the diagnosis of underlying detrusor overactivity (DO) in the patients with BPH. Urine samples were collected from all subjects. Urinary BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and normalized by urinary creatinine (Cr) levels. Seventy-six BPH patients were divided into moderate LUTS group (n=51, 720) according to the IPSS. Of the 76 BPH patients, DO was present in 34 (44.7%) according to the urodynamic test. The urinary BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in BPH patients with moderate LUTS (8.29±3.635, PBDNF/Cr levels than patients with moderate LUTS (11.8±6.44 vs. 8.29±3.635, P=0.000). The conditions of BPH with LUTS correlated with elevated urinary BDNF levels, and urinary BDNF levels were even higher in BPH-DO patients. The results of this study have provided evidence to suggest that urinary BDNF level test could evaluate the severity of LUTS in BPH patients, and BDNF level can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of DO in BPH patients.
Ren, L H; Mu, X Y; Chen, H Y; Yang, H L; Qi, W
To explore the relationship between umbilical cord blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neonatal neurobehavioral development in lead exposure infants. All infants and their mother were randomly selected during 2011 to 2012, subjects were selected according to the umbilical cord blood lead concentrations, which contcentration of lead was higher than 0.48 μmol/L were taken into high lead exposure group, about 60 subjects included. Comparing to the high lead exposure group, according to gender, weight, pregnant week, length and head circumferenece, the level of cord blood lead concentration under 0.48 μmol/L were taken into control group, 60 cases included. Lead content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to determine the development of neonatal neuronal behavior. The content of BDNF was detected by ELISA. Comparing the BDNF and the NBNA score between two groups, and linear correlation was given on analysis the correlation between lead concentration in cord blood and BDNF, BDNF and the NBNA score. Lead content in high exposure group was (0.613±0.139) μmol/L, and higher than (0.336±0.142) μmol/L in low exposure group (t=3.21, PBDNF content in high exposure group which was (3.538±1.203) ng/ml was higher than low exposure group (2.464±0.918) ng/ml (t=7.60, PBDNF content was negatively correlated with NBNA summary score, passive muscle tension and active muscle tone score (r was -0.27, -0.29, -0.30, respectively, P values were BDNF was negatively correlated with neonatal neurodevelopment, may serve as a useful biomarker.
Yang, Na; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A
There is accumulating evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains controversial, and no study has assessed BDNF concentrations among pregnant women with PTSD. We examined early-pregnancy BDNF concentrations among women with PTSD with and without depression. A total of 2928 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited. Antepartum PTSD and depression were evaluated using PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scales, respectively. BDNF concentrations were measured in a subset of the cohort (N = 944) using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Antepartum PTSD (37.4 %) and depression (27.6 %) were prevalent in this cohort of low-income pregnant Peruvian women. Approximately 19.9 % of participants had comorbid PTSD-depression. Median serum BDNF concentrations were lower among women with comorbid PTSD-depression as compared with women without either condition (median [interquartile range], 20.44 [16.97-24.30] vs. 21.35 [17.33-26.01] ng/ml; P = 0.06). Compared to the referent group (those without PTSD and depression), women with comorbid PTSD-depression were 1.52-fold more likely to have low (BDNF concentrations (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI 1.00-2.31). We observed no evidence of reduced BDNF concentrations among women with isolated PTSD. BDNF concentrations in early pregnancy were only minimally and non-significantly reduced among women with antepartum PTSD. Reductions in BDNF concentrations were more pronounced among women with comorbid PTSD-depression.
Jehn, C F; Becker, B; Flath, B; Nogai, H; Vuong, L; Schmid, P; Lüftner, D
Increased IL-6 and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective was to assess the influence of BDNF and IL-6 on cognitive function and depression in patients with cancer. Serum BDNF and plasma IL-6 were measured in patients with metastatic cancer. Diagnosis of depression was established according to DSM-IV criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT). A total of 59 patients were recruited in this study. Only IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in patients with clinical depression (35.7 vs. 6.9 pg/ml; pBDNF levels (p=0.16). Patients with clinical depression showed significant impairment of short-term memory (STM) (24.4 vs. 37.5; p=0.01), but not of long-term memory (LTM) (3.9 vs. 2.8; p=0.3). STM was dependent on the level of BDNF and younger age (b=0.60; p=0.001; b= -0.63; p=0.003, respectively). IL-6 was not only strongly associated with depression, but was an independent predictor of BDNF level as well (b= -0.50; p=0.01). LTM was associated only with a good KPS (b=0.47; p=0.037). Hemoglobin levels and the prior number of chemotherapy lines were not predictive of memory performance. Low BDNF is associated with cognitive impairment, STM, in patients with cancer, however no influence on depression could be found. IL-6 is strongly associated with depression and an independent predictor of BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain and its decreased levels are associated with the development of obesity and neurodegeneration. Our aim was to test the effect of dietary fat, its timing and the circadian clock on the expression of BDNF and associated signaling pathways in mouse brain and liver. Bdnf mRNA oscillated robustly in brain and liver, but with a 12-h shift between the tissues. Brain and liver Bdnf mRNA showed a 12-h phase shift when fed ketogenic diet (KD) compared with high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD). Brain or liver Bdnf mRNA did not show the typical phase advance usually seen under time-restricted feeding (RF). Clock knockdown in HT-4 hippocampal neurons led to 86% up-regulation of Bdnf mRNA, whereas it led to 60% down-regulation in AML-12 hepatocytes. Dietary fat in mice or cultured hepatocytes and hippocampal neurons led to increased Bdnf mRNA expression. At the protein level, HFD increased the ratio of the mature BDNF protein (mBDNF) to its precursor (proBDNF). In the liver, RF under LFD or HFD reduced the mBDNF/proBDNF ratio. In the brain, the two signaling pathways related to BDNF, mTOR and AMPK, showed reduced and increased levels, respectively, under timed HFD. In the liver, the reverse was achieved. In summary, Bdnf expression is mediated by the circadian clock and dietary fat. Although RF does not affect its expression phase, in the brain, when combined with high-fat diet, it leads to a unique metabolic state in which AMPK is activated, mTOR is down-regulated and the levels of mBDNF are high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early-onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from the Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stephanie C Licata
Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BZs are safe drugs for treating anxiety, sleep, and seizure disorders, but their use also results in unwanted effects including memory impairment, abuse, and dependence. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the effects of BZs in the hippocampus (HIP, an area involved in drug-related plasticity, by investigating the regulation of immediate early genes following BZ administration. Previous studies have demonstrated that both brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and c-Fos contribute to memory- and abuse-related processes that occur within the HIP, and their expression is altered in response to BZ exposure. In the current study, mice received acute or repeated administration of BZs and HIP tissue was analyzed for alterations in BDNF and c-Fos expression. Although no significant changes in BDNF or c-Fos were observed in response to twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of diazepam (10 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg or zolpidem (ZP; 2.5 mg/kg + 2.5 mg/kg, acute i.p. administration of both triazolam (0.03 mg/kg and ZP (1.0 mg/kg decreased BDNF protein levels within the HIP relative to vehicle, without any effect on c-Fos. ZP specifically reduced exon IV-containing BDNF transcripts with a concomitant increase in the association of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 with BDNF promoter IV, suggesting that MeCP2 activity at this promoter may represent a ZP-specific mechanism for reducing BDNF expression. ZP also increased the association of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB with BDNF promoter I. Future work should examine the interaction between ZP and DNA as the cause for altered gene expression in the HIP, given that BZs can enter the nucleus and intercalate into DNA directly.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the mediation effect of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR in the effect of brainderived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons. Methods Hippocampal neurons were obtained from p75NTR+/+ and p75NTR-/- 18-day mice and primarily cultured. For p75NTR+/+ neurons, three experimental groups were set, i.e. control, proBDNF (30ng/ml, and proBDNF (30ng/ml+p75/Fc (30µg/ml groups. For p75NTR-/- neurons, two experimental groups were set, i.e. control and proBDNF (30ng/ml groups. MTT assays were performed after 24h to examine the viability of neonatal primary neurons. Immunofluorescent staining was conducted after 72h to investigate the neurite length. Results With MAP2 and DAPI double fluorescent staining it was identified that the neonatal hippocampal neurons were successfully cultured in vitro with high purity. For viability assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the absorbance value at 570nm (A570 in proBDNF group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the neurite length in proBDNF group was significantly shorter than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR-/- neurons, no difference in neurite length was observed between proBDNF group and control group. Conclusion proBDNF may inhibit the neuronal viability and neurite growth via p75NTR. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.03
Schmidt, M. A.; Goodwin, T. J.
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main activity-dependent neurotrophin in the human nervous system. BDNF is implicated in production of new neurons from dentate gyrus stem cells (hippocampal neurogenesis), synapse formation, sprouting of new axons, growth of new axons, sprouting of new dendrites, and neuron survival. Alterations in the amount or activity of BDNF can produce significant detrimental changes to cortical function and synaptic transmission in the human brain. This can result in glial and neuronal dysfunction, which may contribute to a range of clinical conditions, spanning a number of learning, behavioral, and neurological disorders. There is an extensive body of work surrounding the BDNF molecular network, including BDNF gene polymorphisms, methylated BDNF gene promoters, multiple gene transcripts, varied BDNF functional proteins, and different BDNF receptors (whose activation differentially drive the neuron to neurogenesis or apoptosis). BDNF is also closely linked to mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1alpha, which can influence brain and muscle metabolic efficiency. BDNF AS A HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT COUNTERMEASURE TARGET Earth-based studies reveal that BDNF is negatively impacted by many of the conditions encountered in the space environment, including oxidative stress, radiation, psychological stressors, sleep deprivation, and many others. A growing body of work suggests that the BDNF network is responsive to a range of diet, nutrition, exercise, drug, and other types of influences. This section explores the BDNF network in the context of 1) protecting the brain and nervous system in the space environment, 2) optimizing neurobehavioral performance in space, and 3) reducing the residual effects of space flight on the nervous system on return to Earth
Naert, Gaëlle; Maurice, Tangui; Tapia-Arancibia, Lucia; Givalois, Laurent
Depression is characterized by hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity. In this major mood disorder, neurosteroids and neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), seem to be implicated and have some antidepressant effects. BDNF is highly involved in regulation of the HPA axis, whereas neurosteroids effects have never been clearly established. In this systematic in vivo study, we showed that the principal neuroactive steroids, namely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnenolone (PREG) and their sulfate esters (DHEA-S and PREG-S), along with allopregnanolone (ALLO), stimulated HPA axis activity, while also modulating central BDNF contents. In detail, DHEA, DHEA-S, PREG, PREG-S and ALLO induced corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and/or arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis and release at the hypothalamic level, thus enhancing plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations. This stimulation of the HPA axis occurred concomitantly with BDNF modifications at the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus levels. We showed that these neurosteroids induced rapid effects, probably via neurotransmitter receptors and delayed effects perhaps after metabolization in other neuroactive steroids. We highlighted that they had peripheral effects directly at the adrenal level by inducing CORT release, certainly after estrogenic metabolization. In addition, we showed that, at the dose used, only DHEA, DHEA-S and PREG-S had antidepressant effects. In conclusion, these results highly suggest that part of the HPA axis and antidepressant effects of neuroactive steroids could be mediated by BDNF, particularly at the amygdala level. They also suggest that neurosteroids effects on central BDNF could partially explain the trophic properties of these molecules.
Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alaca, Rümeysa
In this study, we investigated serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels between children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) prior to treatment and healthy controls. In addition, the study aimed to assess any correlations between OCD symptom severity and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. Twenty-nine children, aged from 7 to 17 years (male/female: 21/8) and diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV prior to treatment, were compared with 25 healthy control subjects (male/female: 16/9). The study was conducted between December 2012 and December 2013. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered to the children. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels were detected using a prepared kit with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels in the OCD group were significantly higher when compared with the control group (P = .02, P = .03, and P = .046, respectively). No association was detected between the severity and duration of OCD symptoms and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. CDI scores in both groups were similar. The mean (SD) duration of OCD symptoms was 17.9 (18.5) months. Our findings suggest that BDNF levels adaptively increase as a result of the damaging effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity on brain tissue in the early stages of OCD. HPA axis abnormalities and BDNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Ambrus, Livia; Lindqvist, Daniel; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Åsa
Both decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behaviour, as well as cognitive symptoms of depression. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown interactions between HPA-axis activity and BDNF, but this has not been studied in a clinical cohort of suicidal subjects. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate associations between HPA-axis activity and BDNF in suicide attempters. Furthermore, this study examined the relationship between the HPA-axis, BDNF, and cognitive symptoms in suicidal patients. Since previous data indicate gender-related differences in BDNF and the HPA axis, males and females were examined separately. Seventy-five recent suicide attempters (n = 41 females; n = 34 males) were enrolled in the study. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) was performed and BDNF in plasma were analysed. Patients were evaluated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) from which items 'Concentration difficulties' and 'Failing memory' were extracted. Only among females, DST non-suppressors had significantly lower BDNF compared to DST suppressors (p = 0.022), and there was a significant correlation between post-DST serum cortisol at 8 a.m. and BDNF (rs = -0.437, p = 0.003). Concentration difficulties correlated significantly with post-DST cortisol in all patients (rs = 0.256, p = 0.035), in females (rs = 0.396, p = 0.015), and with BDNF in females (rs = -0.372, p = 0.020). The findings suggest an inverse relationship between the HPA-axis and BDNF in female suicide attempters. Moreover, concentration difficulties may be associated with low BDNF and DST non-suppression in female suicide attempters.
Ieraci, Alessandro; Madaio, Alessandro I; Mallei, Alessandra; Lee, Francis S; Popoli, Maurizio
Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice. Wild-type (BDNFVal/Val) and homozygous BDNF Val66Met (BDNFMet/Met) male mice were housed in cages equipped with or without running wheels for 4 weeks. Changes in behavioral phenotype, hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and gene expression were evaluated in exercised and sedentary control mice. We found that exercise reduced the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding and the immobility time in the forced swimming test in BDNFVal/Val but not in BDNFMet/Met mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in BDNFMet/Met mice compared with BDNFVal/Val mice. BDNFMet/Met mice had lower basal BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus, which was not recovered following exercise. Moreover, exercise-induced expression of total BDNF, BDNF splice variants 1, 2, 4, 6 and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) mRNA levels were absent or reduced in the dentate gyrus of BDNFMet/Met mice. Exercise failed to enhance PGC-1α and FNDC5 mRNA levels in the BDNFMet/Met muscle. Overall these results indicate that, in adult male mice, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism impairs the beneficial behavioral and neuroplasticity effects induced by physical exercise. PMID:27388329
Wu, Jin-Ji; Cui, Yanji; Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kang, Moon-Seok; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Hyeung Keun; Yeun, Hye-Young; Jang, Won Jung; Lee, Sunjoo; Kwak, Young Sook; Eun, Su-Yong
Aromatherapy massage is commonly used for the stress management of healthy individuals, and also has been often employed as a therapeutic use for pain control and alleviating psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression, in oncological palliative care patients. However, the exact biological basis of aromatherapy massage is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated here the effects of aromatherapy massage interventions on multiple neurobiological indices such as quantitative psychological assessments, electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. A control group without treatment (n = 12) and aromatherapy massage group (n = 13) were randomly recruited. They were all females whose children were diagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and followed up in the Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital. Participants were treated with aromatherapy massage for 40 min twice per week for 4 weeks (8 interventions). A 4-week-aromatherapy massage program significantly improved all psychological assessment scores in the Stat-Trait Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Short Form of Psychosocial Well-being Index. Interestingly, plasma BDNF levels were significantly increased after a 4 week-aromatherapy massage program. Alpha-brain wave activities were significantly enhanced and delta wave activities were markedly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment, as shown in the meditation and neurofeedback training. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were significantly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage could exert significant influences on multiple neurobiological indices such as EEG pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma BDNF levels as well as psychological assessments. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the human motor hand area (M1HAND can induce lasting changes in corticospinal excitability as indexed by a change in amplitude of the motor-evoked potential. The plasticity-inducing effects of rTMS in M1HAND show substantial inter-individual variability which has been partially attributed to the val(66met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene. Here we used theta burst stimulation (TBS to examine whether the BDNF val(66met genotype can be used to predict the expression of TBS-induced homeostatic metaplasticity in human M1HAND. TBS is a patterned rTMS protocol with intermittent TBS (iTBS usually inducing a lasting increase and continuous TBS (cTBS a lasting decrease in corticospinal excitability. In three separate sessions, healthy val(66met (n = 12 and val(66val (n = 17 carriers received neuronavigated cTBS followed by cTBS (n = 27, cTBS followed by iTBS (n = 29, and iTBS followed by iTBS (n = 28. Participants and examiner were blinded to the genotype at the time of examination. As expected, the first TBS intervention induced a decrease (cTBS and increase (iTBS in corticospinal excitability, respectively, at the same time priming the after effects caused by the second TBS intervention in a homeostatic fashion. Critically, val(66met carriers and val(66val carriers showed very similar response patterns to cTBS and iTBS regardless of the order of TBS interventions. Since none of the observed TBS effects was modulated by the BDNF val(66met polymorphism, our results do not support the notion that the BDNF val(66met genotype is a major player with regard to TBS-induced plasticity and metaplasticity in the human M1HAND.
Rizzo, Vincenzo; Ritter, Christoph; Klein, Christine; Pohlmann, Ines; Brueggemann, Norbert; Quartarone, Angelo; Siebner, Hartwig Roman
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor hand area (M1HAND) can induce lasting changes in corticospinal excitability as indexed by a change in amplitude of the motor-evoked potential. The plasticity-inducing effects of rTMS in M1HAND show substantial inter-individual variability which has been partially attributed to the val66met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Here we used theta burst stimulation (TBS) to examine whether the BDNF val66met genotype can be used to predict the expression of TBS-induced homeostatic metaplasticity in human M1HAND. TBS is a patterned rTMS protocol with intermittent TBS (iTBS) usually inducing a lasting increase and continuous TBS (cTBS) a lasting decrease in corticospinal excitability. In three separate sessions, healthy val66met (n = 12) and val66val (n = 17) carriers received neuronavigated cTBS followed by cTBS (n = 27), cTBS followed by iTBS (n = 29), and iTBS followed by iTBS (n = 28). Participants and examiner were blinded to the genotype at the time of examination. As expected, the first TBS intervention induced a decrease (cTBS) and increase (iTBS) in corticospinal excitability, respectively, at the same time priming the after effects caused by the second TBS intervention in a homeostatic fashion. Critically, val66met carriers and val66val carriers showed very similar response patterns to cTBS and iTBS regardless of the order of TBS interventions. Since none of the observed TBS effects was modulated by the BDNF val66met polymorphism, our results do not support the notion that the BDNF val66met genotype is a major player with regard to TBS-induced plasticity and metaplasticity in the human M1HAND. PMID:23469118
Mastroeni, Claudia; Bergmann, Til Ole; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Ritter, Christoph; Klein, Christine; Pohlmann, Ines; Brueggemann, Norbert; Quartarone, Angelo; Siebner, Hartwig Roman
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor hand area (M1HAND) can induce lasting changes in corticospinal excitability as indexed by a change in amplitude of the motor-evoked potential. The plasticity-inducing effects of rTMS in M1HAND show substantial inter-individual variability which has been partially attributed to the val(66)met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Here we used theta burst stimulation (TBS) to examine whether the BDNF val(66)met genotype can be used to predict the expression of TBS-induced homeostatic metaplasticity in human M1HAND. TBS is a patterned rTMS protocol with intermittent TBS (iTBS) usually inducing a lasting increase and continuous TBS (cTBS) a lasting decrease in corticospinal excitability. In three separate sessions, healthy val(66)met (n = 12) and val(66)val (n = 17) carriers received neuronavigated cTBS followed by cTBS (n = 27), cTBS followed by iTBS (n = 29), and iTBS followed by iTBS (n = 28). Participants and examiner were blinded to the genotype at the time of examination. As expected, the first TBS intervention induced a decrease (cTBS) and increase (iTBS) in corticospinal excitability, respectively, at the same time priming the after effects caused by the second TBS intervention in a homeostatic fashion. Critically, val(66)met carriers and val(66)val carriers showed very similar response patterns to cTBS and iTBS regardless of the order of TBS interventions. Since none of the observed TBS effects was modulated by the BDNF val(66)met polymorphism, our results do not support the notion that the BDNF val(66)met genotype is a major player with regard to TBS-induced plasticity and metaplasticity in the human M1HAND.
Fries, Gabriel R; Valvassori, Samira S; Bock, Hugo; Stertz, Laura; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Mariot, Edimilson; Varela, Roger B; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Quevedo, João; Kapczinski, Flávio; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza
Progression of bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with cognitive impairment and changes in neuroplasticity, including a decrease in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, no study could examine BDNF levels directly in different brain regions after repeated mood episodes to date. The proposed animal model was designed to mimic several manic episodes and evaluate whether the performance in memory tasks and BDNF levels in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala would change after repeated amphetamine (AMPH) exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into subchronic (AMPH for 7 days) and chronic groups (35 days), mimicking manic episodes at early and late stages of BD, respectively. After open field habituation or inhibitory avoidance test, rats were killed, brain regions were isolated, and BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. AMPH impaired habituation memory in both subchronic and chronic groups, and the impairment was worse in the chronic group. This was accompanied by increased Bdnf mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala region, as well as reduced BDNF protein in the hippocampus. In the inhibitory avoidance, AMPH significantly decreased the change from training to test when compared to saline. No difference was observed between subchronic and chronic groups, although chronically AMPH-treated rats presented increased Bdnf mRNA levels and decreased protein levels in hippocampus when compared to the subchronic group. Our results suggest that the cognitive impairment related to BD neuroprogression may be associated with BDNF alterations in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Z; Liu, Q; Zhang, R; Liu, S; Xia, Z; Hu, Y
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of catalpol, an iridoid from Rehmannia glutinosa on neurodegenerative changes induced by beta-amyloid peptide Abeta(25-35) or Abeta(25-35)+ibotenic acid and the underlying mechanism. Results showed that catalpol significantly improved the memory deficits in the neurodegenerative mouse model produced by injection of Abeta(25-35)+ibotenic acid to the nucleus magnocellularis basalis, yet it is neither a cholinesterase inhibitor nor a muscarinic (M) receptor agonist. Instead, the choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity and the M receptor density in brain were significantly decreased in the model mice and catalpol could significantly elevate their levels. Furthermore, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in brain was significantly decreased in the model mice and catalpol elevated it to normal level (83%+/-3% and 102%+/-2% of normal respectively). There is a significant positive correlation between BDNF content and memory. Primary culture of forebrain neurons revealed that aggregated Abeta(25-35) induced significant decrease of ChAT positive neuron number, neurite outgrowth length, and M receptor density, while catalpol added to the culture medium 2 h prior to Abeta addition showed significant dose dependent protective effect. Notably, 24 h and 48 h after the addition of Abeta to the cultured cells, the BDNF mRNA level in the neurons decreased to 76%+/-7% and 66%+/-3% of control without catalpol treatment, but became 128%+/-17% and 131%+/-23% of control with catalpol treatment. When the action of BDNF was inhibited by k252a in the cultured neurons, the protective effect of catalpol was completely (neurite outgrowth length) or partially (ChAT positive neuron number and the M receptor density) abolished. Taken together, catalpol improves memory and protects the forebrain neurons from neurodegeneration through increasing BDNF expression. Whether catalpol could reverse the neurodegenerative changes already
Full Text Available Background: The predictive therapeutic value of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its changes associated with the use of specific antidepressants are still unclear. In this study, we examined BDNF as a peripheral and NAA as a central biomarker over the time course of antidepressant treatment to specify both of their roles in the response to the medication and clinical outcome. Methods: We examined serum BDNF (ELISA kit in a sample of 76 (47 female and 29 male depressed patients in a naturalistic setting. BDNF was assessed before medication and subsequently after two, four and six weeks of antidepressant treatment. Additionally, in fifteen patients, N-acetylaspartate (NAA was measured in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Over a time course of six weeks BDNF and NAA were also examined in a group of 41 healthy controls. Results: We found significant lower serum BDNF concentrations in depressed patients compared to the sample of healthy volunteers before and after medication. BDNF and clinical symptoms decreased significantly in the patients over the time course of antidepressant treatment. Serum BDNF levels at baseline predicted the symptom outcome after eight weeks. Specifically, responders and remitters had lower serum BDNF at baseline than the nonresponders and nonremitters. NAA was slightly decreased but not significantly lower in depressed patients when compared with healthy controls. During treatment period, NAA showed a tendency to increase. Limitations: A relative high drop-out rate and possibly, a suboptimal observation period for BDNF. Conclusion: Our data confirm serum BDNF as a biomarker of depression with a possible role in response prediction. However, our findings argue against serum BDNF increase being a prerequisite to depressive symptom reduction.
Full Text Available Background and Aim. Studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum BDNF levels and various metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Materials and Methods. The study included 88 T2DM patients and 33 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group. The serum levels of BDNF were measured with an ELISA kit. The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC generalization curve to identify cut-off for the BDNF values in type 2 diabetes patients. Results. The serum levels of BDNF were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (206.81 ± 107.32 pg/mL versus 130.84 ± 59.81 pg/mL; P<0.001. They showed a positive correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (r=0.28; P<0.05, the triglyceride level (r=0.265; P<0.05, and white blood cell (WBC count (r=0.35; P<0.001. In logistic regression analysis, age (P<0.05, body mass index (BMI (P<0.05, C-reactive protein (CRP (P<0.05, and BDNF (P<0.01 were independently associated with T2DM. In ROC curve analysis, BDNF cut-off was 137. Conclusion. The serum BDNF level was higher in patients with T2DM. The BDNF had a cut-off value of 137. The findings suggest that BDNF may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close relationship between depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although it is known that the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to this relationship, the detailed mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone sigma-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of CVD and depression. Several meta-analysis studies have showed that levels of BDNF in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are lower than normal controls, indicating that blood BDNF might be a biomarker for depression. Furthermore, blood levels of BDNF in patients with CVD are also lower than normal controls. A recent study using conditional BDNF knock-out mice in animal models of myocardial infarction highlighted the role of CNS-mediated mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of BDNF. In addition, a recent study shows that decreased levels of sigma-1 receptor in the mouse brain contribute to the association between heart failure and depression. Moreover, sigma-1 receptor agonists, including the endogenous neurosteroid dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine, show potent cardioprotective and antidepressive effects in rodents, via sigma-1 receptor stimulation. Interestingly, agonist activation of sigma-1 receptors increased the secretion of mature BDNF from its precursor proBDNF via chaperone activity in the ER. Given the role of ER stress in the pathophysiology of CVD and MDD, the author will discuss the potential link between sigma-1 receptors and BDNF-TrkB pathway in the pathophysiology of these two diseases. Finally, the author will make a case for potent sigma-1 receptor agonists and TrkB agonists as new potential therapeutic drugs for depressive patients with CVD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavlova, G V; Kanaĭkina, N N; Panteleev, D Iu; Okhotin, V E; Revishchin, A V
Under the leadership of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences L.I. Korochkin, the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Developmental Genetics (Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences) for many years has been conducting studies of nervous system development, neural cell differentiation, and application of gene and cell technology to cure neurodegenerative diseases. The results of the study initiated by L.I. Korochkin and continued by his scientific successors support the direction of allocation of transgenic neurotrofic factors and heat-shock proteins as neuroprotectors for cell therapy. Potential for usage of promoter of HSP70 heat-shock gene of Drosophila to create transgenic constructs for therapy has been shown. Further improvement of technology of nonvirus transfer for therapeutic genes, as well as production of multicomponent genetic constructs coding several therapeutic factors with synergy effect, would stimulate creation of efficient cell medicals to cure neurodegenerative diseases.
Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C.; Sullivan, Aideen M.
The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on ne...
Motamedi, Shima; Karimi, Isaac; Jafari, Fariba
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) like Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and depression. If one factor plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of two diseases, it can be concluded that there might be a common root in these two diseases, as well. This review was aimed to highlight the crucial roles of BDNF in the pathogenesis of MetS and NDD and to introduce sole prophylactic or therapeutic applications, BDNF gene therapy and BDFN administration, in controlling MetS and NDD.
Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A
It is well documented that physical activity can induce a number of various stimuli which are able to enhance the strength and endurance performance of muscles. Moreover, regular physical activity can preserve or delay the appearance of several metabolic disorders in the human body. Physical exercise is also known to enhance the mood and cognitive functions of active people, although the physiological backgrounds of these effects remain unclear. In recent years, since the pioneering study in the past showed that physical activity increases the expression of the brain derived neurothophic factor (BDNF) in the rat brain, a number of studies were undertaken in order to establish the link between that neurothrophin and post-exercise enhancement of mood and cognitive functions in humans. It was recently demonstrated that physical exercise can increase plasma and/or serum BDNF concentration in humans. It was also reported that physical exercise or electrical stimulation can increase the BDNF expression in the skeletal muscles. In the present review, we report the current state of research concerning the effect of a single bout of exercise and training on the BDNF expression in the brain, in both the working muscles as well as on its concentrations in the blood. We have concluded that there may be potential benefits of the exercise-induced enhancement of the BDNF expression and release in the brain as well as in the peripheral tissues, resulting in the improvement of the functioning of the body, although this effect, especially in humans, requires more research.
M. Sh. Avrushchenko
populations. The results suggest that the level of BDNF expression is one of factors that have a significant effect on neuronal resistance to ischemia-reperfusion. A possibility of induction of the endogenous BDNF expression in order to prevent neuronal death is discussed.
Sebastiani, Anne; Granold, Matthias; Ditter, Anja; Sebastiani, Philipp; Gölz, Christina; Pöttker, Bruno; Luh, Clara; Schaible, Eva-Verena; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Werner, Christian; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Moosmann, Bernd; Thal, Serge C
The gamma-aminobutyric acid modulator propofol induces neuronal cell death in healthy immature brains by unbalancing neurotrophin homeostasis via p75 neurotrophin receptor signaling. In adulthood, p75 neurotrophin receptor becomes down-regulated and propofol loses its neurotoxic effect. However, acute brain lesions, such as traumatic brain injury, reactivate developmental-like programs and increase p75 neurotrophin receptor expression, probably to foster reparative processes, which in turn could render the brain sensitive to propofol-mediated neurotoxicity. This study investigates the influence of delayed single-bolus propofol applications at the peak of p75 neurotrophin receptor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury in adult mice. Randomized laboratory animal study. University research laboratory. Adult C57BL/6N and nerve growth factor receptor-deficient mice. Sedation by IV propofol bolus application delayed after controlled cortical impact injury. Propofol sedation at 24 hours after traumatic brain injury increased lesion volume, enhanced calpain-induced αII-spectrin cleavage, and increased cell death in perilesional tissue. Thirty-day postinjury motor function determined by CatWalk (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) gait analysis was significantly impaired in propofol-sedated animals. Propofol enhanced pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor/brain-derived neurotrophic factor ratio, which aggravates p75 neurotrophin receptor-mediated cell death. Propofol toxicity was abolished both by pharmacologic inhibition of the cell death domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (TAT-Pep5) and in mice lacking the extracellular neurotrophin binding site of p75 neurotrophin receptor. This study provides first evidence that propofol sedation after acute brain lesions can have a deleterious impact and implicates a role for the pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor-p75 neurotrophin receptor pathway. This observation is important as sedation
Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicated astroglia-derived neurotrophic factors generation might hold a promising therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Resveratrol, naturally present in red wine and grapes with potential benefit for health, is well known to possess a number of pharmacological activities. Besides the antineuroinflammatory properties, we hypothesized the neuroprotective potency of resveratrol is partially due to its additional neurotrophic effects. Here, primary rat midbrain neuron-glia cultures were applied to investigate the neurotrophic effects mediated by resveratrol on dopamine (DA neurons and further explore the role of neurotrophic factors in its actions. Results showed resveratrol produced neurotrophic effects on cultured DA neurons. Additionally, astroglia-derived neurotrophic factors release was responsible for resveratrol-mediated neurotrophic properties as evidenced by the following observations: (1 resveratrol failed to exert neurotrophic effects on DA neurons in the cultures without astroglia; (2 the astroglia-conditioned medium prepared from astroglia-enriched cultures treated with resveratrol produced neurotrophic effects in neuron-enriched cultures; (3 resveratrol increased neurotrophic factors release in the concentration- and time-dependent manners; (4 resveratrol-mediated neurotrophic effects were suppressed by blocking the action of the neurotrophic factors. Together, resveratrol could produce neurotrophic effects on DA neurons through prompting neurotrophic factors release, and these effects might open new alternative avenues for neurotrophic factor-based therapy targeting PD.
Full Text Available Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 plays important physiologic roles in the brain including regulation of learning and memory as well as neuronal survival and death. Yet, outside of translational regulation by the eIF2α-dependent stress response pathway, there is little information about how its levels are controlled in neurons. Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 transcripts and protein levels. This increase is dependent on tropomyosin receptor kinase (TrkB signaling, but independent of levels of phosphorylated eIF2α. The elevation in ATF4 protein occurs both in nuclei and processes. Transcriptome analysis revealed that ATF4 mediates BDNF-promoted induction of Sesn2 which encodes Sestrin2, a protector against oxidative and genotoxic stresses and a mTor complex 1 inhibitor. In contrast, BDNF-elevated ATF4 did not affect expression of a number of other known ATF4 targets including several with pro-apoptotic activity. The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that provide neuroprotection and optimal brain function without risk of triggering neurodegeneration.
McIsaac, W; Ferguson, A V
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is critical for normal energy balance and has been shown to contain high levels of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-receptor kinase B mRNA. Microinjections of BDNF into the PVN increase energy expenditure, suggesting that BDNF plays an important role in energy homeostasis through direct actions in this nucleus. The present study aimed to examine the postsynaptic effects of BDNF on the membrane potential of PVN neurones, and also to determine whether extracellular glucose concentrations modulated these effects. We used hypothalamic PVN slices from male Sprague-Dawley rats to perform whole cell current-clamp recordings from PVN neurones. BDNF was bath applied at a concentration of 2 nmol L -1 and the effects on membrane potential determined. BDNF caused depolarisations in 54% of neurones (n=25; mean±SEM, 8.9±1.2 mV) and hyperpolarisations in 23% (n=11; -6.7±1.4 mV), whereas the remaining cells were unaffected. These effects were maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (n=9; 56% depolarised, 22% hyperpolarised, 22% nonresponders), or the GABA a antagonist bicuculline (n=12; 42% depolarised, 17% hyperpolarised, 41% nonresponders), supporting the conclusion that these effects on membrane potential were postsynaptic. Current-clamp recordings from PVN neurones next examined the effects of BDNF on these neurones at varying extracellular glucose concentrations. Larger proportions of PVN neurones hyperpolarised in response to BDNF as the glucose concentrations decreased [10 mmol L -1 glucose 23% (n=11) of neurones hyperpolarised, whereas, at 0.2 mmol L -1 glucose, 71% showed hyperpolarising effects (n=12)]. Our findings reveal that BDNF has direct GABA A independent effects on PVN neurones, which are modulated by local glucose concentrations. The latter observation further emphasises the critical importance of using physiologically relevant conditions in an investigation of the central
Full Text Available Csaba Papp,1 Krisztian Pak,2 Tamas Erdei,2 Bela Juhasz,2 Ildiko Seres,3 Anita Szentpéteri,3 Laszlo Kardos,4 Maria Szilasi,5 Rudolf Gesztelyi,2 Judit Zsuga1 1Department of Health Systems Management and Quality Management for Health Care, Faculty of Public Health, 2Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases and Allergology, Kenezy Gyula Teaching County Hospital and Outpatient Clinic, 5Department of Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary Abstract: COPD is accompanied by limited physical activity, worse quality of life, and increased prevalence of depression. A possible link between COPD and depression may be irisin, a myokine, expression of which in the skeletal muscle and brain positively correlates with physical activity. Irisin enhances the synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin involved in reward-related processes. Thus, we hypothesized that mood disturbances accompanying COPD are reflected by the changes in the irisin–BDNF axis. Case history, routine laboratory parameters, serum irisin and BDNF levels, pulmonary function, and disease-specific quality of life, measured by St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, were determined in a cohort of COPD patients (n=74. Simple and then multiple linear regression were used to evaluate the data. We found that mood disturbances are associated with lower serum irisin levels (SGRQ’s Impacts score and reciprocal of irisin showed a strong positive association; β: 419.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 204.31, 635.63; P<0.001. This association was even stronger among patients in the lower 50% of BDNF levels (β: 434.11; 95% CI: 166.17, 702.05; P=0.002, while it became weaker for patients in the higher 50% of BDNF concentrations (β: 373.49; 95% CI: -74.91, 821.88; P=0
Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna
BACKGROUND: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients...... with major depression, we tested whether (a) omega- 3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) leads to increased serum BDNF levels and (b) whether changes in BDNF levels are associated with corresponding changes in depression. METHODS: Patients received 1 g/day E-EPA (n = 13) or placebo (n = 12) for 12 weeks...
Jacobsen, J P R; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, H H
performed equally well in passive avoidance, object recognition and the Morris water maze. Thus, some aspects of working/short-term memory are disrupted in T/T mice. Using in situ hybridization, we further found the cognitive deficits in T/T mice to be paralleled by reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor...... the brain following doxycycline treatment. We tested T/T and wild type (WT) littermate mice in five distinct learning and memory paradigms. In Y-maze spontaneous alternations and five-trial inhibitory avoidance the performance of T/T mice was markedly inferior to WT mice. In contrast, T/T and WT mice...
... primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections ... likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes. Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ...
Full Text Available Aims: Blood neurotrophins, such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1, mediate exercise- induced health benefits in humans. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of BDNF and IGF-1 to different endurance training intensities in runner men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with pre-test-posttest design in 2015, 10 people of male runners from Gorgan were selected through purposeful and accessible sampling. The endurance training protocol was 6 km running with moderate (70-75% of heart rate reserve or severe (80-85% of heart rate reserve intensity, which was performed within a week's interval. Fasting blood samples were collected before and immediately after both acute training sessions and serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay enzyme. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software using independent t-test and paired t-test. Findings: Both acute endurance training significantly increased serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 in runners, but high intensity endurance exercises increased BDNF levels in comparison with moderate intensity (p0.05. Conclusion: Serum BDNF response in endurance athletes is affected by the intensity of exercise, so that the effect of high intensity endurance training on BDNF levels is greater than moderate intensity exercise, but the response of IGF-1 to acute endurance training is independent of the intensity of exercise.
Guo, Yu; Su, Zi-Jun; Chen, Yi-Kun; Chai, Zhen
Plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS) has aroused great interest in recent years because it regulates action potential initiation and neuronal excitability. AIS plasticity manifests as modulation of ion channels or variation in AIS structure. However, the mechanisms underlying structural plasticity of the AIS are not well understood. Here, we combined immunofluorescence, patch-clamp recordings, and pharmacological methods in cultured hippocampal neurons to investigate the factors participating in AIS structural plasticity during development. With lowered neuronal density, the distance between the AIS and the soma increased, while neuronal excitability decreased, as shown by the increased action potential threshold and current threshold for firing an action potential. This variation in the location of the AIS was associated with cellular secretory substances, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3). Indeed, blocking BDNF and NT3 with TrkB-Fc eliminated the effect of conditioned medium collected from high-density cultures on AIS relocation. Elevating the extracellular concentration of BDNF or NT3 promoted movement of the AIS proximally to the soma and increased neuronal excitability. Furthermore, knockdown of neurotrophin receptors TrkB and TrkC caused distal movement of the AIS. Our results demonstrate that BDNF and NT3 regulate AIS location and neuronal excitability. These regulatory functions of neurotrophic factors provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying AIS biology. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Vanzella, Cláudia; Neves, Juliana Dalibor; Vizuete, Adriana Fernanda; Aristimunha, Dirceu; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva; Wyse, Angela T S; Netto, Carlos Alexandre
Clinical and pre-clinical studies indicate that exercise is beneficial to many aspects of brain function especially during aging. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3month-old) and aged (22month-old) male Wistar rats, on: I) cognitive function, as assessed by spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) oxidative stress parameters and the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, NT-3, IGF-1 and VEGF in the hippocampus. Animals of both ages were assigned to sedentary (non-exercised) and exercised (20min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4weeks) groups. Cognition was assessed by a reference memory task run in the Morris water maze; twenty four hours after last session of behavioral testing hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrate that the moderate treadmill running exercise: I) prevented age-related deficits in reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) prevented the age-related increase of reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus; III) caused an increase of BDNF, NT-3 and IGF-1 expression in the hippocampus of aged rats. Taken together, results suggest that both exercise molecular effects, namely the reduction of oxidative stress and the increase of neurotrophic factors expression in the hippocampus, might be related to its positive effect on memory performance in aged rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kevin Yue Zhu
Full Text Available Kai-xin-san (KXS, a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS- induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression.
X. Joann You
Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.
Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung
Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399
Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Fischer, Itzhak; Tom, Veronica; Houlé, John D; Lemay, Michel A
Background. Transplants of cellular grafts expressing a combination of 2 neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) have been shown to promote and enhance locomotor recovery in untrained spinalized cats. Based on the time course of recovery and the absence of axonal growth through the transplants, we hypothesized that recovery was due to neurotrophin-mediated plasticity within the existing locomotor circuitry of the lumbar cord. Since BDNF and NT-3 have different effects on axonal sprouting and synaptic connectivity/strengthening, it becomes important to ascertain the contribution of each individual neurotrophins to recovery. Objective. We studied whether BDNF or NT-3 only producing cellular grafts would be equally effective at restoring locomotion in untrained spinal cats. Methods. Rat fibroblasts secreting one of the 2 neurotrophins were grafted into the T12 spinal transection site of adult cats. Four cats in each group (BDNF alone or NT-3 alone) were evaluated. Locomotor recovery was tested on a treadmill at 3 and 5 weeks post-transection/grafting. Results. Animals in both groups were capable of plantar weight-bearing stepping at speed up to 0.8 m/s as early as 3 weeks and locomotor capabilities were similar at 3 and 5 weeks for both types of graft. Conclusions. Even without locomotor training, either BDNF or NT-3 only producing grafts promote locomotor recovery in complete spinal animals. More clinically applicable delivery methods need to be developed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves, a natural source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds, are commonly used as therapeutic agents for the improvement of both cognitive and physiological performance. The present study was aimed to test the effects of a six-week supplementation with 160 mg/day of a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba or a matching placebo on aerobic performance, blood antioxidant capacity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF level in healthy, physically active young men, randomly allocated to two groups (n = 9 each. At baseline, as well as on the day following the treatment, the participants performed an incremental cycling test for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake. Venous blood samples taken at rest, then immediately post-test and following 1 h of recovery, were analyzed for activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants, total phenolics, uric acid, lipid peroxidation products, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Our results show that six weeks’ supplementation with Ginkgo biloba extract in physically active young men may provide some marginal improvements in their endurance performance expressed as VO2max and blood antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by specific biomarkers, and elicit somewhat better neuroprotection through increased exercise-induced production of BDNF.
Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain...... fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were...
Zhang, Lili; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan
To study the changes in facial nerve function, morphology and neurotrophic factor III (NT-3) expression following three types of facial nerve injury. Changes in facial nerve function (in terms of blink reflex (BF), vibrissae movement (VM) and position of nasal tip) were assessed in 45 rats in response to three types of facial nerve injury: partial section of the extratemporal segment (group one), partial section of the facial canal segment (group two) and complete transection of the facial canal segment lesion (group three). All facial nerves specimen were then cut into two parts at the site of the lesion after being taken from the lesion site on 1st, 7th, 21st post-surgery-days (PSD). Changes of morphology and NT-3 expression were evaluated using the improved trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry techniques ,respectively. Changes in facial nerve function: In group 1, all animals had no blink reflex (BF) and weak vibrissae movement (VM) at the 1st PSD; The blink reflex in 80% of the rats recovered partly and the vibrissae movement in 40% of the rats returned to normal at the 7th PSD; The facial nerve function in 600 of the rats was almost normal at the 21st PSD. In group 2, all left facial nerve paralyzed at the 1st PSD; The blink reflex partly recovered in 40% of the rats and the vibrissae movement was weak in 80% of the rats at the 7th PSD; 8000 of the rats'BF were almost normal and 40% of the rats' VM completely recovered at the 21st PSD. In group 3, The recovery couldn't happen at anytime. Changes in morphology: In group 1, the size of nerve fiber differed in facial canal segment and some of myelin sheath and axons degenerated at the 7th PSD; The fibres' degeneration turned into regeneration at the 21st PSD; In group 2, the morphologic changes in this group were familiar with the group 1 while the degenerated fibers were more and dispersed in transection at the 7th PSD; Regeneration of nerve fibers happened at the 21st PSD. In group 3, most of the fibers
Full Text Available To investigate urinary nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS patients after hyaluronic acid (HA therapy.Thirty-three patients with IC/BPS were prospectively studied; a group of 45 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All IC/BPS patients received nine intravesical HA instillations during the 6-month treatment regimen. Urine samples were collected for measuring urinary NGF and BDNF levels at baseline and 2 weeks after the last HA treatment. The clinical parameters including visual analog scale (VAS of pain, daily frequency nocturia episodes, functional bladder capacity (FBC and global response assessment (GRA were recorded. Urinary NGF and BDNF levels were compared between IC/BPS patients and controls at baseline and after HA treatment.Urinary NGF, NGF/Cr, BDNF, and BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in IC/BPS patients compared to controls. Both NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased after HA treatment. Urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased in the responders with a VAS pain reduction by 2 (both p < 0.05 and the GRA improved by 2 (both p < 0.05, but not in non-responders. Urinary BDNF and BDNF/Cr did not decrease in responders or non-responders after HA therapy.Urinary NGF, but not BDNF, levels decreased significantly after HA therapy; both of these factors remained higher than in controls even after HA treatment. HA had a beneficial effect on IC/BPS, but it was limited. The reduction of urinary NGF levels was significant in responders, with a reduction of pain and improved GRA.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to have protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and death through neural and non-neural pathways via tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling. However, it is not known whether plasma BDNF concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD.This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study as part of the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis.We measured plasma BDNF concentration in 324 patients without CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2, and with cardiovascular risk factors. As potential confounders, sleep condition, nocturnal hypertension, and autonomic function were quantitatively examined. The patients were followed for a median 37 months (range 2-59 months and occurrence of CKD was noted.Plasma BDNF concentration was significantly and independently associated with CKD development, which occurred in 38 patients (11.7%. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with reduced plasma BDNF concentration exhibited a significantly (p = 0.029 greater number of CKD events as compared to those with a higher concentration. Moreover, comparisons of key subgroups showed that the risk of CKD in association with low plasma BDNF concentration was more prominent in patients with a greater reduction of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, better movement index, higher standard deviations of the NN(RR interval or average NN(RR interval for each 5-minute period, and without past cardiovascular disease events, smoking habit, or albuminuria.Plasma BDNF concentration is an independent predictor for development of CKD in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.
De-Paula, Vanessa J; Gattaz, Wagner F; Forlenza, Orestes V
The putative neuroprotective effects of lithium treatment rely on the fact that it modulates several homeostatic mechanisms involved in the neurotrophic response, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Lithium is a well-established therapeutic option for the acute and long-term management of bipolar disorder and major depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of subtherapeutic and therapeutic concentrations of chronic lithium treatment on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) synthesis and secretion. Primary cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons were treated with different subtherapeutic (0.02 and 0.2 mM) and therapeutic (2 mM) concentrations of chronic lithium treatment in cortical and hippocampal cell culture. Lithium treatment increased the intracellular protein expression of cortical neurons (10% at 0.02 mM) and hippocampal neurons (28% and 14% at 0.02 mM and 0.2 mM, respectively). Extracellular BDNF of cortical neurons increased 30% and 428% at 0.02 and 0.2 mM, respectively and in hippocampal neurons increased 44% at 0.02 mM. The present study indicates that chronic, low-dose lithium treatment up-regulates BDNF production in primary neuronal cell culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo
.034) and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026). In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030) and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012). Conclusion: Serum BDNF was positively...... associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal research is warranted to determine the temporal relationship between BDNF and cardiovascular...
Full Text Available Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT is used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, we found that Li-ESWT increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Here we assessed the underlying signaling pathways in Schwann cells in vitro and in penis tissue in vivo after nerve injury. The result indicated that BDNF were significantly increased by the Li-ESWT after nerve injury, as well as the expression of BDNF in Schwann cells (SCs, RT4-D6P2T in vitro. Li-ESWT activated the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER kinase (PERK pathway by increasing the phosphorylation levels of PERK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2a (eIF2α, and enhanced activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 in an energy-dependent manner. In addition, GSK2656157—an inhibitor of PERK—effectively inhibited the effect of Li-ESWT on the phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2α, and the expression of ATF4. Furthermore, silencing ATF4 dramatically attenuated the effect of Li-ESWT on the expression of BDNF, but had no effect on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1α or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in Schwann cells. In conclusion, our findings shed new light on the underlying mechanisms by which Li-ESWT may stimulate the expression of BDNF through activation of PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway. This information may help to refine the use of Li-ESWT to further improve its clinical efficacy.
Bierlein De la Rosa, Metzere; Sharma, Anup D; Mallapragada, Surya K; Sakaguchi, Donald S
The use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a rapidly growing area of research targeting delivery of therapeutic factors for neuro-repair. Cells can be programmed to hypersecrete various growth/trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) to promote regenerative neurite outgrowth. In addition to genetic modifications, MSCs can be subjected to transdifferentiation protocols to generate neural cell types to physically and biologically support nerve regeneration. In this study, we have taken a novel approach by combining these two unique strategies and evaluated the impact of transdifferentiating genetically modified MSCs into a Schwann cell-like phenotype. After 8 days in transdifferentiation media, approximately 30-50% of transdifferentiated BDNF-secreting cells immunolabeled for Schwann cell markers such as S100β, S100, and p75 NTR . An enhancement was observed 20 days after inducing transdifferentiation with minimal decreases in expression levels. BDNF production was quantified by ELISA, and its biological activity tested via the PC12-TrkB cell assay. Importantly, the bioactivity of secreted BDNF was verified by the increased neurite outgrowth of PC12-TrkB cells. These findings demonstrate that not only is BDNF actively secreted by the transdifferentiated BDNF-MSCs, but also that it has the capacity to promote neurite sprouting and regeneration. Given the fact that BDNF production remained stable for over 20 days, we believe that these cells have the capacity to produce sustainable, effective, BDNF concentrations over prolonged time periods and should be tested within an in vivo system for future experiments. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Gejl, Anne Kær; Huang, Tao; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna
Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between serum BDNF and each of the six risk factors. Four hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy adolescents between 11-17 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were modelled using linear regression analysis. Serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score in the total study sample (standardized beta coefficient (std.β) = 0.10, P = 0.037). In males, serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.034) and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026). In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030) and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012). Serum BDNF was positively associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal research
Natascha Holbæk Pedersen
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between serum BDNF and each of the six risk factors.Four hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy adolescents between 11-17 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP, serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglyceride (TG, blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were modelled using linear regression analysis.Serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score in the total study sample (standardized beta coefficient (std.β = 0.10, P = 0.037. In males, serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.034 and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004, and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026. In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030 and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012.Serum BDNF was positively associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal
Kandathil, Cherian K; Stakhovskaya, Olga; Leake, Patricia A
Many previous studies have shown significant neurotrophic effects of intracochlear delivery of BDNF in preventing degeneration of cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) neurons after deafness in rodents and our laboratory has shown similar results in developing cats deafened prior to hearing onset. This study examined the morphology of the cochlear nucleus (CN) in a group of neonatally deafened cats from a previous study in which infusion of BDNF elicited a significant improvement in survival of the SG neurons. Five cats were deafened by systemic injections of neomycin sulfate (60 mg/kg, SQ, SID) starting one day after birth, and continuing for 16-18 days until auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing demonstrated profound bilateral hearing loss. The animals were implanted unilaterally at about 1 month of age using custom-designed electrodes with a drug-delivery cannula connected to an osmotic pump. BDNF (94 μg/ml; 0.25 μl/hr) was delivered for 10 weeks. The animals were euthanized and studied at 14-23 weeks of age. Consistent with the neurotrophic effects of BDNF on SG survival, the total CN volume in these animals was significantly larger on the BDNF-treated side than on the contralateral side. However, total CN volume, both ipsi- and contralateral to the implants in these deafened juvenile animals, was markedly smaller than the CN in normal adult animals, reflecting the severe effects of deafness on the central auditory system during development. Data from the individual major CN subdivisions (DCN, Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus; PVCN, Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; AVCN, Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus) also were analyzed. A significant difference was observed between the BDNF-treated and control sides only in the AVCN. Measurements of the cross-sectional areas of spherical cells showed that cells were significantly larger in the AVCN ipsilateral to the implant than on the contralateral side. Further, the numerical density of spherical cells was significantly lower in
Full Text Available Abstract Background New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD are shifted from dopamine (DA replacement to regeneration or restoration of the nigro-striatal system. A cell therapy using human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells as substitution for degenerated dopaminergic (DAergic neurons has been developed and showed promising prospect in clinical treatment of PD, but the exact mechanism underlying this therapy is not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether the beneficial effects of this therapy are related to the trophic properties of RPE cells and their ability to synthesize DA. Methods We evaluated the protective effects of conditioned medium (CM from cultured RPE cells on the DAergic cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA- and rotenone-induced neurotoxicity and determined the levels of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF released by RPE cells. We also measured the DA synthesis and release. Finally we transplanted microcarriers-RPE cells into 6-OHDA lesioned rats and observed the improvement in apomorphine-induced rotations (AIR. Results We report here: (1 CM from RPE cells can secret trophic factors GDNF and BDNF, and protect DAergic neurons against the 6-OHDA- and rotenone-induced cell injury; (2 cultured RPE cells express L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC and synthesize DA; (3 RPE cells attached to microcarriers can survive in the host striatum and improve the AIR in 6-OHDA-lesioned animal model of PD; (4 GDNF and BDNF levels are found significantly higher in the RPE cell-grafted tissues. Conclusion These findings indicate the RPE cells have the ability to secret GDNF and BDNF, and synthesize DA, which probably contribute to the therapeutic effects of RPE cell transplantation in PD.
Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M
The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence...... and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant...... medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample...
Yang, Bangkun; Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Chen, Qian-Xue; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Kenji
Using learned helplessness (LH) model of depression, we measured protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pro-peptide, BDNF precursors (proBDNF and preproBDNF) in the brain regions of LH (susceptible) and non-LH rats (resilience). Expression of preproBDNF, proBDNF and BDNF pro-peptide in the medial prefrontal cortex of LH rats, but not non-LH rats, was significantly higher than control rats, although expression of these proteins in the nucleus accumbens of LH rats was significantly lower than control rats. This study suggests that regional differences in conversion of BDNF precursors into BDNF and BDNF pro-peptide by proteolytic cleavage may contribute to stress resilience.
Baghcheghi, Yousef; Beheshti, Farimah; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Salmani, Hossein; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud
The effects of vitamin E (Vit E) on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain tissues oxidative damage as well as on learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats were examined. The rats were grouped as: (1) Control; (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU); (3) PTU-Vit E and (4) Vit E. PTU was added to their drinking water (0.05%) during 6 weeks. Vit E (20 mg/kg) was daily injected (IP). Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) were carried out. The animals were deeply anesthetized and the brain tissues were removed for biochemical measurements. PTU increased the escape latency and traveled path in MWM (P E (P E improved BDNF, thiol, SOD and CAT while diminished MDA. The results of the present study showed that Vit E improved BDNF and prevented from brain tissues oxidative damage as well as learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats.
McCarthy, K F; McCrory, C
Case series. To evaluate relationships between spinal cord stimulation (SCS) parameters and levels of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Ambulatory pain clinic of St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Nine patients with an implanted SCS and Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) were administered the Brief Pain Inventory and Short Form (36) Health Survey. Following a lumbar puncture, levels of GDNF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were assayed and correlated with stimulation parameters. Controls were patients with arthritic back pain who were matched for age, gender and SF-36 score. Concentrations of GDNF in CSF are higher in patients with FBSS than controls (P=0.002) and correlate with SCS frequency (P=0.029). Concentrations of GDNF in CSF are higher in neuropathic pain and appear to be related to stimulation frequency. Further work is needed to evaluate this potential relationship, both in neuropathic pain and in other contexts such as locomotor dysfunction.
Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel
and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had...... developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...
Morichi, Shinichiro; Yamanaka, Gaku; Ishida, Yu; Oana, Shingo; Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Kawashima, Hisashi
We investigated changes in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections, particularly viral infection-induced encephalopathy. Over a 5-year study period, 24 children hospitalized with encephalopathy were grouped based on their acute encephalopathy type (the excitotoxicity, cytokine storm, and metabolic error types). Children without CNS infections served as controls. In serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, BDNF and IL-6 levels were increased in all encephalopathy groups, and significant increases were noted in the influenza-associated and cytokine storm encephalopathy groups. Children with sequelae showed higher BDNF and IL-6 levels than those without sequelae. In pediatric patients, changes in serum and CSF BDNF and IL-6 levels may serve as a prognostic index of CNS infections, particularly for the diagnosis of encephalopathy and differentiation of encephalopathy types.
Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Priego, Merche; Tomàs, Josep
We use immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic molecule glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1) are present in both neonatal (P6) and adult (P45) rodent neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) colocalized with several synaptic markers. However, incubation with exogenous GDNF (10-200ng/ml, 1-3h), does not affect spontaneous ACh release. Moreover, GDNF does not change the size of the evoked ACh release from the weak and the strong axonal inputs on dually innervated postnatal endplates nor in the most developed singly-innervated synapses at P6 and P45. Our findings indicate that GDNF (unlike neurotrophins) does not acutely modulate transmitter release during the developmental process of synapse elimination nor as the NMJ matures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S
Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre)). A severe impairmen...
Cortés, Claudia; Eugenin, Eliseo; Aliaga, Esteban; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; Gonzalez, Pablo A; Gayol, Silvina; Naranjo, David; Noches, Verónica; Marassi, Michelle P; Rosenthal, Doris; Jadue, Cindy; Ibarra, Paula; Keitel, Cecilia; Wohllk, Nelson; Court, Felipe; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A
Adult hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent condition that impairs processes, such as learning and memory. Even though tetra-iodothyronine (T(4)) treatment can overcome the hypothyroidism in the majority of cases, it cannot fully recover the patient's learning capacity and memory. In this work, we analyzed the cellular and molecular changes in the adult brain occurring with the development of experimental hypothyroidism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) for 20 days to induce hypothyroidism. Neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the hippocampus of control and hypothyroid adult rats by confocal microscopy. The content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in situ hybridization. The glutamatergic synapse and the postsynaptic density (PSD) were analyzed by electron microscopy. The content of PSD proteins like tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), p75, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) were analyzed by immunoblot. We observed that the hippocampus of hypothyroid adult rats displayed increased apoptosis levels in neurons and astrocyte and reactive gliosis compared with controls. Moreover, we found that the amount of BDNF mRNA was higher in the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats and the content of TrkB, the receptor for BDNF, was reduced at the PSD of the CA3 region of hypothyroid rats, compared with controls. We also observed that the glutamatergic synapses from the stratum radiatum of CA3 from hypothyroid rats, contained thinner PSDs than control rats. This observation was in agreement with a reduced content of NMDAr subunits at the PSD in hypothyroid animals. Our data suggest that adult hypothyroidism affects the hippocampus by a mechanism that alters the composition of PSD, reduces neuronal and astrocyte survival, and alters the content of the signaling neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF.
Valvassori, Samira S; Borges, Cenita P; Varela, Roger B; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Bianchini, Guilherme; Mariot, Edemilson; Arent, Camila O; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João
Lithium (Li) is a mood-stabilizing drug used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of tamoxifen (TMX) in the treatment of acute episodes of BD. However, the prolonged use of TMX for mood disorders treatment is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of TMX or Li on cognitive behavior, as well as the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of male and female rats. Male and female Wistar rats received administrations of water (control group), TMX or Li via gavage for a period of 28days; the rats were then subjected to the open-field test (to evaluate spontaneous locomotion), and the novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests (to evaluate cognition). The levels of NGF, BDNF and GDNF were evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the subject rats. No significant differences were observed in the open-field and inhibitory avoidance tests after drug administration in either the male or female rats. The administration of TMX, but not Li, decreased the recognition index of both the male and female rats in the object recognition test. The chronic administration of TMX decreased, whereas Li increased the levels of BDNF in the hippocampus of both the male and female rats. Tamoxifen decreased the levels of NGF in the hippocampus of female rats. In conclusion, it can be suggested that long-term treatments with TMX can lead to significant cognitive impairments by reducing the levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain of rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Seyedeh Farzaneh Moniri
Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is an important cause of death and disability in the world. Brain ischemia causes damage to brain cell, and among brain neurons, pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region are more susceptive to ischemic injury. Recent findings suggest that neurotrophic factors protect against ischemic cell death. A dietary component of Rosa damascene extract possibly is associated with expression of neurotrophic factors mRNA following ischemia, so it can have therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia. The present study attempts to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Rosa damascene extract on adult rat hippocampal neurons following ischemic brain injury. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats (weighing 250±20 gr and ages 10-12 weeks used in this study, animals randomly were divided into 6 groups including Control, ischemia/ reperfusion (IR, vehicle and three treated groups (IR+0.5, 1, 2 mg/ml extract. Global ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion for 20 minutes. The treatment was done by different doses of Rosa damascena extract for 30 days. After 30 days cell death and gene expression in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus were evaluated by Nissl staining and real time PCR assay. We found a significant decrease in NGF, BDNF and NT3 mRNA expression in neurons of CA1 region of the hippocampus in ischemia group compared to control group (P<0.0001. Our results also revealed that the number of dark neurons significantly increases in ischemia group compared to control group (P<0.0001. Following treatment with Rosa damascene extract reduced the number of dark neurons that was associated with NGF, NT3, and BDNF mRNA expression. All doses level had positive effects, but the most effective dose of Rosa damascena extract was 1 mg/ml. Our results suggest that neuroprotective activity of Rosa damascena can enhance hippocampal CA1 neuronal survival after global ischemia.
Retinoic acid-pretreated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells in combination with triiodothyronine improve expression of neurotrophic factors in the subventricular zone of the rat ischemic brain injury.
Sabbaghziarani, Fatemeh; Mortezaee, Keywan; Akbari, Mohammad; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Moini, Ashraf; Ataeinejad, Nahid; Zendedel, Adib; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza
Stroke is the consequence of limited blood flow to the brain with no established treatment to reduce the neurological deficits. Focusing on therapeutic protocols in targeting subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis has been investigated recently. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of retinoic acid (RA)-pretreated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) in combination with triiodothyronine (T3) in the ischemia stroke model. Male Wistar rats were used to induce focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). There were seven groups of six animals: Sham, Ischemic, WJ-MSCs, RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs, T3, WJ-MSCs +T3, and RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs + T3. The treatment was performed at 24 h after ischemia, and animals were sacrificed one week later for assessments of retinoid X receptor β (RXRβ), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Sox2 and nestin in the SVZ. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in sera were measured at days four and seven after ischemia. RXRβ, BDNF, Sox2 and nestin had the significant expressions in gene and protein levels in the treatment groups, compared with the ischemic group, which were more vivid in the RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs + T3 (p ≤ 0.05). The same trend was also resulted for the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 at four days after ischemia (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, application of RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs + T3 could be beneficial in exerting better neurotrophic function probably via modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Szabo, Ashley J; Alosco, Michael L; Miller, Lindsay A; McGeary, John E; Poppas, Athena; Cohen, Ronald A; Gunstad, John
Cognitive impairment is common among persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and several potential aetiological mechanisms have been described, including contributions of genetic markers such as variations in the brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) gene. This current study examined the associations of BDNF genotype with cognitive function among individuals with CVD. This study included 110 participants with CVD who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that assessed global cognitive function, attention/executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. All participants also underwent blood draw to provide a DNA sample that was used to determine BDNF genotype. Carriers of either one or two copies of the methionine allele of BDNF were categorized into one group (n = 33); non-carriers were categorized into a second group (n = 77). After adjustment for demographic and medical characteristics, hierarchical regression analyses revealed persons with one or more methionine alleles displayed better performance than valine/valine individuals for attention/executive function (β = 0.22, P = 0.047) and memory (β = 0.25, P = 0.03), as well as a trend for language (β = 0.19, P = 0.08) and visuospatial abilities (β = 0.21, P = 0.06). BDNF Val66Met had little impact on cognitive functioning in a sample of older adults with CVD, and significant findings contradicted that predicted by past work. Future work is much needed to clarify the mechanisms of these findings, particularly studies examining both circulating BDNF levels and genetic variation in the BDNF gene and cognitive function over time. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Kubota, Hiroshi; Wu, Xin; Goodyear, Shaun M; Avarbock, Mary R; Brinster, Ralph L
Previous studies suggest that exogenous factors crucial for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal are conserved among several mammalian species. Since glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are critical for rodent SSC self-renewal, we hypothesized that they might promote self-renewal of nonrodent SSCs. Therefore, we cultured testicular germ cells from prepubertal rabbits in the presence of GDNF and FGF2 and found they proliferated indefinitely as cellular clumps that displayed characteristics previously identified for rodent SSCs. The rabbit germ cells could not be maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (STO) feeders that support rodent SSC self-renewal in vitro but were rather supported on mouse yolk sac-derived endothelial cell (C166) feeder layers. Proliferation of rabbit germ cells was dependent on GDNF. Of critical importance was that clump-forming rabbit germ cells colonized seminiferous tubules of immunodeficient mice, proliferated for at least 6 mo, while retaining an SSC phenotype in the testes of recipient mice, indicating that they were rabbit SSCs. This study demonstrates that GDNF is a mitogenic factor promoting self-renewal that is conserved between rodent and rabbit SSCs; with an evolutionary separation of ∼ 60 million years. These findings provide a foundation to study the mechanisms governing SSC self-renewal in nonrodent species.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Park2-co-regulated gene (PACRG is evolutionarily highly conserved from green algae to mammals. In Chlamydomonas and trypanosomes, the PACRG protein associates with flagella. Loss of PACRG results in shortened or absent flagella. In mouse the PACRG protein is required for spermatogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze (1 the expression patterns of PACRG during vertebrate embryogenesis, and (2 whether the PACRG protein was required for left-right (LR axis specification through cilia-driven leftward flow in Xenopus laevis. Methods PACRG cDNAs were cloned and expression was analyzed during early embryonic development of Xenopus, mouse, rabbit and zebrafish. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO mediated gene knockdown was applied in Xenopus to investigate LR development at the level of tissue morphology, leftward flow and asymmetric marker gene expression, using timelapse videography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results were statistically evaluated using Wilcoxon paired and χ2 tests. Results PACRG mRNA expression was found in cells and tissues harboring cilia throughout the vertebrates. Highly localized expression was also detected in the brain. During early development, PACRG was specifically localized to epithelia where leftward flow arises, that is, the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in Xenopus, the posterior notochord (PNC in mammals and Kupffer’s vesicle (KV in zebrafish. Besides its association with ciliary axonemes, subcellular localization of PACRG protein was found around the nucleus and in a spotty pattern in the cytoplasm. A green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion construct preferentially labeled cilia, rendering PACRG a versatile marker for live imaging. Loss-of-function in the frog resulted dose dependently in LR, neural tube closure and gastrulation defects, representing ciliary and non-ciliary functions of PACRG. Conclusions The PACRG protein is a novel
Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Gomółka, Ewa; Gawlikowski, Tomasz; Szpak, Dorota; Potoczek, Anna; Boba, Magdalena
Neurotrophins are the family of proteins which stimulate and regulate the process of neurogenesis. Several factors belong to the family, mainly nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT 3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). Acute poisoning with carbon monoxide (CO), which usually is accompanied by neurologic symptoms, can potentially change the secretion profile of neurotrophins. Aim of the study. The main goal of the study is to assess the changes of NGF and BDNF plasma levels during an acute phase of CO poisoning as well as immediately after recovery. Additionally, the relationship among neurotrophin levels and selected aspects of clinical course of CO poisoning were studied. The study group consisted of 18 patients (mean age: 31.8±10.3 years) hospitalized in Toxicology Department of University Hospital in Cracow because of acute CO poisoning. There were 10 women (mean age: 30.2±6.9 years) and 8 men (mean age 33.9±13.7 years) in the group. The levels of NGF and BDNF were evaluated using immunoenzymatic method (ELISA) in plasma samples taken thrice in each patient. The sample 1. was taken during hospital admission, the sample 2. about 12-36 hours after admission, and the sample 3. just before the hospital discharging (usually, on the 3rd-4th day). The clinical data were collected from patients’ anamnesis, physical examination and neuropsychological evaluation. The statistical analysis were performed using tools comprised in STATISTICA 12.0 PL (StatSoft Polska, Cracow, Poland) software. The majority of NGF plasma levels were less than 14 pg/mL (values below the limit of quantification), contrary to the sole case of 34.3 pg/mL. BDNF plasma levels ranged from 4.8 ng/mL to above 48 ng/mL, i.e. they were higher than the upper limit of measurement range for the plasma dilution which had been used. The comparison of NGF and BDNF plasma levels in the study group with their analogues in healthy volunteers taken from the
de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique
The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants on diabetes prevalence, basal adipokine levels, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear in obese patients. This study is aimed at analyzing the effects of rs10767664 BDNF gene polymorphism on diabetes mellitus prevalence, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum adipokine levels in obese female patients. A total of 507 obese women were enrolled in a prospective way. Biochemical evaluation and anthropometric measures were recorded. The frequency of diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with non-T allele was 20.1 and 28.3% in T-allele carriers. Logistic regression showed a risk of diabetes mellitus of 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-2.08) in subjects with T allele adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI). T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than non-T-allele carriers. rs10767664 polymorphism of BDNF gene is associated with prevalence of diabetes mellitus in obese female patients. T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, fat mass, blood pressure, level of insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and CRP than non-T-allele carriers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile.To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin.Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.
Full Text Available In mammals, the biological activity of the stem/progenitor compartment sustains production of mature gametes through spermatogenesis. Spermatogonial stem cells and their progeny belong to the class of undifferentiated spermatogonia, a germ cell population found on the basal membrane of the seminiferous tubules. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a Sertoli-derived factor, is essential for in vivo and in vitro stem cell self-renewal. However, the mechanisms underlying this activity are not completely understood. In this study, we show that GDNF induces dose-dependent directional migration of freshly selected undifferentiated spermatogonia, as well as germline stem cells in culture, using a Boyden chamber assay. GDNF-induced migration is dependent on the expression of the GDNF co-receptor GFRA1, as shown by migration assays performed on parental and GFRA1-transduced GC-1 spermatogonial cell lines. We found that the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP is specifically expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. VASP belongs to the ENA/VASP family of proteins implicated in actin-dependent processes, such as fibroblast migration, axon guidance, and cell adhesion. In intact seminiferous tubules and germline stem cell cultures, GDNF treatment up-regulates VASP in a dose-dependent fashion. These data identify a novel role for the niche-derived factor GDNF, and they suggest that GDNF may impinge on the stem/progenitor compartment, affecting the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration.
Abdelwahed, O M; Tork, O M; Gamal El Din, M M; Rashed, L; Zickri, M
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before. Recent studies point to the possible neuro-protective mechanisms of glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue: Exendin-4 (Ex-4) in many cognitive disorders, but whether BDNF or Visfatin are involved or not in its neuro-protective mechanisms; is still unknown. to study the changes in cognitive functions in T2DM, either not treated or treated with Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue: Ex-4, and to identify the possible underlying mechanisms of these changes and whether BDNF and brain Visfatin are involved. A total of 36 adult male wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups; Control, Exendin-4 control, Diabetic and Exendin-4 treated groups. At the end of the study, Y-maze and open field tests were done the day before scarification to assess spatial working memory and locomotion, respectively. Fasting glucose and insulin, lipid profile and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the serum. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance was calculated. In the brain tissue, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, gene expression and protein levels of BDNF and Visfatin, area of degenerated neurons, area of glial cells and area % of synaptophysin immunoexpression were assessed. Compared with the control, the untreated diabetic rats showed insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and elevation of serum TNF-α. The brain tissue showed down-regulation of BDNF gene expression and reduction of its protein level, up-regulation of Visfatin gene expression and elevation
Full Text Available Su Liu,1,2,* Jun-Li Yao,1,3,* Xin-Xin Wan,1,* Zhi-Jing Song,1 Shuai Miao,1,2 Ye Zhao,1,2 Xiu-Li Wang,1,2 Yue-Peng Liu4 1Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Children’s Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; 4Center of Clinical Research and Translational Medicine, Lianyungang Oriental Hospital, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Preventing opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance continues to be a major clinical challenge, and the underlying mechanisms of hyperalgesia and tolerance remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling in opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. Methods: Shh signaling expression, behavioral changes, and neurochemical alterations induced by morphine were analyzed in male adult CD-1 mice with repeated administration of morphine. To investigate the contribution of Shh to morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH and tolerance, Shh signaling inhibitor cyclopamine and Shh small interfering RNA (siRNA were used. To explore the mechanisms of Shh signaling in MIH and tolerance, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF inhibitor K252 and anti-BDNF antibody were used. Results: Repeated administration of morphine produced obvious hyperalgesia and tolerance. The behavioral changes were correlated with the upregulation and activation of morphine treatment-induced Shh signaling. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of Shh signaling significantly delayed the generation of MIH and tolerance and associated neurochemical changes. Chronic morphine administration also induced upregulation of BDNF. Inhibiting BDNF effectively delayed the generation of MIH and tolerance. The upregulation of BDNF induced by morphine was significantly suppressed by inhibiting Shh
Marks David R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins are important regulators of growth and regeneration, and acutely, they can modulate the activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Previously we have shown that acute brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF activation of neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB suppresses the Shaker voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.3 via phosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues in the N and C terminal aspects of the channel protein. It is not known how adaptor proteins, which lack catalytic activity, but interact with members of the neurotrophic signaling pathway, might scaffold with ion channels or modulate channel activity. Results We report the co-localization of two adaptor proteins, neuronal Src homology and collagen (nShc and growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10, with Kv1.3 channel as demonstrated through immunocytochemical approaches in the olfactory bulb (OB neural lamina. To further explore the specificity and functional ramification of adaptor/channel co-localization, we performed immunoprecipitation and Western analysis of channel, kinase, and adaptor transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK 293. nShc formed a direct protein-protein interaction with Kv1.3 that was independent of BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3, whereas Grb10 did not complex with Kv1.3 in HEK 293 cells. Both adaptors, however, co-immunoprecipitated with Kv1.3 in native OB. Grb10 was interestingly able to decrease the total expression of Kv1.3, particularly at the membrane surface, and subsequently eliminated the BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3. To examine the possibility that the Src homology 2 (SH2 domains of Grb10 were directly binding to basally phosphorylated tyrosines in Kv1.3, we utilized point mutations to substitute multiple tyrosine residues with phenylalanine. Removal of the tyrosines 111–113 and 449 prevented Grb10 from decreasing Kv1.3 expression. In the absence of either adaptor protein
Full Text Available Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI is often characterized by the debilitating symptoms of paralysis, spasticity and pain, which require treatment with novel pleiotropic pharmacological agents. Previous in vitro studies suggest that Albumin (Alb and Oleic Acid (OA may play a role together as an endogenous neurotrophic factor. Although Alb can promote basic recovery of motor function after iSCI, the therapeutic effect of OA or Alb-OA on a known translational measure of SCI associated with symptoms of spasticity and change in nociception has not been studied. Following T9 spinal contusion injury in Wistar rats, intrathecal treatment with: i Saline, ii Alb (0.4 nanomoles, iii OA (80 nanomoles, iv Alb-Elaidic acid (0.4/80 nanomoles, or v Alb-OA (0.4/80 nanomoles were evaluated on basic motor function, temporal summation of noxious reflex activity, and with a new test of descending modulation of spinal activity below the SCI up to one month after injury. Albumin, OA and Alb-OA treatment inhibited nociceptive Tibialis Anterior (TA reflex activity. Moreover Alb-OA synergistically promoted early recovery of locomotor activity to 50 ± 10% of control and promoted de novo phasic descending inhibition of TA noxious reflex activity to 47 ± 5% following non-invasive electrical conditioning stimulation applied above the iSCI. Spinal L4-L5 immunohistochemistry demonstrated a unique increase in serotonin fibre innervation up to 4.2 ± 1.1 and 2.3 ± 0.3 fold within the dorsal and ventral horn respectively with Alb-OA treatment when compared to uninjured tissue, in addition to a reduction in NR1 NMDA receptor phosphorylation and microglia reactivity. Early recovery of voluntary motor function accompanied with tonic and de novo phasic descending inhibition of nociceptive TA flexor reflex activity following Alb-OA treatment, mediated via known endogenous spinal mechanisms of action, suggests a clinical application of this novel
Croen, Lisa A.; Goines, Paula; Braunschweig, Daniel; Yolken, Robert; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Grether, Judith K.; Fireman, Bruce; Kharrazi, Martin; Hansen, Robin; Van de Water, Judy
LAY ABSTRACT The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioral characteristics. There is currently no laboratory test that can be done to identify autism. In this study, we investigated a molecule called brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a possible early biologic marker for autism. BDNF is a small protein found throughout the central nervous system and in circulating blood. We measured the level of BDNF in blood collected from women during pregnancy and from their babies at birth. We found that the concentration of BDNF in the maternal mid-pregnancy and newborn blood specimens was similar for children with autism, children with mental retardation, and children with typical development. The results of this study suggest that BDNF is unlikely to be a useful early biologic marker for autism. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Objective To investigate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens as early biologic markers for autism. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study nested within the cohort of infants born from July 2000 – September 2001 to women who participated in the prenatal screening program in Orange County, California. Cases (n=84) were all children receiving services for autism at the Regional Center of Orange County. Two comparison groups from the same study population were included: children with mental retardation or developmental delay (n=49) receiving services at the same regional center, and children not receiving services for developmental disabilities, randomly sampled from the California birth certificate files (n=159), and frequency-matched to autism cases on sex, birth year, and birth month. BDNF concentrations were measured in archived mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens drawn during routine prenatal and newborn screening using a highly sensitive bead-based assay (Luminex). Results The concentration of BDNF in maternal mid-pregnancy and neonatal specimens was
Lin, Chih-Yang; Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin
Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23892595
Hvid, Lars G; Nielsen, Martin KF; Simonsen, Casper
high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... included 47 older men and women: n = 22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7 ± 5.4 years, 55% women) and n = 25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2 ± 4.5 years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of m...
Eyileten, Ceren; Zaremba, Małgorzata; Janicki, Piotr K; Rosiak, Marek; Cudna, Agnieszka; Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agnieszka; Opolski, Grzegorz; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kosior, Dariusz A; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Postula, Marek
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum concentrations of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), platelet reactivity and inflammatory markers, as well as its association with BDNF encoding gene variants in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy. This retrospective, open-label study enrolled 91 patients. Serum BDNF, genotype variants, hematological, biochemical, and inflammatory markers were measured. Blood samples were taken in the morning 2-3 h after the last ASA dose. The BDNF genotypes for selected variants were analyzed by use of the iPLEX Sequenom assay. In multivariate linear regression analysis, CADP-CT >74 sec (pBDNF. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, CADP-CT >74 sec (p=0.02) and IL-6 concentration (p=0.03) were risk factors for serum BDNF above the median. Non-significant differences were observed between intronic SNP rs925946, missense SNP rs6265, and intronic SNP rs4923463 allelic groups and BDNF concentrations in the investigated cohort. Chronic inflammatory condition and enhanced immune system are associated with the production of BDNF, which may be why the serum BDNF level in T2DM patients with high platelet reactivity was higher compared to subjects with normal platelet reactivity in this study.
Gruber, H E; Hoelscher, G L; Bethea, S; Hanley, E N
The relationship between disc cells, nerves and pain production in the intervertebral disc is poorly understood. Neurotrophins, signaling molecules involved in the survival, differentiation and migration of neurons, and neurite outgrowth, are expressed in non-neuronal tissues including the disc. We hypothesized that three-dimensional exposure of human disc cells to the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß in vitro would elevate neurotrophin gene expression levels and production of nerve growth factor (NGF). Cells isolated from Thompson grade III and IV discs were cultured for 14 days under control conditions or with addition of 10(2) pM IL-1ß; mRNA was isolated and conditioned media assayed for NGF content. IL-1ß exposure in three-dimensional culture significantly increased expression of neurotrophin 3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neuropilin 2 compared to controls. IL-1ß-exposed cells showed significantly increased NGF production compared to controls. Findings support our hypothesis, expand previous data concerning expression of neurotrophins, and provide the first documented expression of neurotrophin 3 and neuropilin 2. Our results have direct translational relevance, because they address the primary clinical issue of low back pain and open the possibility of novel analgesic therapies using specific small-molecular antagonists to neurotrophins.
Sabbaghziarani, Fatemeh; Mortezaee, Keywan; Akbari, Mohammad; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Zendedel, Adib
There is a positive relation between decreases of triiodothyronine (T3) amounts and severity of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous T3 application on levels of neurogenesis markers in the subventricular zone. Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in male Wistar rats. There were 4 experimental groups: sham, ischemic, vehicle, and treatment. Rats were injected with T3 (25 μg/kg, IV injection) at 24 hours after ischemia. Animals were sacrificed at day 7 after ischemia. There were high levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nestin, and Sox2 expressions in gene and protein levels in the T3 treatment group (P ≤ .05 vs ischemic group). Treatment group showed high levels of sera T3 and thyroxine (T4) but low levels of thyrotropin (TSH), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 (P ≤ .05 vs ischemic group) at day 4 after ischemia induction. Findings of this study revealed the effectiveness of exogenous T3 application in the improvement of neurogenesis possibly via regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zoon, Harriët F A; Veth, C P M; Arns, Martijn; Drinkenburg, W H I M; Talloen, Willem; Peeters, Pieter J; Kenemans, J L
Major depressive disorder has a large impact on patients and society and is projected to be the second greatest global burden of disease by 2020. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is considered to be one of the important factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. In a recent study, alpha power was found to mediate between BDNF Met and subclinical depressed mood. The current study looked at a population of patients with major depressive disorder (N = 107) to examine the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, resting state EEG alpha power, and depression severity. For this purpose, repeated-measures analysis of variance, partial correlation, and multiple linear models were used. Results indicated a negative association between parietal-occipital alpha power in the eyes open resting state and depression severity. In addition, Met/Met patients showed lower global absolute alpha power in the eyes closed condition compared with Val-carriers. These findings are in accordance with the previously uncovered pathway between BDNF Val66Met, resting state EEG alpha power, and depression severity. Additional research is needed for the clarification of this tentative pathway and its implication in personalized treatment of major depressive disorder.
Tanichi, Masaaki; Toda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kunio; Koga, Minori; Saito, Taku; Enomoto, Shingo; Boku, Shuken; Asai, Fumiho; Mitsui, Yumi; Nagamine, Masanori; Fujita, Masanori; Yoshino, Aihide
Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. However, the differential effects of EE components, i.e., running wheel (RW) or toy rotation, on PTSD-like behaviors has remained unclear. In this experiment, we demonstrated that RW, toy rotation, and EE (containing RW and toy rotation) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, induced learning of avoidance responses, and improved depressive-like behaviors in traumatized rats. The RW increased the hippocampal mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors, especially BDNF and glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor. Toy rotation influenced FK506 binding protein 5 mRNA expression, which is believed to be a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis system, in the hippocampus and amygdala. This is the first report to elucidate the differential mechanistic effects of RW and toy rotation. The former appears to exert its effects via neurotrophic factors, while the latter exerts its effects via the HPA axis. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of the influence of environmental factors on PTSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Becker-Heck, Anita; Castleman, Victoria H.; Al-Mutairi, Dalal; Liu, Yan; Loges, Niki T.; Pathak, Narendra; Austin-Tse, Christina; Sheridan, Eamonn; Schmidts, Miriam; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Häffner, Karsten; Hellman, Nathan; Chodhari, Rahul; Gupta, Amar; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Olale, Felix; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Schier, Alexander F.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie MK; Reinhardt, Richard; Mitchison, Hannah M.; King, Stephen M.; Omran, Heymut; Drummond, Iain A.
Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. PMID:22581229
Observed parenting behaviors interact with a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict the emergence of oppositional defiant and callous-unemotional behaviors at age 3 years.
Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Waschbusch, Daniel A
Using the Durham Child Health and Development Study, this study (N = 171) tested whether observed parenting behaviors in infancy (6 and 12 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (24 and 36 months) interacted with a child polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors at age 3 years. Child genotype interacted with observed harsh and intrusive (but not sensitive) parenting to predict ODD and CU behaviors. Harsh-intrusive parenting was more strongly associated with ODD and CU for children with a methionine allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. CU behaviors were uniquely predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in infancy, whereas ODD behaviors were predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in both infancy and toddlerhood/preschool. The results are discussed from the perspective of the contributions of caregiving behaviors as contributing to distinct aspects of early onset disruptive behavior.
Wu, Tong; Zhang, Fang; Yang, Qiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Wei; Cao, Hongyi; Li, Daigang; Xie, Shugui; Tong, Nanwei; He, Jinhan
Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Serum MANF level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean age for the 257 participants (147 females) was 62±8 years (range 44-78): 71 with NGT, 115 with newly diagnosed prediabetes and 71 with T2DM. Mean serum MANF level was significantly higher with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than NGT (2.89±1.09 and 3.03±1.73 vs 2.13±1.37 ng/mL, both pprediabetes patients. We concluded that serum MANF level was higher in patients with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than in NGT controls. MANF appears to be associated with Matsuda Index, QUICKI and HOMA-IR in prediabetes patients.
Kailainathan, Sumangali; Piers, Thomas M.; Yi, Jee Hyun; Choi, Seongmin; Fahey, Mark S.; Borger, Eva; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; O’Neill, Laurie; Lever, Michael; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Cho, Kwangwook; Allen, Shelley J.
This study describes a fundamental functional difference between the two main polymorphisms of the pro-form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), providing an explanation as to why these forms have such different age-related neurological outcomes. Healthy young carriers of the Met66 form (present in ∼30% Caucasians) have reduced hippocampal volume and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function, yet the same polymorphic population shows enhanced cognitive recovery after traumatic brain injury, delayed cognitive dysfunction during aging, and lower risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared to those with the more common Val66 polymorphism. To examine the differences between the protein polymorphisms in structure, kinetics of binding to proBDNF receptors and in vitro function, we generated purified cleavage-resistant human variants. Intriguingly, we found no statistical differences in those characteristics. As anticipated, exogenous application of proBDNF Val66 to rat hippocampal slices dysregulated synaptic plasticity, inhibiting long-term potentiation (LTP) and facilitating long-term depression (LTD). We subsequently observed that this occurred via the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation pathway. However, surprisingly, we found that Met66 had no such effects on either LTP or LTD. These novel findings suggest that, unlike Val66, the Met66 variant does not facilitate synapse weakening signaling, perhaps accounting for its protective effects with aging. PMID:26687096
Cushla R. McCarthny
Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/− on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/− mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17β-estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment. Dorsal (DHP and ventral hippocampus (VHP were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Significant genotype × OVX interactions were found for GluN1 and GluN2 expression within the DHP of female mice, suggesting modulation of select NMDA-R levels by female sex hormones is mediated by BDNF. Furthermore, within the DHP BDNF+/− mice show a hypersensitive response to hormone treatment on GluN2 expression which may result from upstream alterations in TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast to the DHP, the VHP showed no effects of hormone manipulation but significant effects of genotype on NMDA-R expression. Castration had no effect on NMDA-R expression; however, androgen treatment had selective effects on GluN2B. These data show case distinct, interactive roles for sex steroid hormones and BDNF in the regulation of NMDA-R expression that are dependent on dorsal versus ventral hippocampal region.
Full Text Available In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were analyzed in this model. OGD-activated MG promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.01. TNFα, but not IL6 or IL1β, promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.001. GDNF or CM pre-treated BMSCs elevated neuronal viability and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01; these effects were inhibited by the RET antibody. GDNF activated MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling but not JNK/c-JUN. Furthermore, GDNF upregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60 levels, suppressed LDH leakage, and promoted MMP. Thus, activated MG produce TNFα to stimulate GDNF production by BMSCs, which prevents and repairs OGD-induced neuronal injury, possibly via regulating MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings will facilitate the prevention and treatment of neuronal injury by cerebral ischemia.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuits in vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the majority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices or in vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these findings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain.
Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band
BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of long-term heroin use. Thus, we investigated the relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentrations and the BDNF Val66Met nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in heroin-dependent patients. The pretreatment expression levels of plasma BDNF and the BDNF Val66Met SNP in 172 heroin-dependent patients and 102 healthy controls were checked. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients (F = 52.28, p BDNF levels significantly different between Met/Met, Met/Val, and Val/Val carriers in each group, which indicated that the BDNF Val66Met SNP did not affect plasma BDNF levels in our participants. In heroin-dependent patients, plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the length of heroin dependency. Long-term (>15 years) users had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels than did short-term (BDNF concentration in habitual heroin users are not affected by BDNF Val66Met gene variants, but by the length of the heroin dependency.
Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M; Hassanein, Sally I; Gohar, Neveen A; Attia, Saad M M; Gad, Mohamed Z
The aim of this study was investigating the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, using in vivo and in vitro models, to unravel the potential mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids use in obesity. Twenty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; lean controls fed normal chow diet for 14 weeks, obese controls fed 60% of their diet as saturated fats for 14 weeks, and ω-3 FAs-treated rats fed 60% saturated fat diet for 14 weeks with concomitant oral administration of 400 mg/kg/day ω-3 FAs, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and EPA, from week 12 to week 14. For the in vitro experiment, hypothalamic cells from six obese rats were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of ω-3 FAs to determine its direct effect on BDNF expression. In vivo results showed that obesity has negative effect on BDNF gene expression in rat hypothalamus that was reversed by administration of ω-3 FAs. Obese rats showed hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, normoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperleptinemia. Treatment with ω-3 FAs showed significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and TAG. Also serum glucose level and HOMA index were decreased significantly. In vitro results demonstrated the increase in BDNF expression by ω-3 FAs in a dose-dependent manner. Obesity causes down-regulation of BDNF gene expression that can be reversed by ω-3 FAs treatment, making them an interesting treatment approach for obesity and metabolic disease.
Su, Bo; Ji, Yun-Song; Sun, Xu-lu; Liu, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Yu
Appropriate mitochondrial transport and distribution are essential for neurons because of the high energy and Ca(2+) buffering requirements at synapses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, whether and how BDNF can regulate mitochondrial transport and distribution are still unclear. Here, we find that in cultured hippocampal neurons, application of BDNF for 15 min decreased the percentage of moving mitochondria in axons, a process dependent on the activation of the TrkB receptor and its downstream PI3K and phospholipase-Cγ signaling pathways. Moreover, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping requires the activation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 and 6 (TRPC3 and TRPC6) channels and elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. The Ca(2+) sensor Miro1 plays an important role in this process. Finally, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping leads to the accumulation of more mitochondria at presynaptic sites. Mutant Miro1 lacking the ability to bind Ca(2+) prevents BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic accumulation and synaptic transmission, suggesting that Miro1-mediated mitochondrial motility is involved in BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic docking and neurotransmission. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial transport and distribution play essential roles in BDNF-mediated synaptic transmission.
Yamamori, Hidenaga; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ishima, Tamaki; Kishi, Fukuko; Yasuda, Yuka; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Ito, Akira; Hashimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Masatoshi
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the survival and growth of neurons, and influences synaptic efficiency and plasticity. Peripheral BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia have been widely reported in the literature. However, it is still controversial whether peripheral levels of BDNF are altered in patients with schizophrenia. The peripheral BDNF levels previously reported in patients with schizophrenia were total BDNF (proBDNF and mature BDNF) as it was unable to specifically measure mature BDNF due to limited BDNF antibody specificity. In this study, we examined whether peripheral levels of mature BDNF were altered in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were also measured, as MMP-9 plays a role in the conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF. Twenty-two patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma levels of mature BDNF and MMP-9 were measured using ELISA kits. No significant difference was observed for mature BDNF however, MMP-9 was significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia. The significant correlation was observed between mature BDNF and MMP-9 plasma levels. Neither mature BDNF nor MMP-9 plasma levels were associated clinical variables. Our results do not support the view that peripheral BDNF levels are associated with schizophrenia. MMP-9 may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and serve as a biomarker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L M; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5'- and 3'UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5'- and 3'UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5'UTR or a 3'UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5'UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3'UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent "a quantitative code" for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods Sows (Large White that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows were compared. Pupillary light reflex parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed. Results The serum cortisol levels were higher in the confined sows than in the loose sows. The full maturity, but not the young adolescent, confined sows had longer latency time in the onset of pupil constriction than their loose counterparts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed an increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in the hippocampus and decreased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in hippocampus and hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex of the full maturity confined sows, compared with the full maturity loose sows. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicated that recurrent restricting stress in full maturity sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort.
Lee, Bombi; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after an individual has experienced a major trauma. This psychopathological response to traumatic stressors induces learning and memory deficits in rats. Oleuropein (OLE), a major compound in olive leaves, has been reported to possess several pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic and neuroprotective activities. However, the cognitive effects of OLE and its mechanism of action have remained unclear in PTSD. In this study, we examined whether OLE improved spatial cognitive impairment induced in rats following single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with vehicle or various doses of OLE for 14 consecutive days after the SPS procedure. The SPS procedure resulted in cognitive impairment in the object recognition task and the Morris water maze test, which was reversed by OLE (100 mg/kg, i.p). Additionally, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the administration of OLE significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cAMP response element-binding protein and mRNA in the hippocampus. Together, these findings suggest that OLE attenuated SPS-induced cognitive impairment significantly by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the rat brain. Thus, OLE reversed several behavioral impairments triggered by the traumatic stress of SPS and might be a potential useful therapeutic intervention for PTSD.
Nicholson, J R; Peter, J-C; Lecourt, A-C; Barde, Y-A; Hofbauer, K G
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuromodulatory role played by hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of acute cardiovascular and feeding responses to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activation. In vitro, a selective MC4R agonist, MK1, stimulated BDNF release from isolated rat hypothalami and this effect was blocked by preincubation with the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119. In vivo, peripheral administration of MK1 decreased food intake in rats and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with an anti-BDNF antibody administered into the third ventricle. When anorexia was induced with the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM251, the anti-BDNF antibody did not prevent the reduction in food intake. Peripheral administration of MK1 also increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with the anti-BDNF antibody whereas the intracerebroventricular administration of BDNF caused changes similar to those of MK1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that activation of MC4R leads to an acute release of BDNF in the hypothalamus. This release is a prerequisite for MC4R-induced effects on appetite, body temperature and cardiovascular function. By contrast, CB1R antagonist-mediated anorexia is independent of the MC4R/BDNF pathway. Overall, these results show that BDNF is an important downstream mediator of the MC4R pathway.
Wang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Xin-Ting; Wang, Lin-Lin; Jia, Cun-Xian
Suicide is an important public problem, the mechanism of which has not been clarified. Many studies have focused on the molecular, biological and genetic mechanisms of suicide. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) G196A is one of the most leading loci in recent studies, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a 1:1 age- and sex-matched case-control study in rural areas of Shandong Province, China. A total of 365 pairs of cases and controls were finally recruited into our study. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of BDNF 196G/G and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by multivariate conditional logistic regression models. No association between BDNF polymorphisms and attempted suicide was found in the overall population. However, the BDNF 196G/G genotype was significantly related to attempted suicide in the elderly population (AOR = 7.85, 95% CI: 1.12-54.90, p = 0.038), while the associations were not significant in young and middle-aged groups. Our study suggests that the BDNF 196G/G genotype increases the risk of attempted suicide in elderly people. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yvette Nicole Lamb
Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III. COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e. met carriers relative to val homozygotes was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.
Li, Yixin; Xia, Baijuan; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Wang, Yanlin; Liang, Wenmei
Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), have been implicated in the modulation of heroin dependency. This study was designed to explore the expression alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in the context of heroin dependence and withdrawal in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Heroin dependence was induced by a progressive intraperitoneal treatment of heroin. The results showed that the expression levels of BDNF and NT-4 were significantly decreased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction in comparison with the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in BDNF and NT-4 expressions in the groups of rats with both naloxone-induced and spontaneous withdrawal. Moreover, NT-3 expression was markedly increased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction and spontaneous withdrawal in comparison with the control group, but decreased in the NAc of rats with naloxone-induced withdrawal. These results indicated that chronic administration of heroin results in the alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 expressions in the rat NAc. BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 may play a critical role in the development of heroin dependency and withdrawal.
Rojas, Paulina Soledad; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Rojas, Romina Andrea; Jara, Pablo; Fiedler, Jenny Lucy
Depressive patients often have altered cortisol secretion, an effect that likely derives from impaired activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the main regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoids reduce the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a downstream target of antidepressants. Antidepressants promote the transcriptional activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), a regulator of BDNF expression. To identify potential biomarkers for the onset of antidepressant action in depressive patients, GR and phospho-CREB (pCREB) levels in lymphocytes and serum BDNF levels were repeatedly measured during the course of antidepressant treatment. Thirty-four depressed outpatients (10 male and 24 female) were treated with venlafaxine (75mg/day), and individuals exhibiting a 50% reduction in their baseline 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score by the 6th week of treatment were considered responders. Responders showed an early improvement in parallel with a rise in BDNF levels during the first two weeks of treatment. Non-responders showed increased GR levels by the third week and reduced serum BDNF by the sixth week of treatment. In contrast, venlafaxine did not affect levels of pCREB. We conclude that levels of BDNF in serum and GR levels in lymphocytes may represent biomarkers that could be used to predict responses to venlafaxine treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Ying; Ji, Yong-juan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, De-xiang; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Shu-jian; Pan, Fang
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F = 6.173, P BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress in both age groups (P BDNF (F = 9.408, P BDNF expression compared to the young stressed group at every testing time point. Stress has age-dependent effects on behavioral responses and hippocampal BDNF expression in rats.
Naert, Gaelle; Ixart, Guy; Maurice, Tangui; Tapia-Arancibia, Lucia; Givalois, Laurent
Depression is potentially life-threatening. The most important neuroendocrine abnormality in this disorder is hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity. Recent findings suggest that all depression treatments may boost the neurotrophin production especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Moreover, BDNF is highly involved in the regulation of HPA axis activity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic stress (restraint 3h/day for 3 weeks) on animal behavior and HPA axis activity in parallel with hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary BDNF levels. Chronic stress induced changes in anxiety (light/dark box test) and anhedonic states (sucrose preference test) and in depressive-like behavior (forced swimming test); general locomotor activity and body temperature were modified and animal body weight gain was reduced by 17%. HPA axis activity was highly modified by chronic stress, since basal levels of mRNA and peptide hypothalamic contents in CRH and AVP and plasma concentrations in ACTH and corticosterone were significantly increased. The HPA axis response to novel acute stress was also modified in chronically stressed rats, suggesting adaptive mechanisms. Basal BDNF contents were increased in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary in chronically stressed rats and the BDNF response to novel acute stress was also modified. This multiparametric study showed that chronic restraint stress induced a depressive-like state that was sustained by mechanisms associated with BDNF regulation. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turakitwanakan, Wanpen; Mekseepralard, Chantana; Busarakumtragul, Panaree
Mindfulness meditation is a method to decrease stress and increase memory. So, mindfulness meditation should increase serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). To study the effect of mindfulness meditation on the serum BDNF of medical students. The study group consisted of 30 male and female second-year medical students that volunteered to participate in the study, aged 19.1 ± 0.55 year olds (range 18-20) from Srinakharinwirot University. Their blood was drawn to measure BDNF before and after a four-day mindfulness meditation programme. The comparison of serum BDNF levels before and after meditation were analysed by paired t-test. The subjects were 66.77%female and 33.33% male. The average serum BDNF level before the meditation was 17.67 ng/ml (SD 3.58). After meditation, there was a decrease in serum BDNF to 17.34 ng/ml, which was however not statistically significant (SD 4.04, p > 0.05). The levels of blood BDNF decreases slightly after practising meditation. We plan to investigate the reason in the future.
Scaini, Giselli; Comim, Clarissa M; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Quevedo, João; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder that leads to the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their α-keto branched-chain by-products. Because the neurotoxic mechanisms of MSUD are poorly understood, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of a BCAA pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine). This study examined the effects of BCAA administration on spatial memory and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). We examined both pro-BDNF and bdnf mRNA expression levels after administration of BCAAs. Furthermore, this study examined whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by BCAA administration. Our results demonstrated an increase in BDNF in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, accompanied by memory impairment in spatial memory tasks. Additionally, chronic administration of BCAAs did not induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine prevented both the memory deficit and the increase in the BDNF levels induced by BCAA administration. In conclusion, these results suggest that when the brain is chronically exposed to high concentrations of BCAA (at millimolar concentrations) an increase in BDNF levels occurs. This increase in BDNF may be related to the impairment of spatial memory. In addition, we demonstrated that antioxidant treatment prevented the negative consequences related to BCAA administration, suggesting that oxidative stress might be involved in the pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD.
Babaei, P; Azali Alamdari, K; Soltani Tehrani, B; Damirchi, A
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and physical inactivity contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training has been reported to improve MetS, however less attention has been directed toward the role of training and detraining on cognitive function in MetS. Twenty one healthy middle-aged males and 21 with MetS were distributed into four groups: MetS exercise (ME), MetS control (MC), Healthy exercise (HE) and healthy control (HC). Both ME and HE, followed a 6-week aerobic training program (3 sessions/week). Digit Span memory test and blood sampling were conducted pre training, post training and also following a six weeks detraining. Data were analyzed using spearman, pearson and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Baseline serum BDNF level was positively correlated with waist circumference (r=0.383, P=0.012) and showed significant elevation in MetS compared with healthy subjects (1101.66±61.34 vs. 903.72±46.57 pg/mL, P=0.014). After aerobic exercise BDNF level significantly increased in HE, but decreased in ME group (P=0.001). Both short and mid term memory significantly increased (PExercise induced cognitive improvement might be mediated via BDNF-linked mechanisms in healthy people. However, the health status of individuals should be considered.
Zhang, Li-Yong; Xing, Tao; Du, Li-Xin; Li, Qing-Min; Liu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Ji-Yue; Cai, Jing
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. Detection of GDNF is vital to monitoring the survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, the specific method for GDNF detection is also un-discovered. The purpose of this study is to explore the method for protein detection of GDNF. A novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction (ISDPR) has been proposed for the detection of GDNF. In this study, a molecular translator was employed to convert the input protein to output deoxyribonucleic acid signal, which was further amplified by ISDPR. The product of ISDPR was detected by a lateral flow biosensor within 30 minutes. This novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and ISDPR has very high sensitivity and selectivity, with a dynamic response ranging from 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 1 pg/mL of GDNF. This novel visual detection method exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity, which is very simple and universal for GDNF detection to help disease therapy in clinical practice.
Saadati, Hakimeh; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Darvishzadeh-Mahani, Fatemeh; Mazhari, Shahrzad
Previous studies indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main candidate to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive function in sleep deprived male rats. In addition, our previous findings demonstrate that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise and/or sleep deprivation (SD) on the levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of female rats. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present experiment. The exercise protocol was four weeks treadmill running and sleep deprivation was accomplished using the multiple platform method. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis were used to evaluate the level of BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus respectively. Our results showed that protein and mRNA expression of BDNF was significantly (psleep deprived OVX rats under exercise conditions had a significant (peffect against hippocampus-related functions and impairments induced by sleep deprivation probably by inducing BDNF expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF can induce neural differentiation in stem cells and has the potential for repair of the nervous system. In this study, a polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocarrier (PS80 PBCA NC was constructed to deliver plasmid DNAs (pDNAs containing BDNF gene attached to a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE-cmvBDNF. The hypoxia-sensing mechanism of BDNF expression and inductiveness of the nano-formulation on mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs to differentiate into neurons following hypoxia was tested in vitro with immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. The HRE-cmvBDNF appeared to adsorb onto the surface of PS80 PBCA NC, with a resultant mean diameter of 92.6 ± 1.0 nm and zeta potential of −14.1 ± 1.1 mV. HIF-1α level in iPSCs was significantly higher in hypoxia, which resulted in a 51% greater BDNF expression when transfected with PS80 PBCA NC/HRE-cmvBDNF than those without hypoxia. TrkB and phospho-Akt were also elevated which correlated with neural differentiation. The findings suggest that PS80 PBCA NC too can be endocytosed to serve as an efficient vector for genes coupled to the HRE in hypoxia-sensitive cells, and activation of the PI3/Akt pathway in iPSCs by BDNF is capable of neural lineage specification.
Sanchez-Avila, Ronald Mauricio; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Riestra, Ana Cristina; Fernandez-Vega Cueto, Luis; Anitua, Eduardo; Begoña, Leire; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka
To provide preliminary data about efficacy and safety of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye-drops in neurotrophic keratitis (NK) and to analyze the possible influence of certain variables on treatment outcomes. This retrospective study included patients with stages 2-3 of NK treated with PRGF eye-drops. Primary endpoint was the resolution time of corneal ulcer defect. Outcome measures including percentage of ulcer closure at 4 weeks, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Best-Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were also evaluated before and after treatment with PRGF. The influence of some patients' clinical variables on results was assessed. Safety assessment was also performed reporting all adverse events. Thirty-eight treated eyes in a total of thirty-one patients were evaluated, of which five cases had no prior response to autologous serum treatment. Most cases (97.4%) achieved the complete resolution of corneal defect/ulcer. Mean resolution time was 11.4 weeks (SD = 13.7). A statistical significant (p PRGF eye-drops could be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with stages 2-3 of NK, showing high rates of corneal defect/ulcer resolution in short times, either in reducing signs and symptoms of NK, and therefore preventing the progression of NK to greater ocular complications.
Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Asthana, Manish Kumar; Brunhuber, Bettina; Mühlberger, Andreas; Reif, Andreas; Schneider, Simone; Herrmann, Martin J
Memory reconsolidation is the direct effect of memory reactivation followed by stabilization of newly synthesized proteins. It has been well proven that neural encoding of both newly and reactivated memories requires synaptic plasticity. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been extensively investigated regarding its role in the formation of synaptic plasticity and in the alteration of fear memories. However, its role in fear reconsolidation is still unclear; hence, the current study has been designed to investigate the role of the BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) in fear memory reconsolidation in humans. An auditory fear-conditioning paradigm was conducted, which comprised of three stages (acquisition, reactivation, and spontaneous recovery). One day after fear acquisition, the experimental group underwent reactivation of fear memory followed by the extinction training (reminder group), whereas the control group (non-reminder group) underwent only extinction training. On day 3, both groups were subjected to spontaneous recovery of earlier learned fearful memories. The treat-elicited defensive response due to conditioned threat was measured by assessing the skin conductance response to the conditioned stimulus. All participants were genotyped for rs6265. The results indicate a diminishing effect of reminder on the persistence of fear memory only in the Met-allele carriers, suggesting a moderating effect of the BDNF polymorphism in fear memory reconsolidation. Our findings suggest a new role for BDNF gene variation in fear memory reconsolidation in humans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Sun, Gaoying; Liu, Wenwen; Fan, Zhaomin; Zhang, Daogong; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Qi, Jieyu; Zhang, Shasha; Gao, Bradley T; Bai, Xiaohui; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Wang, Haibo
Whole organ culture of the spiral ganglion region is a resourceful model system facilitating manipulation and analysis of live sprial ganglion neurons (SGNs). Three-dimensional (3D) cultures have been demonstrated to have many biomedical applications, but the effect of 3D culture in maintaining the SGNs structure and function in explant culture remains uninvestigated. In this study, we used the matrigel to encapsulate the spiral ganglion region isolated from neonatal mice. First, we optimized the matrigel concentration for the 3D culture system and found the 3D culture system protected the SGNs against apoptosis, preserved the structure of spiral ganglion region, and promoted the sprouting and outgrowth of SGNs neurites. Next, we found the 3D culture system promoted growth cone growth as evidenced by a higher average number and a longer average length of filopodia and a larger growth cone area. 3D culture system also significantly elevated the synapse density of SGNs. Last, we found that the 3D culture system combined with neurotrophic factors had accumulated effects in promoting the neurites outgrowth compared with 3D culture or NFs treatment only groups. Together, we conclude that the 3D culture system preserves the structure and function of SGN in explant culture.
Wang, Rui; Li, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ying; Li, Ying-Bo; Wu, Hong-Li; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jie; Pan, Xue-Yang; Li, Xue-Jun
Curcumin is a major constituent of curcuma longa, a traditional medicine used to manage mental disorders effectively in China. The neuroprotective effects of curcumin have been demonstrated in our previous studies. In the present research, we confirmed this effect by showing that curcumin application promoted the viability of cultured rodent cortical neurons. Moreover, when neurons were pretreated with tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) antibody, known to inhibit the activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the protective effect of curcumin was blocked. Additionally, treatment of curcumin increased BDNF and phosphor-TrkB and both of these enhancements can be suppressed by ERK and PI-3K inhibitors. The administration of curcumin led to increased levels of phosphor-ERK and AKT, which were each blocked by MAPK and PI-3K inhibitors. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced increase in phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), which has been implicated as a possible mediator of antidepressant actions, was prevented by MAPK and PI-3K inhibitors. Therefore, we hypothesize the neuroprotection of curcumin might be mediated via BDNF/TrkB-MAPK/PI-3K-CREB signaling pathway. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF from spinal microglia is crucial for aberrant nociceptive signaling in several pathological pain conditions, including postoperative pain. We assess the contribution of spinal microglial activation and associated BDNF overexpression to the early post-incisional nociceptive threshold. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an intrathecal catheter. A postoperative pain model was established by plantar incision. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by infrared radiant heat and von Frey filaments before and after plantar incision. Rats were injected intrathecally the microglial activation inhibitor minocycline before incision, 24 h after incision, or both. Other groups were subjected to the same treatments and the L4-L5 spinal cord segment removed for immunohistochemical analysis of microglia activation and BNDF expression. Results: Plantar incision reduced both thermal latency and mechanical threshold, indicating thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia. Minocycline temporally reduced thermal withdrawal latency but had no effect on mechanical withdrawal threshold, spinal microglial activity, or dorsal horn BDNF overexpression during the early post-incision period. Conclusion: These results suggest that spinal microglia does not contribute substantially to post-incisional nociceptive threshold. The BDNF overexpression response that may contribute to postoperative hyperalgesia and allodynia is likely derived from other sources.
Kalayci, Fatma; Ozdemir, Armagan; Saribas, Suat; Yuksel, Pelin; Ergin, Sevgi; Kuskucu, Ali Mert; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Balcioglu, Ibrahim; Alpay, Nihat; Kurt, Aykut; Sezgin, Zeynep; Kocak, Banu Tufan; Icel, Rana Sucu; Can, Gunay; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar; Kocazeybek, Bekir
Several pathogens have been suspected of playing a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Chronic inflammation has been proposed to occur as a result of persistent infection caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae cells that reside in brain endothelial cells for many years. It was recently hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) may play prominent roles in the development of schizophrenia. NT-3 and BDNF levels have been suggested to change in response to various manifestations of infection. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the roles of BDNF and NT3 in the schizophrenia-C. pneumoniae infection relationship. RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and ELISA methods were used. Fifty patients suffering from schizophrenia and 35 healthy individuals were included as the patient group (PG) and the healthy control group (HCG), respectively. We detected persistent infection in 14 of the 50 individuals in the PG and in 1 of the 35 individuals in the HCG. A significant difference was found between the two groups (p0.05). C. pneumoniae DNA was not detected in any group. A significant difference in NT-3 levels was observed between the groups, with very low levels in the PG (p0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that NT-3 levels during persistent C. pneumoniae infection may play a role in this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hota, Jutshina; Pati, Sushri Sangita; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus. We also demonstrate for the first time by immunofluorescence localization the expression pattern of Fibroblast Growth Factor1 (FGF1) during spinal cord regeneration which has not been documented earlier in anurans. FGF1, bearer of the mitogenic and neurotrophic properties seems to be expressed by progenitor cells that facilitate regeneration. Spinal cord during tail regeneration in P. maculatus attains functional recovery within a span of 2 weeks thus enabling the organism to survive in an aquatic medium till metamorphosis. Moreover, during the course of spinal cord regeneration in the regenerating tail, melanocytes showed an interesting behaviour as these neural crest derivatives were missing near the early regenerates until their reappearance where they were positioned in close proximity with the regenerated spinal cord as in the normal tail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0–1 h in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system.
Full Text Available The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are significantly decreased in patients with schizophrenia and correlate with impairments in cognitive function. However, no study has investigated the relationship between the serum BDNF levels and decision-making. We compared patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls with respect to their decision-making ability and serum BDNF levels. Eighty-six chronic schizophrenia patients and 51 healthy controls participated in this study. We controlled for gender, age, and estimated intelligence quotient (IQ, and we investigated the differences in decision-making performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT between the schizophrenia patient and control groups. We also compared the IGT scores, the serum BDNF levels, and the clinical symptoms between the groups. The IGT scores of the schizophrenia patients were lower than those of the controls. A negative correlation was detected between the mean net scores on the trials in the final two blocks and the serum BDNF levels（p<0.05）. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depressive symptoms and the serum BDNF levels were significantly associated with the mean net scores on the trials in the final two blocks. Based on these results, impaired sensitivity to both reward and punishment is associated with depressive symptoms and reduced serum BDNF levels in chronic schizophrenia patients and may be related to their poor performance on the IGT.
Zhao, Jianxin; Xu, Huazhou; Tian, Yuanxiang; Hu, Manxiang; Xiao, Hongling
This work aims to observe the effects of electroacupuncture on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in mouse hippocampus following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The models of mouse cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury were established. A total of 96 healthy mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups, namely, the sham surgery, model, model + electroacupuncture, and mode + hydergine groups. Mice in the model + electroacupuncture group were treated through electroacupuncture at the Shenshu (BL 23), Geshu (BL 17), and Baihui (GV 20) acupoints. Mice in the model+hydergine group were intragastrically administered with hydergine (0.77 mg/kg(-1) x day(-1)). The levels of BDNF mRNA expressions in the hippocampus were ana lyzed through a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay on days 1 and 7 after the surgeries. BDNF mRNA expressions in the mouse hippocampus of the model group on days 1 and 7 after the surgery were higher than those of the sham surgery group (both P electroacupuncture treatment, BDNF mRNA expression in the mouse hippocampus of the model + electroacupuncture group was significantly elevated compared with the model group (both P 0.05). Electroacupuncture treatment enhances endogenous BDNF expression, which may improve the survival environment for intracerebral neurons and inhibit the apoptosis of hippocampal cells.
Costa, M S; Botton, P H; Mioranzza, S; Souza, D O; Porciúncula, L O
The beneficial effects of caffeine on cognition are controversial in humans, whereas its benefit in rodents had been well characterized. However, most studies were performed with acute administration of caffeine and the tasks used to evaluate cognition had aversive components. Here, we evaluated adulthood administration of caffeine up to old age on recognition memory in mice using the object recognition task (ORT) and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) immunocontent in the hippocampus. Adult mice (6 months old) received either drinking water or caffeine (1 mg/mL) during 12 months. At 18 months of age both groups were tested for ORT. Our results showed that aged mice exhibited lower performance in the recognition memory compared with adults (6 months old). Furthermore, caffeine-treated mice showed similar performance to adult mice in the ORT and an improvement compared with their age-matched control mice. Caffeine also counteracted the age-related increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent. Our results corroborate with other studies and reinforce that caffeine consumed in adulthood may prevent recognition memory decline with aging. This preventive effect may involve a decrease in the hippocampal BDNF and TrkB immunocontent.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Omega-3 Supplementation has different effects on the body. Terefore, this study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of 4 weeks of flaxseed extract supplementation on serum concentrations of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods: In this double-blind study, 24 male students (mean age, 23.21±1.98 were randomly divided into two groups, including flaxseed extract (n=12 and placebo (n=12. After 4 weeks of supplementation with flaxseed extract, serum levels of BDNF and CRP was measured in fasting state. BDNF level was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit, and CRP level was measured using an immunoturbidimetric assay kit. Data were analyzed using t-test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: After four weeks of supplementation with flaxseed extract the mean serum level of BDNF significantly increased (p<0.001, but no significant change was observed in the serum level of CRP (p<0.591. Conclusion: It seems that supplementation with flaxseed extract through increasing BDNF level is useful for the improvement of cognitive and functional benefits of the brain.
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155 could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against TLE was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study.
Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L; Devlin, Angela M.; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E
Early stress in the form of repetitive neonatal pain, in infants born very preterm, is associated with long-term dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and with poorer cognitive performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is important in synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions is reduced by stress. Therefore the BDNF Val66Met variant, which affects secretion of BDNF, may interact with early exposure to pain-related stress in children born very prete...
Ubhi, Kiren; Rockenstein, Edward; Vazquez-Roque, Ruben; Mante, Michael; Inglis, Chandra; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Fahnestock, Margaret; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philip; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by degeneration of neocortex, limbic system, and basal forebrain, accompanied by accumulation of amyloid-β and tangle formation. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, is reported to improve cognition and activities of daily living in patients with AD. Likewise, CBL reduces synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). The neuroprotective effects of CBL may involve multiple mechanisms, including signaling regulation, control of APP metabolism, and expression of neurotrophic factors. We investigate the effects of CBL in the hAPP tg model of AD on levels of neurotrophic factors, including pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotropin (NT)-3, NT4, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that levels of pro-NGF were increased in saline-treated hAPP tg mice. In contrast, CBL-treated hAPP tg mice showed levels of pro-NGF comparable to control and increased levels of mature NGF. Consistently with these results, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated increased NGF immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of CBL-treated hAPP tg mice. Protein levels of other neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, NT3, NT4, and CNTF, were unchanged. mRNA levels of NGF and other neurotrophins were also unchanged. Analysis of neurotrophin receptors showed preservation of the levels of TrKA and p75(NTR) immunoreactivity per cell in the nucleus basalis. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis were reduced in the saline-treated hAPP tg mice, and treatment with CBL reduced these cholinergic deficits. These results suggest that the neurotrophic effects of CBL might involve modulation of the pro-NGF/NGF balance and a concomitant protection of cholinergic neurons. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pedersen, Lotte B; Rosenbaum, Joel L
Cilia and flagella have attracted tremendous attention in recent years as research demonstrated crucial roles for these organelles in coordinating a number of physiologically and developmentally important signaling pathways, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha, Sonic...... hedgehog, polycystin, and Wnt pathways. In addition, the realization that defective assembly or function of cilia can cause a plethora of diseases and developmental defects ("ciliopathies") has increased focus on the mechanisms by which these antenna-like, microtubular structures assemble. Ciliogenesis...... mechanisms and functions of IFT. In addition to a general, up-to-date description of IFT, we discuss mechanisms by which proteins are selectively targeted to the ciliary compartment, with special focus on the ciliary transition zone. Finally, we briefly review the role of IFT in cilia-mediated signaling...
Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rezaei, Sajjad; Asgari Mobarake, Karim; Saberi, Alia; Keshavarz, Parvaneh; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnejad
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with functional and cognitive outcomes of stroke and plays a key role in preventing neuronal death. This study aimed to answer the following question: does BDNF Val66Met polymorphism prognosticate survival status and risk of post-stroke dementia (PSD)? In a retrospective cohort study, 206 patients with ischemic stroke (IS) entered the study. They were consecutively being admitted to the neurology clinic in Poursina Hospital (northern Iran) from 2012 to 2014. The diagnosis of PSD was based on DSM-5 criteria. The current and the premorbid cognitive statuses of the patients were respectively assessed through the third edition of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP. On average, 48 patients (23.3 %) developed PSD 6 months after IS. Log-rank test showed that the survival rate of at least one Val-allele carriers was significantly lower than that of Met/Met homozygotes (P = 0.0005), and the former developed PSD sooner than the latter (375, 492 days, respectively). Cox model showed that heterozygous carriers of Val/Met were at greater risk of PSD over time (HR 2.280, 95 % CI 1.566-4.106, P = 0.006). However, the risk ratio of patients with PSD among different BDNF genotypes decreased after adjusting demographic, clinical, and vascular risk factors, and was no longer statistically significant (AHR 2.434, 95 % CI 0.597-9.926, P = 0.215). Val-allele carriers or Val/Met genotypes were more quickly diagnosed as having dementia after IS. However, this genetic vulnerability became more destructive when it was added to demographic, clinical, and vascular risk factors.
Lin, Chih-Yang; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling; Chou, Wen-Yi; Lin, Ting-Yi; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Yang, Chen-Yu; Liu, Shih-Chia; Hsieh, Chia-Chu; Fong, Yi-Chin; Wang, Po-Chuan; Tang, Chih-Hsin
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy of bone, and one of the most difficult bone tumors to diagnose and treat. It is well known that increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) promote active tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic tumor spread to regional lymph nodes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to promote metastasis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Knowing more about the mechanism of BDNF in VEGF-C expression and lymphangiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma would improve our understanding as how to prevent chondrosarcoma angiogenesis and metastasis, which currently lacks effective adjuvant treatment. Here, we found that BDNF expression was at least 2.5-fold higher in the highly migratory JJ012(S10) cell line as compared with the primordial cell line (JJ012). In addition, VEGF-C expression and secretion was markedly increased in JJ012(S10) cells. Conditioned medium from JJ012(S10) cells significantly promoted migration and tube formation of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), whereas knockdown of BDNF attenuated LEC migration and tube formation by suppressing VEGF-C production in JJ012(S10) cells. Mechanistic investigations indicated that BDNF facilitated VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis through the MEK/ERK/mTOR signaling pathway. We also showed that microRNA (miR)-624-3p expression was negatively regulated by BDNF via the MEK/ERK/mTOR cascade. Importantly, BDNF knockdown profoundly inhibited tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Further analyses identified that BDNF promoted tumor lymphangiogenesis by downregulating miR-624-3p in human chondrosarcoma tissues. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal the mechanism underlying BDNF-induced lymphangiogenesis. We suggest that BDNF may serve as a promising therapeutic target for the restriction of VEGF-C-mediated tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.
Zhang, Le; Wang, Gongming; Ma, Jinben; Liu, Chengxiao; Liu, Xijiang; Zhan, Yufeng; Zhang, Mengyuan
The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays an important role in pain affect. Previous investigations have reported that the rACC mediates the negative affective component of inflammatory pain and contributed to the aversive state of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent neuromodulator in the adult brain, is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. However, whether and how BDNF in the rACC regulates pain-related aversion due to peripheral nerve injury is largely unknown. Behaviorally, using conditioned place preference (CPP) training in rats, which is thought to reveal spontaneous pain-related aversion, we found that CPP was acquired following spinal clonidine in rats with partial sciatic nerve transection. Importantly, BDNF was upregulated within the rACC in of rats with nerve injury and enhanced the CPP acquisition, while a local injection of a BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) antagonist into the rACC completely blocked this process. Finally, we demonstrated that the BDNF/TrkB pathway exerted its function by activating the NR2B receptor, which is widely accepted to be a crucial factor contributing to pain affect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling pathway in the rACC is involved in the development of neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion and that this process is dependent upon activation of NR2B receptors. These findings suggest that suppression of the BDNF-related signaling pathway in the rACC may provide a novel strategy to overcome pain-related aversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael
Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bonaccorso, Stefania; Sodhi, Monsheel; Li, Jiang; Bobo, William V; Chen, Yuejin; Tumuklu, Mevhibe; Theleritis, Christos; Jayathilake, Karuna; Meltzer, Herbert Y
We tested the hypothesis that a common functional variant in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Val66Met, which has been shown to be associated with increased body mass index (BMI) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and schizoaffective disorder (SAD), is also associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in bipolar disorder (BPD). Association of Val66Met with other metabolic measures, including high- and low-density cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c, was also tested. This was a 12-month, prospective, randomized trial of two atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) with moderate (risperidone) or high (olanzapine) risk to cause weight gain. Subjects were diagnosed as having BPD (n = 90) and SCZ or SAD (n = 76). BMI was significantly greater in all diagnoses for Met66 allele carriers at six months (p = 0.01). Met66 carriers with BPD showed a greater increase in the triglycerides/high-density (HDL) cholesterol ratio (p = 0.01), a key marker for metabolic syndrome related to insulin resistance, and log-triglycerides (p = 0.04), after three or six months of treatment. Met66 carriers had the greatest increase in log-triglycerides (p = 0.03) and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio after three months of treatment with risperidone (p = 0.003), and the highest BMI at six months (p = 0.01). The positive association of BNDF Val66Met with high BMI values replicates previous findings in patients with SCZ and indicates the BDNF Val66Met genotype as a potential risk factor for obesity and insulin resistance measures in patients with BPD receiving antipsychotics as well. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Hellweg, R; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C
Cognitive deficits are a common feature of major depression (MD), with largely unknown biological underpinnings. In addition to the affective and cognitive symptoms of MD, a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is commonly observed in these patients. Increased plasma glucocorticoid levels are known to render the hippocampus susceptible to neuronal damage. This structure is important for learning and memory, creating a potential link between HPA axis dysregulation and cognitive deficits in depression. In order to further elucidate how altered stress responsiveness may contribute to the etiology of MD, three mouse lines with high (HR), intermediate (IR), or low (LR) stress reactivity were generated by selective breeding. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increased stress reactivity is associated with deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory tests. To this end, we subjected mice from the HR, IR, and LR breeding lines to tests of recognition memory, spatial memory, and depression-like behavior. In addition, measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and plasma of these animals were conducted. Our results demonstrate that HR mice exhibit hippocampus-dependent memory deficits along with decreased hippocampal, but not plasma, BDNF levels. Thus, the stress reactivity mouse lines are a promising animal model of the cognitive deficits in MD with the unique feature of a genetic predisposition for an altered HPA axis reactivity, which provides the opportunity to explore the progression of the symptoms of MD, predisposing genetic factors as well as new treatment strategies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCarson Kenneth E
Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.
Torma, Ferenc; Bori, Zoltan; Koltai, Erika; Felszeghy, Klara; Vacz, Gabriella; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steven; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt
Exercise capacity and dietary restriction (DR) are linked to improved quality of life, including enhanced brain function and neuro-protection. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key proteins involved in the beneficial effects of exercise on brain. Low capacity runner (LCR) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were subjected to DR in order to investigate the regulation of BDNF. HCR-DR rats out-performed other groups in a passive avoidance test. BDNF content increased significantly in the hippocampus of HCR-DR groups compared to control groups (p<0.05). The acetylation of H3 increased significantly only in the LCR-DR group. However, chip-assay revealed that the specific binding between acetylated histone H3 and BNDF promoter was increased in both LCR-DR and HCR-DR groups. In spite of these increases in binding, at the transcriptional level only, the LCR-DR group showed an increase in BDNF mRNA content. Additionally, DR also induced the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the content of SIRT1 was not altered. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) was elevated in HCR-DR groups. But, based on the levels of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cytocrome c oxidase, it appears that DR did not cause mitochondrial biogenesis. The data suggest that DR-mediated induction of BDNF levels includes chromatin remodeling. Moreover, DR does not induce mitochondrial biogenesis in the hippocampus of LCR/HCR rats. DR results in different responses to a passive avoidance test, and BDNF regulation in LCR and HCR rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the development of psychotic symptoms, environmental and genetic factors may both play a role. The reported association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms could therefore be moderated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the stress response, such as FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Recent studies investigating childhood trauma by SNP interactions have inconsistently found the hippocampus to be a potential target underlying these interactions. Therefore, more detailed modelling of these effects, using appropriate covariates, is required. We examined whether BDNF/FKBP5 and childhood trauma interactions affected two proxies of hippocampal integrity: (i hippocampal volume and (ii cognitive performance on a block design (BD and delayed auditory verbal task (AVLT. We also investigated whether the putative interaction was different for patients with a psychotic disorder (n = 89 compared to their non-psychotic siblings (n = 95, in order to elicit possible group-specific protective/vulnerability effects. SNPs were rs9296158, rs4713916, rs992105, rs3800373 (FKBP5 and rs6265 (BDNF. In the combined sample, no BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were apparent for either outcome, and BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were not different for patients and siblings. The omission of drug use and alcohol consumption sometimes yielded false positives, greatly affected explained error and influenced p-values. The consistent absence of any significant BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions on assessments of hippocampal integrity suggests that the effect of these interactions on psychotic symptoms is not mediated by hippocampal integrity. The importance of appropriate statistical designs and inclusion of relevant covariates should be carefully considered.
Kerri S Rawson
Full Text Available Depressive symptoms are common in older adults after a disabling medical event and interfere with rehabilitation and recovery from the disability. This prospective study examined the role of genetic polymorphisms implicated in synaptic integrity and stress-associated depression as predictors of depressive symptoms after hip fracture. We recruited healthy comparisons from the community and participants with hip fracture after surgical fixation from Saint Louis, Missouri hospitals. We examined the valine (Val to methionine (Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1a-rs6295 polymorphism, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR interaction with the rs25531 A to G single nucleotide polymorphism (5HTTLPR-rs25531 as predictors of depressive symptoms. We also examined whether depressive symptoms mediate the influence of BDNF genotype on functional recovery. Among 429 participants with hip fracture, BDNF Met/Met carriers developed significantly more depressive symptoms than Val/Val carriers during a four-week period after the fracture (p=.012. BDNF genotype also predicted functional recovery over the ensuing year, mediated by its effects on depressive symptoms (CI: 0.07-3.37. Unlike prior studies of stressful life events, the S' 5HTTLPR-rs25531 variant did not predict higher levels of depressive symptoms; instead, we report an exploratory finding of an epistatic effect between BDNF and 5HTTLPR-rs25531 whereby the compounded effects of two LA alleles and BDNF Met/Met genotype elevate risk of depressive symptoms after hip fracture (p=.006. No differences between 5HT1a genotypes were found. Our findings suggest plasticity-related genetic factors contribute to the neural mechanisms of mental and functional well-being after a disabling medical stressor.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential (TRP channel subtype A1 (TRPA1 is known to be expressed on sensory neurons and respond to changes in temperature, pH and local application of certain noxious chemicals such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC. Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor and belongs to the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF family. Both TRPA1 and artemin have been reported to be involved in pathological pain initiation and maintenance. In the present study, using whole-cell patch clamp recording technique, in situ hybridization and behavioral analyses, we examined the functional interaction between TRPA1 and artemin. Results We found that 85.8 ± 1.9% of TRPA1-expressing neurons also expressed GDNF family receptor alpha 3 (GFR α3, and 87.5 ± 4.1% of GFRα3-expressing neurons were TRPA1-positive. In whole-cell patch clamp analysis, a short-term treatment of 100 ng/ml artemin significantly suppressed the AITC-induced TRPA1 currents. A concentration-response curve of AITC resulting from the effect of artemin showed that this inhibition did not change EC50 but did lower the AITC-induced maximum response. In addition, pre-treatment of artemin significantly suppressed the number of paw lifts induced by intraplantar injection of AITC, as well as the formalin-induced pain behaviors. Conclusions These findings that a short-term application of artemin inhibits the TRPA1 channel's activity and the sequential pain behaviors suggest a role of artemin in regulation of sensory neurons.
Yuan, Qiang; Yang, Feng; Xiao, Yixin; Tan, Shawn; Husain, Nilofer; Ren, Ming; Hu, Zhonghua; Martinowich, Keri; Ng, Julia S; Kim, Paul J; Han, Weiping; Nagata, Koh-Ichi; Weinberger, Daniel R; Je, H Shawn
Genetic variations in dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 or dysbindin-1) have been implicated as risk factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The encoded protein dysbindin-1 functions in the regulation of synaptic activity and synapse development. Intriguingly, a loss of function mutation in Dtnbp1 in mice disrupted both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic transmission in the cerebral cortex; pyramidal neurons displayed enhanced excitability due to reductions in inhibitory synaptic inputs. However, the mechanism by which reduced dysbindin-1 activity causes inhibitory synaptic deficits remains unknown. We investigated the role of dysbindin-1 in the exocytosis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from cortical excitatory neurons, organotypic brain slices, and acute slices from dysbindin-1 mutant mice and determined how this change in BDNF exocytosis transsynaptically affected the number of inhibitory synapses formed on excitatory neurons via whole-cell recordings, immunohistochemistry, and live-cell imaging using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. A decrease in dysbindin-1 reduces the exocytosis of BDNF from cortical excitatory neurons, and this reduction in BDNF exocytosis transsynaptically resulted in reduced inhibitory synapse numbers formed on excitatory neurons. Furthermore, application of exogenous BDNF rescued the inhibitory synaptic deficits caused by the reduced dysbindin-1 level in both cultured cortical neurons and slice cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate that these two genes linked to risk for schizophrenia (BDNF and dysbindin-1) function together to regulate interneuron development and cortical network activity. This evidence supports the investigation of the association between dysbindin-1 and BDNF in humans with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mirna Edith Morales-Marín,1 Alma Delia Genis-Mendoza,1,2 Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate,3 Nuria Lanzagorta,4 Michael Escamilla,5 Humberto Nicolini1,4 1Genomics of Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN, CDMX, Mexico; 2Psychiatric Care Services, Child Psychiatric Hospital Dr Juan N Navarro, CDMX, Mexico; 3Genomics Research Center, Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Comalcalco, Mexico; 4Carracci Medical Group, CDMX, Mexico; 5Department of Psychiatry, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso TX, USA Background: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been considered as an important candidate gene in bipolar disorder (BD; this association has been derived from several genetic and genome-wide studies. A polymorphic variant of the BDNF (Val66Met confers some differences in the clinical presentation of affective disorders. In this study, we evaluated a sample population from Mexico City to determine whether the BDNF (rs6265 Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the body mass index (BMI of patients with BD.Methods: This association study included a sample population of 357 individuals recruited in Mexico City. A total of 139 participants were diagnosed with BD and 137 were classified as psychiatrically healthy controls (all individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was performed in 96-well plates using the TaqMan Universal Thermal Cycling Protocol. After the PCR end point was reached, fluorescence intensity was measured in a 7,500 real-time PCR system and evaluated using the SDS v2.1 software, results were analyzed with Finetti and SPSS software. Concerning BMI stratification, random groups were defined as follows: normal <25 kg/m2, overweight (Ow =25.1–29.9 kg/m2
Niimi, Masachika; Hashimoto, Kenji; Kakuda, Wataru; Miyano, Satoshi; Momosaki, Ryo; Ishima, Tamaki; Abo, Masahiro
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve upper limb hemiparesis after stroke but the mechanism underlying its efficacy remains elusive. rTMS seems to alter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and such effect is influenced by BDNF gene polymorphism. To investigate the molecular effects of rTMS on serum levels of BDNF, its precursor proBDNF and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied. Sixty-two patients underwent rehabilitation plus rTMS combination therapy and 33 patients underwent rehabilitation monotherapy without rTMS for 14 days at our hospital. One Hz rTMS was applied over the motor representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle on the non-lesional hemisphere. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function (WMFT) were used to evaluate motor function on the affected upper limb before and after intervention. Blood samples were collected for analysis of BDNF polymorphism and measurement of BDNF, proBDNF and MMP-9 levels. Two-week combination therapy increased BDNF and MMP-9 serum levels, but not serum proBDNF. Serum BDNF and MMP-9 levels did not correlate with motor function improvement, though baseline serum proBDNF levels correlated negatively and significantly with improvement in WMFT (ρ = -0.422, p = 0.002). The outcome of rTMS therapy was not altered by BDNF gene polymorphism. The combination therapy of rehabilitation plus low-frequency rTMS seems to improve motor function in the affected limb, by activating BDNF processing. BDNF and its precursor proBDNF could be potentially suitable biomarkers for poststroke motor recovery.
Full Text Available Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signalling have been implicated in the evolution of depression, which likely arises, in part, as a result of diminished synaptic plasticity. Predictably, given stressor involvement in depression, BDNF is affected by recent stressors as well as stressors such as neglect experienced in early life. The effects of early life maltreatment in altering BDNF signalling may be particularly apparent among those individuals with specific BDNF polymorphisms. We examined whether polymorphisms of the Val66Met genotype might be influential in moderating how early-life events play out with respect to later coping styles, cognitive flexibility and depressive features. Among male and female undergraduate students (N = 124, childhood neglect was highly related to subsequent depressive symptoms. This outcome was moderated by the BDNF polymorphism in the sense that depressive symptoms appeared higher in Met carriers who reported low levels of neglect than in those with the Val/Val allele. However, under conditions of high neglect depressive symptoms only increased in the Val/Val individuals. In effect, the Met polymorphism was associated with depressive features, but did not interact with early life neglect in predicting later depressive features. It was further observed that among the Val/Val individuals, the relationship between neglect and depression was mediated by emotion-focused styles and diminished perceived control, whereas this mediation was not apparent in Met carriers. In contrast to the more typical view regarding this polymorphism, the data are consistent with the perspective that in the presence of synaptic plasticity presumably associated with the Val/Val genotype, neglect allows for the emergence of specific appraisal and coping styles, which are tied to depression. In the case of the reduced degree of neuroplasticity expected in the Met carriers, early life adverse experiences are not tied
Okkerse, Pieter; Hay, Justin L; Versage, Eve; Tang, Yongqiang; Galluppi, Gerald; Ravina, Bernard; Verma, Ajay; Williams, Leslie; Aycardi, Ernesto; Groeneveld, Geert Jan
BG00010 is a protein in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. It is a selective ligand for the GDNF family receptor alpha-3 (GFRα3) co-receptor that normalizes cellular changes resulting from damage or disease, and potentially alleviates neuropathic pain. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles and to determine the effects on pain of ascending doses of intravenous injections of BG00010 in patients with sciatica. This was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled multiple-dose study in subjects with sciatica. In Part I (16 patients), four IV dose levels were examined (50, 150, 400, 800 μg kg(-1) ) and in Part II (12 patients), three dose levels were examined (400, 600 and 1200 μg kg(-1) ). Safety and efficacy assessments were used as endpoints. The BG00010 concentration-time data indicated relatively low inter-patient variability and there was a dose-dependent (not dose-proportional) increase in serum exposure from 150 to 1200 μg kg(-1) . The effective half-life was between 40 and 60 h. The most frequently occurring adverse events (AEs) reported by patients receiving BG00010 were headache (67-83%), feeling hot (50-100%), and pruritus (42-67%). Most AEs were mild; no serious AEs or AEs leading to discontinuation occurred. Higher dose regimens of BG00010 resulted in greater pain reduction than placebo or lower dose regimens, although a clear dose-response relationship was not seen. The pharmacokinetic profile of BG00010 was characterized by low intra-patient variability. These data from a small sample suggest that BG00010 may have a benefit for patients with sciatica. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.
Song, Zhi-Jing; Miao, Shuai; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Xiu-Li; Liu, Yue-Peng
Purpose Preventing opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance continues to be a major clinical challenge, and the underlying mechanisms of hyperalgesia and tolerance remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. Methods Shh signaling expression, behavioral changes, and neurochemical alterations induced by morphine were analyzed in male adult CD-1 mice with repeated administration of morphine. To investigate the contribution of Shh to morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) and tolerance, Shh signaling inhibitor cyclopamine and Shh small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used. To explore the mechanisms of Shh signaling in MIH and tolerance, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibitor K252 and anti-BDNF antibody were used. Results Repeated administration of morphine produced obvious hyperalgesia and tolerance. The behavioral changes were correlated with the upregulation and activation of morphine treatment-induced Shh signaling. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of Shh signaling significantly delayed the generation of MIH and tolerance and associated neurochemical changes. Chronic morphine administration also induced upregulation of BDNF. Inhibiting BDNF effectively delayed the generation of MIH and tolerance. The upregulation of BDNF induced by morphine was significantly suppressed by inhibiting Shh signaling. In naïve mice, exogenous activation of Shh signaling caused a rapid increase of BDNF expression, as well as thermal hyperalgesia. Inhibiting BDNF significantly suppressed smoothened agonist-induced hyperalgesia. Conclusion These findings suggest that Shh signaling may be a critical mediator for MIH and tolerance by regulating BDNF expression. Inhibiting Shh signaling, especially during the early phase, may effectively delay or suppress MIH and tolerance. PMID:29662325
Cordeira, Joshua W.; Felsted, Jennifer A.; Teillon, Sarah; Daftary, Shabrine; Panessiti, Micaella; Wirth, Jena; Sena-Esteves, Miguel
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, are critical components of the neural circuitry controlling appetite and body weight. Diminished BDNF signaling in mice results in severe hyperphagia and obesity. In humans, BDNF haploinsufficiency and the functional Bdnf Val66Met polymorphism have been linked to elevated food intake and body weight. The mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are poorly defined. We demonstrate a chief role of α2δ-1, a calcium channel subunit and thrombospondin receptor, in triggering overeating in mice with central BDNF depletion. We show reduced α2δ-1 cell-surface expression in the BDNF mutant ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), an energy balance-regulating center. This deficit contributes to the hyperphagia exhibited by BDNF mutant mice because selective inhibition of α2δ-1 by gabapentin infusion into wild-type VMH significantly increases feeding and body weight gain. Importantly, viral-mediated α2δ-1 rescue in BDNF mutant VMH significantly mitigates their hyperphagia, obesity, and liver steatosis and normalizes deficits in glucose homeostasis. Whole-cell recordings in BDNF mutant VMH neurons revealed normal calcium currents but reduced frequency of EPSCs. These results suggest calcium channel-independent effects of α2δ-1 on feeding and implicate α2δ-1–thrombospondin interactions known to facilitate excitatory synapse assembly. Our findings identify a central mechanism mediating the inhibitory effects of BDNF on feeding. They also demonstrate a novel and critical role for α2δ-1 in appetite control and suggest a mechanism underlying weight gain in humans treated with gabapentinoid drugs. PMID:24403154
Degeorge, M L; Marlowe, D; Werner, E; Soderstrom, K E; Stock, M; Mueller, A; Bohn, M C; Kozlowski, D A
Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that viral administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (AdGDNF), one week prior to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb sensorimotor cortex of the rat (FL-SMC) is neuroprotective, but does not significantly enhance recovery of sensorimotor function. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that although protected, neurons may not have been functional due to enduring metabolic deficiencies. Additionally, metabolic events following TBI may interfere with expression of therapeutic proteins administered to the injured brain via gene therapy. The current study focused on enhancing the metabolic function of the brain by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) with l-arginine in conjunction with administration of AdGDNF immediately following CCI. An adenoviral vector harboring human GDNF was injected unilaterally into FL-SMC of the rat immediately following a unilateral CCI over the FL-SMC. Within 30min of the CCI and AdGDNF injections, some animals were injected with l-arginine (i.v.). Tests of forelimb function and asymmetry were administered for 4weeks post-injury. Animals were sacrificed and contusion size and GDNF protein expression measured. This study demonstrated that rats treated with AdGDNF and l-arginine post-CCI had a significantly smaller contusion than injured rats who did not receive any treatment, or injured rats treated with either AdGDNF or l-arginine alone. Nevertheless, no amelioration of behavioral deficits was seen. These findings suggest that AdGDNF alone following a CCI was not therapeutic and although combining it with l-arginine decreased contusion size, it did not enhance behavioral recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erickson, Craig A; Wink, Logan K; Ray, Balmiki; Early, Maureen C; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; Lahiri, Debomoy K; McDougle, Christopher J
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of developmental disability and a single gene cause of autism. As a disorder with increasingly understood pathophysiology, FXS is a model form of developmental disability for targeted drug development efforts. Preclinical animal model findings have focused targeted drug treatment development in FXS on an imbalance between excessive glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. We conducted a prospective open-label 10-week trial of acamprosate in 12 youth aged 6-17 years (mean age: 11.9 years) with FXS. Acamprosate use (mean dose: 1,054 ± 422 mg/day) was associated with treatment response (defined by a Clinical Global Impressions Improvement (CGI-I) scale score of "very much improved" or "much improved") in nine of 12 (75 %) subjects. Improvement was noted in social behavior and inattention/hyperactivity using multiple standard behavioral outcome measures. No significant adverse effects or changes in vital signs, including weight or laboratory measures, occurred during treatment with acamprosate. Additionally, pre- and post-treatment blood biomarker analyses looking at brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels found a significant increase in BDNF with treatment. In our pilot sample, treatment response did not correlate with change in BDNF with treatment. Acamprosate was generally safe and well tolerated and was associated with a significant improvement in social behavior and a reduction in inattention/hyperactivity. The increase in BDNF that occurred with treatment may be a useful pharmacodynamic marker in future acamprosate studies. Given these findings, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of acamprosate in youth with FXS is warranted.
Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lee, Dongsoo; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin
Thyroid dysfunction and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are common in patients with depression. TSH might exert its function in the brain through blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF decreases during depressed states and normalize after treatment. The gap is that the association between TSH and BDNF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. We studied 105 subjects ≥18 years of age with MDD and measured serum, plasma, and platelet BDNF at baseline, 1 month and 3 months during antidepressant treatment. Other baseline measurements included hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones such as TSH, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4); hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and prolactin. Linear mixed model effect analyses revealed that baseline TSH level was negatively associated with changes of serum BDNF from baseline to 3 months (F=7.58, p=0.007) after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, but was not associated with plasma and platelet BDNF. In contrast, T3 and T4, HPA axis hormones, HPG axis hormones, and prolactin were not associated with serum, plasma, or platelet BDNF levels. Patients in the highest quartile of TSH showed significantly lower serum BDNF than in the other quartiles (F=4.54, p=0.038), but no significant differences were found based on T3 and T4 levels. TSH was only measured at baseline. Higher TSH is associated with lower baseline and reduced the increase of serum BDNF levels during antidepressant treatment in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Joan C; Thurm, Audrey; Golden Williams, Christine; Joseph, Lisa A; Zein, Wadih M; Brooks, Brian P; Butman, John A; Brady, Sheila M; Fuhr, Shannon R; Hicks, Melanie D; Huey, Amanda E; Hanish, Alyson E; Danley, Kristen M; Raygada, Margarita J; Rennert, Owen M; Martinowich, Keri; Sharp, Stephen J; Tsao, Jack W; Swedo, Susan E
In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity. WAGR (Wilms tumour, Aniridia, Genitourinary anomalies, and mental Retardation) syndrome is caused by 11p13 deletions of variable size near the BDNF locus and can serve as a model for studying human BDNF haploinsufficiency (+/-). We hypothesized that BDNF+/- would be associated with more severe cognitive impairment in subjects with WAGR syndrome. Twenty-eight subjects with WAGR syndrome (6-28 years), 12 subjects with isolated aniridia due to PAX6 mutations/microdeletions (7-54 years), and 20 healthy controls (4-32 years) received neurocognitive assessments. Deletion boundaries for the subjects in the WAGR group were determined by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Within the WAGR group, BDNF+/- subjects (n = 15), compared with BDNF intact (+/+) subjects (n = 13), had lower adaptive behaviour (p = .02), reduced cognitive functioning (p = .04), higher levels of reported historical (p = .02) and current (p = .02) social impairment, and higher percentage meeting cut-off score for autism (p = .047) on Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. These differences remained nominally significant after adjusting for visual acuity. Using diagnostic measures and clinical judgement, 3 subjects (2 BDNF+/- and 1 BDNF+/+) in the WAGR group (10.7%) were classified with autism spectrum disorder. A comparison group of visually impaired subjects with isolated aniridia had cognitive functioning comparable to that of healthy controls. In summary, among subjects with WAGR syndrome, BDNF+/- subjects had a mean Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Compose score that was 14-points lower and a mean intelligence quotient (IQ) that was 20-points lower than BDNF+/+ subjects. Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF plays an important role in human neurocognitive development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vidal-Martínez, Guadalupe; Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Gil-Tommee, Carolina; Medina, David; Garza, Nathan T; Yang, Barbara; Segura-Ulate, Ismael; Dominguez, Samantha J; Perez, Ruth G
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) in enteric nervous system (ENS) neurons, which may be associated with the development of constipation. This occurs well before the onset of classic PD motor symptoms. We previously found that aging A53T transgenic (Tg) mice closely model PD-like ENS aSyn pathology, making them appropriate for testing potential PD therapies. Here we show that Tg mice overexpressing mutant human aSyn develop ENS pathology by 4 months. We then evaluated the responses of Tg mice and their WT littermates to the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya) or vehicle control solution from 5 months of age. Long term oral FTY720 in Tg mice reduced ENS aSyn aggregation and constipation, enhanced gut motility, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but produced no significant change in WT littermates. A role for BDNF was directly assessed in a cohort of young A53T mice given vehicle, FTY720, the Trk-B receptor inhibitor ANA-12, or FTY720 + ANA-12 from 1 to 4 months of age. ANA-12-treated Tg mice developed more gut aSyn aggregation as well as constipation, whereas FTY720-treated Tg mice had reduced aSyn aggregation and less constipation, occurring in part by increasing both pro-BDNF and mature BDNF levels. The data from young and old Tg mice revealed FTY720-associated neuroprotection and reduced aSyn pathology, suggesting that FTY720 may also benefit PD patients and others with synucleinopathy. Another finding was a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in gut neurons with aggregated aSyn, comparable with our prior findings in the CNS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Amidfar, Meysam; Réus, Gislaine Z; Quevedo, João; Kim, Yong-Ku; Arbabi, Mohammad
A developing body of data has drawn attention to the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists as potential drugs for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the possibility of synergistic interactions between the antidepressant sertraline with the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. The present study was aimed to evaluate behavioural and molecular effects of the chronic treatment with memantine and sertraline alone or in combination in rats. To this aim, rats were chronically treated with memantine (2.5 and 5mg/kg) and sertraline (5mg/kg) for 14days once a day, and then exposed to the forced swimming test. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in all groups by ELISA sandwich assay. Sertraline and memantine (2.5mg/kg) alone did not have effect on the immobility time; however, the effect of sertraline was enhanced by both doses of memantine. Combined treatment with memantine and sertraline produced stronger increases in the BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that co-administration of antidepressant memantine with sertraline may induce a more pronounced antidepressant activity than treatment with each antidepressant alone. Antidepressant properties using the combination of memantine and sertraline could be attributed to increased levels of BDNF. This finding may be of particular importance in the case of drug-resistant patients and could suggest a method of obtaining significant antidepressant actions whereas limiting side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meng, Wei-Dong; Sun, Shao-Jun; Yang, Jie; Chu, Rui-Xue; Tu, Wenjun; Liu, Qiang
The aim of our study was to illuminate the potential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We measured the circulating levels of BDNF in serum and BDNF gene (Val66Met) polymorphisms, in which two indicators were then compared between ASD and normal controls. A total of 82 drug-naïve ASD children and 82 age- and gender-matched normal controls were enrolled in the study. Their serum BDNF levels were detected by the ELISA. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism genotyping was conducted as according to the laboratory's standard protocol in laboratory. The ASD severity assessment was mainly determined by the score of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). ELISA assay showed that the mean serum BDNF level of children with ASD was significantly (P BDNF levels and CARS scores (P BDNF genotyping results showed that there was no difference between the ASD cases and the control. Among the children with ASD, the mean serum BDNF level of Met/Met group was lower than other groups. According to the ROC curve generated from our clinical data, the optimal cutoff value of serum BDNF levels, an indicator for diagnosis of ASD, was projected to be 12.50 ng/ml. Thus, it yielded a corresponding sensitivity of 81.7 % and the specificity of 66.9 %. Accordingly, area value under the curve was 0.836 (95 % CI, 0.774-0.897); the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) were 70.1 and 79.1 %, respectively. These results suggested that rather than Val66Met polymorphism, BDNF was more possible to impact the pathogenesis of ASD.
Failla, Michelle D; Conley, Yvette P; Wagner, Amy K
Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) can be protective against acute mortality. Postacutely, these genotypes carry lower mortality risk in older adults and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n = 203) and in controls (n = 10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (P = .061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (P = .042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (P BDNF serum and gene * age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (P = .07). BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene * age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158M