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Sample records for churchill manitoba canada

  1. Species diversity and phylogeographical affinities of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale.

  2. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  3. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Influence of dissolved organic matter on dissolved vanadium speciation in the Churchill River estuary (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong Xiang; Mangal, Vaughn; Guéguen, Céline

    2016-07-01

    Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) devices were used to investigate the temporal and spatial changes in vanadium (V) speciation in the Churchill estuary system (Manitoba). Thirty-six DGT sets and 95 discrete water samples were collected at 8 river and 3 estuary sites during spring freshet and summer base flow. Dissolved V concentration in the Churchill River at summer base flow was approximately 5 times higher than those during the spring high flow (27.3 ± 18.9 nM vs 4.8 ± 3.5 nM). DGT-labile V showed an opposite trend with greater values found during the spring high flow (2.6 ± 1.8 nM vs 1.4 ± 0.3 nM). Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) conducted on 95 excitation-emission matrix spectra validated four humic-like (C1C4) and one protein-like (C5) fluorescent components. Significant positive relationship was found between protein-like DOM and DGT-labile V (r = 0.53, p V concentration in Churchill River. Sediment leachates were enriched in DGT-labile V and protein-like DOM, which can be readily released when river sediment began to thaw during spring freshet. PMID:27065459

  5. Influence of dissolved organic matter on dissolved vanadium speciation in the Churchill River estuary (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong Xiang; Mangal, Vaughn; Guéguen, Céline

    2016-07-01

    Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) devices were used to investigate the temporal and spatial changes in vanadium (V) speciation in the Churchill estuary system (Manitoba). Thirty-six DGT sets and 95 discrete water samples were collected at 8 river and 3 estuary sites during spring freshet and summer base flow. Dissolved V concentration in the Churchill River at summer base flow was approximately 5 times higher than those during the spring high flow (27.3 ± 18.9 nM vs 4.8 ± 3.5 nM). DGT-labile V showed an opposite trend with greater values found during the spring high flow (2.6 ± 1.8 nM vs 1.4 ± 0.3 nM). Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) conducted on 95 excitation-emission matrix spectra validated four humic-like (C1C4) and one protein-like (C5) fluorescent components. Significant positive relationship was found between protein-like DOM and DGT-labile V (r = 0.53, p Churchill River. Sediment leachates were enriched in DGT-labile V and protein-like DOM, which can be readily released when river sediment began to thaw during spring freshet.

  6. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  7. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  8. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  9. Identification of the vascular plants of Churchill, Manitoba, using a DNA barcode library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Maria L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because arctic plant communities are highly vulnerable to climate change, shifts in their composition require rapid, accurate identifications, often for specimens that lack diagnostic floral characters. The present study examines the role that DNA barcoding can play in aiding floristic evaluations in the arctic by testing the effectiveness of the core plant barcode regions (rbcL, matK and a supplemental ribosomal DNA (ITS2 marker for a well-studied flora near Churchill, Manitoba. Results This investigation examined 900 specimens representing 312 of the 354 species of vascular plants known from Churchill. Sequencing success was high for rbcL: 95% for fresh specimens and 85% for herbarium samples (mean age 20 years. ITS2 worked equally well for the fresh and herbarium material (89% and 88%. However, sequencing success was lower for matK, despite two rounds of PCR amplification, which reflected less effective primer binding and sensitivity to the DNA degradation (76% of fresh, 45% of herbaria samples. A species was considered as taxonomically resolved if its members showed at least one diagnostic difference from any other taxon in the study and formed a monophyletic clade. The highest species resolution (69% was obtained by combining information from all three genes. The joint sequence information for rbcL and matK distinguished 54% of 286 species, while rbcL and ITS2 distinguished 63% of 285 species. Discrimination of species within Salix, which constituted 8% of the flora, was particularly problematic. Despite incomplete resolution, the barcode results revealed 22 misidentified herbarium specimens, and enabled the identification of field specimens which were otherwise too immature to identify. Although seven cases of ITS2 paralogy were noted in the families Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Juncaginaceae, this intergenic spacer played an important role in resolving congeneric plant species at Churchill. Conclusions Our results

  10. Identification of the vascular plants of Churchill, Manitoba, using a DNA barcode library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Because arctic plant communities are highly vulnerable to climate change, shifts in their composition require rapid, accurate identifications, often for specimens that lack diagnostic floral characters. The present study examines the role that DNA barcoding can play in aiding floristic evaluations in the arctic by testing the effectiveness of the core plant barcode regions (rbcL, matK) and a supplemental ribosomal DNA (ITS2) marker for a well-studied flora near Churchill, Manitoba. Results This investigation examined 900 specimens representing 312 of the 354 species of vascular plants known from Churchill. Sequencing success was high for rbcL: 95% for fresh specimens and 85% for herbarium samples (mean age 20 years). ITS2 worked equally well for the fresh and herbarium material (89% and 88%). However, sequencing success was lower for matK, despite two rounds of PCR amplification, which reflected less effective primer binding and sensitivity to the DNA degradation (76% of fresh, 45% of herbaria samples). A species was considered as taxonomically resolved if its members showed at least one diagnostic difference from any other taxon in the study and formed a monophyletic clade. The highest species resolution (69%) was obtained by combining information from all three genes. The joint sequence information for rbcL and matK distinguished 54% of 286 species, while rbcL and ITS2 distinguished 63% of 285 species. Discrimination of species within Salix, which constituted 8% of the flora, was particularly problematic. Despite incomplete resolution, the barcode results revealed 22 misidentified herbarium specimens, and enabled the identification of field specimens which were otherwise too immature to identify. Although seven cases of ITS2 paralogy were noted in the families Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Juncaginaceae, this intergenic spacer played an important role in resolving congeneric plant species at Churchill. Conclusions Our results provided fast and cost

  11. Microhabitat characteristics of Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus, nests at Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We examined microsite characteristics at 21 Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) nests and land cover types in which they occurred in Wapusk National Park, Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nests were located in four of six physiographic-vegetation land-cover types. Regardless of land-cover type, all but one nest was built on a pressure ridge or mound. Nests were built midway between the bottom and top of ridges or mounds with steeper slopes than was randomly available. Longspur nests had a distinctive southwest orientation (P < 0.001). Longspurs selected nest sites that consisted of comparatively greater amounts of shrub species and lesser amounts of moss than were randomly available. Nests were generally well concealed by vegetation (mean = 67.0%) and concealment was negatively associated with amount of graminoid species at the nest (P = 0.0005). Our nesting habitat data may facilitate a better understanding of breeding Lapland Longspur habitat requirements, and potential impacts of habitat degradation by increasing Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) populations in the study area.

  12. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The image is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying radar remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of

  13. Factors Influencing Wheat Yield and Variability: Evidence from Manitoba, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Richard CAREW; Elwin G. Smith; Grant, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Production functions to explain regional wheat yields have not been studied extensively in the Canadian prairies. The objective of this study is to employ a Just-Pope production function to examine the relationship between fertilizer inputs, soil quality, biodiversity indicators, cultivars qualifying for Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR), and climatic conditions on the mean and variance of spring wheat yields. Using regional-level wheat data from Manitoba, Canada, model results show nitrogen fer...

  14. Assessing cadmium and vanadium accumulation using diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) and phytoplankton in the Churchill River estuary, Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, V; Zhu, Y; Shi, Y X; Guéguen, C

    2016-11-01

    Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) and phytoplankton communities were evaluated for the measurement of Cd and V at environmentally relevant concentrations in laboratory settings and in the Churchill River estuary (Manitoba, Canada) during an annual spring melt. Despite rapid changes in hydrology and water quality, DGT samplers and intracellular Cd and V concentrations were positively correlated (0.79  0.99). Principal component analysis (PCA) reinforced similarities between both metal monitoring techniques and assessed how changing environmental variables during the river discharge period influenced each monitoring technique. Cd accumulation was influenced by DOC concentrations and protein-like DOM whereas ionic strength (i.e. conductivity) and humic-like DOM influenced V accumulation. The present findings suggest that (1) DGT is a versatile tool for monitoring bioaccumulation of Cd and V in highly dynamic environmental systems and (2) DOC concentration, DOM composition, conductivity, pH, and river discharge influence the bioavailability of Cd and V in estuarine and riverine waters.

  15. Identification of the vascular plants of Churchill, Manitoba, using a DNA barcode library

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmina Maria L; Johnson Karen L; Barron Hannah R; Hebert Paul DN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Because arctic plant communities are highly vulnerable to climate change, shifts in their composition require rapid, accurate identifications, often for specimens that lack diagnostic floral characters. The present study examines the role that DNA barcoding can play in aiding floristic evaluations in the arctic by testing the effectiveness of the core plant barcode regions (rbcL, matK) and a supplemental ribosomal DNA (ITS2) marker for a well-studied flora near Churchill, ...

  16. Geophysical delineation of acidity and salinity in the Central Manitoba gold mine tailings pile, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycholiz, C.; Ferguson, I. J.; Sherriff, B. L.; Cordeiro, M.; Sri Ranjan, R.; Pérez-Flores, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Surface electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can map enhanced electrical conductivity caused by acid mine drainage in mine tailings piles. In this case study, we investigate quantitative relationships between geophysical responses and the electrical conductivity, acidity and salinity of tailing samples at the Central Manitoba Mine tailings in Manitoba, Canada. Previous electromagnetic surveys at the site identified zones of enhanced conductivity that were hypothesized to be caused by acid mine drainage. In the present study, high-resolution EM31 and DC-resistivity measurements were made on a profile through a zone of enhanced conductivity and laboratory measurements of salinity and pH were made on saturation paste extracts from an array of tailing samples collected from the upper 2 m of tailings along the profile. Observed spatial correlation of pH and pore-fluid salinity in the tailings samples confirms that the enhanced conductivity in the Central Manitoba Mine tailings is due to acid mine drainage. Contoured cross-sections of the data indicate that the acid mine drainage is concentrated near the base of the oxidized zone in the thicker parts of the tailings pile. The zone of increased acidity extends to the surface on sloping margins causing an increase in apparent conductivity in shallow penetrating geophysical responses. The quantitative relationship between measured pH and salinity shows that the conductivity increase associated with the acid mine drainage is due only in part to conduction by ions produced from dissociation of sulfuric acid. Comparison of the observations with fluid conductivity estimates based on statistical relationships of pH and ion concentrations in water samples from across the tailings pile shows that Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions also make significant contributions to the conductivity at all values of pH and Cu2 +, Al3 + and Fe3 + ions make additional contributions at low pH. Variability in the measured conductivity at constant

  17. Preliminary Rock Physics Analysis on Lodgepole Formation in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Keehm, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We present rock physics analysis results of Lodgepole Formation, a carbonate reservoir in Daly Field, Manitoba, Canada. We confirmed that the Lodgepole Formation can be divided into six units in the study area: Basal Limestone, Cromer Shale, Cruickshank Crinoidal, Cruickshank Shale, Daly member and Flossie Lake member from the bottom, using eight well log data and previous works. We then performed rock physics analyses on four carbonate units (Basal Limestone, Cruickshank Crinoidal, Daly and Flossie Lake), such as Vp-porosity, AI-porosity, DEM (differential effective medium) modeling, and fluid substitution analysis. In Vp-porosity domain, the top unit, Flossie Lake member has lower porosity and higher velocity, while the other units show similar porosity and velocity. We think that this results from the diagenesis of Flossie Lake member since it bounds with unconformity. However, the four units show very similar trend in Vp-porosity domain, and we can report one Vp-porosity relation for all carbonate units of the Lodgepole formation. We also found that the acoustic impedance varies more than 10% from low porosity zone (3-6%) to high porosity zone (9-12%) from AI-porosity analysis. Thus one can delineate high porosity zone from seismic impedance data. DEM modeling showed that Flossie Lake would have relatively low aspect ratio of pores than the others, which implies that the top unit has been influenced by diagenesis. To determine fluid sensitivity of carbonate units, we conducted fluid substitution on four units from 100% water to 100% oil. The top unit, Flossie Lake, showed slight increase of Vp, which seems to be density effect. The others showed small decrease of Vp, but not significant. If we observe Vp/Vs rather than Vp, the sensitivity increases. However, fluid discrimination would be difficult because of high stiffness of rock frame. In summary, three lower carbonate units of Lodgepole Formation would be prospective and high porosity zone can be delineated

  18. Periodontal health status of the Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brothwell, Doug; Ghiabi, Edmond

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the distribution and determinants of periodontal health in adult members of the Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada. Study design. Cross-sectional study based on face-to-face interviews and oral examinations. Methods. Face-to-face interviews and oral examinations were performed on a convenience sample of 107 individuals to assess Debris Index, Calculus Index, Gingival Index and clinical attachment loss (CAL). Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal...

  19. C-Band SAR Imagery for Snow-Cover Monitoring at Treeline, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique C. Pivot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RADARSAT and ERS-2 data collected at multiple incidence angles are used to characterize the seasonal variations in the backscatter of snow-covered landscapes in the northern Hudson Bay Lowlands during the winters of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The study evaluates the usefulness of C-band SAR systems for retrieving the snow water equivalent under dry snow conditions in the forest–tundra ecotone. The backscatter values are compared against ground measurements at six sampling sites, which are taken to be representative of the land-cover types found in the region. The contribution of dry snow to the radar return is evident when frost penetrates the first 20 cm of soil. Only then does the backscatter respond positively to changes in snow water equivalent, at least in the open and forested areas near the coast, where 1-dB increases in backscatter for each approximate 5–10 mm of accumulated water equivalent are observed at 20–31° incidence angles. Further inland, the backscatter shows either no change or a negative change with snow accumulation, which suggests that the radar signal there is dominated by ground surface scattering (e.g., fen when not attenuated by vegetation (e.g., forested and transition. With high-frequency ground-penetrating radar, we demonstrate the presence of a 10–20-cm layer of black ice underneath the snow cover, which causes the reduced radar returns (−15 dB and less observed in the inland fen. A correlation between the backscattering and the snow water equivalent cannot be determined due to insufficient observations at similar incidence angles. To establish a relationship between the snow water equivalent and the backscatter, only images acquired with similar incidence angles should be used, and they must be corrected for both vegetation and ground effects.

  20. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  1. An Empirical Study of the Career Paths of Senior Educational Administrators in Manitoba, Canada: Implications for Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes queue theory (Tallerico & Blount, 2004) to discuss a mixed-methods study that determined the career patterns of senior educational administrators in public school divisions in Manitoba, Canada, compared by position, context and sex. Findings indicate that queue theory has merit for describing the career paths of senior…

  2. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories. PMID:18697324

  3. Soil Data from a Moderately Well and Somewhat Poorly Drained Fire Chronosequence near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Veldhuis, Hugo; Trumbore, Sue

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey project Fate of Carbon in Alaskan Landscapes (FOCAL) is studying the effect of fire and soil drainage on soil carbon storage in the boreal forest. As such this group was invited to be a part of a NSF-funded project (Fire, Ecosystem and Succession - Experiment Boreal or FIRES-ExB) to study the carbon balance of sites that varied in age (time since fire) and soil drainage in the Thompson, Manitoba, Canada region. This report describes the location of our FIRES-ExB sampling sites as well as the procedures used to describe, sample, and analyze the soils. This report also contains data tables with sample related information including, but not limited to, field descriptions, bulk density, particle size distribution, moisture content, carbon (C) concentration, nitrogen (N) concentration, isotopic data for C, and major, minor and trace elemental concentration.

  4. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site

  5. Recently surveyed lakes in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada: characteristics and critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac WONG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on minimal information, lakes in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba (MB and Saskatchewan (SK have long been considered unaffected by acid rain. However, emissions of acidifying pollutants from MB smelters and oil sand processing in Alberta (AB may pose a developing threat. Surveys of 347 lakes located on geologically sensitive terrain in northern MB and SK were conducted to assess their acidification sensitivity and status. The survey domain (~193,000 km2 contained 81,494 lakes ≥1 ha in area. Small lakes dominated the inventory in terms of numbers, and large lakes dominated in terms of area. Survey lakes were selected using a stratified-random sampling design in 10 sampling blocks within the overall survey domain. Few lakes had pH <6, and only three (all in SK were acidic, i.e., Gran Alkalinity (Alk <0 μeq L–1. A broad range in lake sensitivity was apparent, and very sensitive lakes (low specific conductance, base cations and Alk were present in all sampling blocks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was an important constituent of many lakes. Critical loads (CL of acidity calculated using the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC revealed extremely low 5th percentile values for every block (range 1.9 to 52.7 eq ha–1 y–1. Block CL exceedances calculated using estimated S and N deposition for 2002 ranged from 54.5 to 909 eq ha–1 y–1. The largest exceedances were for sampling blocks located near smelter sources or downwind of the oil sands. Lake chemistry revealed by our surveys was compared to others conducted both nearby and outside Canada.

  6. Are current phosphorus risk indicators useful to predict the quality of surface waters in southern manitoba, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvano, Esther; Flaten, Don N; Rousseau, Alain N; Quilbe, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Many phosphorus (P) risk indicators have been developed to assess the risk of P loss from agricultural land to surface water. Most of these indicators are designed for land and climates where rainfall-induced erosion of particulate P from sloping landscapes is the main process of P transport. No indicators have been validated in the Canadian Prairies, where P losses are driven by snowmelt-driven runoff over nearly level landscapes and frozen soils. The objective of this project was to evaluate the relationship between water quality data for P from 14 watersheds and three existing P risk indicators for their potential use in the southern Manitoba prairie region of Canada. None of the indicators, including Birr and Mulla's P Index, a preliminary P risk indicator for Manitoba, and a preliminary version of Canada's National Indicator of Risk of Water Contamination by Phosphorus, was significantly correlated with mean concentrations of total P in water or P export per hectare. Although erosion risk was a significant factor influencing the value of these indexes, erosion risk was not correlated with either measure of P loss in these watersheds. Several other watershed characteristics, including average soil test P concentrations, livestock density, proportion of land in annual crops, and the land's inherent capability for agricultural production, were strongly correlated with P concentrations in water (r = 0.80***, r = 0.63**, 0.76***, and -0.70**, respectively). Therefore, these types of P risk indicators require modifications to estimate the risk of P loss under the soil, landscape, and climatic conditions of southern Manitoba.

  7. A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 μm. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using

  8. Origin of the Herman-Norcross-Tintah sequence of Lake Agassiz beaches in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kyle; Teller, James T.

    2012-05-01

    The giant glacial Lake Agassiz basin is fringed by many strandlines, which have long been used to trace the paleogeography of the former lake over its 5000 year history. The oldest and highest of these strandlines were placed into three groups by Warren Upham in the 1890 s - the Herman, Norcross, and Tintah - and form a staircase of small landforms. The formation of these old strandlines began as early as ~13.9 cal (12.0 14C) kyr BP and ended ~12.8 cal (10.8 14C) kyr BP, based on OSL dates and the history of lake level in the Agassiz basin. New mapping and augering of beach ridges in southern Manitoba, Canada, associated with the earliest phase of the lake, indicate that there are a series of up to 28 small discontinuous beach ridges that are generally only a few metres high and a few tens of metres wide. These beaches mainly consist of weakly defined beds of poorly sorted sediments; in many cases a central sandy diamicton unit lies stratigraphically between overlying beach sediments and clay diamicton (till) below. Spatially, ridges are separated by silty or sandy units or gravel lags; inter-beach lagoonal organics were not found. We discuss the possible origin of these Lake Agassiz beaches, concluding that they were deposited over a few centuries by episodic storm events, as lake level slowly declined. We base this conclusion on the nature of the sediments in the beach ridges and the regional geomorphology, as well theoretical considerations about sedimentation along a regressing shoreline of a large lake. Other origins are rejected, although some other factors may have contributed to formation of some of the beaches, such as temporary increases in sediment supply, variable rate of outlet erosion, and short increases in lake-level that reworked sediment upslope into ridges. Using the time frame of 13.9 to 12.8 cal kyr BP for the formation of the beaches, the average interval between formation of each beach is ~39 years.

  9. Parameters for an Effective Entrepreneurial, Regional, Hotel/Restaurant Management Training Program in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Rainer C.

    Owners or managers of 34 small and medium-sized hotels and restaurants in the Assiniboine Community College area were interviewed to acquire information for an entrepreneurial, regional hotel and restaurant (H/R) management training program in Manitoba. A literature review revealed the following: employability, vocational technical, and business…

  10. Past and Future Climatic Conditions in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba and Implications for the Fate of Shallow Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, M. L.; Duguay, C. R.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N. A.; Parrott, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. This study aims to answer three key questions regarding the water balance of subarctic ponds to climate change from the second half of the 20th century to the end of the 21st century: 1) Have there been changes in precipitation quantity and distribution, annual and seasonal air temperature, and the duration of the ice-free season in the 1943-2008 observational period?; 2) Are these trends expected to continue until the end of the 21st century based on regional climate model (RCM) scenarios?; and 3) What are the implications of climate change for pond sustainability in the Churchill region? Climatic change and changes to pond hydrologic storage over the past 65 years were examined using a combination of field methods/instrumental records and modelling. Results show that annual precipitation has increased by 25% over the past 65 years. Annual rainfall during the period has increased by 50%, while annual snowfall has decreased by 17%, suggesting that snowfall is being replaced by rainfall in this region. Much of the increased annual rainfall has been observed in the months of August and September, where rainfall has increased by 60% and 88%, respectively. Mean annual air temperature has increased by approximately 1C between 1943-2008. Significant (p0.05). A comparison of modelled and observed precipitation and air temperature between 1961-2008 produced similar trends. The Canadian RCM projections indicate that both precipitation and air temperature will continue to increase for the remainder of the 21st century. Trends observed over the past 65 years and simulations of future scenarios show that rainfall is increasing at a faster rate than evaporation, causing a lessening of the summer moisture deficit that persists in this region. Consequently, conditions are

  11. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  12. Performance of a constructed wetland in Grand Marais, Manitoba, Canada: Removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes from municipal wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Wong, Charles S.; Charles W Knapp; Hanson, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Background The discharge of complex mixtures of nutrients, organic micropollutants, and antibiotic resistance genes from treated municipal wastewater into freshwater systems are global concerns for human health and aquatic organisms. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are genes that have the ability to impart resistance to antibiotics and reduce the efficacy of antibiotics in the systems in which they are found. In the rural community of Grand Marais, Manitoba, Canada, wastewater is treated p...

  13. Gypsum-hosted endolithic communities of the Lake St. Martin impact structure, Manitoba, Canada: spectroscopic detectability and implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, T.; Ronholm, J.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.; Stromberg, J.; Sharma, R.; Whyte, L. G.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that Mars may have once been a habitable environment. Gypsum is targeted in the search for Martian biosignatures because it can host extensive cryptoendolithic communities in extreme terrestrial environments and is widespread on Mars. In this study the viability of using different spectroscopy-based techniques to identify the presence of gypsum endolithic communities was investigated by analysing various cryptoendoliths collected from the Lake St. Martin impact crater (LSM), a Mars analogue site found in Manitoba, Canada. Concurrently, the cryptoendolithic microbial community structure present was also analysed to aid in assigning spectroscopic features to microbial community members. Two main morphologies of endolithic communities were collected from gypsum deposits at LSM: true cryptoendolithic communities and annular deposits on partially buried boulders and cobbles Endolithic communities were found to be visibly present only in gypsum with a high degree of translucency and could occur as deep as 3 cm below the exterior surface. The bacterial community was dominated by a phylum (Chloroflexi) that has not been previously observed in gypsum endoliths. The exterior surfaces of gypsum boulders and cobbles are devoid of spectroscopic features attributable to organic molecules and detectable by reflectance, Raman, or ultraviolet-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. However, exposed interior surfaces show unique endolithic signatures detectable by each spectroscopic technique. This indicates that cryptoendolithic communities can be detected via spectroscopy-based techniques, provided they are either partially or fully exposed and enough photon-target interactions occur to enable detection.

  14. Manitoba Williston Basin activity update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J. [Manitoba Industry, Trade and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation described the drilling activity in Manitoba from 1998 to 2002 with particular emphasis on horizontal well drilling and production by geologic formation, including the Bakken, Lodgepole and the Lower Amaranth Formations. A total of 97 wells were drilled in Manitoba in 2002. The most active drillers were EOG Resources Canada with a total of 34 wells. Tundra Oil and Gas was close behind with 28 wells, followed by Chevron Canada Resources with 21 wells. Horizontal drilling had a major impact in Manitoba between 1998-2002, representing 30 per cent of drilling activity focused on the Waskada, Virden and Daly fields. Expansion activity throughout the province contributed to the overall increase in oil production for four consecutive years. Annual production reached 650.7 10{sup 3}m{sup 3} in 2001. Manitoba's top 5 producers are Chevron Canada Resources, Tundra Oil and Gas, EOG Resources Canada, Canadian Natural Resources and NCE Petrofund. Together, they account for 89 per cent of Manitoba's production. This paper also described some of the initiatives that Manitoba's Department of Industry, Trade and Mines has taken to improve oil and gas regulations through proposed amendments to the Oil and Gas Act, a review of the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, battery re-permitting, and a strategy for managing orphaned wells. 3 figs.

  15. Seismic properties and effects of hydrothermal alteration on Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposits at the Lalor Lake in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid H.; Bellefleur, Gilles; Schetselaar, Ernst; Potter, David K.

    2015-12-01

    Borehole sonic and density logs are essential for mineral exploration at depth, but its limited availability to link rock properties of different ore forming geologic structure is a hindrance to seismic data interpretations. In situ density and velocity logs provide first order control on the reflectivity of various lithologic units. We analyzed borehole logs from 12 drill holes over and around the Lalor VMS deposits geographically located in the northern Manitoba, Canada, in an attempt to characterize lithologic units based on its seismic properties. The Lalor Lake deposit is part of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt, and associated with an extensive hydrothermal alteration system. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) zones are distributed in several ore lenses with relatively shallower facies comprise solid to solid sulfides, tend to be disseminated or Stringer sulfides, while deeper lenses are gold and silver enriched and occurred in the highly altered footwall region. Our analysis suggests that massive sulfide and diorite have higher acoustic impedance than other rock units, and can produce useful reflection signatures in seismic data. Bivariate distributions of P-wave velocity, density, acoustic impedance and Poisson's ratio in end-member mineral cones were used for qualitative assessment of the extent of alteration of various lithologic units. It can be inferred that hydrothermal alteration has considerably increased P-wave velocity and density of altered argillite and felsic volcanic rocks in comparison to their corresponding unaltered facies. Amphibole, garnet, kyanite, pyrite, sphalerite and staurolite are the dominant end-member alteration minerals affecting seismic rock properties at the VMS site.

  16. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah J.; Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.; Norman, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Root biomass, net primary production and turnover were studied in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in two contrasting climates. The climate of the Southern Study Area (SSA) near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan is warmer and drier in the summer and milder in the winter than the Northern Study Area (NSA) near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. Ingrowth soil cores and minirhizotrons were used to quantify fine root net primary production (NPPFR). Average daily fine root growth (m m(-2) day(-1)) was positively correlated with soil temperature at 10-cm depth (r(2) = 0.83-0.93) for all three species, with black spruce showing the strongest temperature effect. At both study areas, fine root biomass (measured from soil cores) and fine root length (measured from minirhizotrons) were less for jack pine than for the other two species. Except for the aspen stands, estimates of NPPFR from minirhizotrons were significantly greater than estimates from ingrowth cores. The core method underestimated NPPFR because it does not account for simultaneous fine root growth and mortality. Minirhizotron NPPFR estimates ranged from 59 g m(-2) year(-1) for aspen stands at SSA to 235 g m(-2) year(-1) for black spruce at NSA. The ratio of NPPFR to total detritus production (aboveground litterfall + NPPFR) was greater for evergreen forests than for deciduous forests, suggesting that carbon allocation patterns differ between boreal evergreen and deciduous forests. In all stands, NPPFR consistently exceeded annual fine root turnover and the differences were larger for stands in the NSA than for stands in the SSA, whereas the difference between study areas was only significant for black spruce. The imbalance between NPPFR and fine root turnover is sufficient to explain the net accumulation of carbon in boreal forest soils. PMID:14759831

  17. Inclusion on the Agenda in Four Different School Contexts in Canada (Ontario, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Quebec)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Nathalie; Gougeon, Nathalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Four case studies from four different Canadian provinces (Ontario, Manitoba, New Brunswick, and Quebec) are examined in order to better understand meanings given to an inclusive approach in education, as it is defined and experienced by the actors, practitioners, parents, and students. The data examined in this article come from a larger research…

  18. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Patricia J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  19. Proposed amendment to presidential permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company's (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP's original amendment request remain valid

  20. Impact of hydroelectric development upon a northern Manitoba native community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldram, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation describes the process of underdevelopment among the Cree Indian people of South Indian Lake, in Northern Manitoba, Canada, following the construction of the Churchill-Nelson River Hydro Project in 1975. The dissertation seeks to link the ecological, political, economic, socio-cultural and health aspects of the impact of the hydro project within the framework of the historical process of underdevelopment as it has occurred in Latin America, among Native people in the United States, and among Native people in Northern Canada. Utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data, a process of increased dependence is described as the product of two related processes. The first process is the impairment of the local commercial and domestic economy caused by the flooding of Southern Indian Lake, which has resulted in a decline in local productivity. The second process is the enhancement of consumerism through rising consumer expectations and a post-project increase in available goods and services which the people are increasingly unable to afford. The overall result has been a process of economic divergence at the local level. The dissertation concludes that the process of underdevelopment which has occurred in South Indian Lake has been the result primarily of changes in the local ecological system caused by the construction of the hydro project. These ecological changes have, in turn, resulted in secondary changes in the socio-economic system.

  1. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  2. Comparison of mercury and zinc profiles in peat and lake sediment archives with historical changes in emissions from the Flin Flon metal smelter, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outridge, P M; Rausch, N; Percival, J B; Shotyk, W; McNeely, R

    2011-01-01

    The copper-zinc smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba, was historically the largest single Hg point-source in Canada, as well as a major source of Zn. Although emissions were reported by industry to have declined significantly since the late 1980s, these reductions have never been independently verified. Here, the histories of Hg and Zn deposition over the past century or more were determined at five lake sediment and three peat study sites in the surrounding region. At sites spanning the range from heavy to minor pollution, lake sediment Hg and Zn concentration and flux profiles increased significantly in the early 1930s after the smelter opened. Two of the three peat archives were wholly or partially compromised by either physical disturbances or biogeochemical transitions which reduced their effectiveness as atmospheric metal deposition recorders. But the remaining peat records, including a detailed recent 20 yr record at a moderately polluted site, appeared to show that substantive reductions in metal levels had occurred after the late 1980s, coincident with the reported emission reductions. However, the lake sediment results, taken at face value, contradicted the peat results in that no major declines in metal concentrations or fluxes occurred over recent decades. Mercury and Zn fluxes have in fact increased substantially since 1988 in most lakes. We suggest that this discrepancy may be explained by catchment soil saturation by historically deposited metals which are now mobilizing and leaching into lakes, as has been reported from other smelter polluted systems in Canada, whereas the upper sections of the peat cores reflected recent declines in atmospheric deposition. However, further research including instrumented wet and dry deposition measurements and catchment/lake mass balance studies is recommended to test this hypothesis, and to provide definitive data on current atmospheric metal deposition rates in the area. PMID:21094516

  3. INCORPORATING A-PRIORI INFORMATION INTO AEM INVERSION FOR GEOLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF THE SPIRITWOOD VALLEY AQUIFER, MANITOBA, CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Sapia, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Oldenborger, G. A.; Geological Survey of Canada; Viezzoli, A.; Aarhus Geophysics Aps

    2012-01-01

    Buried valleys are important hydrogeological structures in Canada and other glaciated terrains, providing sources of groundwater for drinking, agriculture and industrial applications. Hydrgeological exploration methods such as pumping tests, boreholes coring or ground-based geophysical methods (seismic and electrical resistivity tomography) provide limited spatial information and are inadequate to efficiently predict the sustainability of these aquifers at the regional scale. A...

  4. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  5. Sedimentary Records of Hyperpycnal Flows and the Influence of River Damming on Sediment Dynamics of Estuaries: Examples from the Nelson, Churchill, Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, G.; Duboc, Q.; Boyer-Villemaire, U.; Lajeunesse, P.; Bernatchez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment cores were sampled in the estuary of the Nelson and Churchill Rivers in western Hudson Bay, as well as in the estuary of the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers in Gulf of St. Lawrence in order to evaluate the impact of hydroelectric dams on the sedimentary regime of these estuaries. The gravity cores at the mouth of the Nelson River recorded several cm-thick rapidly deposited layers with a reverse to normal grading sequence, indicating the occurrence of hyperpycnal flows generated by major floods during the last few centuries. These hyperpycnal flows were probably caused by ice-jam formation, which can increase both the flow and the sediment concentration following the breaching of such natural dams. Following the construction of hydroelectric dams since the 1960s, the regulation of river discharge prevented the formation of hyperpycnal flows, and hence the deposition of hyperpycnites in the upper part of the cores. In the core sampled in the estuary of the Churchill River, only one hyperpycnite was recorded. This lower frequency may be due to the enclosed estuary of the Churchill River, its weaker discharge and the more distal location of the coring site.In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, grain size measurements allowed the identification of a major flood around AD 1844±4 years in box cores from both the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie Rivers, whereas a drastic decrease in variations in the median grain size occurred around AD ~1900 in the estuary of the Sainte-Marguerite River, highlighting the offshore impact of the SM1 dam construction in the early 1900s. Furthermore, sedimentological variations in the box cores from both estuaries have been investigated by wavelet analysis and the sharp disappearance of high frequencies around AD 1900 in the estuary of the dammed river (Sainte-Marguerite River), but not in the estuary of the natural river (Moisie River), also provides evidence of the influence of dams on the sedimentary regime of estuaries.

  6. 75 FR 45607 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... Order No. EA-281, which authorized Manitoba to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  7. Churchill, Moran and the struggle for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, A W

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the association between Winston Churchill and Charles McMoran Wilson, later Lord Moran, who was made personal physician to Churchill in 1940 at the instigation of the Cabinet when Churchill became prime minister of wartime Britain.

  8. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  9. Proposed amendment for Presidential Permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada Northern States Power Company. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Northern States Power Company, (NSP), a Minnesota investor owned utility has applied to the Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, to amend Presidential Permit PP-63 to allow for alterations to the 500 kV transmission line and as sedated facilities currently regulated by this permit. The alterations proposed for the 500 kV line owned by NSP are part of a long term effort sponsored by NSP to upgrade the existing NSP transmission system to allow for increased exchange of electricity with the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board. Presidential Permit PP-63 authorized NSP to construct, connect, operate and maintain a 500 kV line at the United States/Canadian border approximately seven-and-a-half miles west of Warroad in Roseau County, Minnesota. This line connects with a 500 kV line owned and operated by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (MHEB), which extends from Dorsey, Manitoba, Canada to the United States/Canadian border. NSP proposes to increase the electricity transfer capability of this transmission facility by constructing a new 80-acre substation on the existing 500 kV line in Roseau County, Minnesota, and upgrading the existing substation at Forbes, Minnesota. The proposed Roseau substation would contain two 41.5 ohm series capacitor banks. In addition, static VAR compensators are to be installed at the existing Forbes Substation. Approximately 5 acres would be added to the 30-acre Forbes site to house the additional equipment. No new lines would enter or exit the facility. NSP proposes to place the new Roseau Substation in service in May 1993 and to complete the upgrading of the Forbes Substation in March 1994. The primary, initial purpose of these modifications is to enable NSP to import 400 megawatts of electric power from MHEB during the summer months to meet peak electrical demand in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It is expected that this power transfer would begin in 1993.

  10. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Ellman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's propo

  11. Potential impacts of climate change on Manitoba Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of Manitoba Hydro's system was presented during this PowerPoint presentation which focused on significant climate trends, the potential impacts of climate change and climate change initiatives at Manitoba Hydro compared to other utilities. Ninety-five per cent of the electricity generated in Manitoba comes from hydroelectricity from the Churchill/Nelson River drainage basin. Twelve existing generating stations in the province contribute to the total installed generating capacity of 5500 MW, of which 300 MW is exported to Saskatchewan, 200 MW to Ontario and 2000 MW to the United States. Significant climate trends indicate that temperatures are increasing and there is a greater incidence of extreme weather events which can affect water supply. Manitoba Hydro must plan future resource needs and estimate climate change impacts on future projects. The potential negative impacts of climate change include an impact on water supply as well as an impact on the balance of energy supply and demand. The potential positive impacts of climate change include increased river flows in some regions resulting in higher water supplies. This presentation also outlined emission management initiatives at Manitoba Hydro with reference to policy issues for Kyoto ratification, export rates with environmental premiums, domestic emission trading, and demand-side management. Targeted measures such as wind power, landfill gas and hydrogen were also outlined. 10 figs

  12. Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500-kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada, Northern States Power Company. Addendum to the final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  13. Distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of shallow lakes in Wapusk National Park (Manitoba, Canada) region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Olivier; Bouchard, Frédéric; MacDonald, Lauren A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Pienitz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    The hydrology of shallow lakes (and ponds) located in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is sensitive to climate warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, their biological characteristics are poorly known, which hampers effective aquatic ecosystem monitoring. Located in northern Manitoba along the southwestern coast of Hudson Bay, Wapusk National Park (WNP) encompasses numerous shallow lakes representative of the subarctic zone. We analyzed the distribution and diversity of diatom (microscopic algae; class Bacillariophyceae) assemblages in surficial sediments of 33 lakes located in three different ecozones spanning a vegetation gradient, from NE to SW: the Coastal Fen (CF), the Interior Peat Plateau (IPP), and the Boreal Spruce Forest (BSF). We found significant differences (P inventory of the diatom assemblages in the WNP region needed for monitoring programs to detect changes in shallow lake ecosystems and ecozonal shifts in response to climate variations. PMID:27386094

  14. The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board 50. annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the financial statements for The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (Manitoba Hydro) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2001. Manitoba Hydro was proud to report no electricity rate increase for the period 2000-2001, a feat realized for the fifth consecutive year for most customer groups. Financial and production highlights were first presented, followed by the vision mission and goals of Manitoba Hydro. Manitoba Hydro serves 403 000 customers in the province with electric energy, and 248 000 customers with natural gas service mainly in the south of the province. Electricity export sale agreements are in place with more than 35 utilities and marketers in the United States, Ontario and Saskatchewan. Self-renewing waterpower is used to generate the bulk of the electricity. The transmission and distribution lines stretch over 100 000 kilometres. Manitoba Hydro is the fourth largest energy utility in Canada based on capital assets. A review of the year was presented, as well as a brief historical overview of Manitoba Hydro. The financial review section discussed the management report, the Auditor's report. Included in this section were various statement sheets, namely the consolidated statement of income and retained earnings, consolidated balance sheet, consolidated statement of cash flows, followed by some notes to the consolidated financial statements. Consolidated financial statistics and operating statistics - 10-year overview were presented. A brief presentation of the Board members and senior officers ended this report. tabs. figs

  15. Distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of shallow lakes in Wapusk National Park (Manitoba, Canada) region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Olivier; Bouchard, Frédéric; MacDonald, Lauren A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Pienitz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    The hydrology of shallow lakes (and ponds) located in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is sensitive to climate warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, their biological characteristics are poorly known, which hampers effective aquatic ecosystem monitoring. Located in northern Manitoba along the southwestern coast of Hudson Bay, Wapusk National Park (WNP) encompasses numerous shallow lakes representative of the subarctic zone. We analyzed the distribution and diversity of diatom (microscopic algae; class Bacillariophyceae) assemblages in surficial sediments of 33 lakes located in three different ecozones spanning a vegetation gradient, from NE to SW: the Coastal Fen (CF), the Interior Peat Plateau (IPP), and the Boreal Spruce Forest (BSF). We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in diatom community composition between CF and IPP lakes, and CF and BSF lakes, but not between IPP and BSF lakes. These results are consistent with water chemistry measurements, which indicated distinct limnological conditions for CF lakes. Diatom communities in CF lakes were generally dominated by alkaliphilous taxa typical of waters with medium to high conductivity, such as Nitzschia denticula. In contrast, several IPP and BSF lakes were dominated by acidophilous and circumneutral diatom taxa with preference for low conductivity (e.g., Tabellaria flocculosa, Eunotia mucophila, E. necompacta var. vixcompacta). This exploratory survey provides a first detailed inventory of the diatom assemblages in the WNP region needed for monitoring programs to detect changes in shallow lake ecosystems and ecozonal shifts in response to climate variations.

  16. Decadal Estimates for Soil Carbon Inputs and Losses for Black Spruce Boreal Forests in Interior Alaska, USA and Northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, K. L.; Harden, J. W.; Veldhuis, H.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Soil carbon stocks represent long-term net accumulations of carbon that result from plant inputs, decomposition losses, combustion losses, and local gains and losses from lateral flow of dissolved and particulate carbon. We use several chronosequences (time since last fire) of various soil drainage types from Thompson, Manitoba and Delta Junction, Alaska to estimate decadal averages of inputs and losses to soil. Because northern soils are generally not well mixed, the shallow organic layers of these soils can be thought as discrete accumulations since the most recent fire overlies more decomposed layers that represent longer histories of disturbance and stabilization. Accumulation since the most recent fire provides an estimate of net primary production (NPP) inputs to soil and decomposition loss from these shallow layers. Accumulation of all organic layers provides an estimate of long-term inputs and decay. Shallow inputs (0.011 - 0.014 g/cm2; SE = 0.002 - 0.005) and turnover times for carbon decay (78 - 94 yrs) did not differ between sites. Long-term inputs also do not differ between the well- to moderately well-drained Alaska sites and the moderately well-drained Thompson site (0.013 g/cm2; SE = 0.005). However, our wettest chronosequence site, located in Thompson, did see higher rates of long-term inputs (0.031 g/cm2; SE = 0.009). Long-term turnover times (50 - 60 yrs) did not differ among sites.

  17. Global Climate Model Simulated Hydrologic Droughts and Floods in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, M. J. F.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Koenig, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is uncertainty surrounding the duration, magnitude and frequency of historical hydroclimatic extremes such as hydrologic droughts and floods prior to the observed record. In regions where paleoclimatic studies are less reliable, Global Climate Models (GCMs) can provide useful information about past hydroclimatic conditions. This study evaluates the use of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) GCMs to enhance the understanding of historical droughts and floods across the Canadian Prairie region in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed (NCW). The NCW is approximately 1.4 million km2 in size and drains into Hudson Bay in Northern Manitoba, Canada. One hundred years of observed hydrologic records show extended dry and wet periods in this region; however paleoclimatic studies suggest that longer, more severe droughts have occurred in the past. In Manitoba, where hydropower is the primary source of electricity, droughts are of particular interest as they are important for future resource planning. Twenty-three GCMs with daily runoff are evaluated using 16 metrics for skill in reproducing historic annual runoff patterns. A common 56-year historic period of 1950-2005 is used for this evaluation to capture wet and dry periods. GCM runoff is then routed at a grid resolution of 0.25° using the WATFLOOD hydrological model storage-routing algorithm to develop streamflow scenarios. Reservoir operation is naturalized and a consistent temperature scenario is used to determine ice-on and ice-off conditions. These streamflow simulations are compared with the historic record to remove bias using quantile mapping of empirical distribution functions. GCM runoff data from pre-industrial and future projection experiments are also bias corrected to obtain extended streamflow simulations. GCM streamflow simulations of more than 650 years include a stationary (pre-industrial) period and future periods forced by radiative forcing scenarios. Quantile mapping adjusts for magnitude

  18. The chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals in humus and till in the vicinity of the base metal smelter of Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, P.J.; McMartin, I.; Hall, G.E.; Percival, J.B.; Walker, D.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    Trace element geochemistry of humus (<0.425 mm) and till (<0.002 mm) collected in the Flin Flon-Snow Lake area, northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, provides a regional context for assessing smelter contamination in the environment. The area includes a Cu-Zn smelter known to discharge As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, and Zn. In this study, sequential extraction analyses, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were used on a suite of samples to determine: (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals in surficial sediments related to distance from the smelter, (2) criteria for assessing the relative contribution of these metals from natural and anthropogenic sources, and (3) the potential of these metals for remobilization in the environment. Humus geochemistry reflects the anthropogenic and natural component of heavy metal concentrations. Smelter-related elements show anomalously high values adjacent to the smelter, decreasing with distance until background values are reached at 70-104 km, depending on the element. In humus, Zn is associated primarily with labile phases; Hg with non-labile phases. Adjacent to the smelter, high proportions and concentrations of Zn and Hg in non-labile phases, indicative of smelter-derived particulates, are confirmed by SEM examination. The particles occur as spheres, irregular grains, and with organics. With increasing distance from the smelter, the geochemical response to bedrock composition is more obvious than the anthropogenic input. Till geochemistry reflects the natural variation imposed by bedrock composition. At highly contaminated sites (<3 km from the smelter), increased percentages of smelter-related elements in labile phases suggests heavy metals are leached from humus to the underlying sediment. (orig.)

  19. A test of the stability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles over two decades in lake sediments near the Flin Flon Smelter, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, J.B.; Outridge, P.M., E-mail: outridge@nrcan.gc.ca

    2013-06-01

    Lake sediments are valuable archives of atmospheric metal deposition, but the stability of some element profiles may possibly be affected by diagenetic changes over time. In this extensive case study, the stability of sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles was assessed in dated sediment cores that were collected in 2004 from four smelter-affected lakes near Flin Flon, Manitoba, which had previously been cored in 1985. Metal profiles determined in 1985 were in most cases clearly reproduced in the corresponding sediment layers in 2004, although small-scale spatial heterogeneity in metal distribution complicated the temporal comparisons. Pre-smelter (i.e. pre-1930) increases in metal profiles were likely the result of long-range atmospheric metal pollution, coupled with particle mixing at the 1930s sediment surface. However, the close agreement between key inflection points in the metal profiles sampled two decades apart suggests that metals in most of the lakes, and Hg and Zn in the most contaminated lake (Meridian), were stable once the sediments were buried below the surface mixed layer. Cadmium, Cu and Pb profiles in Meridian Lake did not agree as well between studies, showing evidence of upward remobilization over time. Profiles of redox-indicator elements (Fe, Mn, Mo and U) suggested that the rate of Mn oxyhydroxide recycling within sediment was more rapid in Meridian Lake, which may have caused the Cd, Cu and Pb redistribution. - Highlights: • Sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles in four lakes were mostly unchanged over 19 years. • In one lake, Cd, Cu and Pb profiles were offset relative to the originals. • The offset could indicate diagenetic upcore dispersal of these metals.

  20. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  1. A study of uranium series disequilibrium in core profiles and mineral separates from the samples of Lac du Bonnet granite from the URL site, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium series disequilibrium measurements of actinide activities and activity ratios have been used to study the geochemical history of Lac du Bonnet granite, from the URL site, Pinawa, Canada. Measurements on core profiles between fractured surfaces and the parent rock show that the granite underwent high temperature events several million years ago, followed by more recent low temperature events within the last million years. The main locations for the rock/water interaction and exchange of actinides are the fracture surfaces. The results of similar measurements on separated mineral phases show that the 'soft' minerals such as biotite and feldspar are more vulnerable to weathering than the 'hard' accessory minerals such as zircon. (author)

  2. Lower Churchill Development Corporation Limited: 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 20th annual report to the Board of Directors of the Lower Churchill Development Corp. Ltd. for the year ending Dec. 31, 1998. The Corp. remains ready to proceed with hydroelectric power developments at Gull Island and/or Muskrat Falls following definitive shareholder direction. The accounting policy followed by the Corp. is in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in Canada. It follows the practice of capitalizing the cost related to studies in respect of the development of the Lower Churchill Basis, as well administrative and other costs. Pursuant to the provisions of the Principal Agreement, Newfoundland agreed to enter into an Option Agreement, dated Nov. 24, 1978, with the Corp. in respect of the Gull Island Power Corp. Ltd. assets and the hydroelectric development rights to the Lower Churchill River. The Class A shares issued in the Corp. as of Dec. 31, 1998 are listed. Under an agreement between Hydro and the Corp., Hydro provides certain administrative and engineering services to the Corp. as needed. No fees were paid to Hydro for 2 years. In connection with the Y2K problem, management developed and is implementing a plan designed to identify and address the expected effects of the Year 2000 issue on the company

  3. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  4. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-01-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds (“WAP 12”, “WAP 20”, and “WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of 210Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring. PMID:25750718

  5. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  6. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. Winston Churchill : "Tormihoiatus". Kapitulatsioonijuubelite aegu / Henno Rajandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajandi, Henno

    2002-01-01

    "Tormihoiatus" lk. 96-105, Kapitulatsioonijuubelite aegu lk. 105-110. Järelsõna raamatule: Churchill, W. Tormihoiatus. Tallinn : Varrak, 1995 ja sissejuhatav artikkel W. Churchilli memuaaridele "Bordeaux' relvarahu" ajakirjas "Looming", 1990, nr. 6

  8. Hydrological Research in Hudson Bay,Canada%加拿大Hudson海湾地区的水文研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William A.Gough

    2004-01-01

    Hudson Bay streamflow represents a major component of the streamflow in Canada, approximately 30% of all river discharge enters Hudson and James Bays. Three current hydrological research issues are examined for this region. First the relationship between streamflow and local climate change is reviewed. Second the impact of river discharge in James Bay is linked to sea level variations in Churchill, Manitoba and the implications of this on Hudson Bay recirculation are explored. Finally, the historical and projected sea level variations in the Bay are examined with particular emphasis on the Churchill, Manitoba record. The report is concluded by a discussion of future directions for hydrological research in the Hudson Bay region.%Hudson海湾的河川径流量在整个加拿大河川径流量中占有很大的比例,所有河流排泄量约30%流入了Hudson和James海湾.研究了该地区河川径流与当地气候变化之间的关系;把河川向James海湾的排泄与曼尼托巴省Churchill地区海水位的变化联系起来,讨论了其对Hudson海湾再循环的影响;根据曼尼托巴省Churchill地区海水位的观测资料重点讨论了该地区海水位在历史时期的变化及未来的预测变化等三个重要水文问题.最后指出了今后在Hudson海湾地区进行水文研究的方向.

  9. Development of Manitoba Hydro's public water safety around dams management guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Dave; McPhail, Gord; Murphy, Shayla; Schellenberg, Gord [KGS Acres, Winnipeg, (Canada); Read, Nick [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Several drowning fatalities and safety incidents have occurred around dams in Ontario, Manitoba and other jurisdictions in Canada. Following these incidents, Manitoba Hydro implemented several measures to improve public safety around its dams with the development of a warning signs manual. Manitoba Hydro found that a standard centralized approach to the process of improving public safety is better for ensuring compliance and consistency, even though they have safety measures in place. This paper described the process that Manitoba Hydro has followed in developing a formal set of public water safety around dams (PWSD) guidelines and a program for implementing these guidelines. This program was developed with the intent of providing a high standard of public protection and continuous improvement and monitoring on par with the effect spent on similar dam safety type programs. This paper focused on the development of the pilot PWSD management plan for Pine Falls generating station in order to test the effectiveness and usability of the guidelines.

  10. Sea Level, Land Motion, and the Anomalous Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the tide gauge at Churchill, Manitoba, cannot be overstated. It is the only permanently operating tide gauge in the central Canadian Arctic, and it sits on a prime spot for monitoring the mantle's rebound from the Laurentide ice loss. Yet interpretation of the sea-level time series at Churchill has long been problematic, going back even to early work by Gutenberg in the 1940s. The long-term relative sea-level rates are inconsistent: approximately -4, -19, -5 ± 1 mm/y for the periods 1940-1970, 1970-1990, 1990-2014 respectively. Annual mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) reflect these trends until around 1990, after which MLW leveled off and is now nearly unchanging. Slightly later, around 2000, the semidiurnal tides became very anomalous, with falling amplitudes and slightly increasing phase lags. The amplitude of M2 was approximately 154 cm before 2000; it dropped to about 146 cm by 2010 and reached an all-time low of 142 cm in 2014. Satellite altimeter estimates of the tide in this region, although challenging because of seasonal ice cover, show no comparable M2 changes, so the tidal changes must be localized to the near vicinity of the gauge (or to the gauge itself if caused by a malfunction). On the other hand, altimetry confirms the post-1992 Churchill measurements of mean sea level, thanks to the long time series of land motion measurements obtained at GPS station CHUR, which gives a vertical uplift of 10.1 mm/y. Combining satellite altimeter data with the Churchill tide-gauge data gives an implied vertical crustal rate of about 9.0 ± 0.8 mm/y, in reasonable agreement with the GPS. In summary, we have still anomalous MSL measurements at the Churchill gauge for the intermediate 1970-1990 era, and very anomalous tidal measurements since 2000, but we have apparently quite reliable MSL rates since 1990.

  11. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.N. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs.

  12. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In March and April 2014, the author travelled overseas on a 2013 Churchill Fellowship to study education programs that successfully engage and enthuse primary and middle school students in maths, engineering and science (MES) or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) learning in schools, universities and institutions in the United…

  13. Limits of Freedom: The Ward Churchill Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nell, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Ward Churchill is but the latest in a long line of professors whose volatile statements have created controversy for themselves and their universities. Specific personnel matters in the case have been meticulously addressed in Boulder, but several larger questions have been curiously neglected. One might well ask, for…

  14. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV

  15. Manitoba Hydro's earth power program and Manitoba market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline of Manitoba Hydro's Earth Power program was presented. Details of the heat pump market in Manitoba were provided, including details of residential and commercial sales. Total residential heat pump sales amounted to 577 units in 2004, equivalent to over $11.2 million in sales. Commercial installations amounted to approximately $12.7 million. An outline of industry players was presented. The goals of Manitoba Hydro were outlined in relation to geothermal energy and the Power Smart program. Their objectives included increasing awareness of geothermal energy, making heat pumps more accessible, and improving industry infrastructure. Other objectives included educating the public about life-cycle cost implications, residential loans and commercial incentives. To date, the residential power loan has provided financing to over 300 Manitoba home owners for installations, with electrical savings of over 1.34 Gwh and natural gas savings of 279,425 m3. The program is also committed to providing assistance with feasibility studies. Provincial tax credits for the Earth Program included a 10 per cent deduction of geothermal heat pump purchases from corporation income tax. Case studies of the program were presented along with an outline of the geothermal heat pump for homes booklet. Details of the residential earth power loan were provided, including details of installation, system completion and approval processes. Awards and accolades for the program include the 2004 HRAI Education supporter award and recognition by the David Suzuki Foundation, which highlighted the program as a national leader in encouraging and facilitating the use of GeoExchange technology. tabs, figs

  16. Wisdom for the Ages from the Sages: Manitoba Senior Administrators Offer Advice to Aspirants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a portion of the findings of a mixed-methods study that examined the career patterns of senior educational administrators in public school divisions in Manitoba, Canada. Data based on the career paths of senior administrators from both a survey and interviews of senior administrators were analyzed and compared along three…

  17. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  18. The Stylistic Features of Winston Churchill's Public Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a stylistic analysis of Winston Churchill's public speeches from the perspectives of their phonological features,lexical features as well as syntactic features.It points out how Churchill's Oratorical art contributes to his success in public speeches.

  19. Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Address: Implications for the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, George

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the "Iron Curtain" speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946, discussing its relevance and implications for the present. Examines Churchill's predictions for the future and his assessment of the USSR. Reviews world developments since the speech and proposes foreign policy goals for the next 40 years. (GEA)

  20. Biologie 200. French Immersion Program and Franco-Manitoban Schools. Manitoba Science Assessment 1992. Final Report = Biologie 200. Programme d'immersion francaise et ecoles franco-manitobaines. Evaluation en sciences Manitoba 1992. Rapport final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

    This report describes the June 1992 assessment of the Biologie 200 curriculum in schools in Manitoba, Canada. It contains a description and analysis of the test results and the teacher survey. The report also includes recommendations on ways to improve the Biologie 200 curriculum and how it is taught in the French Immersion program and…

  1. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Oral health in a First Nations and a non-Aboriginal population in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Wang, Xikui; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Tan, Qier; Orr, Pam; Elias, Brenda; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Hart, Donna; Chubey, Shirley; Charles N Bernstein

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the prevalence of poor oral health and selected determinants in First Nations (FN) and Caucasian samples in Manitoba, Canada. Study design: Cross-sectional survey, nested in a cohort study. Methods: FN and Caucasian participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic variables, oral health symptoms, and oral health-related behaviours as part of a broader cohort study comparing these ethnic groups for different chronic immune mediated diseases. Results: Caucasian...

  3. Conventional and molecular epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershfield Earl S

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the demographic and geographic distribution of tuberculosis (TB in Manitoba, thus determining risk factors associated with clustering and higher incidence rates in distinct subpopulations. Methods Data from the Manitoba TB Registry was compiled to generate a database on 855 patients with tuberculosis and their contacts from 1992–1999. Recovered isolates of M. tuberculosis were typed by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors involved in clustering. Results A trend to clustering was observed among the Canadian-born treaty Aboriginal subgroup in contrast to the foreign-born. The dominant type, designated fingerprint type 1, accounts for 25.8% of total cases and 75.3% of treaty Aboriginal cases. Among type 1 patients residing in urban areas, 98.9% lived in Winnipeg. In rural areas, 92.8% lived on Aboriginal reserves. Statistical models revealed that significant risk factors for acquiring clustered tuberculosis are gender, age, ethnic origin and residence. Those at increased risk are: males (p p p p Conclusion Molecular typing of isolates in conjunction with contact tracing data supports the notion of the largest ongoing transmission of a single strain of TB within the treaty-status population of Canada recorded to date. This data demonstrates the necessity of continued surveillance of countries with low prevalence of the disease in order to determine and target high-risk populations for concentrated prevention and control measures.

  4. The impacts of climate change on agriculture in Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to examine the potential effects of a doubled carbon dioxide climate change scenario on gross margins received from cropping enterprises and the patterns of crop production in Manitoba, Canada. The 1987 run of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) was chosen to supply climatic data. Models were developed for yield changes in existing crops, crop migration, and economic impacts. Three scenarios were considered: scenario 1 using historical seeding dates and climates, scenario 2 using historical seeding dates and a flat 3 degree C temperature increase, and scenario 3 where seeding is advanced 14 days and temperatures increase by 3 degree C. The results suggest that climatic warming will have a beneficial effect on the cropping sector in Manitoba. Gross margins are 53% greater in scenario 2 and 190% greater in scenario 3 when the increased area of productive land is considered. Wider cultivation of higher value crops offsets the negative effect of decreased yields of other crops. The changed climate will favour the introduction of longer maturing varieties of existing crops, greater commerical production of existing crops such as sunflowers, soybeans and corn, and the introduction of totally new crops such as sorghum. 26 refs., 1 tab

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Churchill County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Churchill County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Use of borehole-geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize crystalline rock for nuclear-waste storage, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Manitoba, and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of borehole methods were used in the investigation of crystalline rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory in Canada. The selection of a crystalline-rock mass for the storage of nuclear waste likely will require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock mass. Although coring of at least one hole in each new area is essential, methods for making in-situ geophysical and hydrologic measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. Borehole-geophysical logging techniques permit the lateral extrapolation of data from a core hole. Log response is related to rock type, alteration, and the location and character of fractures. The geophysical logs that particularly are useful for these purposes are the acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform, neutron and gamma, resistivity, temperature, and caliper. The acoustic-televiewer log of the borehole wall can provide high resolution data on the orientation and apparent width of fractures. In situ hydraulic tests of single fractures or fracture zones isolated by packers provide quantitative information on permeability, extent, and interconnection. The computer analysis of digitized acoustic waveforms has identified a part of the waveform that has amplitude variations related to permeabilities measured in the boreholes by packer tests. 38 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  8. 75 FR 51841 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... 4500012544; TAS: 14X5260] Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV AGENCY... of public lands in Churchill County, Nevada, through direct sale procedures under the provisions of...: The following described public lands in Churchill County, Nevada, proposed for sale are located...

  9. SVC PSCAD model validation testing in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kell, D. [TransGrid Solutions, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Jacobson, D. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Oheidhin, G. [Areva T and D, Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The paper described some of the main technical aspects of the commissioning of the Ponton static var compensator (SVC) to Manitoba Hydro's electrical system. Off-line simulations were performed to gain confidence in the system tests and to deliver a validated EMT-type model. The peak load of Manitoba Hydro is approximately 4200 MW with an installed generating capacity of 5700 MW. Approximately 70 per cent of the power is generated from 3 hydraulic stations on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba. This power is transmitted for 900 km via the Nelson River high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission to the Dorsey switching station near the major load centre of Winnipeg. The AC system is interconnected with Saskatchewan to the west with four 230 kV AC lines, and with Ontario to the east by two 230 kV AC lines. There are three 230 kV and one 500 kV AC inter-ties between Manitoba Hydro and the power system in the United States. One 230 kV line travels south from the northern generators and inter-connects into the Ponton busbar where an SVC with a supplementary damping controller was recently installed to improve system stability. 7 figs.

  10. Incident diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a Manitoba First Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Riediger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes and diabetes complications are substantially higher among Canadian First Nations populations compared with the general Canadian population. However, incidence data using detailed individual assessments from a population-based cohort have not been undertaken. Objective: We sought to describe incident diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a population-based cohort from a Manitoba Ojibway First Nation community. Design: Study data were from 2 diabetes screening studies in Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada, collected in 2002/2003 and 2011/2012. The cohort comprised of respondents to both screening studies (n=171. Health and demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Fasting blood samples, blood pressure and anthropometric data were also collected objectively. Incident diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were determined. Generalized linear models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate risk of incident diabetes and cardiometabolic conditions according to age and sex. Results: There were 35 (95% CI: 26, 45 new cases of diabetes among 128 participants without diabetes at baseline (27 or 3.3% per year. While participants who were 50 years and older at baseline had a significantly higher risk of incident diabetes at follow-up compared with participants aged 18–29 at baseline (p=0.012, more than half of the incident cases of diabetes occurred among participants aged less than 40 at baseline. There were 28 (95% CI: 20, 37 new cases of dyslipidemia at follow-up among 112 without dyslipidemia at baseline (25%. There were 36 (95% CI: 31, 42 new cases of hypertension among 104 participants without hypertension at baseline (34.6%. Women had half the risk of developing hypertension compared with men (p=0.039. Conclusions: Diabetes incidence is very high, and the number of new cases among those younger than 40 is a concern. Additional public health and primary care efforts are needed to address the

  11. Le projet d'appariement du recensement et des fichiers de soins de sante du Manitoba : composante des menages prives

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Leslie L.; Houle, Christian; Mustard, Cameron; Pierre, David; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; David, Pierre; Wolfson, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Introduction : Le contexte economique actuel oblige tous les partenaires des reseaux de soins de sante, qu'ils soient publics ou prives, a identifier les facteurs qui conditionnent l'utilisation des services de soins de sante. Pour ameliorer notre comprehension des phenomenes qui sous-tendent ces relations, Statistique Canada et le Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation viennent de mettre sur pied une nouvelle base de donnees. Pour un echantillon representatif de la province du Mani...

  12. Spirometry and Obstructive Lung Disease in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    NR Anthonisen; Dik, N; J Manfreda; LL Roos

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spirometry, the measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity, is recommended in the diagnosis and management of the obstructive lung diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present report describes spirometry use in Manitoba and tests the hypothesis that regional spirometry use correlates with the prevalence of physician-diagnosed obstructive lung diseases.METHODS: Spirometry is remunerated on a fee-for-service basis by Man...

  13. The New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum Pilot at the University of Manitoba: A Canadian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Ishida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s federal funding agencies are following the directions of funding agencies in the United States and United Kingdom, and will soon require a data management plan in grant applications. The University of Manitoba Libraries in Canada has started planning and implementing research data services, and education is seen as a key component. In June 2014, the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC (Lamar Soutter Library, University of Massachusetts Medical School 2014 was piloted and used to provide data management training for a group of subject librarians at the University of Manitoba Libraries, in combination with information about data-related policies of the Canadian funding agencies and the University of Manitoba. The seven NECDMC modules were delivered in a seminar style, with emphasis on group discussions and Canadian content. The benefits of NECDMC – adaptability and flexible framework – should be weighed against the challenges experienced in the pilot, mainly the significant amount of time needed to create local content and complement the existing curriculum. Overall, the pilot showed that NECDMC is a good, thorough introduction to data management, and that it is possible to adapt NECDMC to the local and Canadian settings in an effective way.

  14. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  15. The strokes that killed Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rohaid; Connolly, Ian D; Li, Amy; Choudhri, Omar A; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    From February 4 to 11, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Soviet Union Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met near Yalta in Crimea to discuss how post-World War II (WWII) Europe should be organized. Within 2 decades of this conference, all 3 men had died. President Roosevelt died 2 months after the Yalta Conference due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Premier Stalin died 8 years later, also due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Finally, Prime Minister Churchill died 20 years after the conference because of complications due to stroke. At the time of Yalta, these 3 men were the leaders of the most powerful countries in the world. The subsequent deterioration of their health and eventual death had varying degrees of historical significance. Churchill's illness forced him to resign as British prime minister, and the events that unfolded immediately after his resignation included Britain's mismanagement of the Egyptian Suez Crisis and also a period of mistrust with the United States. Furthermore, Roosevelt was still president and Stalin was still premier at their times of passing, so their deaths carried huge political ramifications not only for their respective countries but also for international relations. The early death of Roosevelt, in particular, may have exacerbated post-WWII miscommunication between America and the Soviet Union-miscommunication that may have helped precipitate the Cold War. PMID:27364260

  16. The strokes that killed Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rohaid; Connolly, Ian D; Li, Amy; Choudhri, Omar A; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    From February 4 to 11, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Soviet Union Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met near Yalta in Crimea to discuss how post-World War II (WWII) Europe should be organized. Within 2 decades of this conference, all 3 men had died. President Roosevelt died 2 months after the Yalta Conference due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Premier Stalin died 8 years later, also due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Finally, Prime Minister Churchill died 20 years after the conference because of complications due to stroke. At the time of Yalta, these 3 men were the leaders of the most powerful countries in the world. The subsequent deterioration of their health and eventual death had varying degrees of historical significance. Churchill's illness forced him to resign as British prime minister, and the events that unfolded immediately after his resignation included Britain's mismanagement of the Egyptian Suez Crisis and also a period of mistrust with the United States. Furthermore, Roosevelt was still president and Stalin was still premier at their times of passing, so their deaths carried huge political ramifications not only for their respective countries but also for international relations. The early death of Roosevelt, in particular, may have exacerbated post-WWII miscommunication between America and the Soviet Union-miscommunication that may have helped precipitate the Cold War.

  17. The quest for a zero GHG emission province: can Manitoba offer Ontario energy lessons? Paper no. IGEC-1-032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian provinces have abundant energy resources, but historic energy development decisions have made Canada one of the highest per capita emitters of greenhouse gases in the world. New technologies and distributed network management have created opportunities for conservation and green energy supplies to reduce GHG emissions, but Canada's adoption rate lags behind several other countries. The promise of Ontario's new government to close its coal-fired power plants by 2007 and the aging of its nuclear power plants creates an immediate need for investments in approximately 20,000 MW of capacity over the next decade. Many advocates call for a shift from fossil and nuclear power to renewable energy. Ontario's neighbour, Manitoba, has embarked on a systematic energy plan to reduce fossil fuel use and increase renewables (including new energy efficiency standards, wind, hydro-electricity, biofuels, geothermal heat pumps and electricity exports) so that a net zero emission position can be reached. The paper reviews the green energy initiatives promoted in Manitoba and then considers these as options for Ontario. The conclusion is that Manitoba's plan of systematically linking its energy and economic development choices has created opportunities and lessons for other jurisdictions to also move toward a greener energy future. (author)

  18. Manitoba Hydro Place : integrated design process exemplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, B. [Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects, Toronto, ON (Canada); Auer, T. [Transolar ClimateEngineering, Stuttgart (Germany); Gouldsborough, T.; Akerstream, T. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Klym, G. [Smith Carter Architects and Engineers, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The newly built Manitoba Hydro Place in Winnipeg, Manitoba was designed to be a functional state-of-the-art energy efficient cost-effective building that is exemplary of the integrated design process (IDP) for achieving energy efficient, human-centred design. IDP was integral to balancing energy performance goals against objectives of signature architecture, urban revitalization and supportive workplace. The new head office building is a model for extreme climate responsive design, as Winnipeg is one of the coldest large cities in the world. Every aspect of the building is integrated to achieve 60 per cent or more in energy savings using passive energy sources while prioritizing occupant health and thermal comfort. The building incorporates 6-storey high winter gardens; a concrete structure designed to create a thermal mass and to provide a flexible column-free loft condition; a solar chimney that provides 100 per cent fresh air; a massive geothermal system that provides both heating and cooling; and a high performance building envelope. The construction was made possible with skilful management of a strong and integrated design and construction team. Decision-making was facilitated by open collaborative forums and workshops. 13 figs.

  19. The Manitoba School Act of 1890: An Insult to the French Roman Catholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert B.

    The Manitoba School Act of 1890 was an insult to the French Canadian culture and religion. New settlers in Manitoba brought with them the model of the Ontario school system, and as the new majority of Manitoba, they, through the Manitoba government, abolished French as an official language. At the same time, single, tax supported public schools…

  20. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for transfer of Indian Lakes area to Churchill County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS proposes to transfer the Indian Lakes portion of the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area to Churchill County, Nevada for the purposes of fish, wildlife,...

  2. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.

  3. Constitution of post ideological politics: Bismarck, Churchill, de Gaulle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetićanin Neven

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Essay is dealing with constitution of so called post ideological politics in new European history as specific political line that confronts to all ideological politics coming to the scene after the French Revolution. The term 'post ideological politics' is explained and substantiated in practice by analysing the deed and the portrait of three eminent statesmen - Bismarck Churchill and de Gaulle who are recognised as the strongest manifestation of what is called post ideological politics and what is first of all characterised by creativity, flexibility and avoiding all rigid political forms. The concept of so called post ideological politics is based on definition of politics as 'the art of possible' protecting it from too much ideology.

  4. PCB management at Manitoba Hydro's Waverley Service Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manitoba Hydro was the first Canadian utility to initiate a program to decontaminate insulating oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's recovery, reuse and recycling program, operated out of the utility's Waverley Service Centre (WSC). The WSC is a central facility serving to phase out and and destroy PCBs which remain in Manitoba Hydro's electrical system. Several hundred thousand litres of PCB-contaminated insulating oil are decontaminated annually at the WSC. The decontaminated oil is then reconditioned for reuse within the system operations. A PCBX unit was purchased from Sun Ohio for the decontamination of insulating oils containing PCBs. PCB decontamination is achieved through a chemical dechlorination treatment process. The PCBX treatment unit and the PCB storage building were described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  5. Shrubs of the Field Irradiator - Gamma area in eastern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed descriptions and line drawings are given of over 100 shrub taxa (including semi-woody shrubs and vines) which are common in Manitoba; most of them are found within the Field Irradiator - Gamma (FIG) area or its immediate surroundings. Ecological and morphological notes are included along with a few general remarks on the effects of exposure to long-term gamma radiation. Keys are given for certain genera, small family groups or other critical species groups. This document is intended to facilitate identification of shrubs for experimental purposes in the FIG projects, and it should also be useful to those who are generally interested in the shrubs of Manitoba. (auth)

  6. Educational Needs and Barriers for African Refugee Students in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanu, Yatta

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the educational needs and barriers for diverse African refugee students in two inner-city high schools in Manitoba. Forty African refugee students, two principals, eight teachers, four parents, and four community leaders participated in the study. Five focus groups, individual interviews, and school and classroom…

  7. Sustainable and reliable groundwater cooling Manitoba Hydro Dorsey converter station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, R.D. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Jhinger, H. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Three high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter stations are operated by Manitoba Hydro in conjunction with the northern generating stations on the Nelson River near Gillam, Manitoba. The Dorsey Converter Station, located approximately 900 kilometres (km) south of Gillam and 13 km northwest of Winnipeg, is an integral and critical component of Manitoba's HVDC system. The Dorsey Converter Station represents the southern terminus, where the power originating from Gillam is converted back to alternating current (AC) from DC for further distribution in southern Manitoba and for export. The current space cooling requirements for the converter station buildings are based on chiller systems scheduled to be replaced. There have been some success stories near Winnipeg with groundwater cooling, and field testing confirmed that the high permeability of the aquifer would be an asset for groundwater based cooling. The system which has been selected for installation, includes 5 pumping wells and 10 recharge wells to handle the total cooling load. Thermal interference between wells is expected to be such that winter thermal balancing would be required for sustainability, as demonstrated in digital simulations of aquifer heat transport. The assessment program and the major design considerations for this system were presented in this paper. 10 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  8. Manitoba Energy and Mines annual report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report states the objectives and achievements of each of the Department of Energy and Mines branches in the same sequence as in the Dept.'s appropriation structure in the Main Estimates of the Expenditure for the Province. Details of the Dept.'s financial performance, together with a 5 year historical table of departmental spending and staffing levels, are provided in the Financial Information Section. Manitoba's oil and gas sector, though small by regional or international standards, is a significant part of the provincial economy. In 1998, Manitoba produced 634,071 cubic m of oil having a total value of about 27% of the province's refined petroleum products needs. In 1998, the petroleum industry spend more than $61 million in Manitoba to explore and develop new oil pools, and to operate the approximately 1,900 active wells in the province. The petroleum industry employs directly and indirectly over 600 people. In 1998/99, royalties, production taxes and revenue from the leasing of Crown owned oil and gas rights added $34 million to the Provincial treasury. The Petroleum and Energy Branch administers the Oil and Gas Act regulations governing the exploration, development, production, transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas. The Dept. in conjunction with the Manitoba Oil Museum hosted the 1998 Manitoba Oil Show. Manitobans spend about $2.8 billion annually to heat and light their homes, power business, industry and agriculture and fuel their transportation needs. The installed provincial electrical generating capacity is 5,137 megawatts, and the Branch administers the Energy Act. refs

  9. Oral health in a First Nations and a non-Aboriginal population in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Chubey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the prevalence of poor oral health and selected determinants in First Nations (FN and Caucasian samples in Manitoba, Canada. Study design: Cross-sectional survey, nested in a cohort study. Methods: FN and Caucasian participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic variables, oral health symptoms, and oral health-related behaviours as part of a broader cohort study comparing these ethnic groups for different chronic immune mediated diseases. Results: Caucasians reported higher levels of employment, education, and urban dwelling than FNs (p<0.001. FNs reported smoking more, and having poorer oral health-related behaviours than Caucasians (p<0.001. After adjustment for age and sex, FN reported having more oral health symptoms than Caucasians (odds ratio (OR: 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.73, 4.52, but the association was reduced and not statistically significant after adjustment for other socio-demographic variables (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 0.58, 3.10. Oral health symptoms were associated with current smoking among FN (adjusted OR=2.67, 95% CI: 1.05, 6.78. Oral hygiene behaviours were significantly related to smoking status, rural living and education for both groups. Conclusions: Oral health-related behaviours and smoking were found to be significant factors explaining poor oral health, which were lower for the FNs cohort than the Caucasian sample. However oral health and related behaviours were less related to their ethnicity than to socio-demographic factors, suggesting that policies to change behaviour will not result in lasting reductions in oral health differences between these groups in Manitoba.

  10. 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability. Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 14–18 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher J; Ausió, Juan

    2012-06-01

    The 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability in Whistler, Canada, 14-18 March 2012, brought together 31 speakers from different nationalities. The organizing committee, led by Jim Davie (Chair) at the University of Manitoba (Manitoba, Canada), consisted of several established researchers in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics from across Canada. The meeting was centered on the contribution of epigenetics to gene expression, DNA damage and repair, and the role of environmental factors. A few interesting talks on replication added some insightful information on the controversial issue of histone post-translational modifications as genuine epigenetic marks that are inherited through cell division.

  11. ISOLATION AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), CATS (FELIS DOMESTICUS), STRIPED SKUNK (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS), BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS), AND COUGAR (PUMA CONCOLOR) FROM CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats ( Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus ) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Geno...

  12. The Cora Lake Shear Zone, an Exhumed Deep Crustal Lithotectonic Discontinuity, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Leslie, S.; Holland, M. E.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Deep crustal flow is a fundamental tectonic process that may serve to reduce topographic gradients, especially in overthickened collisional orogens. Recent studies have utilized numerical models and seismic interpretations, but generally in two dimensions. Although useful, two dimensional models can not fully characterize lower crustal flow or coupling of crustal layers because they cannot fully incorporate lateral heterogeneity in the flow field. The Athabasca Granulite terrane, in northern Saskatchewan, is an exposed deep crustal terrane that underwent granulite grade deformation during the Neoarchean (ca. 2.55), then cooled isobarically for 600 m.y., and then was reactivated during the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.9 Ga). Regional exhumation occurred at roughly 1.85 Ga. This exposure, is a field laboratory for studying lower crustal flow, stabilization, and reactivation. Recent work suggests that the northwestern domain, dominated by the multiphase, opx-bearing, Mary batholith, underwent top-to-the-east lower crustal flow during the Neoarchean. The Chipman domain, to the SE , is primarily underlain by the 3.2 Ga, Chipman tonalite straight gneiss, which was likely restitic, and rheologically strong during the 2.6 Ga flow event. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz), which divides the two domains, is interpreted to represent a lithotectonic, compositional, and rheologic boundary within the deep crust. Recent mapping of the western gradient of the CLsz has provided insight into the role and evolution of the rheologic discontinuity and its relationship to crustal flow. The Mary granite (gneiss) contains excellent assemblages for P-T and pseudosection analysis. Interlayered felsic granulite contain abundant monazite for in-situ geochronology. An intense subhorizontal tectonic fabric (S1), interpreted to be the product of crustal flow, is present in both units. This early fabric was locally crenulated, folded, and transposed, by a sub-vertical S2 fabric. Current work involves microstructural analysis and high-resolution compositional mapping in order to link microstructures, reactions, and accessory phase compositions between the two rock types. Preliminary results from rocks near the CLsz suggest that sub horizontal fabrics formed mainly at 2.55 Ga (i.e. lower crustal flow). Steep fabrics certainly reflect events at 1.9 Ga and younger but older components are possible. The CLsz may well have been a structural boundary between the flowing and decoupled lower crust and the stronger coupled deep crust.

  13. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  14. Experience of the Manitoba Perinatal Screening Program, 1965-85.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Manitoba Perinatal Screening Program is guided by a committee of medical specialists with skills in the diagnosis and management of disorders of metabolism in the newborn. The program is voluntary and is centralized at Cadham Provincial Laboratory, in Winnipeg. A filter card blood specimen is collected from newborns on discharge from hospital, and a filter card urine sample is collected and mailed to the laboratory by the mother when the infant is about 2 weeks of age. The overall complia...

  15. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick D. SHAW; Julian AHERNE

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels), industry (e.g., oil and gas) and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin), Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region), Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides ...

  16. Perceptions of the Canadian criminal justice system among Nigerians: Evidence from a local Church in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Oriola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Diasporic communities are everywhere conceivable in today’s globalizing world. Winnipeg, Manitoba, albeit rather slowly, has not been left out of the increasing diversity of the Canadian population sequel to the surge in flows of “Third World” bodies hitherto considered persona non grata in Canada. Dispensing with the concept “Black,” this paper investigates the assessment of the police and courts by a sample of Nigerians at a local church in Winnipeg. Participants in this study generally have a favorable view of the police and courts in Winnipeg. Consequently, one fundamental finding of the study is that totalizing, generalizing or homogenizing the experience of Blacks and/or Blackness is theoretically misleading. The paper argues that several studies that purport to investigate “Blacks” do not in anyway offer insights into the experiences and voices of newer immigrants or continental Africans.

  17. Evaluation on the Occupational Information Access System as Used at Churchill High School. A Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Bruce; Adams, Daniel

    The Occupational Information Access System (OIAS) improves the accessibility of occupational labor market information for career planning. Its operation at Churchill High School is evaluated from several angels: the likes and dislikes of users; the effect of OIAS on users' knowledge of occupational information and on their career plans; why other…

  18. The Human Relations Class at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Katherine J.

    Human Relations was a program offered to Grade 10 students at Churchill Secondary School during the 1971-72 school year in lieu of four courses. The emphasis of the program was on the development of students as people who were more aware of themselves, of other people, and of the environment. The class took part in a variety of activities during…

  19. As His Day in Court Arrives, Ward Churchill Is Depicted in Sharply Different Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The trial in Ward Churchill's lawsuit against the University of Colorado got under way here last week with lawyers for the opposing sides painting starkly different pictures of both the controversial ethnic-studies professor and the circumstances surrounding his dismissal by the university in 2007. In delivering their opening remarks in a crowded…

  20. "Living My Native Life Deadly": Red Lake, Ward Churchill, and the Discourses of Competing Genocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to understand how rival narratives of genocide compete even at the cost of disavowing other historical experiences, this article considers how the U.S. national media represented and framed Red Lake in the wake of Ward Churchill's emergence on the national radar. The first section of this article examines how nineteenth-century…

  1. The Churchill School: An Alternative to Drug Treatment for Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Stanley

    This paper is a discussion of The Churchill School, founded in 1972 as an alternative approach to serving the educational needs of children diagnosed as hyperactive, hyperkinetic, brain damaged, neurologically impaired, or suffering from minimal brain dysfunction. The school has a student body of 65, ranging between 6 and 13 years of age. The…

  2. Geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological setting of a gas pipeline failure near Brandon, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, L.; Mollard, G. [J.D. Mollard and Associates Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada); Holm, M. [AMEC, Regina, SK (Canada); Sutherby, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An in-service pipeline failure occurred on the TransCanada main line gas pipeline approximately 50 kilometres northeast of Brandon, Manitoba, on April 14, 2002. After a metallurgical analysis was performed, it was determined that the likely cause of the failure was stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the near-neutral pH form, with the failure occurring on a 36-inch diameter high pressure natural gas pipeline. In addition, failures on the pipe and a failure location near the boundary between a till plain and a glaciodeltaic sand plain, seemed to indicate that the local environment influenced the failure mechanism. A study was initiated in June 2002 to help define the geoenvironmental conditions associated with the failure site and to investigate possible links between the failure mechanism and the site conditions. The study involved an airphoto and map study, a field study, and an assessment of geological and hydrogeological factors. The results of the study were presented and discussed. 7 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  3. Radioactivity levels in Winnipeg river fish at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment near Pinawa, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine monitoring of biologically important radioactivity levels in Winnipeg River fish started in 1963, two years before operation of the Hot Cell Facility and the WR-1 reactor commenced at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. Fish were captured with commercial-size fishing nets set twice a year near the town of Pinawa (upstream of WNRE and the Seven Sisters Hydroelectric Generating Station) and 0.5 and 5 km downstream from WNRE. Radioactivity levels in fish taken downstream of WNRE showed a general increase in the late sixties, due to fallout from global nuclear weapons testing, and some increase in the late seventies, due to radio-nuclide releases from the Hot Cell Facility of WNRE. The average concentration of radioactive cesium in the flesh of fish caught downstream of WNRE varied between 0.003 and 0.027 Bq/g wet weight prior to 1971 and between 0.002 and 0.075 Bq/g wet weight in the period 1976 to 1978, depending on species. The radiological dose to a human (committed effective dose equivalent) from the consumption of 20 kg of downstream pickerel in 1978 was approximately 0.013 mSv due to 137Cs

  4. Petroleum investment opportunities in Manitoba - a geological, engineering and economic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J. N.; Martiniuk, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Geology and reservoir characteristics of Manitoba`s producing horizons were described, and recent activity in exploration and development prospects for the immediate future were reviewed. These prospects have improved considerably, thanks to recent efforts of the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines to ensure that barriers to petroleum investment are eliminated. As a result of these and related efforts by the Manitoba government the investment climate is stable and competitive. Advantages in Manitoba include availability of Crown land at comparatively low prices, drilling and exploration incentives, low drilling and completion costs, and easy access to markets. Development drilling opportunities exist for each of Manitoba`s five producing formations (the sandstones of the Jurassic Melita and Amaranth formations, and the Mississippian Bakken Formation, and the carbonates of the Mississipian Lodgepole and Mission Canyon formations). Sample economic scenarios run on three development scenarios and modelled after typical Manitoba oil play were very favorable, indicating a potential rate of return on investments of 25 to 37 per cent and pay-out in 2.6 to 3.2 years. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Books Behind Bars: A Volunteer-run Prison Library Service in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Parry

    2014-01-01

    In Brief: Beginning the summer of 2012, a group Canadian librarians in Winnipeg came together to discuss the lack of library services in the prison system in the province of Manitoba. The newly formed Prison Library Committee started a weekly drop-in library service at the Winnipeg Remand Centre (WRC) located in Winnipeg, Manitoba. This article will […

  6. Books Behind Bars: A Volunteer-run Prison Library Service in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Parry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: Beginning the summer of 2012, a group Canadian librarians in Winnipeg came together to discuss the lack of library services in the prison system in the province of Manitoba. The newly formed Prison Library Committee started a weekly drop-in library service at the Winnipeg Remand Centre (WRC located in Winnipeg, Manitoba. This article will […

  7. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  8. Dental X-ray equipment inspection program in Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dental X-ray equipment inspection program that has been in effect in Manitoba for all units since 1973 is described and the development of the survey procedure followed throughout 1978. The workloads associated with the dental units for both urban and rural facilities are presented and discussed. Data indicating the type and frequency of faults found as well as the dental X-ray exposure for the maxillary molar procedure in kVp ranges from 45 to 95 are also presented along with the corresponding dental film optical densities as obtained with one of the survey procedures. (author)

  9. Revealing the hyperdiverse mite fauna of subarctic Canada through DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R Young

    Full Text Available Although mites are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of arthropods, they are rarely targeted for detailed biodiversity surveys due to taxonomic constraints. We address this gap through DNA barcoding, evaluating acarine diversity at Churchill, Manitoba, a site on the tundra-taiga transition. Barcode analysis of 6279 specimens revealed nearly 900 presumptive species of mites with high species turnover between substrates and between forested and non-forested sites. Accumulation curves have not reached an asymptote for any of the three mite orders investigated, and estimates suggest that more than 1200 species of Acari occur at this locality. The coupling of DNA barcode results with taxonomic assignments revealed that Trombidiformes compose 49% of the fauna, a larger fraction than expected based on prior studies. This investigation demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcoding in facilitating biodiversity assessments of hyperdiverse taxa.

  10. Electrical conductivity in the precambrian lithosphere of western canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner; Kurtz; Craven; Ross; Jones; Davis

    1999-01-29

    The subcrustal lithosphere underlying the southern Archean Churchill Province (ACP) in western Canada is at least one order of magnitude more electrically conductive than the lithosphere beneath adjacent Paleoproterozoic crust. The measured electrical properties of the lithosphere underlying most of the Paleoproterozoic crust can be explained by the conductivity of olivine. Mantle xenolith and geological mapping evidence indicate that the lithosphere beneath the southern ACP was substantially modified as a result of being trapped between two nearly synchronous Paleoproterozoic subduction zones. Tectonically induced metasomatism thus may have enhanced the subcrustal lithosphere conductivity of the southern ACP.

  11. The Phalacridae (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea) of Canada: new records, distribution, and bionomics with a particular focus on the Atlantic Canadian fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Majka; Matthew Gimmel; David Langor

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Phalacridae are briefly surveyed. Two species, Phalacrus politus Melsheimer and Olibrus vittatus LeConte, are newly recorded in Canada. As a result, eight phalacrids are now known to occur in Canada. Thirteen new provincial records are reported including one from Saskatchewan, two from Manitoba, two from New Brunswick, three from Nova Scotia, two from Prince Edward Island, and three from Newfoundland and Labrador. The four species and ten provincial records of Phalacridae reporte...

  12. Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board 52. annual report : Building as one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A provincial Crown corporation, Manitoba Hydro serves approximately 502,000 customers throughout Manitoba with electric energy, and provides natural gas service to 251,000 customers in several communities in southern Manitoba. In addition, Manitoba Hydro exports electricity to electric utilities and marketers in the mid-western United States, Ontario, and Saskatchewan. In 2002, Winnipeg Hydro was purchased from the City of Winnipeg. Records were broken for historical peak demand for electricity (24 February 2003) and natural gas (22 January 2003). A study of wind power generation was launched, with seven sites being monitored. A Power Smart program focusing on geothermal heat pump systems also offered assistance to Manitoba homeowners. Successful conversion of the Selkirk Generating Station from coal to natural gas was achieved. In Brandon, a 260 mega watt (MW) natural gas combustion turbine plant was opened. Over $29 million in loans were issued to customers under the Home Comfort and Energy Savings Program. Electricity rates for residential customers remained unchanged, as did those for large industrial customers. Approval was received by the National Energy Board to export 500 MW of electricity to Northern States Power. A new international interconnection was brought into service in November 2002 between Glenboro, Manitoba and Harvey, North Dakota. The ISO 14001 international certification for environmental management systems was awarded to Manitoba Hydro. tabs., figs

  13. Synoptic controls on the surface energy and water budgets in sub-arctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Richard M.; Rouse, Wayne R.

    2000-08-01

    An objective hybrid classification of daily surface weather maps for central and western Canadian sub-arctic locations was used to determine their dominant synoptic conditions during the snow free period. This classification yielded seven dominant synoptic types for each location during the snowmelt and snow-free periods (20 April-7 September), accounting for 90% of the days in period. The effects of source regions were used to explain the observed air mass characteristics, and their influence on the respective study locations. Cooler, drier air masses were the most frequent at both study locations. Arctic high pressure cells to the northeast brought the coolest air to the western sub-arctic site, Trail Valley Creek (TVC), Northwest Territories, while high pressure systems approaching from the northwest brought the coolest conditions to the central sub-arctic site, Churchill, Manitoba. Sub-tropical high pressure approaching from the west-southwest brought warm air to TVC, whereas stationary high pressure to the south warmed Churchill. These synoptic regimes exerted strong controls on the precipitation and evaporation components of the water balance as observed in terms of cloud cover, radiation and precipitation and evaporation efficiencies.

  14. Unidirectional hybridization at a species' range boundary: implications for habitat tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Gemma, E.; Philipp, Marianne; Provan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    of such processes at the limits of species' distribution ranges. In this study, we have examined the potential for hybridization between range-edge populations of the wintergreen Pyrola minor and sympatric populations of Pyrola grandiflora. Location Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland and Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Methods...

  15. Prevalence of Depression and Dementia among Adults with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shooshtari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To estimate and compare the prevalence of dementia and depression among adults with and without developmental disabilities (DDs. Methods. We linked data from several provincial administrative databases to identify persons with DDs. We matched cases with DD with persons without DD as to sex, age, and place of residence. We estimated the prevalence of dementia and depression and compared the two groups using the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs technique. Results. The estimated prevalence of depression and dementia among younger adults (20–54 and older adults (50+ with DD was significantly higher than the estimated rates for the matched non-DD group (Depression: younger adults: RR = 2.96 (95% CI 2.59–3.39; older adults: RR = 2.65 (95% CI 1.84–3.81, (Dementia: younger adults: RR = 4.01 (95% CI 2.72–5.92; older adults: RR = 4.80 (95% CI 2.48–9.31. Conclusion. Significant disparities exist in mental health between persons with and without DDs.

  16. Possible responses of northern peatlands to climate change in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubier, J.L. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States). Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space; Moore, T.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    More than half of the world`s peatlands occur in the boreal zone (45 - 60 deg C N. lat), a region which global climate models predict will experience large changes in temperature and precipitation with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The northern part of the boreal zone is characterised by discontinuous permafrost, an area that is particularly sensitive to climate change with the possible degradation and thawing of frozen peat. Peatlands are large sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}), an important greenhouse gas. Yet few measurements of methane have been conducted in discontinuous permafrost environments. As part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), CH{sub 4} flux was measured in a diverse peatland complex (bogs, fens, peat plateaus, and collapse scars), representing the complete range of temperature, moisture, and plant community gradients found in northern peatlands. The measurement period May to September 1994 was one of the warmest and driest seasons on record, which provided an opportunity to observe the short-term responses of different parts of the peatland ecosystem to a warmer and drier climate as an analog to predicted climate change in the region. (5 refs.)

  17. Water quality assessment of Cooks Creek, Manitoba, Canada. Report No. 94-09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, C.E.; Williamson, D.A.; Lussier, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    A five-year management plan developed by the Cooks Creek Conservation District included a program of routine surface water monitoring to establish the present state of knowledge about surface water in the District; the degree to which sediment in local surface waters is an impediment to water quality or use; whether local surface water is contaminated by extensive use of agricultural chemicals; if water users are impaired by local water quality; and if local water quality could be improved for other uses. This report describes data collected from the beginning of the study in May 1990 to July 1993 and discusses the relationship between rainfall and stream flow, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved minerals, suspended sediment, phosphorus, nitrogen, pH, dissolved oxygen, trace elements, and pesticides.

  18. The effect of the 'no net loss' of habitat guiding principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effect of the 'no net loss' principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa hydroelectric project is assessed, including an examination of the process by which the no net loss principle will likely be implemented at the site, based on a review of past applications of the policy. The no net loss principle was developed by the federal Department of Fisheries of Oceans (DFO) as part of their 1986 Policy for the Management of Fish Habitats. The overall objective of the policy is to achieve a net gain of the productive capacity of fish habitats in Canada. Application of the policy to specific developments is based upon maintaining the productive capacity of fish habitats as well as the needs of users groups. The policy has not yet been applied to an inland hydroelectric project. Achieving no net losses may be difficult in regard to large projects such as a hydro dam, however a review of past applications of the policy reveal a number of concepts that have been employed by the DFO when applying the no net loss principle. These concepts were applied to the Conawapa project to make recommendations to achieve no net loss if the project is developed. Mitigation and compensation measures must be developed for both brook trout and lake sturgeon habitat, and should include a combination of habitat enhancement and increased protection and compliance. Measures should also be developed for other species such as lake cisco and lake whitefish, both of which may be a food source for beluga whales. The Conawapa forebay may be given consideration as compensation for lost habitat. 81 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Waterfowl production survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan River Delta: July 10-22, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1973. The...

  20. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Manitoba: 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1957. The...

  1. Cancer risks among residents of Manitoba Indian reserves, 1970-79

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study of malignant neoplasms among residents of Indian reserves in Manitoba from 1970 to 1979 based on the Manitoba Cancer Registry revealed an unusual pattern. There was a greater risk for kidney cancer in both sexes and for gallbladder and invasive cervical cancer in women. The risk was reduced, however, for cancer of the lung in men and of the breast in women, cancers with a high incidence in the general Canadian population. Overall the risk for cancer was lower...

  2. Defining Quackery: An examination of the Manitoba Medical Profession and the early development of professional unity

    OpenAIRE

    Scalena, Adam

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the Manitoba medical profession reached a pinnacle in its opposition to alternative medicine, waging an aggressive four-year campaign against chiropractic and osteopathy to “protect” the public from the dangers of alternative forms of healing and prevent “irregulars” from establishing their practices. It was during these same years that the Manitoba medical profession was able to successfully overcome many internal problems of consensus and external problems of legitimacy....

  3. In the Loop : A look at Manitoba's geothermal heat pump industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet outlines the position of Manitoba's heat pump market with the objective of promoting the widespread use of geothermal heat pumps in the province. It makes reference to the size of the market, customer satisfaction with heat pumps, and opinion of key players in the industry regarding the heat pump market. The information in this booklet is drawn on market research and lessons learned in Europe and the United States. In October 2001, a group of key stakeholders in Manitoba's heat pump market attended an industry working meeting to address the issues of market barriers, market enablers and market hot buttons. Market barriers include the high cost of geothermal heat pumps, lack of consumer awareness, lack of consistent standards, and public perception that heat pumps are not reliable. Market enablers include the low and stable operating costs of geothermal heat pumps, high level of comfort, high quality and reliability of geothermal heat pumps, and financial incentives under Manitoba Hydro's Power Smart Commercial Construction Program. Market hot buttons include lowering the cost of geothermal heat pumps, improving industry performance, increasing consumer awareness, and forming a Manitoba Geothermal Trade Association. Approximately 2,500 heat pump systems have been installed in Manitoba. In 2001, heat pump sales in Manitoba grew 40 per cent. 1 tab., 6 figs

  4. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  5. The First case of Locally Acquired Tick-Borne Babesia Microti Infection in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared MP Bullard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child with a complicated medical history that included asplenia acquired an infection with Babesia microti in the summer of 2013 and had not travelled outside of Manitoba. Although the clinical findings were subtle, astute laboratory work helped to reach a preliminary identification of Babesia species, while reference laboratory testing confirmed the diagnosis. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis are known to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the province; however, the present case represents the first known instance of tick-borne B microti, both in Manitoba and in Canada. The expanding territory of the blacklegged tick increases the relevance of this emerging infection. Clinicians, laboratory medical practitioners and public health officials should be aware of B microti as a potential locally acquired infection in Canada.

  6. Determination of generator groupings for an islanding scheme in the Manitoba Hydro system using the method of normal forms

    OpenAIRE

    Vittal, V; Kliemann, W; Chapman, DG; Silk, AD; Sobajic, DJ; Ni, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the method of normal forms in the analysis of a specific aspect of system dynamic behavior in the Manitoba Hydro system. Following a major loss of transmission capacity on the Manitoba Hydro HVDC system (Nelson River system), and the subsequent operation of protection systems, there is a major deficit of generation in the remaining system, comprising Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The method of normal forms is applied to determine the natural groupings whi...

  7. Participant outcomes, perceptions, and experiences in the Internationally Educated Engineers Qualification Program, University of Manitoba: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia R.

    Immigration, economic, and regulatory trends in Canada have challenged all professions to examine the processes by which immigrant professionals (international graduates) achieve professional licensure and meaningful employment in Canada. The Internationally Educated Engineers Qualification Program (IEEQ) at the University of Manitoba was developed as an alternate pathway to integrate international engineering graduates into the engineering profession in Manitoba. However, universities have the neither mandate nor the historical practice to facilitate licensure for immigrant professionals and, thus, the knowledge base for program development and delivery is predominantly experiential. This study was developed to address the void in the knowledge base and support the program's ongoing development by conducting a critical, exploratory, participant-oriented evaluation of the IEEQ Program for both formative and summative purposes. The research questions focussed on how the IEEQ participants perceived and described their experiences in the IEEQ Program, and how the participants' outcomes in the IEEQ Program compared to international engineering graduates pursuing other licensing pathways. The study was built on an interpretivist theoretical approach that supported a primarily qualitative methodology with selected quantitative elements. Data collection was grounded in focus group interviews, written questionnaires, student reports, and program records for data collection, with inductive data analysis for qualitative data and descriptive statistics for quantitative data. The findings yielded rich understandings of participants' experiences in the IEEQ Program, their outcomes relative to international engineering graduates (IEGs) pursuing other licensing pathways, and their perceptions of their own adaptation to the Canadian engineering profession. Specifically, the study suggests that foreign credentials recognition processes have tended to focus on the recognition and

  8. Escritura femenina y cruce de culturas: aplicaciones en la dramaturgia de Caryl Churchill Feminine writing and cross culture: applications to Caryl Churchill's dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Ortiz de Zárate Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La escritura femenina es una de las estrategias para confrontar a los mecanismos patriarcales construidos por la lógica occidental. A la luz de esta propuesta se han levantado diversas voces-otras que, en un ejercicio transdisciplinario, la han acogido para potenciar sus líneas de expresión y enriquecer sus discusiones y debates. Ese es el caso del cruce entre cultura y escritura bisexual y algunas de sus representaciones en el teatro contemporáneo. Los contextos culturales-postcoloniales desde los cuales se nutren las relaciones entre género y cultura estimulan a los creadores teatrales y les impulsan a exponer ese intercambio dialógico. El objetivo de este trabajo, por tanto, es observar cómo estos cruces son llevados al texto teatral - como escritura femenina - por la dramaturga británica contemporánea Caryl Churchill.Feminine writing is one of the strategies used to confront the patriarchal mechanisms that have been set up by occidental logic. In light of this proposal, various voices of the other have risen. In a transdisciplinary exercise, feminine writing has taken this in, so as to promote its lines of expression and enrich its discussions and debates. This is the case of the crossroads between culture and bisexual writing and some of their representations in contemporary theatre. The cultural and postcolonial contexts that nourish the relations between gender and culture stimulate the theatrical creators and motivate them to display that dialogic exchange in their pieces of work. Thus, the objective of this work is to observe how these crosses are brought to the theatrical text - as feminine writing - by the British contemporary playwright Caryl Churchill.

  9. Embryonic neural inducing factor churchill is not a DNA-binding zinc finger protein: solution structure reveals a solvent-exposed beta-sheet and zinc binuclear cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian M; Buck-Koehntop, Bethany A; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2007-08-31

    Churchill is a zinc-containing protein that is involved in neural induction during embryogenesis. At the time of its discovery, it was thought on the basis of sequence alignment to contain two zinc fingers of the C4 type. Further, binding of an N-terminal GST-Churchill fusion protein to a particular DNA sequence was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation selection assay, suggesting that Churchill may function as a transcriptional regulator by sequence-specific DNA binding. We show by NMR solution structure determination that, far from containing canonical C4 zinc fingers, the protein contains three bound zinc ions in novel coordination sites, including an unusual binuclear zinc cluster. The secondary structure of Churchill is also unusual, consisting of a highly solvent-exposed single-layer beta-sheet. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and backbone relaxation measurements reveal that Churchill is unusually dynamic on a number of time scales, with the exception of regions surrounding the zinc coordinating sites, which serve to stabilize the otherwise unstructured N terminus and the single-layer beta-sheet. No binding of Churchill to the previously identified DNA sequence could be detected, and extensive searches using DNA sequence selection techniques could find no other DNA sequence that was bound by Churchill. Since the N-terminal amino acids of Churchill form part of the zinc-binding motif, the addition of a fusion protein at the N terminus causes loss of zinc and unfolding of Churchill. This observation most likely explains the published DNA-binding results, which would arise due to non-specific interaction of the unfolded protein in the immunoprecipitation selection assay. Since Churchill does not appear to bind DNA, we suggest that it may function in embryogenesis as a protein-interaction factor.

  10. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE OF CROSS-GENDER POWER RELATION IN CARYL CHURCHILL'S TOP GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Bie Yong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Top Girls, one of Caryl Churchill's most popular plays, describes the lives of six female characters coming from different centuries. Each of them has their own story to tell, as they have all been victimized by the patriarchal system in the century when they live and have resisted the system with different strategies. They either employ roles that are traditionally reserved for men or they adopt the archetypically feminine qualities. Despite their resistance and success, they find themselves unhappy and unsatisfied over their achievements. Thus this raises the question of the effectiveness of the feminist movement.

  11. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwraith, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Developing Manitoba's ethanol industry[Consulting Manitobans : Maximizing the benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A brief message from the Manitoba Premier provided the opening note in this document. He talks about plans for the expansion of ethanol production and use in the province to help protect the environment and to enhance economic opportunities. Some ethanol facts are provided, such as the adoption of ethanol production helps reduce the emissions from vehicles. Most often blended with gasoline, ethanol is a high-octane, water-free alcohol produced from renewable sources and the resulting fuel is called gasohol. Co-products are also produced such as gluten, specialty flours and feed for livestock. It has the added advantage of providing value-added opportunities for farmers. The context in Manitoba was reviewed, and the gasohol incentives described. Currently, the government of Manitoba is considering mandating an ethanol-blended fuel for all gasoline sold in the province. The benefits from a 10 per cent ethanol blend in all gasoline are identified, and a case study concerning the experience of the Golden Triangle Energy Co-operative in Craig, Missouri is examined. The Minnesota experience is also reviewed. The advantages of ethanol production in Manitoba, and the challenges faced by the industry are mentioned. The last section of the document deals with the proposed principles for the development of an ethanol industry in Manitoba. The opinion of individuals will be sought in the coming months as a consultation process gets under way throughout the entire province. refs., 2 figs.

  13. Hazardous waste facility siting in Manitoba. Case study of a success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, G. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1993-07-01

    This paper provides a detailed description and analysis of the process leading to the Manitoba siting success. The paper also includes an assessment of the co-management agreement developed between the proponent and the Rural Municipality of Montcalm. Although still in its nascent stages, Manitoba's co-management structure represents an innovative method of responding to legitimate community concerns about safety and environmental quality. The paper explores the Manitoba siting process through primary investigation. Although secondary sources are reviewed, many of the conclusions reached are based on a series of personal interviews with individuals directly involved in the site selection process. Interviewees were given the opportunity to review and comment on earlier drafts. The Manitoba siting success provides insight into the complex policy issues involved in waste facility siting. An underlying assumption, based on a review of numerous siting cases, is that most failed public and private sector siting attempts represent procedural failures rather than technical ones. The volunteer site selection process, as demonstrated in Manitoba, presents a potential solution to siting deadlock. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. "WE ARE ALL IN THE SAME BOAT NOW" PROVERBIAL RHETORIC IN THE CHURCHILL-ROOSEVELT CORRESPONDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Mieder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Both Winston S. Churchill (1874-1965 and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1 882-1945 were masters of the English language and effective orators, rallying their people through word and deed to fight as allies against the dictatorial powers during the Second World War. Their public speeches and interviews are replete with proverbs, proverbial expressions, and other phraseologisms. This is also true for their private and secretive letters, messages, memoranda, and telegrams, as can be seen from the materials that Warren F. Kimball edited in the three volumes of Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. The proverbial language, especially metaphorical texts referring to the body, animals, and the military, gives their important communications a lively and humane flavor that illustrates their deep friendship, trust, and support of each other. Frequently used as metaphorical arguments, these proverbial interjections into an otherwise factual epistolary exchange from 1933 to 1945 bear witness to the determination of these two world leaders to win the struggle for a free world.

  15. Edward D. Churchill as a combat consultant: lessons for the senior visiting surgeons and today's military medical corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jeremy W; Fischer, Josef E

    2010-03-01

    In World War II, Edward D. Churchill volunteered as a combat consultant. In this role, he mentored many junior surgeons and challenged the Army leadership to treat hemorrhagic shock with blood rather than plasma. These lessons have continued relevance for today's Senior Visiting Surgeons and our military medical corps.

  16. Documents Related to Churchill and FDR. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom

    During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…

  17. Analysis of system drought for Manitoba Hydro using stochastic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintug, Bertug

    Stochastic time series models are commonly used in the analysis of large-scale water resources systems. In the stochastic approach, synthetic flow scenarios are generated and used for the analysis of complex events such as multi-year droughts. Conclusions drawn from such analyses are only plausible to the extent that the underlying time series model realistically represents the natural variability of flows. Traditionally, hydrologists have favoured autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models to describe annual flows. In this research project, a class of model called Markov-Switching (MS) model (also referred to as a Hidden Markov model) is presented as an alternative to conventional ARMA models. The basic assumption underlying this model is that a limited number of flow regimes exists and that each flow year can be classified as belonging to one of these regimes. The persistence of and switching between regimes is described by a Markov chain. Within each regime, it is assumed that annual flows follow a normal distribution with mean and variance that depend on the regime. The simplicity of this model makes it possible to derive a number of model characteristics analytically such as moments, autocorrelation, and crosscorrelation. Model estimation is possible with the maximum likelihood method implemented using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. The uncertainty in the model parameters can be assessed through Bayesian inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. A Markov-Switching disaggregation (MSD) model is also proposed in this research project to disaggregate higher-level flows generated using the MS model into lower-level flows. The MSD model preserves the additivity property because for a given year both the higher-level and lower-level variables are generated from normal distributions. The 2-state MS and MSD models are applied to Manitoba Hydro's system along with more conventional first order autoregressive and disaggregation models and

  18. Woody debris along an upland chronosequence in boreal Manitoba and its impact on long-term carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; O'Neill, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) stands in Manitoba, Canada. We measured the amount of standing dead and downed woody debris along an upland chronosequence, including wood partially and completely covered by moss growth. Such woody debris is rarely included in measurement protocols and composed up to 26% of the total amount of woody debris in older stands, suggesting that it is important to measure all types of woody debris in ecosystems where burial by organic matter is possible. Based on these data and existing net primary production (NPP) values, we used a mass-balance model to assess the potential impact of fire-killed wood on long-term carbon storage at this site. The amount of carbon stored in deeper soil organic layers, which persists over millennia, was used to represent this long-term carbon. We estimate that between 10% and 60% of the deep-soil carbon is derived from wood biomass. Sensitivity analyses suggest that this estimate is most affected by the fire return interval, decay rate of wood, amount of NPP, and decay rate of the char (postfire) carbon pool. Landscape variations in these terms could account for large differences in deep-soil carbon. The model was less sensitive to fire consumption rates and to rates at which standing dead becomes woody debris. All model runs, however, suggest that woody debris plays an important role in long-term carbon storage for this area. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  19. Churchill: an ultra-fast, deterministic, highly scalable and balanced parallelization strategy for the discovery of human genetic variation in clinical and population-scale genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Benjamin J; Fitch, James R; Hu, Yangqiu; Corsmeier, Donald J; Zhong, Huachun; Wetzel, Amy N; Nordquist, Russell D; Newsom, David L; White, Peter

    2015-01-20

    While advances in genome sequencing technology make population-scale genomics a possibility, current approaches for analysis of these data rely upon parallelization strategies that have limited scalability, complex implementation and lack reproducibility. Churchill, a balanced regional parallelization strategy, overcomes these challenges, fully automating the multiple steps required to go from raw sequencing reads to variant discovery. Through implementation of novel deterministic parallelization techniques, Churchill allows computationally efficient analysis of a high-depth whole genome sample in less than two hours. The method is highly scalable, enabling full analysis of the 1000 Genomes raw sequence dataset in a week using cloud resources. http://churchill.nchri.org/.

  20. On elevated fluoride and boron concentrations in groundwaters associated with the Lake Saint-Martin impact structure, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada in the Lake Saint-Martin region of Manitoba have confirmed earlier reports of naturally elevated F- and B concentrations in local groundwaters. Fluoride and B concentrations are highly correlated (r2 = 0.905) and reach 15.1 mg/L and 8.5 mg/L, respectively. Virtually all groundwaters with F- concentrations greater than the drinking water limit of 1.5 mg/L are from wells within the Lake Saint-Martin impact structure, a 208 Ma complex crater 23 km in diameter underlying a large part of the study area. The high-F- groundwaters can be classified into two groups according to their anionic and isotopic compositions. Group I samples consist of Na-mixed anion groundwaters, with Cl greater than 100 mg/L and highly depleted 18O compositions indicative of recharge under much cooler climatic conditions than at present. Samples belonging to this group exhibit a striking relationship to crater morphology, and are found in an arcuate belt within the southern rim of the impact structure. Group II high-F- samples consist of Na-HCO3-SO4 groundwaters, with little Cl, and less depleted 18O compositions. Samples belonging to this group are associated with groundwaters recharged locally, on a low ridge within the impact structure. This paper traces the probable source of high-F- groundwaters to phosphatic pellets in shales of the Winnipeg Formation, a regional basal clastic unit which sub-crops at shallow depth beneath the crater rim as a result of more than 200 m of structural uplift associated with the impact event. This extensive aquifer is known elsewhere in southern Manitoba for its naturally-softened groundwaters and locally elevated F- concentrations. Group I groundwaters are interpreted as discharge from the Winnipeg Formation where it abuts against crater-fill deposits. Group II high-F- groundwaters are interpreted as modern recharge from within the impact structure, displacing Group I groundwaters. Thus

  1. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.E.; J. R. Drummond; D. Griffin; J. R. Pierce; D. L. Waugh; P. I. Palmer; Parrington, M; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A R; Taylor, J. W.; J. D. Allan; H. Coe; Walker, K A; L. Chisholm

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume wi...

  2. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.E.; J. R. Drummond; D. Griffin; J. R. Pierce; D. L. Waugh; P. I. Palmer; Parrington, M; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A R; Taylor, J. W.; J. D. Allan; H. Coe; Walker, K A; L. Chisholm

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wild-land fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario.We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but...

  3. The origins of a coming crisis : renewal of the Churchill Falls contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feehan, J.P. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Baker, M. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2005-12-13

    The renewal clause of the 1969 power contract between Hydro-Quebec and the Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation (CFLCo) takes effect in 2016. The contract concerns the development and sale of electricity from the Churchill Falls hydro site and has been a matter of discontent in Newfoundland and Labrador because it stipulates that almost all of the power be sold to Hydro-Quebec on a very long-term basis at very low and declining prices. The government of Newfoundland and Labrador has challenged the contract in several ways since the 1970s, all unsuccessfully. During the renewal period, the price is preset at 2 mills (0.2 cents) per kilowatt hour. Even in the late 1960s, this price was extraordinarily low and not achievable from any new energy source. The average wholesale price of electricity in Ontario in 2004 was 52.2 mills per kilowatt hour. With 30 million megawatt hours of electricity involved in this renewal, the potential gap between the value of the power and the amount paid to CFLCo was about $1 billion a year by 2004 and rising. This paper presents the results of the first systematic investigation into how such an extraordinary onerous condition got into the contract. It considers the process that led to the contract and related arrangements. It also presents uncited archival documentation that gives new and revealing facts about the origins of the renewal clause. The findings give rise to questions of business ethics and law. This paper also reviews the early discussions and the interrelated commercial and political challenges that had to be overcome for the two provinces to come to an agreement on a comprehensive Letter of Intent. The contract negotiations and events that led to the renewal clause were outlined along with the implications for Hydro-Quebec, CFLCo and the government of Newfoundland. 13 refs., 2 appendices.

  4. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  5. The Parent-Child Home Program in Western Manitoba: A 20-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; McLaren, Lorraine; Metcalfe, Arron

    2008-01-01

    This article is a 20-year evaluation of the Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) of Child and Family Services in Western Manitoba. Following Levenstein's (1979, 1988) approach, home visitors model parent-child interchanges using books and toys to enhance children's cognitive development through appropriate parenting behaviors. The evaluation provides…

  6. Liberal Arts vs. Applied Programming:The Evolution of University Programs in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This investigation seeks to develop data to help understand the direction being taken in university programming in Manitoba over a 35-year period in terms of the perception of alleged growth of the labour market orientation of universities. The impact of the political party in power is examined, as are features of the post-secondary program…

  7. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  8. Children with FASD- Related Disabilities Receiving Services from Child Welfare Agencies in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Don; Burnside, Linda; Marchenski, Sheila; Mudry, Andria

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious social and health problem for the child welfare, health and education systems in North America and other parts of the world. This article describes the population of children in care of the child welfare system in Manitoba. Also this article will highlight the relevance of these research findings…

  9. The Impact of Immigration on Southern Manitoba Schools: A Case Study of a Rural School Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Val

    2011-01-01

    Newcomers have traditionally settled in larger cities where their respective cultural groups have established small communities of support and where jobs are more varied and plentiful. Yet, in recent years, Manitoba has experienced a growing phenomenon: Newcomers are increasingly choosing to settle outside of the capital city of Winnipeg; moving…

  10. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  11. Mining Sector. Basic Skills Needs Assessment. INCO (Manitoba Division) & Local 6166 United Steelworkers of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lee Thomas

    A project examined the skills gap within the mining industry, identified and prioritized skills common to all jobs and occupations, and provided insight into skills that workers are likely to need in the future. The research for the basic skills needs assessment was conducted from June-October 1993 at INCO's Manitoba Division Operations in…

  12. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  13. Development and implementation of a dam safety program for Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Ninel S.; McLean, Angela D. [Manitoba infrastructure and transportation, Winnipeg, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Responsibility for the operation and maintenance of provincial dams has been transferred, at the province's initiative, to Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation (MIT). MIT used the 2007 CDA guidelines as reference in the development of a dam safety program for provincial dams in response to the lack of provincial legislation for the regulation and management of dams in Manitoba. This paper presented the work of the MIT to develop and implement a management system, with emphasis on the planning and implementation elements. MIT focused on both the prioritization of work and the implementation of an inspection program. To develop a prioritization scheme, a risk assessment was performed with the estimation of risk based on the impact of an event occurring and integrating the quality of the controls in place. Multiple account analysis (MAA) was also used to develop a second prioritization plan.

  14. Comparing apples to apples: the relative financial performance of Manitoba's acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Diane; Finlayson, Greg; Jacobs, Philip

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents comparative financial ratios that can be adopted by health system administrators and policy analysts to begin to evaluate the performance of acute care hospitals. We combined financial, statistical and clinical information for 73 acute care hospitals in Manitoba for fiscal 1997/98 to calculate 15 indicators of financial performance. Our findings suggest that there is variability between hospital types in their average costs per weighted case, cost structure and financial performance.

  15. Petroleum geology of the Devonian Three Forks Formation, Sinclair Field and surrounding area, southwestern Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, M. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2006-07-01

    The proven and probable reserves of Manitoba's most recent oil field, the Sinclair Field, are estimated at 3.8 million m{sup 3}. There are 9 designated oil pools within the Sinclair Field which produce from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, with the most productive interval being the Qu'Appelle Group in the Three Forks Formation. In 2005, the Sinclair Field represented nearly 20 per cent of Manitoba's total oil production. This paper described the geological setting of southwestern Manitoba and the northeastern flank of the Williston Basin, with reference to the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that form a basinward thickening, southwestern sloping wedge. An erosion unconformity that marked the end of the Devonian represents a period of uplift that continued until early Mississippian time and affected the deposition, reworking and erosion of the Three Forks Formation. During Three Forks time, there was a shift in the depositional environment that produced the carbonates and evaporites of the Devonian, to a more transitional clastics-dominated environment. The regional isopach of the Three Forks was reviewed along with its structural features and tectonic interpretation. The shaley, silty dolarites, interbedded with shale and brecciated rocks of the Three Forks Formation have been highly affected by weathering and subsequent diagenesis and block faulting. It was suggested that future potential for another Sinclair-type oil play may exist east of Range 24W1. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Trajectories of Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Secondary Students in Canada in the Context of a Province-Wide Physical Education Policy: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Hobin; Jannice So; Laura Rosella; Melisa Comte; Steve Manske; Jonathan McGavock

    2014-01-01

    Lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. School physical education (PE) policies have been identified as critical to improve child and adolescent physical activity levels but there has been little evaluation of such policies. In the province of Manitoba, Canada, the government implemented a mandatory PE policy in secondary schools designed to increase the daily physical activity levels of adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal ...

  17. Plague as a mortality factor in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced to Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Margaret A; Shenk, Tanya M; Spraker, Terry R

    2006-07-01

    As part of a species recovery program, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Colorado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection as determined by fluorescent antibody test and/or culture. Postmortem findings in these lynx were characterized by pneumonia, ranging from acute suppurative pneumonia, to multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, to fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed multiple areas of inflammation and consolidation, areas of edema and hemorrhage, and bacteria surrounded by extensive inflammation. Spleens had severe lymphoid depletion and hypocellular red pulp. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in only one plague-affected lynx. We hypothesize that these Canada lynx were exposed to Y. pestis by infected prey, and these are the first reports of plague in this species. PMID:17092896

  18. Seismic anisotropy in granite at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shear-Wave Experiment at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory was probably the first controlled-source shear-wave survey in a mine environment. Taking place in conjunction with the excavation of the Mine-by test tunnel at 420 m depth, the shear-wave experiment was designed to measure the in situ anisotropy of the rockmass and to use shear waves to observe excavation effects using the greatest variety of raypath directions of any in situ shear-wave survey to date. Inversion of the shear-wave polarizations shows that the anisotropy of the in situ rockmass is consistent with hexagonal symmetry with an approximate fabric orientation of strike 023degree and dip 35degree. The in situ anisotropy is probably due to microcracks with orientations governed by the in situ stress field and to mineral alignment within the weak gneissic layering. However, there is no unique interpretation as to the cause of the in situ anisotropy as the fabric orientation agrees approximately with both the orientation expected from extensive-dilatancy anisotropy and that of the gneissic layering. Eight raypaths with shear waves propagating wholly or almost wholly through granodiorite, rather than granite, do not show the expected shear-wave splitting and indicate a lower in situ anisotropy, which may be due to the finer grain size and/or the absence of gneissic layering within the granodiorite. These results suggest that shear waves may be used to determine crack and mineral orientations and for remote monitoring of a rockmass. This has potential applications in mining and waste monitoring

  19. Sectoral Interfuel Substitution in Canada: An Application of NQ Flexible Functional Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jadidzadeh; Apostolos Serletis

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aggregate demand for electricity, natural gas, and light fuel oil in Canada as a whole and six of its provinces — Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia — in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. We employ the locally ‡flexible normalized quadratic (NQ)expenditure function (in the case of the residential sector) and the NQ cost function (in the case of the commercial and industrial sectors), treat the curvature proper...

  20. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the quality of ground water in the Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys as part of the Carson River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) pilot study. Four aquifer systems have been de- lineated in the study area. Principal aquifers are unconsolidated deposits at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet above sea level and more than 50 feet below land surface. Shallow aquifers are at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet and less than 50 feet below land surface. Upland aquifers are above 4,900 feet and provide recharge to the principal aquifers. Thermal aquifers, defined as those having a water temperature greater than 30 degrees Celsius, are also present. Ground water used in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys is pumped from principal aquifers in unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Ground water in these aquifers originates as precipitation in the adjacent mountains and is recharged by the Carson River and by underflow from adjacent upstream valleys. Ground-water flow is generally parallel to the direction of surface-water flow in the Carson River. Ground water is discharged by pumping, evapo- transpiration, and underflow into the Carson River. The results of geochemical modeling indicate that as ground water moves from upland aquifers in mountainous recharge areas to principal aquifers in basin-fill deposits, the following processes probably occur: (1) plagioclase feldspar, sodium chloride, gypsum (or pyrite), potassium feldspar, and biotite dissolve; (2) calcite precipitates; (3) kaolinite forms; (4) small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the water exchange for potassium on aquifer minerals; and (5) carbon dioxide is gained or lost. The geochemical models are consistent with (1) phases identified in basin- fill sediments; (2) chemical activity of major cations and silica; (3) saturation indices of calcite and amorphous silica; (4) phase relations for aluminosilicate minerals indicated by activity diagrams; and

  1. Stratigraphy and structure of the McCoy geothermal prospect, Churchill and Lander Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.C.

    1982-06-01

    The McCoy geothermal system straddles the border of Lander and Churchill counties, central Nevada, in the middle of the Basin and Range Province. The study area occupies approximately 100 sq. km. near the intersection of the Augusta and Clan Alpine Mountains and the New Pass Range. The geology of the area is dominated by rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and subordinate intermediate-composition lava flows of Oligocene age. These volcanics were emplaced on Permo-Pennsylvanian massive cherts and Triassic dolomitic limestones. At least two episodes of hydrothermal activity can be recognized at McCoy. The oldest event altered and mineralized the volcanic and sedimentary rocks, producing the McCoy and Wild Horse mercury deposits. The youngest event produced travertine and siliceous sinter deposits which intercalate with alluvium, and appears to be related to the high heat flow found at the McCoy prospect. The oldest recognized faults at McCoy produced several east-west grabens and horsts. These fault zones were active before and during the deposition of the volcanics. The Wild Horse and McCoy mercury mines occur along one of these east-west fault zones. Basin and Range faulting began subsequent to 23 m.y. ago, and produced a complex array of polygonal blocks which were subsequently eroded into subparallel cuestas. Fluid movement in the geothermal system is controlled by the intersections of the east-west and north-south faults. There is no known igneous source for the thermal energy in this system. However, its intramontane location is atypical of known geothermal systems in the Basin and Range, which may preclude deep circulation through major basin-bounding faults.

  2. Churchill regulates cell movement and mesoderm specification by repressing Nodal signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentzer Laura

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell movements are essential to the determination of cell fates during development. The zinc-finger transcription factor, Churchill (ChCh has been proposed to regulate cell fate by regulating cell movements during gastrulation in the chick. However, the mechanism of action of ChCh is not understood. Results We demonstrate that ChCh acts to repress the response to Nodal-related signals in zebrafish. When ChCh function is abrogated the expression of mesodermal markers is enhanced while ectodermal markers are expressed at decreased levels. In cell transplant assays, we observed that ChCh-deficient cells are more motile than wild-type cells. When placed in wild-type hosts, ChCh-deficient cells often leave the epiblast, migrate to the germ ring and are later found in mesodermal structures. We demonstrate that both movement of ChCh-compromised cells to the germ ring and acquisition of mesodermal character depend on the ability of the donor cells to respond to Nodal signals. Blocking Nodal signaling in the donor cells at the levels of Oep, Alk receptors or Fast1 inhibited migration to the germ ring and mesodermal fate change in the donor cells. We also detect additional unusual movements of transplanted ChCh-deficient cells which suggests that movement and acquisition of mesodermal character can be uncoupled. Finally, we demonstrate that ChCh is required to limit the transcriptional response to Nodal. Conclusion These data establish a broad role for ChCh in regulating both cell movement and Nodal signaling during early zebrafish development. We show that chch is required to limit mesodermal gene expression, inhibit Nodal-dependant movement of presumptive ectodermal cells and repress the transcriptional response to Nodal signaling. These findings reveal a dynamic role for chch in regulating cell movement and fate during early development.

  3. Tree-ring-based estimates of long-term seasonal precipitation in the Souris River Region of Saskatchewan, North Dakota and Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Skip V.; Akyüz, F. Adnan; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Historically unprecedented flooding occurred in the Souris River Basin of Saskatchewan, North Dakota and Manitoba in 2011, during a longer term period of wet conditions in the basin. In order to develop a model of future flows, there is a need to evaluate effects of past multidecadal climate variability and/or possible climate change on precipitation. In this study, tree-ring chronologies and historical precipitation data in a four-degree buffer around the Souris River Basin were analyzed to develop regression models that can be used for predicting long-term variations of precipitation. To focus on longer term variability, 12-year moving average precipitation was modeled in five subregions (determined through cluster analysis of measures of precipitation) of the study area over three seasons (November–February, March–June and July–October). The models used multiresolution decomposition (an additive decomposition based on powers of two using a discrete wavelet transform) of tree-ring chronologies from Canada and the US and seasonal 12-year moving average precipitation based on Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data and US Historical Climatology Network data. Results show that precipitation varies on long-term (multidecadal) time scales of 16, 32 and 64 years. Past extended pluvial and drought events, which can vary greatly with season and subregion, were highlighted by the models. Results suggest that the recent wet period may be a part of natural variability on a very long time scale.

  4. Porosity Estimation of Lodgepole Formation, Manitoba, Canana Using Log Data Anaysis and Impedance Inversion of Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We estimated porosity distribution of Lodgepole Formation, a carbonate reservoir in Virden Field, Manitoba, Canada by applying rock physics models to seismic impedance data. From well log data analysis, we found that Lodgepole formation can be divided into three carbonate units: Scallion, Virden and Whitewater Lake from the bottom. From rock physics analysis, we divided the Lodgepole formation into 2 groups: lower (Scallion and Virden) and upper (Whitewater Lake), since the two lower units have very similar impedance-porosity relations. Then we have two impedance-porosity models to apply to the seismic impedance data. Impedance inversion was performed by the routine procedures - upscaling well log data, wavelet extraction, synthetic data creation, well tie and inversion. Since log data are very sparse, we have only one log data (Well 1) that has Vp and density on the seismic line. Moreover, the log data is located near the left edge of the seismic line, which can cause representativeness issue. To mitigate this issue, we adopted a psuedo-well technique using a multivariated statistical approach. We found another well (Well 2) located at the right part of the seismic line, which has only Vp data. Using nearby wells, we created bivariated statistical distribution of Vp and density and we drew density data condition to the Vp data from Well 2. Now, we have two wells with Vp and density, and repeat the impedance inversion. When we compare two inverted impedance maps, those show similar general trends. However, there are differences in detail, especially high variability in the right part was lessened with two wells, which caused negative porosity estimation with one well. The final porosity map by applying the rock physics models to the inverted impedance data also showed more reasonable and smooth porosity distribution. From the estimated porosity map, we found that the lower group has higher porosity (more prospective) than the upper group and that porosity increases

  5. Comparison of Magnetic Anomalies of Lithospheric Origin Measured by Satellite and Airborne Magnetometers over Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Coles, R. L.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly data from the OGO 2, 4 and 6 (Pogo) satellites are compared with upward-continued aeromagnetic data between 50 deg -85 deg N latitude and 220 deg - 260 deg E longitude. Agreement is good both in anomaly location and in amplitude, giving confidence that it is possible to proceed with the derivation and interpretation of satellite anomaly maps in all parts of the globe. The data contain a magnetic high over the Alpha ridge suggesting continental composition and a magnetic low over the southern Canada basin and northern Canadian Arctic islands (Sverdrup basin). The low in the Sverdrup basin corresponds to a region of high heat flow, suggesting a shallow Curie isotherm. A ridge of high field, with two distinct peaks in amplitude, is found over the northern portion of the platform deposits and a relative high is located in the central portion of the Churchill province. No features are present to indicate a magnetic boundary between Slave and Bear provinces, but a trend change is evident between Slave and Churchill provinces. South of 60 deg latitude a broad magnetic low is located over very thick (40-50 km) crust, interpreted to be a region of low magnetization.

  6. Condition indexing of embankment dams : case studies from Manitoba Hydro and Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halayko, K. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Gervais, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Large inventories of earth embankment dams that require regular maintenance and repairs are managed by both Manitoba Hydro and Hydro-Quebec. A rational procedure was developed for the allocation of limited maintenance and repairs funds while still optimizing dam safety objectives. This paper describes a procedure based on the adaptation of the Condition Indexing procedure initially developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, which allows for the allocation of maintenance and repair funds to the components deemed the most important and in the worst condition. The application of the Condition Index procedure was illustrated by examining a sample of different embankment dams operated by Manitoba Hydro and Hydro-Quebec. The primary failure modes are correctly identified by the Condition Index procedure, and it prioritizes the most relevant repair and maintenance activities. This paper describes, and the presents the results of, studies on an embankment dam on limestone foundation, an embankment dam on a clay foundation, and an embankment dam on alluvial soils. 5 refs., 17 tabs.

  7. Guidelines for Interscholastic Sports. Curriculum Support Series. A Resource Package to Supplement the Physical Educational Curriculum in Manitoba Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This document supplements the Manitoba Department of Education Physical Education Curriculum Guide (1981). It provides an outline of the philosophy and purpose of interscholastic athletic programs. Guidelines are provided for the organization of interscholastic sports programs and their implementation. Topics covered include: (1) the purpose of…

  8. Listening to Their Voices: Women Prisoners and Access to Justice in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Parkes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing research into effective accountability and oversight of Canadian prisons has considered the situation of federally sentenced prisoners (that is, those serving sentences of two years or more and has raised serious questions about their ability to access justice in the sense of having adequate and accessible means to ensure that their treatment and conditions of confinement are just and in compliance with the law. Relatively little is known about the state of oversight and legal review processes at the provincial level, where jail terms are short and prisoners’ rights litigation is rare. This paper attempts to begin filling that gap in knowledge by examining the situation faced by women imprisoned in provincial jails in Manitoba. The paper first surveys the existing international and domestic laws concerning prisoners rights and avenues for redress in Manitoba, before moving on to consider why and how those mechanisms are utilized or not, by listening to the voices of women who have been incarcerated recently at the Portage Correctional Centre. Finally, the paper considers what legislative or policy changes might be made to provide access to justice for provincial prisoners, drawing on recommendations and insights from the women themselves. La recherche qui existe au sujet de la responsabilisation et de la surveillance efficaces des prisons canadiennes a porté sur la situation de prisonniers condamnés sous le régime fédéral (c’est-àdire, ceux qui purgent des peines de deux ans ou plus et a soulevé des questions importantes quant à leur capacité d’accéder à la justice dans le sens de disposer de moyens adéquats et accessibles pour assurer que leur traitement et leurs conditions de détention sont équitables et conformes à la loi. On connaît relativement peu quant à l’état de surveillance et des processus de recours juridique au niveau provincial, où les périodes d’emprisonnement sont courtes et les litiges

  9. Canopy, snow, and lichens on woodland caribou range in southeastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available I examined the relationships among snow cover (api, lichen abundance, and canopy composition on the range of the Aikens Lake population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Percent cover of forage lichens (Cladina spp. was positively correlated with maximum total thickness and with maximum vertical hardness of api. Mixed communities of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides, spruce (Picea spp., and balsam fir (Abies balsamea showed the most favourable nival conditions for caribou but had low lichen abundance; those dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana were the converse. The results suggest an energetic compromise for woodland caribou when foraging for terrestrial lichens. During winter, caribou exhibited significant selection for jack pine communities whereas mixed communities were avoided.

  10. Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation Limited and Twin Falls Power Corporation Limited: Auditor's report and financial statements for the year ended December 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. Ltd. operates a hydroelectric generating plant and related transmission facilities in Labrador with a rated capacity of 5,428 MW. A power contract with Hydro-Quebec provides for the sale of substantially all of the energy from the plant until 2041. The corporation owns a 33.3% equity interest and a 66.7% voting interest in Twin Falls Power Corp., which has an inoperative 225 MW hydroelectric plant on the Unknown River in Labrador. Financial statements for the two corporations are presented for 1992. Total revenues from sales of power by Churchill Falls in 1992 were $87.4 million, and net income for the year was $26.3 million

  11. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  12. Hydrogeochemistry, groundwater ages and sources of salts in a granitic batholith on the Canadian Shield, southeastern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogeochemistry of the Lac du Bonnet granitic batholith has been determined for the region of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) in southeastern Manitoba, Canada. This work forms part of the geosciences studies performed for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program over the period 1980-1995 by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Knowledge of the variation of groundwater chemistry and its causes is useful in assessing the performance and safety of a nuclear fuel waste vault located at depths of up to 1000 m in a crystalline rock formation of the Canadian Shield. Groundwaters and matrix pore fluids have been obtained by standard sampling methods from shallow piezometers in clay-rich overburden, from packer-isolated borehole zones intersecting fractures or fault zones in the bedrock, and from boreholes in unfractured rock in AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Eighty-six individual fracture groundwaters have been sampled and analysed from permeable zones in 53 boreholes drilled to depths of up to 1000 m in the Lac du Bonnet batholith. In addition, 28 groundwaters from piezometers in a large wetland area near the URL have been sampled and analysed to determine the influence of clay-rich overburden on the bedrock hydrogeochemistry. Analyses have been made for major and minor ions, pH, Eh, trace metals, and stable and radioactive isotopes, to characterise these groundwaters and relate them to their hydrogeologic regimes. Shallow groundwaters in the fractured bedrock are generally dilute (TDS 3 waters and show little indication of mixing with Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 groundwater from overburden sediments. The near-modern levels of 3H and 14C, and a warm-climate 2H/18O signature in these groundwaters, indicates that the upper ∼200 m of fractured bedrock contains an active groundwater circulation system with a residence time of tens to hundreds of years. Deeper fracture groundwaters (200-400 m depth) in recharge areas, are more alkaline, Na-Ca-HCO3

  13. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前

    2004-01-01

    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  14. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  15. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  16. The Cora Lake Shear Zone: Strain Localization in an Ultramylonitic, Deep Crustal Shear Zone, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Orlandini, O. F.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Leslie, S. R.; Holland, M.

    2012-12-01

    Ultramylonitic shear zones typically involve intense strain localization, and when developed over large regions can introduce considerable heterogeneity into the crust. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) displays several 10's to 100's of meters-wide zones of ultramylonite distributed throughout its full 3-5 km mylonitized width. Detailed mapping, petrography, thermobarometry, and in-situ monazite geochronology suggest that it formed during the waning phases of granulite grade metamorphism and deformation, within one of North America's largest exposures of polydeformed lower continental crust. Anastomosing zones of ultramylonite contain recrystallized grain-sizes approaching the micron scale and might appear to suggest lower temperature mylonitization. However, feldspar and even clinopyroxene are dynamically recrystallized, and quantitative thermobarometry of syn-deformational assemblages indicate high P and T conditions ranging from 0.9 -10.6 GPa and 775-850 °C. Even at these high T's, dynamic recovery and recrystallization were extremely limited. Rocks with low modal quartz have extremely small equilibrium volumes. This is likely the result of inefficient diffusion, which is further supported by the unannealed nature of the crystals. Local carbonate veins suggests that H2O poor, CO2 rich conditions may have aided in the preservation of fine grain sizes, and may have inhibited dynamic recovery and recrystallization. The Cora Lake shear zone is interpreted to have been relatively strong and to have hardened during progressive deformation. Garnet is commonly fractured perpendicular to host rock fabric, and statically replaced by both biotite and muscovite. Pseudotachylite, with the same sense of shear, occurs in several ultramylonitized mafic granulites. Thus, cataclasis and frictional melt are interpreted to have been produced in the lower continental crust, not during later reactivation. We suggest that strengthening of rheologically stiffer lithologies led to extreme localization, and potentially earthquakes in quartz-absent hardened lithologies. Cora Lake shearing represents the culmination of a deformation trend of increasing strength, strain partitioning, and localization within a polydeformed, strengthened lower continental crust.

  17. 2014 Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447 Project Shoal Area Churchill County, Nevada October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States).Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the drilling program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Shoal was the location of an underground nuclear test conducted on October 26, 1963, as part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor to DOE). The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device in granitic rock at a depth of approximately 1,211 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (AEC 1964). The corrective action strategy for the site is focused on revising the site conceptual model and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network at the site. Field activities associated with the project were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended) and applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations.

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Amaranth M Pool, Waskada Field, southwest Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasinski, D.R.; Last, W.M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geological Science; Martiniuk, C.D. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2005-07-01

    The major hydrocarbon producer of Manitoba's Waskada Field is the Lower Amaranth Member of the Jurassic Amaranth, the oldest Mesozoic unit in the northeastern portion of the Williston Basin. Reservoir facies occur as sandy intervals on logs, and are complexly interbedded intertidal sandstones and siltstones. Thickness of the Lower Member is controlled by the paleotopography of the underlying Paleozoic erosional surface. Hydrocarbon production in the Waskada Amaranth began in 1980 with the recompletion of a former Mississippian producer. In the mid-1990s, the Waskada Field expanded eastward into the Goodlands area, with the development of the Lower Amaranth M pool. Developed original oil in place (OOIP) is calculated to be 9.8 million bbl, with 6.7 per cent primary recovery. However, net pay data from the M pool shows that the current pool boundaries do not accurately represent the absolute pool limits. Extent of the pool is defined by a diagenetically controlled permeability pinchout, where reduced permeability allows water migration, while simultaneously retarding oil migration. Total potential of the M pool has yet to be reached. Two development targets have been identified adjacent to the current M pool boundaries based on reservoir facies thickness, net pay, and production data. Development of these areas would expand the pool boundaries by 632 ha, increasing M pool total OOIP to 28.5 million bbl, leaving an undeveloped 18.7 million bbl.

  19. Individual and population doses in Manitoba from chiropractic x-ray procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, W.; Sourkes, A.M. (Manitoba Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Manitoba (population of 1.0 million) has 37 chiropractors who perform x-rays on behalf of 100 practising chiropractors. In 1987 these specialists performed approximately 33 300 spinal x-ray studies. Cervical spine examinations contribute the lowest patient dose (average H{sub E} of 26 {mu}Sv); thoracic and lumbar spine examinations show considerably higher patient dose (H{sub E} in the range 24-410 {mu}Sv) Average patient H{sub E} was determined to be 220 {mu}Sv. Lumbar spine examinations account for 45% of all chiropractic x-ray examinations (84% of the collective dose). Cervical spine examinations also account for 45% of chiropractic x-ray examinations, but contribute only 5% of the collective dose with thoracic spine examinations contributing the 11% balance of the collective dose. Patients undergoing chiropractic procedures involving exposure to x-rays account for about 3.6% of all diagnostic x-ray procedures. The per caput dose contribution from chiropractic practice was calculated to be 7.3 {mu}Sv (1.2% of total population dose from diagnostic procedures employing ionising radiation). (author).

  20. Carbon Dynamics of a Boreal Logging Age Sequence in Northern Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, J.; Martin, J.; Weber, J.; Gower, S. T.

    2001-12-01

    Increasing pressure has been put on boreal forests to meet the growing demand for timber products. Boreal forests contain a disproportionately large amount of carbon in the soil and are believed to play an important role in carbon sequestration, but the effects of disturbance, such as harvesting, on the carbon budget are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare the carbon content and aboveground net primary production for a mixed species (Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, and Populus tremuloides) boreal forest logging age sequence in northern Manitoba. The age sequence consisted of replicated, even-aged stands that originated from clear-cut harvests in 1990, 1983, 1971, and 1935. Carbon content of aboveground vegetation increased significantly during stand recovery, and was significantly greater than similar-aged black spruce stands recovering from wildfire. Distribution of coarse woody debris (CWD) was bimodal, with greater mass per hectare at the 1990 and 1935 sites, and a minimum at the 1971 site. Trends in CWD distribution, as well as forest floor carbon and soil carbon content are used to establish decomposition rates and consequences for the carbon budget.

  1. Isotopic methods in hydrogeology and their application to the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review examines isotopic methods used to determine groundwater sources, residence times and processes of geochemical evolution that have been published in the international literature, with specific reference to AECL's experience in these methods and applications to groundwaters at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL), Manitoba. The program of groundwater sampling and analysis currently being planned for the URL area over the next several years will concentrate on specific isotopic measurements that may assist in understanding the groundwater flow system at the URL site. These results will add to the existing data for the URL area and indicate which isotopes are most useful when applied to the known groundwater flow system of the URL. This program of study is especially important because it not only uses standard geochemical and isotopic measurements (e.g., major ion, trace elements, 2H/18O, 14C, 34S) of groundwaters, but will determine values of more exotic and unusual ratios, such as 6Li/7Li, and B11/B10, whose potential for understanding groundwater geochemical evolution is largely unknown at present. In addition, the more established but equally complex methods of isotopic analysis, to determine 3He/4He, 36Cl/Cl and 129I/I, will be used to assess their potential for adding to the hydrogeochemical understanding of flow paths in crystalline rock. (author). 182 refs., 11 tabs., 27 figs

  2. In situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel spill in northern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a northern Manitoba airport, a site was contaminated with diesel fuel, which was confined within the unsaturated zone in silt and silty sand. A two-phase bioremediation process was designed and implemented in-situ in a pilot test. The first phase, ground surface spraying, involved mixing nutrients (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate) with water in a tank and then spraying the mixture on the ground surface above the diesel plume. The second phase, a pump-cycle system, involved pumping groundwater from below the diesel plume into one of two tanks in series. The groundwater underwent both nutrient addition (weekly) and aeration in the tanks, then it was pumped into eight feeder wells which circumscribed an extraction well. Soil testing revealed that both remediation processes aided in increasing subsurface nutrient concentrations and the moisture content within the diesel plume. In addition, high total coliform counts were observed in both the silt and silty sand layers. This implied that conditions for suitable bioremediation can be developed in relatively fine-grained soil. Intermittent soil sampling at three locations over a 14-month period revealed that the diesel plume decreased in size by ca 30% and contaminant concentrations (diesel fuel) also decreased. Plume movement also occurred. The pump-cycle system remains operational. 67 refs., 77 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Collection Usage Pre- and Post-Summon Implementation at the University of Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa O’Hara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – This study examines the use of print and electronic collections bothbefore and after implementation of Summon at the University of Manitoba Libraries.Summon is a web-scale discovery service which allows discovery of all of thematerials the library owns or has access to from a simple search box on the library’sweb page.Methods – COUNTER statistics were used to determine database, e-journal, and ebookstatistics, including database search statistics (DR1 from the COUNTERDatabase Report 1, full-text article downloads from the COUNTER Journal Report 1(JR1, and successful section search requests from the COUNTER Book Report 2 (BR2for electronic resources. Sirsi, the University of Manitoba’s integrated library system,provided statistics on checkouts for the libraries’ circulating print monograph andserial collections. The percentage change from the pre-Summon implementationperiod to the post-Summon implementation period was calculated and these numberswere used to determine whether usage had increased or decreased for both print andelectronic collections.Results – As expected, searches in citation databases decreased because searches wereno longer being carried out in the native database as the metadata from the databaseis included in Summon. E-journal usage increased dramatically and e-book usage alsoincreased for four of six providers examined. Print usage decreased, but the resultswere inconclusive.Conclusions – Summon implementation had a favourable impact on collection usage.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  5. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  6. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  7. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  8. Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): An analysis of spatial and temporal hydrological trends and patterns in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, A. J.; Burn, D. H.; Prowse, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change can have profound impacts on the hydrologic regime of a watershed. These effects are likely to be especially severe in regions particularly sensitive to changes in climate, such as the Canadian north, or when there are other stresses on the hydrologic regime, such as may occur when there are large withdrawals from, or land-use changes within, a watershed. A recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stressed that future climate is likely to accelerate the hydrologic cycle and hence may affect water security in certain locations. For some regions, this will mean enhanced access to water resources, but because the effects will not be spatially uniform, other regions will experience reduced access. Understanding these patterns is critical for water managers and government agencies in western Canada - an area of highly contrasting hydroclimatic regimes and overlapping water-use and jurisdictional borders - as adapting to climate change may require reconsideration of inter-regional transfers and revised allocation of water resources to competing industrial sectors, including agriculture, hydroelectric production, and oil and gas. This research involves the detection and examination of spatial and temporal streamflow trends in western Canadian rivers as a response to changing climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and the synoptic patterns controlling these drivers. The study area, known as the CROCWR region, extends from the Pacific coast of British Columbia as far east as the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border and from the Canada-United States international border through a large portion of the Northwest Territories. This analysis examines hydrologic trends in monthly and annual streamflow for a collection of 34 hydrometric gauging stations believed to adequately represent the overall effects of climate variability and change on flows in western Canada by means of the Mann-Kendall non

  9. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  10. Advective heat transport in the upper carbonate aquifer beneath Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, G.A.G.; Woodbury, A.D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Air conditioning and industrial cooling in Winnipeg, Manitoba requires large volumes of groundwater, with the bulk of this water pumped from the Upper Carbonate Aquifer. Pumping takes place at the erosional surface of several dipping Paleozoic carbonate units beneath the city. To prevent excessive drawdown, wastewater from these processes is reinjected into the aquifer. Heat loading from the surface, combined with this practice, leads to the creation of areas of elevated temperature within the Upper Carbonate Aquifer. An industrial area located in eastern Winnipeg is the site of the largest of these anomalies, where the aquifer's permeability is enhanced by the presence of conduits and discrete fractures. The use of numerical modeling showed that the greatest temperature anomalies occur where there are very high permeabilities, especially in the form of conduits and discrete fractures. Groundwater velocities are increased by these factors, and could result in the creation of plumes of heated water. Plumes of heated water are less likely to occur where the aquifer is thicker and conduits are absent, due to advective heat transport becoming focused between the injection well and the production well in lower permeability situations. These areas also correspond to the areas of decreased transmissivity in several parts of the Upper Carbonate Aquifer, and may not be capable of producing the required volumes of groundwater for thermal applications. Taking into account these permeability features in planning and design of non-consumptive groundwater systems in the Upper Carbonate Aquifer helps to minimize both drawdown and changes in aquifer temperature. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  11. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B Christian; Layberry, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment.

  12. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Layberry, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment. PMID:27199600

  13. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  14. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  15. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  16. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  17. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  18. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  19. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  20. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  1. Provincial/territorial public education and outreach hubs on climate change : evaluation of pilot phase : Manitoba public education and outreach hub : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2001, the Manitoba government established the pilot hub for climate change public education and outreach (PEO) in the province. The PEO is hosted by Manitoba Eco-Network, an affiliate of the Canadian Environmental Network located in Winnipeg. The aim of the PEO is to conduct public education as it relates to the environment. In addition, it aims to enhance communications between various member organizations. The main goal of the Manitoba Hub is to build awareness and empower citizens of Manitoba to act in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the individual and community level. An evaluation of the pilot was performed, and the results published in this report. The pilot proved successful, according to stakeholder support for continuing this initiative further. Some of the recommendations to improve on the initiative included: (1) development of a new business plan for the next phase, (2) the Climate Change Connection (CCC) should continue to look for opportunities to expand beyond traditional climate change stake holders, (3) negotiations should continue between the Hub and the Province on its appropriate role with the new Climate Change/Greenhouse Gas Community Challenge, and (4) a greater role in capacity building with local groups and members, such as professional development and training opportunities; the provision of tools for others to perform outreach; and, assistance for groups with funding. The valuable lessons learned throughout the pilot phase were discussed in this document. 3 tabs

  2. Doctoral Students at the University of Manitoba: Factors Affecting Completion Rates and Time to Degree by Gender and by Field of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Thelma G.

    The completion rate and median time to degree of three doctoral cohorts at the University of Manitoba were analyzed by gender and by field of study and the results were compared to studies elsewhere. To evaluate factors affecting students' progress, a mail questionnaire was sent in the fall of 1993 to all students (N=105) first admitted to the…

  3. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  4. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  5. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Herd risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of Maedi-Visna in the Manitoba sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Muhammad; Green, Chris; Rashid, Mamoon; Duizer, Glen; Whiting, Terry L

    2010-04-01

    Disease associated with Maedi-Visna infection results in substantial economic losses in affected sheep producing areas of the world. A survey was conducted to estimate herd and individual seroprevalence in the province of Manitoba and evaluate risk factors for seropositive herds. Of 2207 sheep sampled from 77 selected sheep flocks, the animal level seroprevalence was 2.47% and herd level seroprevalence was 25.10%. The herd-level factors of presence of clinical skin disease, herd size of > 70, history of musculoskeletal/lameness abnormalities, and the purchase of new stock (> 50) in the last 1 to 5 y, showed significant associations with seropositive herd status. The study documented a remarkable stability of low seroprevalence in the province over a 20-year period in the absence of a systematic disease control program.

  7. Draft guidelines for the preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed Manitoba Hydro North Central Transmission Line Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Central Transmission Line Project and related installations are being planned to connect northern Manitoba communities with the provincial power grid. The line is to be subjected to an environmental assessment and review process required for projects that have an environmental effect on an area of federal responsibility. Draft guidelines for the assessment/review are presented which have been recommended to a federal-provincial panel that will conduct the assessment. These guidelines specify the intent and the scope of the environmental assessment, and the requirements regarding information to be collected and what is to be assessed. These requirements are listed in the categories of project description, environmental setting, predevelopment planning review, impact assessment, mitigation, residual impacts, monitoring and research, public input, technical references, and report format

  8. Constraints and Contributors Towards the Use of Computer Simulations in Manitoba Chemistry Classrooms: Content is Still King

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Brian Frederick

    Manitoba Education Citizenship and Youth (MECY) recently redesigned Grade 11 and 12 Chemistry curricula in an effort to be responsive to new developments in chemistry education research. In order to support the teaching of the microscopic level of chemistry, the new curricula encourage the use of technology and computer simulations into specific outcomes to aid meaning making of abstract chemistry concepts by students. This study identifies constraints and contributing factors to the use of computer simulations to facilitate student meaning making in chemistry. A questionnaire survey and case study approach informed by Urie Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model was used to identify factors. The results of this survey show the chemistry teaching inventory of teachers has become more diversified. Although teachers are using technology as differentiated instruction, their pedagogical use of technology is primarily for content dissemination rather than utilizing the technology to assist students in a deep understanding of chemistry ideas.

  9. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels.

  10. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, F.J. Paul; Abonyi, Sylvia; Dyck, Roland F.

    2016-01-01

    Background First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI), height for age (HA) and weight for age (WA) of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls) were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8%) than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%), but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0%) and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. −2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First Nations children's communities were satisfactory during the residential school era. PMID:27357369

  11. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Paul Hackett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective: To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI, height for age (HA and weight for age (WA of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results: On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8% than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%, but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0% and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. −2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions: A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First Nations children's communities were satisfactory during the residential school era.

  12. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  13. The Phalacridae (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea of Canada: new records, distribution, and bionomics with a particular focus on the Atlantic Canadian fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Phalacridae are briefly surveyed. Two species, Phalacrus politus Melsheimer and Olibrus vittatus LeConte, are newly recorded in Canada. As a result, eight phalacrids are now known to occur in Canada. Thirteen new provincial records are reported including one from Saskatchewan, two from Manitoba, two from New Brunswick, three from Nova Scotia, two from Prince Edward Island, and three from Newfoundland and Labrador. The four species and ten provincial records of Phalacridae reported from provinces in Atlantic Canada are the first records of this family in the region. Information on the bionomics of these species is briefly summarized. The species include Phalacrus penicillatus Say, Phalacrus politus Melsheimer (a smut-feeding species associated with corn, sorghum, and other grasses, Olibrus vittatus LeConte, Olibrus semistriatus LeConte (an abundant floricolous species found in the heads of several genera of Asteraceae, Acylomus pugetanus Casey (an ergot-feeding beetle associated with various grains and wild grasses, and Stilbus apicalis (Melsheimer (an apparently surface-feeding, mold-grazing, facultatively parthenogenic species. The discovery of P. politus on insular Newfoundland is particularly noteworthy and represents a range extension of about 1,260 km. The possible origins of this apparently isolated and disjunct population are discussed, focusing on the glacial history of the region.

  14. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  15. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  16. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  17. Northwest outlet channels of Lake Agassiz, isostatic tilting and a migrating continental drainage divide, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Souch, Catherine

    1998-10-01

    Lake cores obtained from the northwest outlet of glacial Lake Agassiz in northwest Saskatchewan, Canada, provide a minimum date for the cessation of the flood from the northwest outlet, and a chronology for abandonment of mid-Holocene channels that presently straddle the Mackenzie and Churchill drainage divide. The stratigraphy of a vibracore taken from Long Lake consists of a lower pebble gravel fining to massive sand, silty-clay and then fibrous peat. Wood fragments from the base of the clay yielded an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) date of 9120 BP. Because the lake is scour in origin and is in the head of the spillway, the date is considered to be a minimum estimate for cessation of the flood from the northwest outlet at the beginning of the Emerson Phase. A vibracore taken at Haas Lake in an abandoned channel surrounded by muskeg with no influent streams, consists of 0.8 m of stratified, pebble gravel containing abundant shell and wood fragments, overlain by 1.62 m of gyttja with a sharp, conformable lower contact. AMS dates range from 5590 BP from the topmost gravel to 3080 BP within the gyttja. The gravel is interpreted as fluvial, recording a river draining Wasekamio Lake north into the Clearwater River across the present-day drainage divide. Today, a drop of 2 m occurs from Wasekamio Lake southeast to Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse, along 150 km of lake basins parallel to the Cree Lake Moraine. The dates from Haas Lake suggest that before 5200 BP, the drainage divide was about 100 km further southeast, implying that during the Emerson Phase, lake level was controlled by a sill near Flatstone Lake at about 430 m instead of between Wasekamio Lake and the Clearwater River, as was previously proposed. Holocene differential isostatic uplift caused the flow reversal in the upper Churchill basin. Anastomosed channels at the mouth of rivers flowing north into lakes indicate that uplift is still active in the area today.

  18. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  19. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  20. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  1. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas.

  3. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  4. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  5. Trajectories of Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Secondary Students in Canada in the Context of a Province-Wide Physical Education Policy: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hobin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. School physical education (PE policies have been identified as critical to improve child and adolescent physical activity levels but there has been little evaluation of such policies. In the province of Manitoba, Canada, the government implemented a mandatory PE policy in secondary schools designed to increase the daily physical activity levels of adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal changes in and the factors associated with the physical activity trajectories of adolescents in Manitoba during their tenure as secondary school students in the context of this school PE policy. The results found, despite the PE policy, a grade-related decline in the physical activity trajectories of adolescents; however, the decline in physical activity was attenuated among adolescents with low and moderate baseline physical activity compared to adolescents with high baseline physical activity and among adolescents who attended schools in neighbourhoods of low compared to high socioeconomic status. There are several possible explanations for these findings, including the influence of the PE policy on the PA patterns of adolescent subpopulations that tend to be at higher risk for inactivity in both childhood and adult life.

  6. The Association Between Community Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Kozyrskyj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally surmised that community stressors have an incubating effect for a variety of diagnoses on maternal and child health. This is of public health significance, as children of mothers facing long-term distress were found to have a 60% higher risk for asthma diagnosis at age 7 in Manitoba, Canada. Our objective was to determine the association of community stressors with childhood asthma prevalence in Winnipeg, Canada from participants who completed the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE survey administered in 2002–2003 to a birth cohort from 1995. Measures of community socioeconomic makeup and community disorder with rank ordinalized by quintile at the census tract level were obtained from the 1996 Canada Census. Crime data (annual incidence per 10,000 persons by neighbourhood profile for 2001 was provided by the Winnipeg Police Service. Dichotomous caregiver report of child asthma along with other indicators from the geocoded SAGE survey allowed linkage to 23 neighbourhood profiles. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of community stressors on childhood asthma prevalence for birth and non-birth home children (N = 1472 and children resident of birth homes at age 7 or 8 (N = 698. After adjusting for individual risk factors, children resident of birth homes in a high thefts over $5,000 neighbourhood profile were twice as likely (Adjusted OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11–3.81 to have report of asthma compared to children in a lower thefts over $5,000 profile, with community thefts over $5,000 explaining over half of the observed neighbourhood variation in asthma.

  7. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada`s radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. , Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1998-09-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro`s used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  8. Vegetation characteristics of forest stands used by woodland caribou and those disturbed by fire or logging in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M. Metsaranta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in an area known as the Kississing-Naosap caribou range in west central Manitoba. The vegetation characteristics of areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging were measured in order to develop a model to estimate habitat quality from parameters collected during stan¬dard resource inventories. There was evidence that habitat index values calculated using a visual score-sheet index could be used as the basis to relate parameters commonly collected during resource inventories to habitat suitability. Use of this model to select long and short-term leave areas during forest management planning could potentially mitigate some of the negative impacts of forest harvesting. Abundance of arboreal lichen and wind-fallen trees were important predictor variables in the suitability model, but their inclusion did not explain more variance in habitat suitability than models that did not include them. Extreme post-fire deadfall abundance may play a role in predator-prey dynamics by creating habitat that is equally unsuitable for all ungulates, and thus keeping both moose and caribou densities low.

  9. Obstetric medical care in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  10. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  11. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  12. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  13. Private Health Insurance in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremiah Hurley; Emmanuel Guindon

    2008-01-01

    Although a majority of Canadians hold some form of private health care insurance -- most commonly obtained as an employment benefit -- private insurance finances only 12% of health care expenditures in Canada and its financing role is essentially limited to complementary coverage for services not covered by public insurance programs. Private supplementary insurance for services covered by the public insurance system does not exist in Canada. This limited role for private insurance in health c...

  14. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  15. Small dams in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapel, C.K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mitchelmore, P. [Mitchelmore Engineering Co. Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Small dams are often used for irrigation, municipal water supplies and storm water management. Small dams outnumber large hydro-electric projects in Canada by a wide margin, and tend to be located closer to large population centres. Despite their lower profile with the general public, small dams frequently have high consequence classifications. This study discussed the distribution of various consequence classifications for small dams of varying heights. Databases from different Canadian provinces were used to develop sets of statistics on dam features, the distribution of risk, and other relevant information. Approximately 6000 dams were classified in the database. Of these, 444 were greater than 15 metres in height. A significant portion of with high consequence classifications qualified as small dams, and the majority of the high consequence dams were under 10 metres in height. The largest population of dam owners have limited resources available for adequate engineering design, construction supervision, and dam safety management programs. It was concluded that economical methods of estimating probable maximum flood (PMF) rates are needed for small dams. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  17. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  18. 25-year analysis of a dental undergraduate research training program (BSc Dent) at the University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J E; de Vries, J; Iacopino, A M

    2008-12-01

    Research in the context of the dental school has traditionally been focused on institutional/faculty accomplishments and generating new knowledge to benefit the profession. Only recently have significant efforts been made to expand the overall research programming into the formal dental curriculum, to provide students with a baseline exposure to the research and critical thinking processes, encourage evidence-based decision-making, and stimulate interest in academic/research careers. Various approaches to curriculum reform and the establishment of multiple levels of student research opportunities are now part of the educational fabric of many dental schools worldwide. Many of the preliminary reports regarding the success and vitality of these programs have used outcomes measures and metrics that emphasize cultural changes within institutions, student research productivity, and student career preferences after graduation. However, there have not been any reports from long-standing programs (a minimum of 25 years of cumulative data) that describe dental school graduates who have had the benefit of research/training experiences during their dental education. The University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry initiated a BSc Dent program in 1980 that awarded a formal degree for significant research experiences taking place within the laboratories of the Faculty-based researchers and has continued to develop and expand this program. The success of the program has been demonstrated by the continued and increasing demands for entry, the academic achievements of the graduates, and the numbers of graduates who have completed advanced education/training programs or returned to the Faculty as instructors. Analysis of our long-term data validates many recent hypotheses and short-term observations regarding the benefits of dental student research programs. This information may be useful in the design and implementation of dental student research programs at other dental schools

  19. 25-year analysis of a dental undergraduate research training program (BSc Dent) at the University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J E; de Vries, J; Iacopino, A M

    2008-12-01

    Research in the context of the dental school has traditionally been focused on institutional/faculty accomplishments and generating new knowledge to benefit the profession. Only recently have significant efforts been made to expand the overall research programming into the formal dental curriculum, to provide students with a baseline exposure to the research and critical thinking processes, encourage evidence-based decision-making, and stimulate interest in academic/research careers. Various approaches to curriculum reform and the establishment of multiple levels of student research opportunities are now part of the educational fabric of many dental schools worldwide. Many of the preliminary reports regarding the success and vitality of these programs have used outcomes measures and metrics that emphasize cultural changes within institutions, student research productivity, and student career preferences after graduation. However, there have not been any reports from long-standing programs (a minimum of 25 years of cumulative data) that describe dental school graduates who have had the benefit of research/training experiences during their dental education. The University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry initiated a BSc Dent program in 1980 that awarded a formal degree for significant research experiences taking place within the laboratories of the Faculty-based researchers and has continued to develop and expand this program. The success of the program has been demonstrated by the continued and increasing demands for entry, the academic achievements of the graduates, and the numbers of graduates who have completed advanced education/training programs or returned to the Faculty as instructors. Analysis of our long-term data validates many recent hypotheses and short-term observations regarding the benefits of dental student research programs. This information may be useful in the design and implementation of dental student research programs at other dental schools.

  20. Community Development to Feed the Family in Northern Manitoba Communities: Evaluating Food Activities based on Their Food Sovereighnty, Food Security, and Sustainable Livelihood Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashraful Alam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores food-related activities and their impacts on sustainable livelihood assets, food sovereignty, and food security, and provides insight for future food-related community development. Analysis is based on community food assessments conducted in 14 Northern Manitoba communities and included a food security survey, price survey, and interviews. The lack of community control over development in First Nation and other Northern remote and rural communities in Northern Manitoba is found to undermine both food sovereignty and sustainable livelihoods, while creating high levels of food insecurity. According to logit models, sharing country foods increases food sovereignty and sustainable livelihoods, and has a stronger relationship to food security than either road access to retail stores in urban centres or increased competition between stores. The model predicts that rates of food insecurity for a community with a country foods program and with access to public transit and roads at 95% would be lower than the Canadian average of 92%.RÉSUMÉCet article explore les activités relatives à l’alimentation et leur impact sur les biens durables ainsi que sur la souveraineté et la sécurité alimentaires tout en ouvrant des perspectives sur le développement communautaire futur relatif à l’alimentation. L’analyse se fonde sur une recherche menée dans quatorze communautés du nord du Manitoba et comprend un premier sondage sur la sécurité alimentaire, un second sondage sur les prix, et des entrevues. Le manque de contrôle du développement dans les communautés reculées du nord du Manitoba, tant autochtones que non-autochtones, mine à la fois la souveraineté alimentaire et les moyens d’existence durables tout en provoquant de hauts niveaux d’insécurité alimentaire. Selon un modèle Logit, le partage d’aliments locaux permet une souveraineté alimentaire et une autonomie durable tout en ayant un meilleur impact sur la

  1. Investigation of climate change impacts on Prairie's petroleum industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, the three Prairie provinces of Canada, and their economies strongly depend on the petroleum industry. However, climate change may have potential impacts on the sector that could reverberate onto the socio-economic fabric of the provinces. The petroleum industry in the Prairies is faced with a big challenge: how to adapt to the changing climatic conditions so that they maintain or improve their economic and environmental efficiencies. The attitudes of the different stakeholders concerning climate change and the appropriate measures to be implemented by the petroleum industry were obtained through a questionnaire-based survey conducted between February and June 2001. Based on the responses received, a Chi-square statistical test was applied to look at the complex interactions in the results. An analysis of a number of petroleum-related processes and activities vulnerable to climate change was performed. A sound foundation was obtained for the decision-making process on the climate change measures required in the petroleum industry in the Prairies. 14 refs., 7 tabs

  2. [History of trachoma in canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Jean

    2010-06-01

    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  3. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  4. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil... Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.2, ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint...

  5. The chemical composition, antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of water-extractable polysaccharide conjugates from northern Manitoba lingonberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. is a small northern fruit that has been harvested historically by native North Americans and Northern Europeans. These berries have been traditionally consumed as food and for medicinal use. Lingonberries are reported to be rich in vitamin C, benzoic acid, and anthocyanins, which have been implicated in health benefits associated with the consumption of lingonberries. We hypothesized that water-extractable polysaccharides, conjugated with proteins and/or phenolics may also serve as bioactive compounds with potential health benefits in northern Manitoba lingonberries. A hot water extraction was used to obtain water-extractable polysaccharides from lingonberries and the water-extractable polysaccharides were fractionated into water-eluted/neutral and NaCl-eluted/acidic fractions using chromatography. The water-extractable polysaccharides were evaluated for their chemical composition and structural features. The antioxidant activity (FRAP and ABTS assays and potential of the polysaccharides to serve as α-glucosidase inhibitors were determined. The chemical composition and structural features of the water-extractable polysaccharides were influenced by fraction. The water-extractable polysaccharides and fractions all possessed antioxidant activity, while only the water-extractable polysaccharide conjugates and NaCl-eluted/acidic fraction demonstrated appreciable α-glucosidase inhibition. This work provides novel information indicating that water-extractable polysaccharide conjugates isolated from northern Manitoba lingonberry demonstrate bioactivity.

  6. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  7. The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, D. Bruce; Lussier, Antoine S.

    The Metis appeared early on the pages of Canada's history, were a major determinant in the westward expansion of the nation, and are still a significant segment of modern Canadian society. This book (1) traces their origin and their slow evolution to nationhood; (2) examines the Golden Age; (3) describes the battles won and lost with the nation of…

  8. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  9. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  10. Canada: International Perspectives on Business Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of Canada's business-communication research efforts. Describes its definition and scope; issues facing Canadian researchers (gaining an institutional presence, creating Canada as a viable research site, and creating a Canadian research focus); disseminating research in Canada; and expanding Canadian business-communication…

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices

  12. Women in physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  14. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  15. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  16. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  17. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    Full Text Available Climate change will have profound and unanticipated effects on species distributions. The pace and nature of this change is largely unstudied, especially for the most diverse elements of terrestrial communities--the arthropods--here we have only limited knowledge concerning the taxonomy and the ecology of these groups. Because Arctic ecosystems have already experienced significant increases in temperature over the past half century, shifts in community structure may already be in progress. Here we utilise collections of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group--parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera; Braconidae; Microgastrinae--at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50-70 years ago. Morphological and DNA barcoding results revealed the presence of 79 species of microgastrine wasps in collections from Churchill, but we estimate that 20% of the local fauna awaits detection. Species composition and diversity between the two time periods differ significantly; species that were most common in historic collections were not found in contemporary collections and vice versa. Using barcodes we compared these collections to others from across North America; contemporary Churchill species are most affiliated with more south-western collections, while historic collections were more affiliated with eastern collections. The past five decades has clearly seen a dramatic change of species composition within the area studied coincident with rising temperature.

  18. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  19. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  20. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  1. Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters: A Model of Effective Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymers, L.; Heenan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters is a charitable organization whose mandate is to bring the wonders of Canada's geology and mineral resources to students, educators and industry. The organization provides current information about rocks, minerals, metals, and mining and offers exceptional educational resources, developed by teachers and for teachers that meet Junior, Intermediate and Senior Provincial Earth Science and Geography curriculum expectations. Since 1994, Mining Matters has reached more than 400,000 educators, students, industry representatives, and Aboriginal Youth through Earth Science resources. At the time of the program's inception, members of the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) realized that their mining and mineral industry expertise could be of help to teachers and students. Consulting experts in education, government, and business, and the PDAC worked together to develop the first Mining Matters Earth Science curriculum kit for Grades 6 and 7 teachers in Ontario. PDAC Mining Matters became the official educational arm of the Association and a charitable organization in 1997. Since then, the organization has partnered with government, industry, and educators to develop bilingual Earth science teaching units for Grades 4 and 7, and senior High School. The teaching units consist of kits that contain curriculum correlated lesson plans, inform bulletins, genuine data sets, rock and mineral samples, equipment and additional instructional resources. Mining Matters offers instructional development workshops for the purposes of training pre-service and in- service educators to use our teaching units in the classroom. The workshops are meant to provide teachers with the knowledge and confidence they need to successfully employ the units in the classroom. Formal mechanisms for resource and workshop evaluations are in place. Overwhelmingly teacher feedback is positive, describing the excellence

  2. Report on the workshop examining the potential effects of hydroelectric development on Beluga of the Nelson River Estuary, Winnipeg, Manitoba, November 6 and 7, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of discussions and conclusions at a workshop held to examine the potential effects of hydroelectric development on beluga whales of the Nelson River estuary in Manitoba. Background information is provided on the estuary, beluga whales and their use of arctic and subarctic estuaries, and hydroelectric development on the Nelson River. Potential impacts of such development on the whales are reviewed in the categories of direct effects of changes in physical-chemical conditions (temperature and discharge), indirect effects of disturbances mediated through the food chain, and effects on socioeconomic conditions that may affect beluga whales. Since the biology of beluga whales and other phenomena of interest in this study are poorly known, recommendations are made for research and monitoring activities in the Nelson River estuary. In general, the workshop participants felt that changes in the estuary due to hydroelectric development would not be large enough to affect beluga whales strongly. 34 refs., 1 fig

  3. The incidence of fracture of the proximal femur in two million Canadians from 1972 to 1984. Projections for Canada in the year 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A D; Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Bernhardson, S; Wajda, A; Roos, L L

    1991-05-01

    Reported increases in the number of fractures of the proximal femur in Europe are greater than can be explained by demographic changes alone. This trend was assessed in Canada by examining hospital discharge records from the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1972 to 1984. The annual number of first fractures of the proximal femur in persons older than 50 years of age increased 59.7% in women and 42.2% in men during this time period. In most of the five-year age groups the percentage of increase in the number of fractures exceeded the percentage of increase in population of that age group. Annual age-specific incidences (by five-year age groups) increased exponentially with age, doubling every six years, and reached a maximum value of 4% in women older than 90 years of age. Annual age-adjusted incidences increased significantly over the study period in men and women. For the whole of Canada in 1987, it is estimated that there were 13,193 first fractures of the proximal femur in women and 4610 in men, and that in the year 2006 these will rise to 22,922 and 7846, respectively. The actual increase will be considerably greater if the age-specific incidences continue to increase as they have from 1972 to 1984. The gradual decline in physical activity, which contributes to bone loss, may be one etiological factor of this trend during the last half century.

  4. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  5. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  6. Immigration and Crime: Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    There is growing belief in many developed countries, including Canada, that the large influx of the foreign-born population increases crime. Despite the heated public discussion, the immigrant-crime relationship is understudied in the literature. This paper identifies the causal linkages between immigration and crime using panel data constructed from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the master files of the Census of Canada. This paper distinguishes immigrants by their years in Canada an...

  7. Hypertension in Canada: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Campbell, Norman R C; Feldman, Ross D; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Lewanczuk, Richard; Padwal, Raj; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-01

    Canada has an extremely successful hypertension detection and treatment program. The aim of this review was to highlight the historic and current infrastructure and initiatives that have led to this success, and the outlook moving forward into the future. We discuss the evolution of hypertension awareness and control in Canada; contributions made by organizations such as the Canadian Hypertension Society, Blood Pressure Canada, and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the amalgamation of these organizations into Hypertension Canada; and the impact that Hypertension Canada has had on hypertension care in Canada. The important contribution that public policy and advocacy can have on prevention and control of blood pressure in Canada is described. We also highlight the importance of population-based strategies, health care access and organization, and accurate blood pressure measurement (including ambulatory, home, and automated office modalities) in optimizing hypertension prevention and management. We end by discussing how Hypertension Canada will move forward in the near and longer term to address the unmet residual risk attributable to hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension Canada will continue to strive to enhance hypertension prevention and control rates, thereby improving the quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes of Canadians, while at the same time creating a hypertension care model that can be emulated across the world. PMID:27372532

  8. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  11. History of geriatrics in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, David B

    2007-01-01

    Specialization is a pervasive movement in medicine. How specialties develop is a complex phenomenon and does not depend solely on the growth of knowledge. The history of geriatrics in Canada is presented as an example of specialization in our country. The gestation period extended over decades. Practitioners moved from partial specialization to a full-time practice in the care of older patients. Opposition to the emerging specialty was mounted by established fields of practice. The choices made by the leaders of Canadian geriatrics molded the evolution of the specialty and have contributed to its precarious status at the present time.

  12. Soil temperature trends in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-04-01

    Global warming increasingly is becoming a concern for society. Most reported warming trends are based on measured increases in air temperatures. However, trends in soil temperatures, also an important indicator of climate change, are less often reported. Qian et al. analyzed soil temperature data from 30 climate stations across Canada covering the period from 1958 to 2008; the data cover soil temperatures at several depths up to 150 centimeters. They also analyzed air temperature, precipitation, and snow cover depth at the same locations. (Journal of Geophysical Research­Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD015012, 2011)

  13. Games in Western City of Desires: On Caryl Churchill's Political Plays%从凯萝·邱吉尔的权力政治剧看西方欲望都市里的游戏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘薇

    2009-01-01

    英国剧作家凯萝·邱吉尔的戏剧作品广泛地展现了西方都市社会里资产阶级和特权阶级的名利追逐和种种贪婪欲望,批评了他们以个人在社会阶梯的上升为目标的价值观,警示个体应该担负一定的社会与政治责任.%British playwright Caryl Churchill pays much attention on politics of power in western world. Her plays exhibit various kinds of avarices and desires of the capitalists and the privileged. She criticizes their values which aim to climb up to the upper class. She then warns in her plays that individualists should take on certain social and political responsibilities.

  14. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  15. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs

  16. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  17. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  18. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  20. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  1. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  2. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  3. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  4. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  5. Abridged Life Tables for Registered Indians in Canada, 1976-1980 to 1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalowski, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper presents the analyses of the new estimates of abridged life tablescomprising life expectancy at birth, and their estimates of variance andconfidence limits by males and females for Registered Indians in Canada andtwo broad regions (East: Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba; and West:Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories forthe periods, 1976-80, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995 and 1996-2000. Thelife tables were constructed using the Chiang Method based on the adjusted dataon deaths and population by age and sex from the Indian Registry, maintainedby the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Government ofCanada. The data on the register are subjected to late reported and non reportedvital events. At the Canada level, life expectancy at birth for Registered Indianmales was 59.9 years in 1976-1980, rising to 68.3 years in 1996-2000. Forfemales, the life expectancy at birth was relatively higher, 66.6 years in 1976-80,and 74.5 years in 1996-2000. The recent life expectancies at birth forRegistered Indians are comparable to those observed for the total Canadian maleand female populations during the period 1960-1962 at 68.4 and 74.3 years. In1999, life expectancy at birth for the total Canadian population was reported to be 76.3 years formales and 81.7 years for females. The life expectancy at birthfor the Registered Indians in the Eastern region was higher than for those in theWestern region. The pattern of regional variation in life expectancy at birth forthis population seems to be the reverse of the regional variation for the totalCanadian population.FrenchCe document présente les analyses des nouvelles estimations des tables desurvie abrégées comprenant l’espérance de vie à la naissance, l’estimation deleur variance et la limite de confiance selon le sexe pour les Indiens inscrits auCanada et dans 2 grandes régions (Est : Atlantique, Québec, Ontario etManitoba; et

  6. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  8. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  9. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  10. Evaluation of U.S. Geological Survey Monitoring-well network and potential effects of changes in water use, Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Watkins, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic wells tapping shallow ground water are an important source of potable water for rural residents of Lahontan Valley. For this reason, the public has expressed concern over the acquisition of water rights directed by Public Law 101-618. The acquisition has resulted in removal of land from irrigation, which could cause shallow domestic wells to go dry and adversely affect shallow ground-water quality. Periodic water-level measurements and water-quality sampling at a monitoring-well network developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided data to evaluate the potential effects of changes in water use. The USGS, in cooperation with Churchill County, analyzed these data and the monitoring-well network to determine if the network provides an adequate means to measure the response of the shallow aquifer to changes in water use, and to determine if measurable changes have taken place. To evaluate the USGS monitoring-well network, wells were characterized by their distance from active canals or ditches, and from currently (2003) or formerly irrigated land. An analysis of historical data showed that about 9,800 acres of land have been removed from irrigation, generally from the late 1990's to 2003. Twenty-five wells in the network are within about 1 mile of fields removed from irrigation. Of the 25 wells, 13 are within 300 feet of canals or ditches where seepage maintains stable water levels. The 13 wells likely are not useful for detecting changes caused by reductions in irrigation. The remaining 12 wells range from about 400 to 3,800 feet from the nearest canal and are useful for detecting continued changes from current reductions in irrigation. The evaluation showed that of the 75 wells in the network, only 8 wells are likely to be useful for detecting the effects of future (after 2003) reductions in irrigation. Water levels at most of the monitoring wells near irrigated land have declined from 1998 to 2003 because of drought conditions and below normal

  11. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  12. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  13. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  14. Assessing the length of the post-disturbance recovery period for woodland caribou habitat after fire and logging in west-central Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M. Metsaranta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the habitat characteristics of areas used by woodland caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging in the Naosap caribou range in west-central Manitoba. The population inhabiting this area is currently considered to be of high conservation concern. The purpose was to determine how long after disturbance forests again resembled caribou habitat and whether there were differences in the recovery period between fire disturbed and logged areas. Sample transects were located in areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging. Previously, it was shown that variables positively associated with habitat suitability in this region were species composition (presence of black spruce, an index of arboreal lichen abundance and tree size, while variables negatively associated with habitat suitability were deadfall abundance and species composition (presence of trembling aspen. It was hypothesized that if disturbed sites had become suitable caribou habitat, then they should be statistically indistinguishable from sites used by caribou based on these variables. Using cluster analysis, it was found that 2 statistical clusters showed the highest level of agreement with sampling clusters, with 88% of plots used by caribou classified into one cluster, and 74% of disturbed plots classified into the other. Although a small proportion (12% of disturbed plots resembled used plots, 30 years (the age of the oldest disturbed plot was not enough time, in general, for forest to return to conditions resembling caribou habitat in this region.

  15. Case studies: Experience in Canada [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has 22 nuclear reactors that, at this time, supply approximately 15% of the country's electricity. Canada's spent nuclear fuel is now stored on an interim basis at licensed facilities at the reactor sites located in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick and at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) facility in Manitoba. The issue of long-term management of spent fuel has been the subject of considerable study in Canada. At the request of the federal and Ontario governments, and after a 20-year research program, a concept for the management of spent fuel was developed by AECL. In its 1998 report, the environmental assessment panel provided insight and direction on key issues that had to be addressed in order to move the decision-making forward. The Government of Canada considered and responded to the panel report, and in November 2002 brought into force the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA) which assigned roles and responsibilities and established the legislative framework for decision-making framework for the long-term management of its spent nuclear fuel. As required by that legislation, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was established by the nuclear energy corporations. The NWMO was tasked with conducting a study of storage and disposal options, and will be responsible for implementing the management approach selected by government. After the Government selects the approach, implementation will unfold under the ongoing oversight of Natural Resources Canada. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is responsible for the licensing and ensuring NWMO's compliance with regulatory requirements. The immediate task of the NWMO was to conduct a three year examination of different management options. The NWMO believed that an approach that generates confidence for the long term would need to resonate with citizen values and objectives for the study, and bring to bear the best science and technical understanding. A dynamic and iterative study was conducted

  16. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  17. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  18. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  19. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  20. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  1. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  2. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  3. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  4. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  5. Ammi Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts to be presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 16 to 18, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, alphabetized according to the surname of the first author.

  6. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  7. Canada 2030: An Agenda for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Kindornay; Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2015-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reach their end date in 2015, negotiations are ramping up at the United Nations for the establishment of a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, to be announced in September this year, will replace the MDGs and serve as a universal framework for achieving sustainable development outcomes in all countries by 2030, including Canada. This report takes an in-depth look at what the SDGs could mean for Canada, providing a concise overv...

  8. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  10. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married a...

  11. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  12. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  13. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  14. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  15. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  16. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  17. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jonathan E.; Griffin, Debora; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Drummond, James R.; Waugh, David; Palmer, Paul; Chisholm, Lucy; Duck, Thomas J.; Lesins, Glen; Walker, Kaley A.; Hopper, Jason T.; Curry, Kevin R.; Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Dan, Lin; Kliever, Jenny; O'Neill, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Wild fires started by lightning are a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases to the atmosphere. Careful observations of biomass burning plumes are required to quantify the long range transport and chemical evolution of the outflow from these fires. During the summer of 2011 an international effort - the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) project - led by the University of Edinburgh, evaluated the chemistry and dynamics of Boreal biomass burning plumes through aircraft, satellite, and ground-based measurements. The Dalhousie Ground Station (DGS), located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, provided ground support to the BORTAS campaign. Two Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) provided solar absorption measurements of trace gases while two photometers provided aerosol optical depths. On 20 July 2011 a plume of elevated carbon monoxide and other trace gases was detected by the FTS instruments at the DGS; however, particulate data gathered from the co-located sun photometer and the Dalhousie Raman Lidar system showed no enhancement of fine-mode aerosol for the initial 7 hours of the event. After that time, particulates increased in abundance and a peak aerosol optical depth of 2.3 was measured on 21 July. FLEXPART trajectory analyses suggest that this plume originated in fires that were burning in Northwestern Ontario and Eastern Manitoba from 17 to 19 July. Despite the sparse observing network in the region, there is ample evidence of a significant lofting event via the same meso-scale convective system that tempered the burning on the 19th. We will provide an overview of this event and present evidence that precipitation scavenging was the most likely mechanism for the observed aerosol/trace gas anomaly. Support for this this research was provided by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  18. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  19. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  20. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  1. The nuclear ingredient in Canada's industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country

  2. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  3. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  4. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  5. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  6. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is based on a vault located deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We document in this report a method to assess the long-term impacts of a disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste. The assessment integrates relevant information from engineering design studies, site investigations, laboratory studies, expert judgment and detailed mathematical analyses to evaluate system performance in terms of safety criteria, guidelines and standards. The method includes the use of quantitative tools such as the Systems Variability Analysis computer Code (SYVAC) to deal with parameter uncertainty and the use of reasoned arguments based on well-established scientific principles. We also document the utility of the method by describing its application to a hypothetical implementation of the concept called the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system generally conforms to the overall characteristics of the concept, except we have made some specific site and design choices so that the assessment would be more realistic. To make the reference system more representative of a real system, we have used the geological observations of the AECL's Whiteshell Research Area located near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to define the characteristics of the geosphere and the groundwater flow system. This research area has been subject to more than a decade of geological and hydrological studies. The analysis of the reference disposal system provides estimates of radiological and chemical toxicity impacts on members of a critical group and estimates of possible impacts on the environment. The latter impacts include estimates of radiation dose to nonhuman organisms. Other quantitative analyses examine the use of derived constraints to improve the margin of safety, the effectiveness of engineered and natural barriers, and the sensitivity of the results to influential features, events, and processes of the reference disposal

  7. Effect of Folic Acid Food Fortification in Canada on Congenital Heart Disease Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K.S.; Luo, Wei; León, Juan Andrés; Lisonkova, Sarka; Van den Hof, Michiel; Evans, Jane; Lim, Ken; Little, Julian; Sauve, Reg; Kramer, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results for the effects of periconceptional multivitamins containing folic acid and of folic acid food fortification on congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods: We carried out a population-based cohort study (N=5 901 701) of all live births and stillbirths (including late-pregnancy terminations) delivered at ≥20 weeks’ gestation in Canada (except Québec and Manitoba) from 1990 to 2011. CHD cases were diagnosed at birth and in infancy (n=72 591). We compared prevalence rates and temporal trends in CHD subtypes before and after 1998 (the year that fortification was mandated). An ecological study based on 22 calendar years, 14 geographic areas, and Poisson regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of folic acid food fortification on nonchromosomal CHD subtypes (n=66 980) after controlling for changes in maternal age, prepregnancy diabetes mellitus, preterm preeclampsia, multiple birth, and termination of pregnancy. Results: The overall birth prevalence rate of CHDs was 12.3 per 1000 total births. Rates of most CHD subtypes decreased between 1990 and 2011 except for atrial septal defects, which increased significantly. Folic acid food fortification was associated with lower rates of conotruncal defects (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62–0.85), coarctation of the aorta (aRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61–0.96), ventricular septal defects (aRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75–0.96), and atrial septal defects (aRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69–0.95) but not severe nonconotruncal heart defects (aRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65–1.03) and other heart or circulatory system abnormalities (aRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89–1.11). ConclusionS: The association between food fortification with folic acid and a reduction in the birth prevalence of specific CHDs provides modest evidence for additional benefit from this intervention. PMID:27572879

  8. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  10. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  11. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years, bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active. According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference, Chinese overseas investment is displayingan increasing trend, with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  12. Recent developments in Canada's climate change program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper surveys Canada's official response to the responsibilities it took on with the Kyoto Protocol. In order to meet Kyoto targets for the timeframe 2008-2012, greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced by 33 percent below what they currently are. Two billion Canadian dollars have been allocated to this effort. The government of Canada's official stance is that carbon dioxide levels have been rising more rapidly than at any other time in the last half million years. Canada's main efforts in the mining and minerals sector have been to find a replacement for sulphur hexafluoride, reduce emissions of perfluorocarbons, and demonstrate the use of hydrogen as a fuel for underground mining vehicles. According to the author, the most important contribution has been the use of supplementary cementing material such as fly ash, ash, and ground blast furnace slag. These materials have partially replaced cement in concrete. Canada expects to reduce carbon dioxide emissions this way by about 1.5 million tonnes per year. EcoSmart, a non-profit organization, is the main vehicle for this effort. 8 refs., 7 figs

  13. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  14. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, R

    1986-01-01

    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  15. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  16. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  17. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  18. Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Staempfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Weese, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.

  19. Return migration from Canada to Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1968-07-01

    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  20. Petro-Canada annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1991, Petro-Canada became a public company, issuing 19.5% of its common shares for net proceeds of $523 million. Heavy losses in the first half of the year were driven by price volatility following the Persian Gulf war. Cash flow return on capital employed was 7.2%, and a net loss of $598 million was posted. The Klua gas field was brought on stream only 30 months after discovery, an important gas discovery was made in British Columbia, and production and sales of natural gas increased. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year is given. 11 figs., 12 tabs

  1. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  2. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  3. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  4. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  5. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  6. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  7. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  8. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  9. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  10. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  11. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  12. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  13. Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhongqiao

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Government of Canada is providing assistance to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) via the Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme. Canada is represented by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in this Programme, while China's interests are administered by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC).

  14. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  15. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  16. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  17. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-05-18

    This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206

  18. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  19. Carbon disclosure project report 2009 : Canada 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.

  20. Public information and education in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of providing public information on nuclear energy in Canada for more than 40 years is described. Information centers are part of all nuclear power plants and they receive many thousands of visitors each year. Until the 1970s public information programs were relatively easy. There was a lot of interest in nuclear energy, and there was little debate about it or opposition to it. But times have changed, and Canadian public information strategies and tactics have evolved to meet challenge of answering increasing public concerns. In the past 20 years Canada has gone through three phases in relationship with the public: information, communication, participation. Activities on implementation of these phases are outlined

  1. Market Expansion Opportunity Analysis for Adigy Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This project develops business and marketing strategies for the expansion of Adigy Canada, a medical heart telemetry device developer, into the golfing market. It researches the needs of this market, analyzes industry forces and recommends target market segments, a business model, distribution channels, and marketing strategies. The design and marketing of a training aid product is recommended as this segment of the golf industry seems to have a medium to high level of attractiveness. The rec...

  2. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years,bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active.According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference,Chinese overseas investment is displaying an increasing trend,with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  3. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  4. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people...

  5. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...

  6. Sexual orientation, work, and income in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Carpenter

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first evidence on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada using confidential data that ask adults a direct question about their sexual orientation. Gay men have 12% lower personal incomes and lesbians have 15% higher personal incomes than otherwise similar heterosexual men and women, respectively. Different labour force patterns can account for some of the income differentials. We also document large differences in educational attainment, childrearing, and urbanicity...

  7. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  8. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  9. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initi...

  10. Whole-body counters in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of whole-body counting existing across Canada was prepared by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) staff. This work was initiated so that AECB staff and other concerned parties would have this information readily available, especially during urgent situations. This report is to be used for reference purposes only, as it makes no attempt to judge the present state of the art of whole-body counting

  11. Nuclear fuel waste policy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)

  12. Harnessing Canada's wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2004-10-01

    Canada's latest wind farm, the 20-turbine Magrath Wind Power project, a $48 million joint venture between Suncor, EHN Wind Power Canada Inc., and Enbridge Inc. is described. This latest addition to Canada's growing renewable energy generation capacity is situated near the town of Magrath in Alberta, 40 km south of Lethbridge. The 20 turbines are erected along a distance of eight kilometres; they are capable of generating enough electricity to light approximately 13,000 homes. Each hub stands 65 metres above the ground, equivalent in height to a 23-story building; the turbine's bladespan is 34 metres, which is close to the wingspan of a Boeing 737-900 airliner. The Magrath is Suncor's second wind power project, and is part of the oil giant's continuing commitment to the development of renewable energy sources as a means of providing a reliable source of electricity and protect the environment at the same time. The construction activity took three months over a 12-month period and provided employment for 70 people at the peak construction period. Each turbine generates 1.5 megawatts of energy, and will offset 82,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually (equivalent to the removal of 12,000 cars from Canadian roads). At present, the cost of generating wind energy ranges between 6 cents and 12 cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on location, compared to about 5 cents for electricity generated by hydro power. The Magrath Wind Power project joins 30 other wind farms currently in operation in Canada.

  13. Northern Star; Canada's Path to Economic Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klyuev; Martin Mühleisen; Tamim Bayoumi

    2007-01-01

    Robust GDP growth, declining unemployment, low and stable inflation, and a string of fiscal and current account surpluses -- it's a record to be envied. These outcomes in Canada owe much to sound macroeconomic policies, as well as to a favorable external environment. This book focuses on these policies and the economy's salient features, including its close trade integration with the United States, large commodity sector, and substantial decentralization and regional diversity. It outlines wh...

  14. Intestinal parasites in man in Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, T D; Croll, N A

    1980-05-01

    Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896

  15. Evidence of New Immigrant Assimilation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of the labour market experience of male immigrants to Canada have uncovered two disturbing trends: declining entry earnings for successive new immigrant cohorts and low assimilation rates. These findings suggest that many of these cohorts may never assimilate. The 1991 Census provides a first look at the immigrant cohorts arriving in the 1980s. These immigrants appear to avoid the plight of their predecessors; entry earnings have stopped falling, and those immigrants arriving...

  16. A history of neurosurgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Bryce

    2011-03-01

    Canada existed for more than half a century before there were glimmerings of modern neurosurgical activity. Neurosurgery had advanced significantly in Europe and the United States prior to its being brought to Toronto and Montreal from American centers. The pioneers responsible for the rapid evolution in practice, teaching and research are described. The interplay of scientific, professional, demographic and economic forces with general historical trends has produced dramatic changes in the way that neurosurgery is now practiced.

  17. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  18. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  19. Petro-Canada annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1993 net earnings were improved by $153 million to $162 million, and cash flow from operations was increased by $113 million to $630 million. The consolidation of conventional upstream activities to 150 producing entities in 26 strategic areas was completed, and remaining non-core upstream assets were grouped into a separate unit for sale. The refinery capacity reduction program was completed, and retail rationalization neared completion. Total capital and exploration expenditures of $639 million were less than cash flow of $630 million. Credit ratings and market valuation improved in recognition of the company's increased strength. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year are given. 2 figs., 12 tabs

  20. TransCanada Corporation 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TransCanada is a leading North American energy company dealing with natural gas transmission, power generation and marketing opportunities. Financial information from TransCanada was presented in this annual report along with a review of its operations in 2004 and a summary of how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2004, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations and maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. Achievements in 2004 included the acquisition of the Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline System and the North Baja Pipeline System; the purchase of hydroelectric generation assets in New England with a total generating capacity of more than 500 MW; and the completed construction of two new gas-fired cogeneration plants, the 165 MW MacKay River facility in Alberta and the 90 MW Grandview facility in New Brunswick. The challenges in 2004 included the performance of the company's existing asset-based businesses and the new initiatives to produce another year of solid operating and financial results. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  1. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  2. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  3. Nuclear energy's continuing benefits to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity

  4. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  5. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  6. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  7. Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on H.R. 1144, H.R. 2994, H.R. 7261, H.R. 9065, H.R. 9960, H.R. 10027, H.R. 11658, and S. 1418. Bills to Provide Grants to Eisenhower College, Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, the Sam Rayburn Library, the Winston Churchill Memorial Library, and the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents hearings before the special subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress concerning the provision of grants to Eisenhower College, Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, the Sam Rayburn Library, the Winston Churchill Library, and the Hoover Institute on War,…

  8. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  9. Tackling Compliance: Small Business and Regulation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rock Lefebvre; Philip Gans

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in Canada with respect to over-regulation; and specifically to what it means to smaller entities. Seeking to advance the understanding of the impacts of regulations on the SME sector, CGA-Canada commissioned a Small and Medium-sized Entities (SME) survey, a Practitioner survey, and held a public consultation on this topic. The results of the research show that individual regulatory requirements applicable to publicly-traded SMEs in Canada are seen as reasonab...

  10. The Disturbed Legislation of Same-sex Marriage in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡妮

    2011-01-01

    In July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, after the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, to legalize same-sex marriages nationwide. This new legal status for gays and lesbians has been a controversial issue in Canada, both in the public and in Parliament. This article provides a historical and legal overview of same-sex marriage in Canada. It outlines briefly the legal process of same-sex marriage in this country.

  11. Measuring the Canada-U.S. Productivity Gap: Industry Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Someshwar Rao; Jianmin Tang; Weimin Wang

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of economic policy in Canada is to reduce the productivity gap with the United States. The development of appropriate policies to attain this goal requires a thorough understanding of the nature of the gap, including its industry dimensions. Unfortunately, statistical agencies do not currently produce estimates of Canada-U.S. productivity gaps by industry. To fill this data lacuna, Someshwar Rao, Jianmin Tang, and Weimin Wang of Industry Canada in the first article present ben...

  12. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  13. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Shell Canada Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of operational and financial achievements is reported. Shell Canada's Resources Division is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This report presents an operations review, provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information, and summarizes revenue and expenditure statements. The company was one of Canada's most profitable integrated oil and gas companies in 1998. It was the second most profitable year in the company's history for continuing operations. Oil products earnings for 1998 were a record $275 million, mostly because of strong sales volumes and increased retail market share. The company also confronted several environmental issues in 1998, including climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Construction of the Sable Project, offshore Nova Scotia, continued on budget and on schedule to bring natural gas to market by early 2000. Plans for the three elements of the Oil Sands project (the Muskeg River mine in the Athabaska Region, an upgrader at Shell's Scotford site and the Corridor Pipeline) proceeded on schedule. The Caroline complex made its expected contribution to the company's overall performance. Improved seismic technology helped to add new reserves through Shell's interest in wells in southern Alberta. Exploration activity in northeastern British Columbia and northern Alberta produced encouraging results. The work will continue in 1999. The company plans to invest some 4.9 billion dollars over the next five years in capital expenditures. Shell remains committed to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. Annual reduction of CO2 emissions increased by an estimated 800,000 tonnes

  15. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  16. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  17. Canada: National approach to ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian regulatory approach to ensuring the implementation of effective AMPs for nuclear power plants is summarized as follows. Canada currently has 22 CANDU nuclear power reactors under operating licenses issued by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The reactors began operation between 1971 and 1993. Through operating licenses, the CNSC requires licensees to comply with a number of in-service inspection standards and regulatory documents under CNSC Safety and Control Area ‘Fitness for Service’ of SSCs. These provide extensive requirements related to understanding, controlling and managing ageing

  18. Acid mine drainage research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic drainage resulting from base metal, precious metal, and uranium mining is the largest single environmental problems facing the Canadian mining industry today. Technologies to prevent acidic drainage from occurring in waste rock piles and tailings sites, and on the walls of open pits and underground mines, need to be developed and demonstrated. There are two grounds in Canada which have accepted this challenge: the national Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program and the British Columbia Acid Mine Drainage (BC AMD) Task Force. This paper summarizes the activities of these two organizations

  19. Progress on the NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R. D.; Heesemann, M.; Mulder, T. L.; Brillon, C. D.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada is the world's first deep-sea regional multi-disciplinary scientific cabled ocean observatory. In the fall of 2007 an 800 kilometer ring of powered fiber optic cable was laid on the seafloor over the northern part of the Juan de Fuca plate and connected to a shore facility near Port Alberni on Vancouver Island. In September 2009, three broadband OBS packages were deployed in the form of a large triangle with apexes at mid plate near ODP 1027 (water depth of 2654m) and two sites on the continental slope, near ODP 889 (1256m) and Barkley Canyon (396m). The broadband systems comprise a broadband seismometer and strong motion accelerometer in a spherical titanium case surficially buried in a caisson backfilled with glass beads. Noise levels observed are as expected with the spectra being similar to, or quieter than, coastal seismograph stations in approximately the 10 to 20 second period range. The OBS's have higher noise levels at longer periods where ocean swells and the resultant infragravity waves dominate the noise spectra, and in the 1-10 Hz bandwidth typically used for locating local earthquakes. The shallowest site at Barkley Canyon has the highest noise levels. A small array, about 6 km in maximum dimension, is under construction on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to record earthquake activity in the vicinity of the many NEPTUNE Canada multi-disciplinary ridge experiments. Two short period instruments were installed there in 2010. A broadband instrument and two additional short period instruments are planned to complete the initial ridge array. Even though the NEPTUNE Canada seismograph network is not yet complete, measured by the use of its data, it is a success already. The data are routinely used along with data from land seismographs of the Canadian National Seismograph Network for locating earthquakes in the region. However, the smallest seismic arrivals picked on the land stations cannot be routinely picked on the OBS

  20. Determinants of Mortgage indebtedness in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Fortin; Andre Leclerc

    2007-01-01

    Mortgage indebtedness has risen considerably in Canada in recent years, pushing households’ debt-to-income ratio to an all time high. In order to identify what variables explains these changes in the stock of debt, we analyze the inflow and outflow of mortgage financing. We show that the number of new mortgage loans is mostly influenced by nominal interest rates while their average value reacts only to housing price. As to the outflow of debt repayment it is sensitive to more variables. Since...

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  3. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Blanchfield, Burke; Austin, John W.

    2013-01-01

    During 1985–2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations w...

  4. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905

  5. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  6. Epilepsy in Canada: Prevalence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Wong, Suzy L

    2016-09-21

    This article provides information about the prevalence and impact of epilepsy, based on the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. An estimated 139,200 Canadians had epilepsy. Among the household population, epilepsy was generally diagnosed before age 30 (75%). For the majority of these people (64%), epilepsy was their only neurological condition. People with epilepsy were more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared with the general population (17% versus 7%), and eight times as likely to experience incontinence (34% versus 4%). Overall, an estimated 18% reported that their life was affected quite a bit or extremely by epilepsy; 44% felt that their life was impacted a little bit or moderately; and 39% felt that their life was not impacted at all. This study examined the impact of epilepsy on interactions with others, sleep, driving, education, and employment. PMID:27655169

  7. Canada's gasoline production, sales and marketing : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet provides a variety of useful facts as general public information about gasoline, the most widely used transportation fuel in Canada. Issues such as price, quality, availability, safety and the environmental impact of gasoline are discussed. Like any unregulated commodity, gasoline prices are determined by the market forces of supply and demand. Prices can vary from place to place because of taxes, the number of service stations, delivery costs, labour costs and land costs. Taxes play the biggest role in price differences between countries. In Canada, there are 18 gasoline-producing refineries and about 13,500 service station which are owned by 30 major retail gasoline marketing companies. Currently, propane is the most common alternative to gasoline. Alcohol fuels such as ethanol and methanol are also being used more and more frequently. Refiners are working with vehicle manufacturers to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions from cars and trucks. Blends of gasoline with ethanol or methanol reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, but may increase nitrogen oxides and other emissions. Refiners are also working to define a new national standard for sulphur levels in gasoline. refs., figs

  8. A fusion engineering program for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the National Research Council asked DSMA ATCON Ltd., in collaboration with Ontario Hydro, the University of Toronto, and McMaster University, to evaluate concepts for a national fusion engineering program, to define a facility that could be constructed in Canada to meet the program goals, and to suggest a strategy for encouraging industrial participation. The central element of the proposed fusion engineering and development program is tritium technology, with additional emphasis on the broader field of all hydrogen isotopes and their interactions with materials. The Canadian program in the initial phase would concentrate on fusion fuel systems, materials development, equipment development, and safety and the environment. A preliminary concept for the facility required has been developed, and key organizational activities identified. The total program costs should be $1 million in the first year, rising to a steady state of $5 million from the fourth year onward. The capital cost of the research facility is estimated to be $20 million spread over three years, and its operating budget around $7 million. The program as envisioned would make use of Canada's existing tritium resources and handling experience to contribute to worldwide fusion research

  9. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  10. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  11. Physician-Assisted Death in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alister; Russell, J S

    2016-07-01

    The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits persons from aiding or abetting suicide and consenting to have death inflicted on them. Together, these provisions have prohibited physicians from assisting patients to die. On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada declared void these provisions insofar as they "prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1) clearly consents to the termination of life and (2) has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." This declaration of invalidity was scheduled to take effect one year (later extended by six months) after the ruling, to give the government time to put legislation in place. We trace the history of this decision, discuss how it has forever changed the debate on physician-assisted dying, and identify the issues that must be resolved to write the legislation. Of special importance here are the topics of access, safeguards, and conscientious objection. PMID:27348822

  12. FEDERALISM, NATIONALISM AND REGIONALISM IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Simeon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the capacity of Canadian federalism to articulate andaccommodate the dual and regionalist character defining Canada througha range of arguments and opinions both for and against that have been generatedboth within the Canadian Federation and abroad. From the standpointof the Quebec sovereignists, federalism is highly restrictive of the Quebecnation’s freedom to express itself, by itself, within the Canadian contextas well as within international ambits; for Quebec nationalists, the termQuebec “nation” implies—indeed, requires—a “Quebec state”. But, fromthe standpoint of the Quebec federalists (a good number of whom understandQuebec as a sociological and political nation, the future of Quebeclies with its membership of the Canadian Federation, however much this hasto recognise Quebec as a “differential society” within Canada, and howevermuch it has to ensure that Quebec will develop and promote its interests asa nation. For yet others, the decentralist character of Canadian federalism,and the extensive provisions for asymmetry built into the system, mean that Quebec is already perhaps the most powerful sub-national government inthe world, such that it already has the powers necessary to fulfil its nationaldestiny, within the federation. Opinion outside Quebec ranges from thosewho accept this view, and embrace asymmetry, to those who argue that Quebecis simply one of ten existing provinces, each of which is distinct, andwhich should all be treated as equals in accordance with the constitutionaland political framework.

  13. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Canada's uranium industry - the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a unique commodity. It is both a metal and a fuel. It has both commercial and military uses. It yields 'clean energy' but presents environmental concerns. All of these factors have an impact on the commerce of uranium. Being a metal, uranium is extracted from ore like many other metallic minerals. As a fuel, it is subject to the vagaries of energy commodity market forces. The history of uranium in the first nuclear weapons has led to national governments carefully controlling production and sale of uranium. The spectre of radioactive contamination of the environment adds further to the public concern over the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from uranium processing and use. There have been a number of excellent reviews on the commercial aspects of the uranium industry. In this discussion, these aspects will be briefly summarized to provide a general picture of the strengths of the Canadian uranium industry and the pressures to which it is being subjected currently. The principal thrust of this paper will be to outline Canada's resource strength and to identify some factors which will affect Canada's ability to continue holding a sizeable share of the world uranium market

  15. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  16. State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the initial "Snapshot State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada" report was to provide an overview of the state of K-12 online learning in Canada. This was accomplished through the use of short commentaries about the state of K-12 distance education for each province and territory, along with more developed case studies for…

  17. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  18. The Demand for Child Care Services in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, I; Vaillancourt, F.

    1986-01-01

    This Paper Examines the Determinants of the Demand for Child Care Services in Canada. Using Survey Data Collected for 1981 by Statistics Canada and Probit Analysis We Find That the Likelihood of Using Child Care Services Increases with Variables Such As the Education of the Mother and the Age of the Child and Decreases with the Number of Children in the Family.

  19. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  20. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  1. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2010-01-01

    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…

  2. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Gastric Involvement Diagnosed by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Samet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronkhite-Canada is a rare nonfamilial polyposis syndrome that usually presents as chronic malabsorption in adults. We present a case of a-73-year old woman with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding and malnutrition. On CT imaging she was found to have massive gastric polyps, which on biopsy was most consistent with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome.

  3. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work Reorganization and Industrial Relations Change"…

  4. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...

  5. Delegation of Christian Embassy of Canada in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, a ten-member delegation of the Christian Embassy of Canada (CEC) led by Hon. Jim Abbott, member of the House of Commons of the Conservative Party of Canada and parliamentary secretary to the minister for

  6. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  7. The Analysis Of Adult Immigrants’ Learning System In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of adult immigrants’ learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants’ learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative implementation of Canadian experience in Ukraine.

  8. Female First Nations Chiefs and the Colonial Legacy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyageur, Cora J.

    2011-01-01

    The social, economic, and political regulation of Canada's First Nations was codified in the Indian Act. Rooted in colonialism and paternalism, the Indian Act was created by the government of Canada to fulfill three functions: (1) to define who was and was not an Indian; (2) to civilize the Indian; and (3) to manage the Indian people and their…

  9. Uncertainties in financing nuclear power growth in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current energy situation in Canada is shortly reviewed with a focus on the history of nuclear power in Ontario. An aoutlook for the Canadian nuclear program is given. Finally, same of the major considerations in financing Canada's nuclear power growth is outlined, particularly with respect to sources of funds and their competing uses. (author)

  10. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  11. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  12. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  13. Operating experience and lessons learned in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to continue operation in Canada depends ultimately on economic factors. This decision is made for each unit independently, even if the unit is part of a multiunit station. An effective PLiM implementation programme plays a pivotal role in LTO decisions because it is capable of integrating ageing management and economic planning. The use of an economic model allows PLiM to evaluate implementation alternatives, such as optimizing the staffing curve to shorten the LTO outage, helping to decide on capital upgrades if it can be shown they can increase capacity factors or the maximum continuous rating. Plant life management can also help select the optimum conditions and the best time for an extended LTO outage

  14. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  15. Energy storage in Canada - Embassy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics

  16. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  17. ATLAS Canada lightpath data transfer trial

    CERN Document Server

    Kost, C J; Caron, B; Hong, W

    2003-01-01

    Emerging grids play a significant role in the computational, data, storage, and network requirements of high energy physics experiments coming online in the next few years. One such requirement, the bulk transfer of data over advanced high speed optical networks is necessary as such experiments are highly distributed with resources and participants from research laboratories and institutions spanning the globe. This trial at the iGrid 2002 conference attempts to stress the feasibility of high speed bulk data transfer over an end-to-end lightpath, a dedicated point-to-point optical link. Specifically, the objective was to transfer 1 TB of Monte Carlo data from TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. A rate equivalent to transferring a full CD of data every 8 s was achieved. (15 refs).

  18. Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).

  19. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  20. Open Source in Canada's Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Leibovitch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.

  1. Control of transformer losses in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.A. [Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.

  2. Hydrail : a parade Canada can lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S. [Mooresville-South Iredell Economic Development Corp., NC (United States). Hydrogen Economy Advancement Team

    2007-07-01

    This paper suggested that Canada can play a leading role in the development of hydrogen railways. Canadian scientists were among the first to test and develop the world's first hydrogen locomotive, and Canadian rail firms are now in a position to play a prominent role in the passenger hydrogen rail equipment market. A hydrogen railway will be built as part of Vancouver's 2010 winter olympics infrastructure. The Fraser Valley Heritage Railway Society is planning to use hydrogen to power vintage inter-urban trolley cars connecting Surrey communities. A Canadian manufactured hybrid locomotive will be modified to create the world's first hydrogen rail switch engine. It was concluded that hydrogen's storage capacity makes it an enabling technology for other other renewable energy technologies. Future hydrogen storage technologies will probably be hybridized with fuel cells in highly efficient applications. 1 ref.

  3. Forestry Canada's perspectives on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of climatic change on Canada's forestry sector are discussed, in the context of major research priorities relating to forecasting climate, forecasting forest responses, monitoring changes, mitigating effects, and understanding the forest carbon balance. There are five major concerns that affect policy decisions: effects of climatic change on forests; adaptation to climate change; impacts of changing crops on forestry; changing forestry values in changing sociological settings; and international implications of the changing climate. A scientific program to respond to climate change issues is required, and should include the following concentrations of research effort. Planning requires projections of likely future climates, and efforts should concern relations between pre-historic climates and forest ecosystems and integrating data into predictive models. Forecasting of response of forests should include tree physiology, factors controlling reforestation, variations in forest trees, effects of pollutants, damage to forests, and forest decline

  4. Hydrography, Published in 2005, Churchill County, NV.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  5. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  6. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  7. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: the geosphere model for postclosure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The disposal concept is that of a sealed vault constructed at a depth of 500 to 1 000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. A probabilistic system variability analysis code (SYVAC3) has been used to perform a case study assessment of the long-term safety and environmental impacts for the EIS. This report describes the methodology for developing the SYVAC3-CC3 Geosphere Model (GEONET) which simulates the transport of contaminants from the vault through the geosphere to the biosphere. It also discusses the data used to construct the model, as well as assumptions and justifications for the data and model. The geosphere consists of the rock mass surrounding the vault, including the groundwater in the pores and cracks in the rock, the materials used to seal the shafts and exploratory boreholes at the site, and a domestic water well that is assumed to intersect the pathway of most rapid transport from the vault to the biosphere. GEONET simulates the movement of groundwater from the vault through the geosphere to discharge locations at the biosphere; the movement of contaminants in the groundwater by advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and molecular diffusion; chemical sorption of contaminants onto minerals in the rock during transport; radioactive decay; and the rate of discharge of vault contaminants to the biosphere. Development of the Geosphere Model involves several steps. The initial step is to construct a conceptual model of the subsurface geological structure and ground water flow conditions using data from site investigations and laboratory tests. Once a conceptual model has been constructed, the coupled equations describing 3-D groundwater flow and heat transport are solved using the MOTIF finite-element code to calculate hydraulic head and groundwater velocity distributions. Next

  8. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  9. Risk factors for Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease in farmed bison (Bison bison) herds in western Canada: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana L; Barkema, Herman W; Woodbury, Murray; Ribble, Carl; Perez-Casal, Jose; Windeyer, M Claire

    2016-07-01

    North American bison producers have been attempting to control and prevent Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease without the benefit of bison-specific knowledge. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of disease associated with M. bovis infection in western Canadian farmed bison, and to identify herd-level risk factors for M. bovis-associated disease. Bison producers (n=49) from western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia) were selected for a 1:2 case-control study. Data were collected by an in-person interview using a questionnaire regarding clinical presentations of outbreaks and herd-level management factors. Risk factors associated with M. bovis outbreaks were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. All 17 case herds had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of M. bovis infection within the last 5 years. In 11 (65%) of the 17 case herds, disease associated with M. bovis infection recurred in subsequent years. Overall, 88% of case herds had recently introduced bison that later developed clinical signs associated with M. bovis infection. Within a bison operation, a median of 8% (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 3-11%) developed clinical signs: lameness, reluctance to move, swollen joints, difficulty breathing, coughing, sluggishness, and loss of body condition. Also, calving percentage the year after the first M. bovis outbreak was lower than calving percentage the year before the outbreak. Herd-level mortality risk during the first M. bovis outbreak in case herds ranged from 0.5 to 50% (median 5%, IQR: 3-10%) and the median case fatality risk was 100%. Case herds were more likely than control herds to have a feedlot unit (OR=7), to receive regular visits from rental trailers or trailers from other farms (OR=15), to annually vaccinate bison (OR=7), and to lose at least one bison due to fatal respiratory disease in the previous year (OR=9). These findings will aid development of evidence

  10. Tradition of innovation: Geomatics Canada 1998-1999 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Geomatics Canada's mission is to make Canadian geomatics capability the best in the world, by supplying a reliable systems of surveys, maps, remotely-sensed data and geographically-referenced information describing the Canadian landmass. Programs are delivered through the Geodetic Survey Division, Legal Surveys Division and the International Boundary Commission, the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing and Mapping Services Branch. Geomatics Canada supports the federal goal of making Canada the most connected nation in the world by the year 2000. Its focus is to provide access to the wealth of Canadian geospatial knowledge through a common window. GeoConnection in one such initiative, working toward this framework with activities such as CEONet, for world wide access to geospatial information, for free downloading of Canadian small-scale data sets. Other innovative on-line tools such as the data alignment layer are being developed to ease data integration issues. Using the latest cadastral-surveying and global-positioning technologies, Geomatics Canada demarcated the boundary of the new Territory of Nunavut in Canada's north. Using remote sensing, Geomatics Canada monitored the location of forest fires in the Canadian boreal forest and created special fire maps within 24 hours.

  11. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 1 - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)

  12. Science and technology enabling Canada's tier 1 nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives a review of the Canadian nuclear sector and examines the opportunities that may lie ahead for this sector. Canada is amongst a small number of countries with a comprehensive nuclear sector. With its commitment to nuclear energy it has nuclear utilities operating in three provinces. These utilities are consistently rated amongst the best in the world for safe reliable performance. Canada has internationally respected, independent regulator operating in a coherent legislative and legal framework which meets and exceeds international expectations. Canada has a robust supply chain from mining through manufacturing and services anchored by a domestic reactor original equipment manufacturer (OEM).

  13. Averting Canada's water Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrilli, J. F.

    2000-07-01

    Water conservation policies in Canada are examined in expectation of an imminent water crisis in the world, a crisis resulting from scarcity and aggravated by deteriorating quality. Despite Canada's seemingly abundant water resources, recent events, particularly in Ontario, give reason to be concerned that the province that spawned the common sense revolution is quite capable of sparking a national water crisis all by itself. Significant drop in water levels in the Great Lakes, the Walkerton debacle of E. coli contamination of the water supply which resulted in at least seven deaths and over 1000 serious illnesses, the massive housing development proposal that threatens the area known as the Oak Ridges Moraine, a source of groundwater that supplies much of southern Ontario, and the government's action (later reversed) to issue a licence to an Ontario company to withdraw 600 million litres of water annually from Lake Superior for export to Asia, are some of the examples cited as indicators of the fragile state of water supply and the many threats posed to both water quantity and quality. Having examined some of the dangers facing our water supply, the author provides some suggestions of how to resolve first, the issue of overlapping jurisdictions and the tangled constitutional framework for managing the nation's water resources and second, some steps that should be taken to stop mega-diversions and mega-consumptive use, and to make certain that even the most modest project in this area proceeds only after the fullest environmental and public scrutiny. Provincial laws must also link land use changes and development to protection of provincial waters, proactively encourage water conservation, repair past mistakes by requiring the restoration and enhancement of the water regime where it has been damaged by human activity, establish a water superfund to pay for effective water conservation planning, and recognize the public's right to a significant

  14. 76 FR 28026 - TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that on May 2, 2011, TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (TransCanada Keystone) filed a request for... changes to its committed rates. TransCanada Keystone states that good cause exists to grant such a...

  15. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by this regulation? This regulation addresses the population control of resident Canada geese, as defined in §...

  16. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SESCO Canada) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...-297, which authorized SESCO Canada to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  17. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  18. Les immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Dans ce rapport, on examine les facteurs des immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement (RMR) au Canada, les repercussions sur les services publics offerts dans les regions urbaines et les caracteristiques de l'emploi des immigrants.

  19. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  20. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  2. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  3. Critical habitat recommendations for the Aleutian Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recommendations concern the designation of critical habitat on Federal lands in Alaska for the Endangered Species, Aleutian Canada goose (Branta...

  4. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  5. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  6. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  7. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  8. [Hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, N; Chrestian, N; Thiffault, I; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A; Bouchard, J-P

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated, for many inherited diseases, that historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of Eastern Canada. In so doing, it has given rise to the increased prevalence of some rare diseases due, to founder effects. The following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients from Eastern Canada: AOA-2, Arsacs, HSN-2, Arca-1, HMSN/ACC and Arsal. The population of Eastern Canada, we are convinced, will still allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies as well as contribute to the uncovering of their mutated genes. We have summarized our current knowledge of the various hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada. The study of the more common and homogenous features of these diseases has been largely completed.

  9. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  10. Assessing evidence, arguments, and inequality in Bedford v. Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Waltman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Canada criminalized anyone who lived "wholly or in part on the avails of prostitution of another person,” and anyone who kept, controlled, or knowingly permitted a “bawdy-house” for prostitution. The Supreme Court of Canada found that these laws prevented brothel management, escort agencies, bodyguards, or drivers from enhancing the safety and well-being of prostituted persons in indoor locations. This article assesses the evidence relied on by courts to strike down the laws, ...

  11. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Boothe

    2016-01-01

    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  12. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Medical classification systems in Canada: moving toward the year 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lalonde, A N; Taylor, E.

    1997-01-01

    The use of different standards for coding diagnoses and procedures has been identified as a major obstacle to the collection and analysis of data across the various jurisdictions in Canada. In this article the authors briefly describe the current and future situation of medical classification systems in Canada and discuss some of the potential benefits and implications of adopting the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and a r...

  14. Productivity growth and the Phillips curve in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph W. Gruber

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the impact of productivity growth on the relationship between inflation and unemployment in Canada. Recently it has been suggested that higher productivity growth is responsible for a shift in the U.S. Phillips curve that occurred in the late 1990s. This paper examines whether the Phillips curve in Canada shifted in a manner similar to that of the United States, and the degree to which higher productivity growth explains this shift.

  15. The Estimation of Food Demand Elasticities in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pomboza, Ruth; Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi

    2007-01-01

    Changing consumer and market demands is an important driver behind the challenges and opportunities that are facing the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada and that will influence the sector's profitability and competitiveness in the future. It is therefore important to understand developments in the consumer demand for agriculture and agri-food products. The report provides updated demand elasticities for fourteen food groups in Canada. The estimates are useful for conducting analysis...

  16. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  17. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  18. Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Abelson; Mita Giacomini; John Lavis; John Eyles

    2008-01-01

    This background paper was prepared to inform discussion at CHEPA's Health Policy Symposium Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada on November 2, 2007. We reflect on the characteristics of Canada's health policy community in relation to the larger and more mature international health policy community: its contributions, opportunities and constraints for growing into a well institutionalized Canadian academic field. Sources consulted in preparing this document includ...

  19. Economic assimilation of immigrants : a comparison between Norway and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The economic assimilation of immigrants in Norway is analyzed in this thesis. Since Norway and Canada have different immigration policies, the economic assimilations of immigrants in these two countries are compared. Unlike Norway, Canada uses a “point system” to target economic and demographic growth which results in a large class of economic immigrants. The entry effect, the years effect, the cohort effect and the period effect, as defined in previous academic literature, are considered....

  20. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-01-01

    National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA), and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of th...